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Sample records for aedine mosquito species

  1. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. PMID:27094337

  2. Recent introductions of aedine species (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) into new geographic areas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on introductions to new geographic areas of species in the aedine generic-level taxa Aedimorphus, Finlaya, Georgecraigius, Howardina, Hulecoeteomyia, Rampamyia, Stegomyia, Tanakaius and Verrallina is provided....

  3. Aedes mosquito species in western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alikhan, Masroor; Al Ghamdi, Khalid; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:25373216

  4. Effectiveness of mosquito traps in measuring species abundance and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquito species abundance and composition estimates provided by trapping devices are commonly used to guide control efforts, but knowledge of trap biases is necessary for accurately interpreting results. We compared the Mosquito Magnet – Pro, the Mosquito Magnet – X and the CDC Miniature Light Trap...

  5. A Review of the Invasive Mosquitoes in Europe: Ecology, Public Health Risks, and Control Options

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Kayleigh M.; Schaffner, Francis; Versteirt, Veerle; Hendrickx, Guy; Zeller, Herve; Bortel, Wim Van

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There has been growing interest in Europe in recent years in the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes, notably the incursion of Aedes albopictus through the international trade in used tires and lucky bamboo, with onward spread within Europe through ground transport. More recently, five other non-European aedine mosquito species have been found in Europe, and in some cases populations have established locally and are spreading. Concerns have been raised about the involvement of these mosquito species in transmission cycles of pathogens of public health importance, and these concerns were borne out following the outbreak of chikungunya fever in Italy in 2007, and subsequent autochthonous cases of dengue fever in France and Croatia in 2010. This article reviews current understanding of all exotic (five introduced invasive and one intercepted) aedine species in Europe, highlighting the known import pathways, biotic and abiotic constraints for establishment, control strategies, and public health significance, and encourages Europe-wide surveillance for invasive mosquitoes. PMID:22448724

  6. Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-12-01

    We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice. PMID:17249341

  7. Low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause European aedine strain, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interplay between global warming and invasive arthropods in temperate zones is of utmost interest in terms of the potential expansions of vector-borne diseases. Up to now, investigations on the recent establishment of mosquito vectors have focused on temperatures during their phases of activity. However, cold temperatures may also act as a strong ecological constraint. Projected changes in winter climate indicate an increase of mean minimum temperatures of the coldest quarter, less frequent days with frost and a shorter frost-season in Europe at the end of the century. Nevertheless, single cold extremes are also expected to persist under warming scenarios, which have a strong impact on reproduction success. Methods Here, the temperature constraints of European Aedes albopictus eggs, which had passed through a diapause, compared to non-diapausing eggs were examined systematically under controlled laboratory conditions. Additionally, one tropical strain of Ae. albopictus and of Ae. aegypti was used in the comparison. Results The lower temperature threshold tolerated by the European eggs of Ae. albopictus which have undergone a diapause, was -10°C for long term exposures (12 and 24h) and -12°C for 1h exposure. Non-diapausing eggs of European Ae. albopictus were found to hatch after a -7°C cold treatment (8, 12 and 24h exposure). Both tropical aedine species only tolerated the long term treatment at -2°C. Neither Ae. albopictus nor Ae. aegypti eggs hatched after being exposed to -15°C. Survival was mainly influenced by temperature (F = 329.2, df = 1, p < 0.001), whereas the duration of the cold treatment only significantly influenced the hatching response at the thermal limits of survival (F = 5.6, df = 1, p = 0.031) but not at 0°C (F = 0.1, df = 1, p = 0.730). Hatching success after the cold treatment was significantly increased in European eggs, which have undergone a diapause compared to non-diapausing eggs

  8. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  9. West Nile Virus Fitness Costs in Different Mosquito Species.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Lark L; Reisen, William K

    2016-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) remains an important public health problem causing annual epidemics in the United States. Grubaugh et al. observed that WNV genetic divergence is dependent on the vector mosquito species. This suggests that specific WNV vector-bird species pairings may generate novel genotypes that could promote outbreaks. PMID:27108207

  10. Insight into global mosquito biogeography from country species records.

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2007-07-01

    To advance our limited knowledge of global mosquito biogeography, we analyzed country occurrence records from the Systematic Catalog of the Culicidae (http://www.mosquitocatalog. org/main.asp), and we present world maps of species richness and endemism. A latitudinal biodiversity gradient was observed, with species richness increasing toward the equator. A linear log-log species (y)-area (x) relationship (SAR) was found that we used to compare observed and expected species densities for each country. Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand had the highest numbers of species, and Brazil also had the highest taxonomic output and number of type locations. Brazil, Australia, the Philippines, and Indonesia had the highest numbers of endemic species, but excluding small island countries, Panama, French Guiana, Malaysia, and Costa Rica had the highest densities of total species and endemic species. Globally, 50% of mosquito species are endemic. Island countries had higher total number of species and higher number of endemic species than mainland countries of similar size, but the slope of the SAR was similar for island and mainland countries. Islands also had higher numbers of publications and type locations, possibly due to greater sampling effort and/or species endemism on islands. The taxonomic output was lowest for some countries in Africa and the Middle East. A consideration of country estimates of past sampling effort and species richness and endemism is proposed to guide mosquito biodiversity surveys. For species groups, we show that the number of species of Anopheles subgenus Anopheles varies with those of subgenus Cellia in a consistent manner between countries depending on the region. This pattern is discussed in relation to hypotheses about the historical biogeography and ecology of this medically important genus. Spatial analysis of country species records offers new insight into global patterns of mosquito biodiversity and survey history. PMID:17695008

  11. Identification of Cryptic Anopheles Mosquito Species by Molecular Protein Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Pie; Pflüger, Valentin; Wittwer, Matthias; Ziegler, Dominik; Chandre, Fabrice; Simard, Frédéric; Lengeler, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vector control is the mainstay of malaria control programmes. Successful vector control profoundly relies on accurate information on the target mosquito populations in order to choose the most appropriate intervention for a given mosquito species and to monitor its impact. An impediment to identify mosquito species is the existence of morphologically identical sibling species that play different roles in the transmission of pathogens and parasites. Currently PCR diagnostics are used to distinguish between sibling species. PCR based methods are, however, expensive, time-consuming and their development requires a priori DNA sequence information. Here, we evaluated an inexpensive molecular proteomics approach for Anopheles species: matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). MALDI-TOF MS is a well developed protein profiling tool for the identification of microorganisms but so far has received little attention as a diagnostic tool in entomology. We measured MS spectra from specimens of 32 laboratory colonies and 2 field populations representing 12 Anopheles species including the A. gambiae species complex. An important step in the study was the advancement and implementation of a bioinformatics approach improving the resolution over previously applied cluster analysis. Borrowing tools for linear discriminant analysis from genomics, MALDI-TOF MS accurately identified taxonomically closely related mosquito species, including the separation between the M and S molecular forms of A. gambiae sensu stricto. The approach also classifies specimens from different laboratory colonies; hence proving also very promising for its use in colony authentication as part of quality assurance in laboratory studies. While being exceptionally accurate and robust, MALDI-TOF MS has several advantages over other typing methods, including simple sample preparation and short processing time. As the method does not require DNA sequence information

  12. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Modulate Mosquito Susceptibility to Plasmodium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Giselle A.; Andersen, John F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitochondria perform multiple roles in cell biology, acting as the site of aerobic energy-transducing pathways and as an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that modulate redox metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that a novel member of the mitochondrial transporter protein family, Anopheles gambiae mitochondrial carrier 1 (AgMC1), is required to maintain mitochondrial membrane potential in mosquito midgut cells and modulates epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. AgMC1 silencing reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in increased proton-leak and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. These metabolic changes reduce midgut ROS generation and increase A. gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium infection. Conclusion We provide direct experimental evidence indicating that ROS derived from mitochondria can modulate mosquito epithelial responses to Plasmodium infection. PMID:22815925

  13. Biochemical key to eight species of adult Egyptian mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Farid, H A; Gad, A M; Salem, A M; Kashef, A H

    1991-04-01

    1. An electrophoretic key is described, based on enzyme relative mobility, to distinguish eight species of Egyptian mosquito adults. 2. Using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis, five different enzyme assays unambiguously separated Culex pipiens L., Cx antennatus (Becker), Cx pusillus Macquart, Aedes caspius (Pallas), Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart), Uranotaenia unguiculata Edwards, Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu and An.pharoensis Theobald. 3. Diagnostic loci between species were: Ak-2, G6pd, alpha-Gpd, Gpi and 6-Pgd; the probability of correct diagnosis in each case was at least 0.989. PMID:1685104

  14. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. PMID:26611955

  15. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    PubMed

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes. PMID:26663040

  16. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC) was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases. PMID:20167090

  17. Molecular identification of vertebrate and hemoparasite DNA within mosquito blood meals from eastern North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Mehus, Joseph O; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-11-01

    To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of vector

  18. Allethrin-Based Mosquito Control Device Causing Knockdown, Morbidity, and Mortality in Four Species of Field-Caught Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Fulcher, Ali; Xue, Rui-De

    2015-07-01

    A mosquito control device marketed for spatial repellency, the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance, was evaluated in semifield trials against multiple field-caught species of mosquito. Using paper and mesh cages, mosquito test groups of at least 30 mosquitoes were suspended in a 2,337 cubic foot outdoor space while two ThermaCELL repellent devices were active. After 30 min of treatment, cages were moved to the laboratory to observe knockdown, morbidity, and mortality for 24 h. Species tested included Aedes atlanticus Dyar and Knab (98% average mortality), Psorophora ferox Humboldt (97% average mortality), Psorophora columbiae Dyar and Knab (96% average mortality), and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann (84% average mortality). The repellent devices showed effectiveness with high knockdown and mortality across all species tested. Mosquito control devices like the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance may have further practical applications to help combat viral exposures by limiting host mosquitoes. Such devices may provide a functional alternative to DEET dependence in the current state of mosquito management. PMID:26335485

  19. Effect of sampling method on the species composition and abundance of adult mosquitoes in a Florida swamp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of the adult mosquito populations in a Florida swamp (Sumter Co.) were obtained using suction traps and portable CDC light traps (augmented with CO2) and the results compared with mosquitoes captured by mechanical aspirator when landing on a human subject. Sixteen mosquito species total wer...

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family in three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Xu, Yongyu; Cui, Feng

    2016-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family functions in the ATP-dependent transportation of various substrates across biological membranes. ABC proteins participate in various biological processes and insecticide resistance in insects, and are divided into eight subfamilies (A-H). Mosquitoes are important vectors of human diseases, but the mechanism by which the ABC transporter family evolves in mosquitoes is unknown. In this study, we classified and compared the ABC transporter families of three mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. The three mosquitoes have 55, 69, and 70 ABC genes, respectively. The C. p. quinquefasciatus had approximately 40% and 65% expansion in the ABCG subfamily, mainly in ABCG1/G4, compared with the two other mosquito species. The ABCB, ABCD, ABCE, and ABCF subfamilies were conserved in the three mosquito species. The C. p. quinquefasciatus transcriptomes during development showed that the ABCG and ABCC genes were mainly highly expressed at the egg and pupal stages. The pigment-transport relative brown, white, and scarlet, as well as the ABCF subfamily, were highly expressed at the egg stage. The highly expressed genes in larvae included three ABCA3 genes. The majority of the highly expressed genes in adults were ABCG1/4 genes. These results provided insights into the evolution of the ABC transporter family in mosquitoes. PMID:27521922

  1. Overwintering strategies of mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) on warmer islands may predict impact of global warming on Kyushu, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mogi, M

    1996-05-01

    Mosquito overwintering was studied on Tanegashima and Yakushima, islands south of Kyushu, to predict the impact of global warming on northern Kyushu where mosquitoes overwinter in diapause. On Tanegashima and Yakushima, the following 5 types of overwintering strategies were recognized: (1) continued reproduction without diapause (2 Anopheles spp., 2 Culex spp., 2 Aedes spp.); (2) diapausing female adults but a few adults from late-developing larvae may emerge in midwinter (2 Anopheles spp. and 9 culex spp.); (3) diapausing eggs but a few adults may emerge in midwinter (5 Aedes spp.); (4) diapausing larvae (1 Orthopodomyia sp., 1 Aedes sp., 1 Armigeres sp., 1 Uranotaenia sp., 1 Toxorhynchites sp.); and (5) diapausing eggs and larvae (1 Tripteroides sp.). Few females of 4 aedine species were collected while seeking hosts in midwinter, but neither larvae nor adults of Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles or southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were found during this survey. The 5 degrees C increase in the midwinter mean temperature in northern Kyushu probably will not produce serious mosquito problems directly, but the proximity of the subtropical regions may have significant effects through dispersal of adult mosquitoes. PMID:8667392

  2. STUDIES ON THE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF MOSQUITOES OF MPIGI DISTRICT, CENTRAL UGANDA

    PubMed Central

    Mayanja, Martin; Mutebi, John-Paul; Crabtree, Mary B.; Ssenfuka, Fred; Muwawu, Teddy; Lutwama, Julius J.

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of arboviral disease outbreaks and planning for appropriate control interventions require knowledge of the mosquito vectors involved. Although mosquito surveys have been conducted in different regions of Uganda since the mid 30’s such studies have not been carried out in Mpigi District. In October 2011, we conducted mosquito collections in Mpigi district to determine species composition and relative abundance of the different species. The survey was conducted in four villages, Njeru, Ddela, Kiwumu and Nsumbain Kammengo sub-county, Mpigi district, Uganda. CDC light traps baited with dry ice (carbon dioxide) were used to capture adult mosquitoes. A total of 54,878 mosquitoes comprising 46 species from eight genera were collected. The dominant species at all sites was Coquilletidia (Coquilletidia) fuscopennata Theobald (n=38,059, 69%), followed by Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) metallica Theobald (n=4,265, 7.8%). The number of species collected varied from 17 in the genus Culex to 1 in the genus Lutzia. Of the 46 species identified, arboviruses had previously been isolated from 28 (60.9%) suggesting a high potential for arboviral transmission and/or maintenance in Mpigi District. PMID:26346305

  3. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  4. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  5. Mosquito Species Associated Within Some Western Himalayas Phytogeographic Zones in the Garhwal Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Pemola Devi, N.; Jauhari, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty four species of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the Garhwal region of India. They included 5 genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex and Uranotaenia. Of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. The larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, rock holes, tree holes, intradomestic containers and shallow pits. Three groups and two separate individual species were associated, based on breeding habitat similarity by means of cluster analysis. The characters taken into consideration for classification were natural/artificial, temporary/permanent, shady/lighted, vegetation, movement and turbidity. Breeding habitats such as streams and rock holes were the richest habitats shared by 18 mosquito species followed by seepage pools harboring 16 species of mosquitoes. The lowest species diversity (6 species) was recorded from shallow pits. Generally, all the collected species were found in natural habitats in quiet/stagnant conditions at a depth of 0.1–0.5 m. Generally, the maximum number of species preferred partially shady and temporary water habitats. Moderate vegetation and clear water habitats also had a diversity of mosquito species. Culex mimeticus Noe and Anopheles maculatus Theobald had the highest association coefficient (0.941) followed by Anopheles stephensi Liston and Anopheles vagus Donitz (0.884). The highest negative association (-0.30) was found between the species of Culex vishnui Theobald and Culex brevipalpis (Giles). There were a few species of mosquitoes for which only immatures were collected. Phytogeographically, the zones of lower elevation shared higher species abundance than the higher elevation. PMID:20233101

  6. Species diversity of mosquito breeding in rubber plantations of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Sumodan, P K

    2012-06-01

    During south-west monsoon season, rubber plantations in Kerala have been found to provide ideal conditions for the proliferation of mosquitoes. In a study conducted from June 2005 to September 2010 in Kannur, Wayanad, and Kozhikode districts, 12 species of mosquitoes in 6 genera--Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, Heizmannia, Toxorhynchites, and Verrallina--were found to breed in rain water-filled cups used for collecting rubber latex. The only vector species found was Aedes albopictus, known for its ability to transmit dengue and chikungunya. The combinations of species found associated in the latex cups is also presented. PMID:22894122

  7. Artificial Neural Network applied as a methodology of mosquito species identification.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Camila; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-12-01

    There are about 200 species of mosquitoes (Culicidae) known to be vectors of pathogens that cause diseases in humans. Correct identification of mosquito species is an essential step in the development of effective control strategies for these diseases; recognizing the vectors of pathogens is integral to understanding transmission. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of mosquitoes is a laborious task, which requires trained experts, and it is jeopardized by the high variability of morphological and molecular characters found within the Culicidae family. In this context, the development of an automatized species identification method would be a valuable and more accessible resource to non-taxonomist and health professionals. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique was proposed for the identification and classification of 17 species of the genera Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex, based on wing shape characters. We tested the hypothesis that classification using ANN is better than traditional classification by discriminant analysis (DA). Thirty-two wing shape principal components were used as input to a Multilayer Perceptron Classification ANN. The obtained ANN correctly identified species with accuracy rates ranging from 85.70% to 100%, and classified species more efficiently than did the traditional method of multivariate discriminant analysis. The results highlight the power of ANNs to diagnose mosquito species and to partly automatize taxonomic identification. These findings also support the hypothesis that wing venation patterns are species-specific, and thus should be included in taxonomic keys. PMID:26394186

  8. Rule-based system for the fast identification of species of Indian Anopheline mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Murty, U S; Jamil, K; Krishna, D; Reddy, P J

    1996-12-01

    In a developing country like India, classification and identification of the species of Anopheline mosquitoes in control operations of mosquito-borne diseases is of paramount importance. The WHO monograph, which describes the taxonomic data in the form of a pictorial key is generally difficult to understand by a non-taxonomist. Utilizing the principles of ID3 algorithm, a novel rule-based system, for the fast identification of unknown species of Indian Anopheline mosquitoes, is developed. The rule-based system is user-friendly, menu-driven and even a novice can make use of it in the identification of the unknown species with little practice. The above software is available on floppy disk and can be obtained with a minimum cost. This program can be ported on 5 1/4" or 3 1/2" floppy disk. PMID:9021267

  9. Ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects on resident species and on human health

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Investigations of biological invasions focus on patterns and processes that are related to introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of introduced species. This review focuses on the ecological interactions operating during invasions by the most prominent group of insect vectors of disease, mosquitoes. First, we review characteristics of non-native mosquito species that have established viable populations, and those invasive species that have spread widely and had major impacts, testing whether biotic characteristics are associated with the transition from established non-native to invasive. Second, we review the roles of interspecific competition, apparent competition, predation, intraguild predation and climatic limitation as causes of impacts on residents or as barriers to invasion. We concentrate on the best-studied invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus, evaluating the application of basic ecological theory to invasions by Aedes albopictus. We develop a model based on observations of Aedes albopictus for effects of resource competition and predation as barriers to invasion, evaluating which community and ecosystem characteristics favour invasion. Third, we evaluate the ways in which invasive mosquitoes have contributed to outbreaks of human and animal disease, considering specifically whether invasive mosquitoes create novel health threats, or modify disease transmission for existing pathogen–host systems. PMID:17637849

  10. Universal primers for the amplification and sequence analysis of actin-1 from diverse mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Staley, Molly; Dorman, Karin S; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Loroño-Pino, Maria A; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis; Blitvich, Bradley J

    2010-06-01

    We report the development of universal primers for the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and nucleotide sequence analysis of actin cDNAs from taxonomically diverse mosquito species. Primers specific to conserved regions of the invertebrate actin-1 gene were designed after actin cDNA sequences of Anopheles gambiae, Bombyx mori, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans. The efficacy of these primers was determined by RT-PCR with the use of total RNA from mosquitoes belonging to 30 species and 8 genera (Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Deinocerites, Mansonia, Psorophora, Toxorhynchites, and Wyeomyia). The RT-PCR products were sequenced, and sequence data were used to design additional primers. One primer pair, denoted as Act-2F (5'-ATGGTCGGYATGGGNCAGAAGGACTC-3') and Act-8R (5'-GATTCCATACCCAGGAAGGADGG-3'), successfully amplified an RT-PCR product of the expected size (683-nt) in all mosquito spp. tested. We propose that this primer pair can be used as an internal control to test the quality of RNA from mosquitoes collected in vector surveillance studies. These primers can also be used in molecular experiments in which the detection, amplification or silencing of a ubiquitously expressed mosquito housekeeping gene is necessary. Sequence and phylogenetic data are also presented in this report. PMID:20649132

  11. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology.

    PubMed

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Colombia, one of the world's megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia. PMID:26257568

  12. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colombia, one of the world’s megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia. PMID:26257568

  13. Mosquito larvicidal properties of aqueous and acetone extracts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (family: Aizoaceae) against vector species of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Thomas, T G

    2011-12-01

    Crude aqueous and acetone extracts of leaf of Trianthema portulacastrum was evaluated for its mosquito larvicidal properties against the larvae of four vector species of mosquito under laboratory conditions. These extracts showed good larvicidal properties, 100% mortality in the third instar larvae was observed in the larval bioassay test with Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti at a concentration of 1.0, 0.75, 0.75 and 1.0% respectively. The LD50 values estimated for aqueous extract against the larvae of An. culicifacies, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti were 0.17, 0.15, 0.18 and 0.17% and LD90 values were 0.57, 0.58, 0.76, and 0.75% respectively. The LD50 values estimated for acetone extract against the larvae of An. culicifacies, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti were 0.09, 0.10, 0.09 and 0.12 % and LD90 values were 0.28, 0.25, 0.26 and 0.26% respectively. It is observed that the acetone extract is more effective as compared to aqueous extract. Trianthema portulacastrum can be considered as a probable source of photochemical used for the development of larvicide against disease vectors. PMID:23781639

  14. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    PubMed

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations. PMID:27450526

  15. Vector Competence of Selected African Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Egypt, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia have indicated the potential for this disease to spread from its enzootic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Because little is known about the potential for most African mosquito species to transmit RVF virus (RVFV), we conducted stud...

  16. Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the potential vector role of Culicidae mosquitoes in Germany is very scanty, and until recently it was generally assumed that they are not involved in the transmission of anthroponotic or zoonotic pathogens in this country. However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status. Methods We conducted a molecular mass screening of mosquitoes for filarial parasites using mitochondrial 12S rRNA-based real-time PCR. Results No parasites causing disease in humans such as Dirofilaria spp. were detected in about 83,000 mosquitoes tested, which had been collected in 2009 and 2010 in 16 locations throughout Germany. However, minimum infection rates of up to 24 per 1000 mosquitoes were revealed, which could be attributed to mosquito infection with Setaria tundra and a yet unidentified second parasite. Setaria tundra was found to be widespread in southern Germany in various mosquito species, except Culex spp. In contrast, the unidentified filarial species was exclusively found in Culex spp. in northern Baden-Württemberg, and is likely to be a bird parasite. Conclusions Although dirofilariasis appears to be emerging and spreading in Europe, the absence of Dirofilaria spp. or other zoonotic filariae in our sample allows the conclusion that the risk of autochthonous infection in Germany is still very low. Potential vectors of S. tundra in Germany are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Oc. cantans, Aedes vexans and Anopheles claviger. Technically, the synergism between entomologists, virologists and parasitologists, combined with state-of-the-art methods allows a very efficient near-real-time monitoring of a wide spectrum of both human and veterinary pathogens, including new distribution records of parasite species and the incrimination of their potential vectors. PMID:22236560

  17. Interaction of Mycobacterium ulcerans with Mosquito Species: Implications for Transmission and Trophic Relationships▿

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, John R.; Gordon, Matthew C.; Hartsell, Lindsey; Mosi, Lydia; Benbow, M. Eric; Merritt, Richard W.; Small, Pamela L. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, a severe necrotizing skin disease that causes significant morbidity in Africa and Australia. Person-to-person transmission of Buruli ulcer is rare. Throughout Africa and Australia infection is associated with residence near slow-moving or stagnant water bodies. Although M. ulcerans DNA has been detected in over 30 taxa of invertebrates, fish, water filtrate, and plant materials and one environmental isolate cultured from a water strider (Gerridae), the invertebrate taxa identified are not adapted to feed on humans, and the mode of transmission for Buruli ulcer remains an enigma. Recent epidemiological reports from Australia describing the presence of M. ulcerans DNA in adult mosquitoes have led to the hypothesis that mosquitoes play an important role in the transmission of M. ulcerans. In this study we have investigated the potential of mosquitoes to serve as biological or mechanical vectors or as environmental reservoirs for M. ulcerans. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus, and Culex restuans larvae readily ingest wild-type M. ulcerans, isogenic toxin-negative mutants, and Mycobacterium marinum isolates and remain infected throughout larval development. However, the infections are not carried over into the pupae or adult mosquitoes, suggesting an unlikely role for mosquitoes as biological vectors. By following M. ulcerans through a food chain consisting of primary (mosquito larvae), secondary (predatory mosquito larva from Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis), and tertiary (Belostoma species) consumers, we have shown that M. ulcerans can be productively maintained in an aquatic food web. PMID:20675453

  18. Asymmetric Mating Interference between Two Related Mosquito Species: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus

    PubMed Central

    Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Papachristos, Dimitrios P.; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Emmanouel, Nickolaos

    2015-01-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes (Stegomyia) cretinus Edwards are closely related mosquito species with common morphological features and bio-ecological similarities. Recent mosquito surveillance in Athens, Greece, showed that they are sympatric mosquito species, with Ae. Albopictus developing quite higher population densities than Ae. Cretinus. The potential of mating interference between these species was investigated by reciprocal and homologous mating experiments in cages under laboratory conditions. In non-choice interspecific crosses (groups of males and females) females of both species produced sterile eggs. Insemination rate was 58% for Ae. Cretinus females and only 1% for Ae. Albopictus females. Aedes albopictus males were sexually aggressive and inseminated Ae. Cretinus females (31%) in choice experiments, where males of one species had access to mate with females of both species. Whereas, interspecific mating of Ae. Albopictus females with Ae. Cretinus males in the co-occurrence of Ae. Cretinus females was weaker (4%). Aedes cretinus females from non-choice crossing with Ae. Albopictus or Ae. Cretinus males were paired individually with conspecific males. The percentage of fertile Ae. Cretinus females was 17.5% when had encaged before with Ae. Albopictus males, compared to 100% when Ae. Cretinus females were encaged with conspecific males only. Probable ecological consequences of asymmetric mating between these ecologically homologous species in nature are discussed. PMID:26001099

  19. A novel mosquito-borne Orbivirus species found in South-east Asia

    PubMed Central

    Tesh, Robert B.; Duraisamy, Raja; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2013-01-01

    The genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae includes a genetically diverse group of dsRNA arthropod-borne viruses that infect a wide variety of animal species. Here, we report the complete genome and phylogenetic analysis of a novel orbivirus (IAn-66411 or Sathuvachari virus, SVIV) isolated in 1963 from starlings (Brahminy myna) collected in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Comparative genetic analysis of the SVIV polymerase (VP1 protein), core protein (VP3) and outer core protein (VP7) confirmed that SVIV is most closely related to the mosquito-borne orbiviruses, but that it is equally divergent from all known species. Therefore, SVIV should be tentatively considered as the prototype of a novel mosquito-associated Orbivirus species. These findings will aid in the development of molecular reagents that can identify genetically similar orbiviruses and help elucidate their geographical distribution, epidemiology, species tropism and possible disease association. PMID:23364187

  20. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe.

    PubMed

    Petrić, Dušan; Bellini, Romeo; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Rakotoarivony, Laurence Marrama; Schaffner, Francis

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  1. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  2. A novel synthetic odorant blend for trapping of malaria and other African mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Mweresa, Collins K; Otieno, Bruno; Omusula, Philemon; Smallegange, Renate C; van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem

    2012-03-01

    Estimating the biting fraction of mosquitoes is of critical importance for risk assessment of malaria transmission. Here, we present a novel odor-based tool that has been rigorously assessed in semi-field assays and traditional African villages for estimating the number of mosquitoes that enter houses in search of a blood meal. A standard synthetic blend (SB) consisting of ammonia, (S)-lactic acid, tetradecanoic acid, and carbon dioxide was complemented with isovaleric acid, 4,5 dimethylthiazole, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol in various combinations and concentrations, and tested for attractiveness to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Compounds were released through low density polyethylene (LDPE) material or from nylon strips (nylon). Studies were done in a semi-field facility and two traditional villages in western Kenya. The alcohol 3-methyl-1-butanol significantly increased the attraction of SB. The other compounds proved less effective or inhibitory. Tested in a village, 3-methyl-1-butanol, released from LDPE, increased the attraction of SB. Further studies showed a significantly enhanced attraction of adding 3-methyl-1-butanol to SB compared to previously-published attractive blends both under semi-field and village conditions. Other mosquito species with relevance for public health were collected with this blend in significantly higher numbers as well. These results demonstrate the advent of a novel, reliable odor-based sampling tool for the collection of malaria and other mosquitoes. The advantage of this odor-based tool over existing mosquito sampling tools is its reproducibility, objectiveness, and relatively low cost compared to current standards of CDC light traps or the human landing catch. PMID:22426893

  3. Species Composition of Bacterial Communities Influences Attraction of Mosquitoes to Experimental Plant Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Wesson, Dawn M.; Arellano, Consuelo; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    In the container habitats of immature mosquitoes, catabolism of plant matter and other organic detritus by microbial organisms produces metabolites that mediate the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Public health agencies commonly use oviposition traps containing plant infusions for monitoring populations of these mosquito species, which are global vectors of dengue viruses. In laboratory experiments, gravid females exhibited significantly diminished responses to experimental infusions made with sterilized white oak leaves, showing that attractive odorants were produced through microbial metabolic activity. We evaluated effects of infusion concentration and fermentation time on attraction of gravid females to infusions made from senescent bamboo or white oak leaves. We used plate counts of heterotrophic bacteria, total counts of 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained bacterial cells, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to show that changes in the relative abundance of bacteria and the species composition of bacterial communities influenced attraction of gravid A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes to infusions. DGGE profiles showed that bacterial species composition in infusions changed over time. Principal components analysis indicated that oviposition responses to plant infusions were in general most affected by bacterial diversity and abundance. Analysis of bacterial 16S rDNA sequences derived from DGGE bands revealed that Proteo-bacteria (Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Gamma-) were the predominant bacteria detected in both types of plant infusions. Gravid A. aegypti were significantly attracted to a mix of 14 bacterial species cultured from bamboo leaf infusion. The oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes to plant infusions is strongly influenced by abundance and diversity of bacterial species, which in turn is affected by plant species, leaf biomass, and fermentation

  4. A survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in Spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.

    PubMed

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Escosa, R; Lucientes, J; Marquès, E; Melero-Alcíbar, R; Ruiz, S; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of America, Africa, Oceania, and Europe. A strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in Spain during 2003-2004 by EVITAR (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). A survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. Eight autochthonous species of mosquitoes were detected in used tires, including Culex pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. modestus, Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. annulata, and Aedes caspius. Dominant species were Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. Aedes caspius was found in only once, near its natural breeding habitat. Considering the recent discovery of an established population of Ae. albopictus in Catalonia, the increasing commerce of used tires in Spain for recycling, storage, and recapping might greatly contribute to the rapid spread of this species across the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:17633420

  5. Larval feeding behavior of three co-occurring species of container mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Donald A.; Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Juliano, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific differences in foraging behavior may help to determine whether the outcome of interspecific competition is coexistence or exclusion. Mosquitoes in the genus Culex are commonly described as foraging primarily by filtering the water column. This behavior contrasts with that of other container-dwelling genera, such as Aedes and Ochlerotatus, that are thought to forage primarily by browsing on container and detritus surfaces. We compared the feeding behavior of Cx. pipiens, Ae. albopictus, and Oc. triseriatus in a laboratory experiment in which we monitored behavior of individual mosquitoes in two different food environment treatments: food suspended in the water column only and food attached to leaf surfaces only. For each mosquito in each food environment, we quantified the time allocated by larvae to one of four positions and to one of three activities. The effect of treatment was significant, with individuals in Fluid Only environments spending more time resting-filtering at the surface, and individuals in Leaf Only environments spending more time browsing on walls. There were significant differences among species, with Cx. pipiens spending more time at the surface than the other species, which spent more time thrashing below the surface. There was no significant interaction of species and treatment, indicating that all three species modify their behavior in similar ways in these environments. Contrary to current understanding, our data suggest that Cx. pipiens browse as frequently as do these potential competitors but show a greater concentration of foraging effort at the top of a container. PMID:15707290

  6. Insecticidal activities of leaf essential oils from Cinnamomum osmophloeum against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sen-Sung; Liu, Ju-Yun; Huang, Chin-Gi; Hsui, Yen-Ray; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2009-01-01

    The larvicidal activities of leaf essential oils and their constituents from six chemotypes of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.) trees were evaluated against three mosquito species. Results of larvicidal tests demonstrated that the leaf essential oils of cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type had an excellent inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24h were 40.8 microg/ml (LC(90)=81.7 microg/ml) and 46.5 microg/ml (LC(90)=83.3 microg/ml), respectively. Results of the 24-h mosquito larvicidal assays also showed that the effective constituents in leaf essential oils were trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzaldehyde and that the LC(50) values of these constituents against A. albopictus larvae were below 50 mug/ml. In addition, cinnamaldehyde type leaf essential oil and trans-cinnamaldehyde have also exhibited great larvicidal performance against Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. Comparisons of mosquito larvicidal activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde congeners revealed that alpha-methyl cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and trans-cinnamaldehyde exhibited strong mosquito larvicidal activity. PMID:18396039

  7. Mosquito species and outdoor breeding places in residential areas in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Azirun, M Sofian

    2013-11-01

    We conducted mosquito surveillance at outdoor breeding habitat in 459 households at 7 urban locations in Putrajaya, Malaysia from January to December 2010 to determine the predominant species and breeding locations. The most common species found at all locations was Aedes albopictus. Gardening utensils were the most common breeding sites. Of the 1,885 mosquito larvae specimens found, 1,774 (94.1%) were Ae. albopictus larvae, 84 (4%) were Ae. aegypti larvae and 27 (1%) were Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The Aedes index for each of the locations was higher than the goal set by the Ministry of Health for Malaysia. However, the container index at each of the locations was within the goal. The Breateau index was above the goal set by the Ministry of Health at Precinct 9B1 but the other locations were within the goal. PMID:24450233

  8. Reintroduction of the invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus in Belgium in July 2013

    PubMed Central

    Boukraa, Slimane; Raharimalala, Fara N.; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Schaffner, Francis; Bawin, Thomas; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in Belgium between 2001 and 2012. In July 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in Vrasene, Oost-Vlaanderen Province), during a monitoring using CO2-baited trap. This finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in Belgium via the used tire trade. PMID:24325893

  9. Reintroduction of the invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus in Belgium in July 2013.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Schaffner, Francis; Bawin, Thomas; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in Belgium between 2001 and 2012. In July 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in Vrasene, Oost-Vlaanderen Province), during a monitoring using CO2-baited trap. This finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in Belgium via the used tire trade. PMID:24325893

  10. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Methods Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. Results The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. Conclusions The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:27391146

  11. Environmental Correlates of Abundances of Mosquito Species and Stages in Discarded Vehicle Tires

    PubMed Central

    YEE, DONALD A.; KNEITEL, JAMIE M.; JULIANO, STEVEN A.

    2012-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental factors correlated with late instars would be those important for larval survival. We collected 13 species of mosquitoes, with six species (Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Aedes albopictus, Cx. salinarius, Ae. atropalpus, and Ae. triseriatus) accounting for ≈95% of all larvae. There were similar associations between congenerics and environmental factors, with Aedes associated with detritus type (fine detritus, leaves, seeds) and Culex associated with factors related to the surrounding habitat (human population density, canopy cover, tire size) or microorganisms (bacteria, protozoans). Although there was some consistency in factors that were important for early and late instar abundance, there were few significant associations between early and late instars for individual species. Lack of correspondence between factors that explain variation in early versus late instars, most notable for Culex, suggests a difference between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival within tires. Environmental factors associated with discarded tires are important for accurate predictions of mosquito occurrence at the generic level. PMID:20180308

  12. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova. PMID:26364191

  13. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Eiglmeier, Karin; Reveillaud, Julie; Holm, Inge; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Diawo; Vantaux, Amélie; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier; Siv, Sovannaroth; Belda, Eugeni; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O’nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV) and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV) are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity. PMID:27138938

  14. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Eiglmeier, Karin; Reveillaud, Julie; Holm, Inge; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Diawo; Vantaux, Amélie; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier; Siv, Sovannaroth; Belda, Eugeni; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O'nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV) and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV) are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity. PMID:27138938

  15. Arbovirus circulation, temporal distribution, and abundance of mosquito species in two Carolina bay habitats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, D I; Wozniak, A; Tolson, M W; Turner, P E

    2005-01-01

    Carolina bays, a type of geomorphic feature, may be important in the ecology of mosquito vectors in South Carolina. Their hydrology varies from wetland habitats with marked flooding/drying regimes to permanently flooded spring-fed lakes. Moreover, they possess characteristics that contribute to the support of a particularly abundant and diverse invertebrate fauna. Although it has been estimated that 2,700+ bays exist in South Carolina, approximately 97% have been altered; < or = 200 bays remain intact, and only 36 are protected by state-funded conservation projects. We conducted a study in two distinct Carolina bay habitats, Savage Bay Heritage Preserve (SBHP) and Woods Bay State Park (WBSP), from June 1997 to July 1998 to determine mosquito temporal distribution, species composition, and the occurrence of arbovirus activity. The largest mosquito collection was obtained at WBSP (n = 31,172) representing 25 species followed by SBHP (n = 3,940) with 24 species. Anopheles crucians complex were the most common species encountered in both bays. Two virus isolates were obtained from SBHP in 1997: Keystone (KEY) virus from Ochlerotatus atlanticus-tormentor and Cache Valley (CV) virus from Oc. canadensis canadensis. Twenty-nine (29) arbovirus-positive pools were obtained from WBSP: 28 in 1997 and one in 1998. KEY virus was isolated from three pools of Oc. atlanticus-tormentor and Tensaw (TEN) virus was isolated from two pools of An. crucians complex; 10 isolates could not be identified with the sera available. Additionally, 14 pools of An. crucians complex tested positive for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus antigen. These represent the first record of KEY and CV viruses in South Carolina. Our data indicate the presence of high mosquito density and diversity in both Carolina bay habitats, which may be influenced, in part, by seasonal changes in their hydroperiods. The study of mosquito and arbovirus ecology in Carolina Bay habitats could provide more information on

  16. Use of an indigenous fish species, Fundulus zebrinus, in a mosquito abatement program: a field comparison with the mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S M; Keenan, L C

    1992-09-01

    Studies were conducted relating mosquito production in small ponds to presence or absence of larvivorous fishes. Data collected showed that native killifish and introduced mosquitofish controlled mosquito larvae at the same level and support the use of indigenous fish species in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:1357089

  17. The suitability of restriction fragment length polymorphism markers for evaluating genetic diversity among and synteny between mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Severson, D W; Mori, A; Zhang, Y; Christensen, B M

    1994-04-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers derived from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were used in hybridizations to genomic DNA of the following mosquito species: Ae. albopictus, Ae. togoi, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex pipiens, and Anopheles gambiae. Interspecific hybridization with Ae. aegypti probes varied from 50% (An. gambiae) to 100% (Ae. albopictus) under high stringency conditions. We demonstrated the usefulness of using RFLP profiles to examine genetic diversity between mosquito populations; Ae. aegypti RFLP markers were used to examine genetic relatedness between 10 laboratory strains of Ae. aegypti as well as between nine populations representing four Cx. pipiens subspecies. These results indicate that many Ae. aegypti RFLP markers should have direct applicability in gaining a better understanding of genome structure in other mosquito species, including RFLP linkage mapping and determinations of genetic relatedness among field populations. PMID:7909414

  18. Parasite Killing in Malaria Non-Vector Mosquito Anopheles culicifacies Species B: Implication of Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawat, Manmeet; Adak, Tridibes; Dixit, Rajnikant; Nanda, Nutan; Srivastava, Harish; Sharma, Joginder K.; Prasad, Godavarthi B. K. S.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles culicifacies, the main vector of human malaria in rural India, is a complex of five sibling species. Despite being phylogenetically related, a naturally selected subgroup species B of this sibling species complex is found to be a poor vector of malaria. We have attempted to understand the differences between vector and non-vector Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes in terms of transcriptionally activated nitric oxide synthase (AcNOS) physiologies to elucidate the mechanism of refractoriness. Identification of the differences between genes and gene products that may impart refractory phenotype can facilitate development of novel malaria transmission blocking strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a study on phylogenetically related susceptible (species A) and refractory (species B) sibling species of An. culicifacies mosquitoes to characterize biochemical and molecular differences in AcNOS gene and gene elements and their ability to inhibit oocyst growth. We demonstrate that in species B, AcNOS specific activity and nitrite/nitrates in mid-guts and haemolymph were higher as compared to species A after invasion of the mid-gut by P. vivax at the beginning and during the course of blood feeding. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time PCR data of AcNOS concluded that this gene is more abundantly expressed in midgut of species B than in species A and is transcriptionally upregulated post blood meals. Dietary feeding of L-NAME along with blood meals significantly inhibited midgut AcNOS activity leading to an increase in oocyst production in An. culicifacies species B. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that upregulation of mosquito innate cytotoxicity due to NOS in refractory strain to Plasmodium vivax infection may contribute to natural refractoriness in An. culicifacies mosquito population. This innate capacity of refractory mosquitoes could represent the ancestral function of the mosquito immune system against the parasite and

  19. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24562451

  20. Species Composition and WNV Screening of Mosquitoes from Lagoons in a Wetland Area of the Algarve, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ferdinando B.; Novo, Maria Teresa; Esteves, Aida; de Almeida, A. Paulo G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mosquito abundance, species diversity, larval and adult population dynamics in seven lagoons integrated in the wetland coastal system of the Algarve, Portugal, in the summer of 2007, as well as the screening of these for West Nile virus (WNV). WNV has been isolated from mosquitoes in this region, in the summer of 2004, next to the putative area of infection of two linked human WN cases. Adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps baited with CO2, and potential breeding sites were surveyed for immature stages. Morphological identification of 1,432 adult mosquitoes and 85 larvae revealed the presence of 10 species: Anopheles atroparvus, Anopheles algeriensis, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens, Culex theileri, Culex univittatus, Culiseta longiareolata, Aedes caspius, and Aedes detritus. Adult mosquito peak densities were recorded in July, contrasting with null larval breeding in the same month in the surveyed biotopes. Most abundant species were C. pipiens (52%), C. theileri (29%), and A. caspius (11%). Lagoon Salgados and Quinta das Salinas, exhibited the highest similarity of culicid fauna, despite being most distant from each other, Female mosquitoes (1,249 specimens) screened by RT-PCR, did not reveal WNV products. However, previous detection of WNV activity in this area, susceptible to re-introductions, demands for continued vigilance. PMID:22347862

  1. Quantifying the drivers of larval density patterns in two tropical mosquito species to maximize control efficiency.

    PubMed

    De Little, Siobhan C; Bowman, David M J S; Whelan, Peter I; Brook, Barry W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the contributions of environmental variation and density feedbacks to changes in vector populations is essential for designing effective vector control. We analyzed monitoring datasets describing larval densities over 7 yr of the two dominant mosquito species, Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse), of the greater Darwin area (Northern Territory, Australia). Using generalized linear and linear mixed-effects models, we tested hypotheses regarding the environmental determinants of spatio-temporal patterns in relative larval abundance in both species. The most important spatial drivers of Ae. vigilax and Cx. annulirostris larval densities were elevation and water presence. Ae. vigilax density correlates negatively with elevation, whereas there was a positive relationship between Cx. annulirostris density and elevation. These results show how larval habitats used by the saltwater-influenced breeder Ae. vigilax and the obligate freshwater breeder Cx. annulirostris are separated in a tidally influenced swamp. The models examining temporal drivers of larval density also identified this discrimination between freshwater and saltwater habitats. Ae. vigilax larval densities were positively related to maximum tide height and high tide frequency, whereas Cx. annulirostris larval densities were positively related to elevation and rainfall. Adult abundance in the previous month was the most important temporal driver of larval densities in both species, providing a clear dynamical link between the two main life phases in mosquito development. This study shows the importance of considering both spatial and temporal drivers, and intrinsic population dynamics, when planning vector control strategies to reduce larval density, adult population density, and disease transmission effectively. PMID:19689879

  2. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers readily distinguish cryptic mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles).

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, R C; Parsons, T J; Albright, D G; Klein, T A; Braun, M J

    1993-01-01

    The usefulness of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was examined as a potential tool to differentiate cryptic mosquito species. It proved to be a quick, effective means of finding genetic markers to separate two laboratory populations of morphologically indistinguishable African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis. In an initial screening of fifty-seven RAPD primers, 377 bands were produced, 295 of which differed between the two species. Based on criteria of interpretability, simplicity and reproducibility, thirteen primers were chosen for further screening using DNA from thirty individuals of each species. Seven primers produced diagnostic bands, five of which are described here. Some problematic characteristics of RAPD banding patterns are discussed and approaches to overcome these are suggested. PMID:8269099

  3. In silico evidence for the species-specific conservation of mosquito retroposons: implications as a molecular biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Byarugaba, Wilson; Kajumbula, Henry; Wayengera, Misaki

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the transmissive vectors for several infectious pathogens that affect man. However, the control of mosquitoes through insecticide and pesticide spraying has proved difficult in the past. We hypothesized that, by virtue of their reported vertical inheritance among mosquitoes, group II introns – a class of small coding ribonucleic acids (scRNAs) – may form a potential species-specific biomarker. Structurally, introns are a six-moiety complex. Depending on the function of the protein encoded within the IV moiety, the highly mobile class of group II introns or retroposons is sub-divided into two: Restriction Endonuclease (REase)-like and Apurinic aPyramydinic Endonuclease (APE)-like. REase-like retroposons are thought to be the ancestors of APE retroposons. Our aim in this study was to find evidence for the highly species-specific conservation of the APE subclass of mosquito retroposons. Methods and Results In silico targeted sequence alignments were conducted across a 1,779-organism genome database (1,518 bacterial, 59 archeal, 201 eukaryotic, and the human), using three mosquito retroposon sequence tags (RST) as BLASTN queries [AJ970181 and AJ90201 of Culex pipien origin and AJ970301 of Anoplese sinensis origin]. At a calibration of E = 10, A & D = 100, default filtration and a homology cut-off of >95% identity, no hits were found on any of the 1,518 bacterial genomes. Eleven (100%) and 15 (100%) hits obtained on the 201-eukaryote genome database were homologs (>95% score) of C.pipien quinquefasciatus JHB retroposons, but none of An. sinensis. Twenty and 221 low score (30–43% identity) spurious hits were found at flanking ends of genes and contigs in the human genome with the C.pipien and An. sinensis RSTs respectively. Functional and positional inference revealed these to be possible relatives of human genomic spliceosomes. We advance two models for the application of mosquito RST: as precursors for developing molecular biomarkers for

  4. Predicting the Mosquito Species and Vertebrate Species Involved in the Theoretical Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Golnar, Andrew J.; Turell, Michael J.; LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Kading, Rebekah C.; Hamer, Gabriel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental Africa to Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The establishment of RVFV in North America would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. Published and unpublished data on RVFV vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the United States were combined to quantitatively implicate mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts that may be important to RVFV transmission in the United States. A viremia-vector competence relationship based on published mosquito transmission studies was used to calculate a vertebrate host competence index which was then combined with mosquito blood feeding patterns to approximate the vector and vertebrate amplification fraction, defined as the relative contribution of the mosquito or vertebrate host to pathogen transmission. Results implicate several Aedes spp. mosquitoes and vertebrates in the order Artiodactyla as important hosts for RVFV transmission in the U.S. Moreover, this study identifies critical gaps in knowledge which would be necessary to complete a comprehensive analysis identifying the different contributions of mosquitoes and vertebrates to potential RVFV transmission in the U.S. Future research should focus on (1) the dose-dependent relationship between viremic exposure and the subsequent infectiousness of key mosquito species, (2) evaluation of vertebrate host competence for RVFV among North American mammal species, with particular emphasis on the order Artiodactyla, and (3) identification of areas with a high risk for RVFV introduction so data on local vector and host populations can help generate geographically appropriate amplification fraction estimates. PMID:25211133

  5. Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar. PMID:26336259

  6. Impact of climate change on invasive mosquito species in S.E. Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulos, Andreas; Spanos, Ioannis; Milonas, Panagiotis; Michaelakis, Antonis

    2014-05-01

    Globalization of trade and travel in recent decades has facilitated the invasion of several non-native mosquito species in many countries globally, causing serious environmental, economic and health problems. A combination of climatic and environmental factors such as temperature, precipitation, number of premises per hectare, green covering, and composition of microhabitats influences the survival range and seasonal activity of invasive mosquito species (IMS) and determines the regions that are suitable for their establishment. Using the state-of-the-art GISS ModelE global climate model (GCM), in the framework of the EU co-funded LIFE CONOPS (LIFE12 ENV/GR/000466) project, we investigate the change in the frequency with which IMS find favorable climatic conditions in S.E. Europe, specifically, Greece and Italy, for the establishment of permanent populations by simulating the current and future climate. Given that the outputs of the GCM are relatively course for applications in regional and local scales, here we adapt the technique of dynamical regional downscaling in order to increase their spatial resolution. This is done using the mesoscale meteorological model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). Results are presented for the years 2009 and 2059. The findings of the current study suggest that climate change modifies the meteorological conditions, locally, affecting the establishment and growth of IMS.

  7. First report in italy of the exotic mosquito species Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the Veneto region (north-eastern Italy) an entomological surveillance system has been implemented since the introduction of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in 1991. During the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded Italian fauna. Findings At the end of May 2011, twelve larvae and pupae were collected in a small village in Belluno province (Veneto region) from a single manhole. Ten adults reared in the laboratory were morphologically and genetically identified as Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus (Edwards, 1917), a species native to Southeast Asia. The subsequent investigations carried out in the following months in the same village provided evidence that this species had become established locally. Entomological and epidemiological investigations are currently ongoing in the surrounding area, to verify the eventual extension of the species outside the village and to trace back the route of entry into Italy. Conclusions This is the first report in Italy of the introduction of the exotic mosquito Ae. koreicus. This species has been shown experimentally to be competent in the transmission of the Japanese encephalitis virus and of the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and is considered a potential vector of other arboviruses. Thus, the establishment of this species may increase the current risk or pose new potential threats, for human and animal health. This finding considerably complicates the entomological monitoring of the Asian tiger mosquito Ae. albopictus in Italy and stresses the importance of implementing the entomological surveillance for the early detection of and the rapid response against invasive mosquito species. PMID:21951867

  8. Behavioural responses of females of two anopheline mosquito species to human-occupied, insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), used extensively to reduce human exposure to malaria, work through physical and chemical means to block or deter host-seeking mosquitoes. Despite the importance of ITNs, very little is known about how host-seeking mosquitoes behave around occupied bed nets. As a result, evidence-based evaluations of the effects of physical damage on bed net effectiveness are not possible and there is a dearth of knowledge on which to base ITN design. Methods The dispersion of colony-raised female Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albimanus was observed in 2-hr laboratory experiments in which up to 200 mosquitoes were released inside a mosquito-proof 3 m × 3 m tent housing a bed net arrayed with 18 30 cm × 30 cm sticky screen squares on the sides, ends and roof. Numbers of mosquitoes caught on the sticky squares were interpreted as the ‘mosquito pressure’ on that part of the net. Results Presence of a human subject in the bed net significantly increased total mosquito pressure on the net for both species and significantly re-oriented An. gambiae to the roof of the net. Anopheles albimanus pressure was greatest on the bed net roof in both host-present and no-host conditions. The effects of different human subjects in the bed net, of different ambient conditions (dry, cool conditions vs warm, humid conditions) and of bed net treatment (deltamethrin-treated or no insecticide) on mosquito pressure patterns were tested for both species. Species-specific pressure patterns did not vary greatly as a result of any of these factors though some differences were noted that may be due the size of the different human subjects. Conclusions As a result of the interaction between host-seeking responses and the convective plume from the net occupant, species-specific mosquito pressure patterns manifest more or less predictably on the bed net. This has implications for bed net design and suggests that current methods of assessing damaged

  9. Anthropogenic Habitat Disturbance and Ecological Divergence between Incipient Species of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Kamdem, Colince; Tene Fossog, Billy; Simard, Frédéric; Etouna, Joachim; Ndo, Cyrille; Kengne, Pierre; Boussès, Philippe; Etoa, François-Xavier; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Besansky, Nora J.; Costantini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a prime cause in the current trend of the Earth’s reduction in biodiversity. Here we show that the human footprint on the Central African rainforest, which is resulting in deforestation and growth of densely populated urban agglomerates, is associated to ecological divergence and cryptic speciation leading to adaptive radiation within the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Methodology/Principal Findings In southern Cameroon, the frequency of two molecular forms–M and S–among which reproductive isolation is strong but still incomplete, was correlated to an index of urbanisation extracted from remotely sensed data, expressed as the proportion of built-up surface in each sampling unit. The two forms markedly segregated along an urbanisation gradient forming a bimodal cline of ∼6-km width: the S form was exclusive to the rural habitat, whereas only the M form was present in the core of densely urbanised settings, co-occurring at times in the same polluted larval habitats of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus–a species association that was not historically recorded before. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that when humans create novel habitats and ecological heterogeneities, they can provide evolutionary opportunities for rapid adaptive niche shifts associated with lineage divergence, whose consequences upon malaria transmission might be significant. PMID:22745756

  10. Tibet Orbivirus, a Novel Orbivirus Species Isolated from Anopheles maculatus Mosquitoes in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, David; Wang, Zhiyu; Liang, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Orbivirus includes a number of important pathogenic viruses, including Bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), and Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). In this study we describe the isolation and characterization of an Orbivirus strain isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. Methods and Results Initial viral screening identified a viral strain (XZ0906) that caused significant cytopathic effect (CPE) in BHK-21 cells, including rounding, cell rupture, and floating. Although CPE was not observed in insect cells (C6/36), these cells supported viral replication. Polyacrylamide gel analysis revealed a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), with a distribution pattern of 3-3-3-1. 454 high throughput sequencing of culture supernatant was used for viral identification. Complete genome sequencing was performed by Sanger sequencing in combination with 5′-RACE and 3′-RACE. Sequence analysis demonstrated that all 5′- and 3′- untranslated regions (UTRs) for each of the 10 genome segments contained a series of six highly conserved nucleotides. In addition, homology analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on amino acid sequence was completed, and all results show that virus XZ0906 was not a member of any known species or serotype of Orbivirus, indicating it to be a new species within the genus Orbivirus. Conclusions The isolated Orbivirus strain was designated Tibet Orbivirus, TIBOV to denote the location from which it was isolated. TIBOV is a novel orbivirus species which is isolated from Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes collected in Tibet, China. PMID:24533145

  11. Anopheles (Anopheles) petragnani Del Vecchio 1939-a new mosquito species for Germany.

    PubMed

    Becker, Norbert; Pfitzner, Wolf Peter; Czajka, Christina; Kaiser, Achim; Weitzel, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The so far known species of the Anopheles Claviger Complex, Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles petragnani, can only be distinguished by partial overlapping characteristics of immature stages and by nucleotide sequence variation of the genomic ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. The known distribution of An. petragnani is so far restricted to the western Mediterranean region, whereas An. claviger s.s. occurs across most of Europe, up to the Middle East and North Africa. In our study, we investigated the larval mosquito fauna in rock pools of the Murg valley (Black Forest, Germany) once a month from April to December 2015.Among other species, larvae belonging to the Anopheles Claviger Complex were found. The fourth instar larvae were morphologically identified by chaetotaxy of the head and abdomen. The results were confirmed by a multiplex PCR and additional sequencing of the amplificates.Of the 1289 collected larvae from the rock pools, seven belonged to the Anopheles Claviger Complex. Five individuals were determined morphologically as An. petragnani and two as An. claviger s.s. The associated mosquito fauna comprised of Aedes japonicus japonicus (548 individuals), Culex pipiens s.l. and Culex torrentium (493 individuals) and Culex hortensis (241 individuals).This is the first record of An. petragnani north of the Alps. Further studies will reveal whether this is an isolated population of An. petragnani and if the investigated rock pool breeding sites represent typical habitats of this species in temperate regions in Central Europe. PMID:27003404

  12. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  13. Volatile compounds from the integument of white leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus L.): candidate attractants of ornithophilic mosquito species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Candidate kairomones of ornithophilic mosquito species are reported from GC/MS analysis of compounds from the skin, feet, and feathers of White Leghorn chickens. Hexane and ether solvent collections of chicken emanations produce fractions that differ significantly in their ability to attract Culex ...

  14. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = -0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae. PMID:27241953

  15. Mitochondrial DNA variation within and between two species of neotropical anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Conn, J E; Mitchell, S E; Cockburn, A F

    1997-01-01

    We analyzed variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of two neotropical mosquitoes, Anopheles rangeli (n = 181) and A. trinkae (n = 45), with very different distribution patterns in Latin America, to assess species boundaries for these putative sister taxa and to examine population genetic structure. Phylogenetic analyses revealed (1) support for the monophyletic origin of each species; (2) diagnostic restriction site differences between the species; (3) geographic partitioning of haplotypes by country in A. rangeli from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela compared with considerable overlap in haplotypes of A. trinkae from Bolivia and Ecuador; and (4) similar levels of mean haplotype and nucleotide diversity in both species, but lower levels of mean nucleotide divergence in A. trinkae compared with A. rangeli. We hypothesize that higher maternal gene flow and lower divergence in A. trinkae are most likely due either to a distinctive matrilineal history or to a smaller effective population size, which may have been influenced by a smaller, essentially linear geographic range along the eastern flank of the Andes. In the cladistic analysis of A. rangell, the Bolivian haplotypes appear to be more derived than those from Ecuador or Venezuela, yet there is no evidence to support the hypothesis of a recent range expansion from Ecuador into Bolivia. PMID:9099005

  16. Influence of IGR treatment on oviposition of three species of vector mosquitos at sublethal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Vasuki, V

    1999-03-01

    Sublethal effect of hexaflumuron, an insect growth regulator (IGR), on the oviposition of three species of vector mosquitos. Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was studied. Significant reduction in oviposition was observed in the females of the above three species derived from fourth instar larvae and pupae exposed to sublethal (EI5 and EI50) doses. The reduction in egg laying is proportional to the dose of exposure and was found to be about twice higher in females of three species exposed to EI50 dose than those exposed to EI5 dose. Among the three species exposed at larval and pupal stages, Ae. aegypti showed maximum reduction in egg laying (29.3-46.6%). Blood feeding was also reduced in females exposed to EI50 dose at larval stage and a positive correlation was demonstrated between the quantity of blood meal taken and the proportion of eggs laid. Significant reduction in the quantum of blood ingested by the treated females may be responsible for the reduced egg laying. PMID:10695811

  17. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Methods Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. Results A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Conclusion Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population. PMID:24993022

  18. Colonization of a newly constructed urban wetland by mosquitoes in England: implications for nuisance and vector species.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2014-12-01

    Urban wetlands are being created in the UK as part of sustainable urban drainage strategies, to create wetland habitats lost during development, to provide a habitat for protected species, and to increase the public's access to 'blue-space' for the improvement of health and well-being. Sewage treatment reedbeds are also being incorporated into newly constructed wetlands to offer an alternative approach to dealing with sewage. This field study aims to provide the first UK evidence of how such newly constructed aquatic habitats are colonized by mosquitoes. A number of new aquatic habitats were surveyed for immature mosquitoes every fortnight over the first two years following wetland construction. The majority of mosquitoes collected were Culex sp. and were significantly associated with the sewage treatment reedbed system, particularly following storm events and sewage inflow. Other more natural aquatic habitats that were subject to cycles of drying and re-wetting contributed the majority of the remaining mosquitoes colonizing. Colonization of permanent habitats was slow, particularly where fluctuations in water levels inhibited emergent vegetation growth. It is recommended that during the planning process for newly constructed wetlands consideration is given on a case-by-case basis to the impact of mosquitoes, either as a cause of nuisance or as potential vectors. Although ornithophagic Culex dominated in this wetland, their potential role as enzootic West Nile virus vectors should not be overlooked. PMID:25424253

  19. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  20. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Richard C.; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M.; Schultz, Ted R.; Price, Dana C.; Strickman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the “number and nature of the characters that support the branches” subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K’s generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data

  1. Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Anitha, M G; Bala, T S L; Sivakumar, S M; Narmadha, R; Kalyanasundaram, M

    2009-04-01

    Screening of natural products for mosquito larvicidal activity against three major mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi resulted in the identification of three potential plant extracts viz., Saraca indica/asoca, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea for mosquito larval control. In the case of S. indica/asoca, the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and the chloroform extract of the bark were effective against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with respective LC(50) values 228.9 and 291.5 ppm. The LC(50) values of chloroform extract of N. arbor-tristis leaves were 303.2, 518.2, and 420.2 ppm against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The methanol and chloroform extracts of flowers of N. arbor-tristis showed larvicidal activity against larvae of A. stephensi with the respective LC(50) values of 244.4 and 747.7 ppm. Among the methanol extracts of C. ternatea leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds, the seed extract was effective against the larvae of all the three species with LC(50) values 65.2, 154.5, and 54.4 ppm, respectively, for A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Among the three plant species studied for mosquito larvicidal activity, C. ternatea was showing the most promising mosquito larvicidal activity. The phytochemical analysis of the promising methanolic extract of the seed extract was positive for carbohydrates, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and proteins. In conclusion, bioassay-guided fractionation of effective extracts may result in identification of a useful molecule for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:19039604

  2. Eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Tiawsirisup, Sonthaya; Platt, Kenneth B; Tucker, Brad J; Rowley, Wayne A

    2005-01-01

    The potential of the eastern cottontail rabbit (CTR; Sylvilagus floridanus) to contribute to an enzootic West Nile virus (WNV) cycle was demonstrated by characterizing the WNV viremia profile of 15 CTRs and demonstrating that mosquitoes could become infected by feeding on these CTRs. Eight CTRs were infected with a titer of 10(5.0) cell-infectious dose 50% endpoints (CID50s) of WNV (NY99-Crow) by needle and seven CTRs by bite of one or more WNV-infected mosquitoes. There were no marked differences between the WNV viremia profiles of CTRs infected by either method. West Nile virus was detected in serums of all CTRs by 24 h p.i. The daily mean titers of all 15 CTRs on days 1-4 p.i. were 10(4.1+/-0.4), 10(4.7+/-0.3), 10(4.1+/-0.6), and 10(3.7+/-0.6) respectively, declining to 10(1.2+/-0.1) CID50s/ml of serum by day 6 p.i. No virus was detected in the blood of any CTR on day 7 p.i. The average duration of WNV titers of >or=10(4.3) and <10(5.0) CID50s/mL for all CTRs was 2.2 +/- 0.6 and 1.0 +/- 0.1 days, respectively. The minimum estimated infection rates (MEIRs) of Culex pipiens (L.) and Culex salinarius (Coq.) that fed on CTRs with titers of >or=10(4.3) and >10(5.0) were 11.5 +/- 5.5 and 21 +/- 6.0%, respectively. These rates increased to 20.5 +/- 6.4% and 25.0 +/- 3.0% when CTR serum titers were >10(5.0) CID50s/mL. Neither Aedes aegypti (L.) nor Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were infected by feeding on CTRs with titers of <10(5.0) CID50s/mL. The MEIRs of these two species were 11.5 +/- 3.5% and 1.5 +/- 0.5% after feeding on CTRs with titers of >10(5.0) CID50s/ml. None of the CTRs infected by mosquito bite or by needle showed any symptoms of WNV disease. PMID:16417430

  3. Satyrization and satyrization-resistance in competitive displacements of invasive mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Bargielowski, Irka Ewa; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2016-04-01

    Competitive displacements or reductions of resident populations of insects, often effected by a related species, may be caused by a variety of mechanisms. Satyrization is a form of mating interference in which males of one species mate with females of another species, significantly decreasing their fitness and not generating hybrids. Satyrization has been established to be the probable cause of competitive displacements of resident mosquitoes by invasive species, especially of Aedes aegypti by Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Mathematical models predict that even low levels of asymmetric mating interference are capable of producing competitive displacements or reductions. Couplings of virgin Ae. aegypti females with Ae. albopictus males effectively sterilize these females through the monogamizing actions of male accessory gland products, but the converse interspecific mating does not impact the future reproduction of Ae. albopictus females. Populations of Ae. aegypti exposed to satyrization quickly evolve resistance to interspecific mating, which is believed to ameliorate reproductive interference from, and promote co-existence with, Ae. albopictus. The evolution of satyrization resistance among Ae. aegypti in laboratory cages is accompanied by fitness costs, such as reduced fecundity and slower receptivity to conspecific males. Cage experiments and field observations indicate that Ae. albopictus males are capable of satyrizing females of other species of the Stegomyia subgenus, potentially leading to competitive displacements, and possible extinctions, especially of endemic species on islands. Examination of other examples of reproductive interference in insects reveals few parallels to the mechanism and outcomes of satyrization by Ae. albopictus. We conclude by posing the hypothesis that satyrization may favor the ecological success of Ae. albopictus, and suggest many lines for future research on this phenomenon. PMID

  4. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  5. A GEOSPATIAL STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL OF TWO EXOTIC SPECIES OF MOSQUITOES TO IMPACT THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF WEST NITLE VIRUS IN MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory


    Geospatial techniques were used to study the potential impact of two exotic mosquitoes, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), on the epidemiology of West Nile virus in Maryland. These two species have established p...

  6. Mosquito production and species succession from an area of irrigated rice fields in The Gambia, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Snow, W F

    1983-12-01

    The succession of mosquito species and their abundance was observed through one cycle of dry-season irrigated rice cultivation near Bansang in The Gambia. The study covered a 21-week period, February-June 1975. Mosquitoes were sampled using a single suction trap located in a dry field beside the rice fields. Few mosquitoes were present before irrigation began. Anopheles gambiae s.1., A. rufipes and Culex neavei reached peak numbers 4 weeks after full-scale irrigation began and then declined in abundance. These three species were amongst the four (with Culex poicilipes) most abundant mosquitoes taken by the suction trap, comprising 85.4% of the total captures. Anopheles pharoensis, Culex ethiopicus and C. poicilipes were most common around the middle of the rice-growing cycle 6-13 weeks after the start of full irrigation and showed more extended peaks of abundance. Anopheles ziemanni alone reached maximum numbers as the rice crop neared maturity. C. antennatus, Mansonia africana and M. uniformis were present throughout the period of observations, but their numbers showed little relation with the cycle of the rice growth. PMID:6142963

  7. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Maquart, Marianne; Boyer, Sébastien; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting. PMID:26807720

  8. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting. PMID:26807720

  9. MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO…

  10. Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Hahn, Matthew W; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-06-01

    The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree-based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anopheles data using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILS and introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of 'network thinking' and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence. PMID:26808290

  11. Behavioral Differences Among Four Co-occurring Species of Container Mosquito Larvae: Effects of Depth and Resource Environments

    PubMed Central

    SKIFF, J. J.; YEE, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito larvae often exhibit different behaviors depending on the aspects of the aquatic environment, including the presence of different physical factors and detrital food sources. Regardless of these physical differences, different genera also devote different amounts of time to different behaviors. To determine if differences existed among four focal mosquito species (Aedes albopictus (Singh), Aedes triseriatus (Say), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), Culex coronator Dyar & Knab), we recorded behaviors under different food environments (animal detritus, leaf detritus, and inoculum + inert material) and depths (shallow and deep). Based on past work, we predicted that larval mosquitoes in the genus Culex would spend more time filtering or resting at the surface of containers, whereas Aedes mosquitoes would spend more time browsing on surfaces. Behaviors were recorded for 30 min and were used to generate instantaneous scan census of behavior (thrashing, browsing, and resting or filtering) and locations (top, middle, bottom, wall, and detritus) of each larva every minute. There were significant differences in behaviors among the three detritus types and the four species (Culex generally different than Aedes), as well as a significant interaction between depth and detritus type. Consistent with predictions, Culex species spent more time filtering or resting, whereas Aedes larvae spent more time browsing on detritus. However, all four species changed their behavior similarly among the different environments, and Cx. coronator exhibited some similar behaviors as the two Aedes species. These behavioral differences may aid in explaining performance differences between different species and outcomes of interspecific encounters, which in turn can affect adult emergence and patterns of disease. PMID:24724286

  12. The Role of Australian Mosquito Species in the Transmission of Endemic and Exotic West Nile Virus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Cassie C.; Ritchie, Scott A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemic activity and its introduction into the Western Hemisphere have drawn attention to West Nile virus (WNV) as an international public health problem. Of particular concern has been the ability for the virus to cause outbreaks of disease in highly populated urban centers. Incrimination of Australian mosquito species is an essential component in determining the receptivity of Australia to the introduction and/or establishment of an exotic strain of WNV and can guide potential management strategies. Based on vector competence experiments and ecological studies, we suggest candidate Australian mosquito species that would most likely be involved in urban transmission of WNV, along with consideration of the endemic WNV subtype, Kunjin. We then examine the interaction of entomological factors with virological and vertebrate host factors, as well as likely mode of introduction, which may influence the potential for exotic WNV to become established and be maintained in urban transmission cycles in Australia. PMID:23965926

  13. Eggshells as an index of aedine mosquito production. 1: Distribution, movement and sampling of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshells.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, S A; Addison, D S; van Essen, F

    1992-03-01

    The distribution of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshells in Florida mangrove basin forests was determined and used to design a sampling plan. Eggshells were found in 10/11 sites (91%), with a mean +/- SE density of 1.45 +/- 0.75/cc; density did not change significantly year to year. Highest densities were located on the sloping banks of hummocks, ponds and potholes. Eggshells were less clumped in distribution than eggs and larvae and thus required a smaller sample size for a given precision level. While eggshells were flushed from compact soil that was subject to runoff during heavy rain, mangrove peat, the dominant soil of eggshell-bearing sites, was less dense and had little runoff or eggshell flushing. We suggest that eggshell surveys could be used to identify Ae. taeniorhynchus oviposition sites and oviposition patterns. PMID:1583486

  14. New antimicrobial, mosquito larvicidal and other metabolites from two Artabotrys species.

    PubMed

    Nyandoro, Stephen S; Joseph, Cosam C; Nkunya, Mayunga H H; Hosea, Kenneth M M

    2013-01-01

    Azabicycloheptenoylditerpene 1-((2E,6E,10E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadeca-2,6,10,14-tetraenyl)-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-3-one (artamodamide, 1), diphenylpentanoid (E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-pent-1-en-3-one (artamenone, 2) and N-methoxy-5-oxoaporphinoid (artamonteirine, 3) were isolated as new metabolites from Artabotrys modestus Diels ssp macranthus Verdc. and Artabotrys monteiroae Oliv. (Annonaceae), together with several known compounds. Structures of the isolated compounds were established based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. Some of the compounds exhibited antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration values between 2.5 and 20 µg mL⁻¹) and varying levels of mosquito larvicidal potency. These results further indicate the versatility of the family Annonaceae in accumulating bioactive natural products with diverse chemical structures and wide spectra of biological activities, and hence suggesting the need to conserve Annonaceae species that are potentially vulnerable to extinction. PMID:22985175

  15. Toxicity of VectoLex (Bacillus sphaericus) products to selected Australian mosquito and nontarget species.

    PubMed

    Brown, I D; Watson, T M; Carter, J; Purdie, D M; Kay, B H

    2004-02-01

    Laboratory and field bioassay studies were conducted in southeast Queensland, Australia, on the efficacy of VectoLex Control Granule (CG; active ingredient [AI]:50 Bacillus sphaericus [B.s.] International Toxic Units [ITU]/mg) and VectoLex Water Dispersible Granule (WDG) (AI: 650 B.s. ITU/mg) formulations against third-instar larvae of Culex annulirostris Skuse, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, Ochlerotatus rigilax (Skuse), Ochlerotatus. notoscriptus (Skuse), and Aedes aegypti (L.). The Gompertz model for log-linear mortality data were used to determine laboratory 48-h LC95 values. As with foreign evaluations, the B.s. formulations were most effective against Culex spp., with the WDG 10-100 times more effective than the CG on an ITU/mosquito basis. Consequently, Cx. annulirostris and Cx. quinquefasciatus were selected as target species for small-plot field evaluation of WDG efficacy over time. Weekly cohorts of caged third-instar Cx. annulirostris were exposed to replicated low (250 g/ha), medium (500 g/ha), and high (1,000 g/ha) dosages of WDG. Concurrent assessment of Cx. quinquefasciatus mortality outside the cages was also conducted. In water with high organic content, the low rate produced > 99% Cx. annulirostris mortality at 48 h, decreasing to 79% at week 3 and no control at week 4. The medium and high rates resulted in 100% Cx. annulirostris mortality for 2 wk posttreatment, decreasing to 95% at week 3, and no control at week 4. The WDG was equally effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Treatment did not affect water quality or nontarget shrimp and fish species survival. PMID:14998127

  16. Mosquito species abundance and diversity in Malindi, Kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Midega, Janet; Kahindi, Samuel; Njoroge, Laban; Nzovu, Joseph; Githure, John; Mbogo, Charles M; Beier, John C

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. Mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. Deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and diversity in urban, peri-urban, and rural strata in Malindi along the Kenya coast. The study was conducted in the coastal district of Malindi between January and December 2005. Three strata were selected which were described as urban, peri-urban, and rural. Sampling was done during the wet and dry seasons. Sampling in the wet season was done in the months of April and June to cover the long rainy season and in November and December to cover the short rainy season, while the dry season was between January and March and September and October. Adult mosquito collection was done using Pyrethrum Spray Collection (PSC) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps inside houses and specimens were identified morphologically. In the three strata (urban, peri-urban, and rural), 78.5% of the total mosquito (n = 7,775) were collected using PSC while 18.1% (n = 1,795) were collected using the CDC light traps. Using oviposition traps, mosquito eggs were collected and reared in the insectary which yielded 329 adults of which 83.8% (n = 276) were Aedes aegypti and 16.2% (n = 53) were Culex quinquefasciatus. The mosquito distribution in the three sites varied significantly in each collection site. Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles coustani were predominant in the rural stratum while C. quinquefasciatus was mostly found in urban and peri-urban strata. However, using PSC and CDC light trap collection techniques, A. aegypti was only found

  17. Laboratory and field trial of developing medicinal local Thai plant products against four species of mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Krisadaphong, Panvipa; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2004-06-01

    Oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (makaen), widely used essential oils for dental caries or flavoring of food in Thailand, were prepared as 10 experimental repellent products in gel or cream form against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles dirus under laboratory conditions, using the human-arm-in-cage method. Two products that gave the longest-lasting complete protection were selected to examine their repellency against a variety of mosquito species under field conditions. In laboratory tests, 0.1 g of each product was applied to 3x10 cm of exposed area on a volunteer's forearm, while in field trials, 1.0 g was applied to each volunteer's leg (from knee to ankle). In the laboratory, the gel dosage form contained 20% clove oil (Gel B) or 10% clove plus 10% makaen oil mixture (Gel E) were promising plant-based repellents against three mosquito species and gave significantly longer complete protection times of 4-5 hours than all other developing products. Therefore, their efficacy in the field was evaluated. Under field conditions, Gel E showed complete protection for 4 hours and gave 95.7% repellency after 5 hours application, whereas Gel B and 20% deet (di-methyl benzamide) provided only 86.8 and 82.7% repellency after treatment, respectively against Ae. aegypti, daytime-biting mosquitos. For nighttime-biting, the 3 repellents under development yielded equally excellent (average 97.1%) repellency for 5 hours against the predominant Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis, but they gave 89.0% repellency against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. gelidus. This finding demonstrated the effectiveness of Gel B and Gel E products for possible use by low-income rural communities against various mosquito species. PMID:15691131

  18. Field study site selection, species abundance and monthly distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in the northern Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the ecology and behaviour of a target species is a prerequisite for the successful development of any vector control strategy. Before the implementation of any strategy it is essential to have comprehensive information on the bionomics of species in the targeted area. The aims of this study were to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of anopheline species in the northern Kruger National Park. In addition to this, the impact of weather conditions on an Anopheles arabiensis population were evaluated and a range of mosquito collection methods were assessed. Methods A survey of Anopheles species was made between July 2010 and December 2012. Mosquitoes were collected from five sites in the northern Kruger National Park, using carbon dioxide-baited traps, human landing and larval collections. Specimens were identified morphologically and polymerase chain reaction assays were subsequently used where appropriate. Results A total of 3,311 specimens belonging to nine different taxa was collected. Species collected were: Anopheles arabiensis (n = 1,352), Anopheles quadriannulatus (n = 870), Anopheles coustani (n = 395), Anopheles merus (n = 349), Anopheles pretoriensis (n = 35), Anopheles maculipalpis (n = 28), Anopheles rivulorum (n = 19), Anopheles squamosus (n = 3) and Anopheles rufipes (n = 2). Members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex were the most abundant and widely distributed, occurring across all collection sites. The highest number of mosquitoes was collected using CO2 baited net traps (58.2%) followed by human landing catches (24.8%). Larval collections (17%) provided an additional method to increase sample size. Mosquito sampling productivity was influenced by prevailing weather conditions and overall population densities fluctuated with seasons. Conclusion Several anopheline species occur in the northern Kruger National Park and their densities

  19. Efficacy of Dibrom, Trumpet, and Scourge against four mosquito species in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Ham, C M; Meisch, M V; Meek, C L

    1999-12-01

    Adult mortality of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and the Aedes spp. complex (Aedes sollicitans and Aedes taeniorhynchus) was observed after aerial ultra-low volume (ULV) exposure to Dibrom, Trumpet, and Scourge. Dibrom was applied at 112 g active ingredient (AI)/ha, Trumpet at 112 g AI/ha, and Scourge at 1.96 g AI/ha. At all time intervals, Dibrom and Trumpet were significantly more effective against the Aedes spp. complex than against An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Scourge was significantly more effective against An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus than Dibrom or Trumpet. Trumpet was evaluated at lower labeled rates (28, 56, and 84 g AI/ha) against Cx. quinquefasciatus and the Aedes spp. complex. Adult mortality with Trumpet increased significantly at 1 and 24 h against Cx. quinquefasciatus. With the Aedes spp. complex, mortality increased with rate at 1 h, but at 12 and 24 h, the medium and high dosages were not significantly different from each other. Culex quinquefasciatus and the Aedes spp. complex were also subjected to ULV ground applications of Dibrom, Trumpet, and Scourge. Dibrom was applied at 22.4 g AI/ha, Trumpet at 22.4 g AI/ha, and Scourge as a 1:6 mineral oil mixture at 1.96 g AI/ha. Relative to Dibrom and Trumpet, mortality from Scourge differed greatly with mosquito species. Against Cx. quinquefasciatus, Scourge was significantly more effective than Dibrom and Trumpet at all times and distances, but against the Aedes spp. complex Scourge was significantly less effective. PMID:10612604

  20. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M.; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L.; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence. PMID:26463078

  1. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. PMID:26805471

  2. Full Genome Sequencing of Corriparta Virus, Identifies California Mosquito Pool Virus as a Member of the Corriparta virus Species

    PubMed Central

    Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N.; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Guimera, Marc; Brownlie, Joe; Tesh, Robert; Attoui, Houssam; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The species Corriparta virus (CORV), within the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, currently contains six virus strains: corriparta virus MRM1 (CORV-MRM1); CS0109; V654; V370; Acado virus and Jacareacanga virus. However, lack of neutralization assays, or reference genome sequence data has prevented further analysis of their intra-serogroup/species relationships and identification of individual serotypes. We report whole-genome sequence data for CORV-MRM1, which was isolated in 1960 in Australia. Comparisons of the conserved, polymerase (VP1), sub-core-shell ‘T2’ and core-surface ‘T13’ proteins encoded by genome segments 1, 2 and 8 (Seg-1, Seg-2 and Seg-8) respectively, show that this virus groups with the other mosquito borne orbiviruses. However, highest levels of nt/aa sequence identity (75.9%/91.6% in Seg-2/T2: 77.6%/91.7% in Seg-8/T13, respectively) were detected between CORV-MRM1 and California mosquito pool virus (CMPV), an orbivirus isolated in the USA in 1974, showing that they belong to the same virus species. The data presented here identify CMPV as a member of the Corriparta virus species and will facilitate identification of additional CORV isolates, diagnostic assay design and epidemiological studies. PMID:24015178

  3. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species. PMID:26314023

  4. Larval Habitats Characterization and Species Composition of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Tunisia, with Particular Attention to Anopheles maculipennis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Tabbabi, Ahmed; Boussès, Philippe; Rhim, Adel; Brengues, Cécile; Daaboub, Jabeur; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Fontenille, Didier; Bouratbine, Aïda; Simard, Frédéric; Aoun, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In Tunisia, malaria transmission has been interrupted since 1980. However, the growing number of imported cases and the persistence of putative vectors stress the need for additional studies to assess the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. In this context, our aim was to update entomological data concerning Anopheles mosquitoes in Tunisia. From May to October of 2012, mosquito larval specimens were captured in 60 breeding sites throughout the country and identified at the species level using morphological keys. Environmental parameters of the larval habitats were recorded. Specimens belonging to the An. maculipennis complex were further identified to sibling species by the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)–internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In total, 647 Anopheles larvae were collected from 25 habitats. Four species, including An. labranchiae, An. multicolor, An. sergentii, and An. algeriensis, were morphologically identified. rDNA-ITS2 PCR confirmed that An. labranchiae is the sole member of the An. maculipennis complex in Tunisia. An. labranchiae was collected throughout northern and central Tunisia, and it was highly associated with rural habitat, clear water, and sunlight areas. Larvae of An. multicolor and An. sergentii existed separately or together and were collected in southern Tunisia in similar types of breeding places. PMID:25561567

  5. Sequence analysis of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 of five species of South American human malaria mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fritz, G N

    1998-03-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) was sequenced for 5 species of mosquitoes that may be important vectors of human malaria in certain regions of South America and are difficult to distinguish by morphology: Anopheles evansae, An. nuneztovari, An. rangeli, An. strodei and An. trinkae. ITS2 sequences from samples collected in Ecuador, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil were aligned and compared in order to determine the usefulness of this spacer for the elaboration of species specific primers and DNA probes. The ITS2 was found to be different in size (ranging from 333 to 397 bp) and sequence between all pairs of species. Highly variable regions were found primarily at the 3' end of the spacer and were interspersed with relatively conserved sites. Instraspecific sequence variation was limited to a single transversion between specimens of An. rangeli from distant geographic locations suggesting concerted evolution and homogenization of the ITS2. PMID:10520449

  6. A new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from Python regius (Serpentes: Pythonidae) and its experimental transmission by a mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, Michal; Kamler, Martin; Bulantová, Jana; Votýpka, Jan; Modrý, David

    2007-10-01

    Hepatozoon ayorgbor n. sp. is described from specimens of Python regius imported from Ghana. Gametocytes were found in the peripheral blood of 43 of 55 snakes examined. Localization of gametocytes was mainly inside the erythrocytes; free gametocytes were found in 15 (34.9%) positive specimens. Infections of laboratory-reared Culex quinquefasciatus feeding on infected snakes, as well as experimental infection of juvenile Python regius by ingestion of infected mosquitoes, were performed to complete the life cycle. Similarly, transmission to different snake species (Boa constrictor and Lamprophis fuliginosus) and lizards (Lepidodactylus lugubris) was performed to assess the host specificity. Isolates were compared with Hepatozoon species from sub-Saharan reptiles and described as a new species based on the morphology, phylogenetic analysis, and a complete life cycle. PMID:18163356

  7. Comparative estimates of density and species diversity in adult mosquito populations landing on a human subject and captured using light and suction traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative responses of 21 species of mosquitoes to light traps (LT) and suction traps (ST) and captured using the human landing collection method (HL) varied in accordance with collection technique but data analyses for most species revealed significant interaction between collection method and th...

  8. Evaluating preservation methods for identifying Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis complex mosquitoes species using near infra-red spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used on fresh and RNAlater® preserved Anopheles gambiae complex to identify sibling species and age. No preservation methods other than RNAlater® have been tested to preserve mosquitoes for species identification using NIRS. However, RNAlater®...

  9. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission. PMID:26520482

  10. [Cytogenetic Analysis of the Species Composition and Inversion Structure of Populations of Malarial Mosquitoes in the Astrakhan Region].

    PubMed

    Perevozkin, V P; Bondarchuk, S S; Minich, A S

    2015-08-01

    A cytogenetic analysis of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Astrakhan region was carried out. Three species of Anopheles were identified. An. messeae lives everywhere and prevails in all of the areas of research, An. hyrcanus is found in the southwest of the region, and An. maculipennis in the northern part of the region. The populations of An. messeae show a high level of inversion polymorphism for the sex chromosome and the third autosome. A clear clinal trend of an increase in chromosomal rearrangements XL1, 3R1, and 3L1 and a decrease in the frequency of evolutionary source alternatives was revealed in laraval hemipopulations of the species from south to north. PMID:26601492

  11. The fog of war: why the environmental crusade for anadromous fish species in California could disarm the state's local vector control districts in their war against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Siptroth, Stephen M; Shanahan, Richard P

    2011-12-01

    In California, local mosquito and vector control districts have successfully controlled mosquito and vector-borne diseases by improving drainage patterns and applying pesticides. The Bay-Delta Conservation Plan, which is a proposed habitat conservation plan for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Bay-Delta estuary, proposes to add over 70,000 acres of habitat in the Delta to improve conditions for threatened and endangered aquatic and terrestrial species. This habitat could also be a suitable mosquito breeding habitat, which will be located in close proximity to urban and suburban communities. Wetland management practices and continued pesticide applications in the Delta could mitigate the effects of a new mosquito breeding habitat. Recent legal developments, however, require districts to obtain and comply with Clean Water Act permits, which restrict the application of pesticides in or near waters of the United States. Moreover, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has taken the first step in a rulemaking process that could further limit or prohibit the use of certain vector control pesticides in the Delta. In the near term and until less harmful methods for mosquito control are available, local vector control districts' application of mosquito control pesticides should be exempt from Clean Water Act permit requirements. PMID:23856372

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus. PMID:25531412

  13. The Developmental Transcriptome of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti, an Invasive Species and Major Arbovirus Vector

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Omar S.; Antoshechkin, Igor; Amrhein, Henry; Williams, Brian; Diloreto, Race; Sandler, Jeremy; Hay, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of a number of important human and animal diseases. The development of novel vector control strategies requires a thorough understanding of mosquito biology. To facilitate this, we used RNA-seq to identify novel genes and provide the first high-resolution view of the transcriptome throughout development and in response to blood feeding in a mosquito vector of human disease, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for Dengue and yellow fever. We characterized mRNA expression at 34 distinct time points throughout Aedes development, including adult somatic and germline tissues, by using polyA+ RNA-seq. We identify a total of 14,238 novel new transcribed regions corresponding to 12,597 new loci, as well as many novel transcript isoforms of previously annotated genes. Altogether these results increase the annotated fraction of the transcribed genome into long polyA+ RNAs by more than twofold. We also identified a number of patterns of shared gene expression, as well as genes and/or exons expressed sex-specifically or sex-differentially. Expression profiles of small RNAs in ovaries, early embryos, testes, and adult male and female somatic tissues also were determined, resulting in the identification of 38 new Aedes-specific miRNAs, and ~291,000 small RNA new transcribed regions, many of which are likely to be endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. Genes of potential interest for transgene-based vector control strategies also are highlighted. Our data have been incorporated into a user-friendly genome browser located at www.Aedes.caltech.edu, with relevant links to Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org) PMID:23833213

  14. Diel activity patterns of major species of adult mosquitoes and ULV spraying impacts in St. John's County, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of daily activity patterns in adult mosquitoes can be used to determine the best time to apply adulticides for mosquito control. Many factors influence these activity patterns, including migration, hormonal cycles in the mosquito, hunger, and the need to lay eggs. In this study, FL scien...

  15. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A

  16. Development of a risk database for the establishment of invasive mosquito species under impacts of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni; Sotiropoulos, Andreas; Spanos, Ioannis; Milonas, Panayiotis; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    Climate models suggest changes in future temperature and precipitation rates, the main climatic parameters that are related to the suitability of a region for the establishment and seasonal abundance of the Invasive Mosquito Species (IMS). In this work the future potentiality of IMS spread and establishment over Greece and Italy is assessed following four steps. In the first step current Spatial Risk Databases for the establishment of IMS over Greece and Italy are developed using the meteorological parameters from the ECA&D project. In the second step changes in the climatic parameters in 2050's are estimated using the NASA GISS GCM ModelE under the IPCC-A1B emissions scenarios. In the third step, the mesoscale meteorological model WRF is used, to simulate the changes in the meteorological fields caused by climate change in a finer grid size using dynamical regional downscaling. Finally, in the fourth step the estimated changes in the meteorological parameters from step three are combined with the observation data from step one in order to estimate the future level of the climatic parameters of interest. The final product is spatial distribution maps presenting the future suitability of a region for the establishment and seasonal abundance of the IMS over Greece and Italy. Acknowledgement: LIFE CONOPS project "Development & demonstration of management plans against - the climate change enhanced - invasive mosquitoes in S. Europe" (LIFE12 ENV/GR/000466).

  17. Reactive oxygen species detoxification by catalase is a major determinant of fecundity in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Randall J.; Miller, Lisa M.; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a primary vector of Plasmodium parasites in Africa. The effect of aging on reproductive output in A. gambiae females from three strains that differ in their ability to melanize Plasmodium and in their systemic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species (ROS), was analyzed. The number of eggs oviposited after the first blood meal decreases with age in all strains; however, this decline was much more pronounced in the G3 (unselected) and R (refractory to Plasmodium infection) strains than in the S (highly susceptible to Plasmodium) strain. Reduction of ROS levels in G3 and R females by administration of antioxidants reversed this age-related decline in fecundity. The S and G3 strains were fixed for two functionally different catalase alleles that differ at the second amino acid position (Ser2Trp). Biochemical analysis of recombinant proteins revealed that the Trp isoform has lower specific activity and higher Km than the Ser isoform, indicating that the former is a less efficient enzyme. The Trp-for-Ser substitution appears to destabilize the functional tetrameric form of the enzyme. Both alleles are present in the R strain, and Ser/Ser females had significantly higher fecundity than Trp/Trp females. Finally, a systemic reduction in catalase activity by dsRNA-mediated knockdown significantly reduced the reproductive output of mosquito females, indicating that catalase plays a central role in protecting the oocyte and early embryo from ROS damage. PMID:17284604

  18. Reactive oxygen species detoxification by catalase is a major determinant of fecundity in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Randall J; Miller, Lisa M; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2007-02-13

    The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a primary vector of Plasmodium parasites in Africa. The effect of aging on reproductive output in A. gambiae females from three strains that differ in their ability to melanize Plasmodium and in their systemic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species (ROS), was analyzed. The number of eggs oviposited after the first blood meal decreases with age in all strains; however, this decline was much more pronounced in the G3 (unselected) and R (refractory to Plasmodium infection) strains than in the S (highly susceptible to Plasmodium) strain. Reduction of ROS levels in G3 and R females by administration of antioxidants reversed this age-related decline in fecundity. The S and G3 strains were fixed for two functionally different catalase alleles that differ at the second amino acid position (Ser2Trp). Biochemical analysis of recombinant proteins revealed that the Trp isoform has lower specific activity and higher Km than the Ser isoform, indicating that the former is a less efficient enzyme. The Trp-for-Ser substitution appears to destabilize the functional tetrameric form of the enzyme. Both alleles are present in the R strain, and Ser/Ser females had significantly higher fecundity than Trp/Trp females. Finally, a systemic reduction in catalase activity by dsRNA-mediated knockdown significantly reduced the reproductive output of mosquito females, indicating that catalase plays a central role in protecting the oocyte and early embryo from ROS damage. PMID:17284604

  19. Desiccation survival time for eggs of a widespread and invasive Australian mosquito species, Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriptus (Skuse).

    PubMed

    Faull, K J; Webb, C; Williams, C R

    2016-06-01

    The Australian native mosquito Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriptus (Skuse) is closely associated with natural and artificial water holding receptacles. Eggs are laid in habitats where they are exposed to drying conditions as water levels fluctuate. Withstanding desiccation enables survival in challenging environments and increases the potential for establishment in non-native habitats. Until now, the desiccation resistance of Ae. notoscriptus eggs has been unknown despite the historical invasive success of this important dog heartworm and arbovirus vector. Viability and mean survival times of eggs from two Ae. notoscriptus populations (metropolitan areas of Sydney, NSW and Adelaide, SA) were evaluated, with eggs stored under three dryness conditions for up to 367 days. Our results revealed that Ae. notoscriptus eggs can withstand desiccation for extended periods, under a variety of conditions, with approximately 9-13% egg viability recorded after one year. This prolonged egg survival reflects the widespread distribution of this mosquito in Australia and its history of incursions and subsequent establishment in non-native habitats. Differences in mean egg volume were recorded in addition to significantly different egg length to width ratios for the two populations, which may reflect adaptation to biotope of origin and an associated likelihood of drought and drying conditions. The results of this study suggest that the desiccation resistant eggs of Ae. notoscriptus make this species highly adaptable, increasing the risk of movement to non-endemic regions of the world. PMID:27232125

  20. Simulation Modelling of Population Dynamics of Mosquito Vectors for Rift Valley Fever Virus in a Disease Epidemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Mweya, Clement N.; Holst, Niels; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kimera, Sharadhuli I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is weather dependent arboviral infection of livestock and humans. Population dynamics of mosquito vectors is associated with disease epidemics. In our study, we use daily temperature and rainfall as model inputs to simulate dynamics of mosquito vectors population in relation to disease epidemics. Methods/Findings Time-varying distributed delays (TVDD) and multi-way functional response equations were implemented to simulate mosquito vectors and hosts developmental stages and to establish interactions between stages and phases of mosquito vectors in relation to vertebrate hosts for infection introduction in compartmental phases. An open-source modelling platforms, Universal Simulator and Qt integrated development environment were used to develop models in C++ programming language. Developed models include source codes for mosquito fecundity, host fecundity, water level, mosquito infection, host infection, interactions, and egg time. Extensible Markup Language (XML) files were used as recipes to integrate source codes in Qt creator with Universal Simulator plug-in. We observed that Floodwater Aedines and Culicine population continued to fluctuate with temperature and water level over simulation period while controlled by availability of host for blood feeding. Infection in the system was introduced by floodwater Aedines. Culicines pick infection from infected host once to amplify disease epidemic. Simulated mosquito population show sudden unusual increase between December 1997 and January 1998 a similar period when RVF outbreak occurred in Ngorongoro district. Conclusion/Significance Findings presented here provide new opportunities for weather-driven RVF epidemic simulation modelling. This is an ideal approach for understanding disease transmission dynamics towards epidemics prediction, prevention and control. This approach can be used as an alternative source for generation of calibrated RVF epidemics data in different settings

  1. Mosquito cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Kitzmiller, James B.

    1963-01-01

    Although an intensified interest in mosquito cytogenetics in the past decade has produced a number of contributions to knowledge on this subject, the available information is still superficial and limited to a few mosquito species only. The author of this review summarizes the research done in this field between 1953 and 1962. The following are some of the achievements and some of the gaps that remain to be filled. Karyotypes of several species of Anopheles, Aedes and Culex conform to the general pattern 2n=6, with heterosomes distinguishable only in Anopheles. At least three different karyotypes are present in Anopheles. Salivary gland chromosome maps are now available for several anopheline species, but are still lacking for Culex and Aedes. No precise correlation may yet be made between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the degree of insecticide-resistance. Sexual differences in the salivary X-chromosomes have been reported for several species of Anopheles. Chromosomal polymorphism is common in some anophelines, but rare in others. Chromosomal mutation has been induced by means of X-rays. In his conclusions, the author stresses that prospects are especially good for evolutionary and genetic studies involving chromosomal polymorphism. PMID:14058227

  2. A generic weather-driven model to predict mosquito population dynamics applied to species of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes genera of southern France.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, P; Aubry-Kientz, M; Arnoux, S; Cailly, P; L'Ambert, G; Toty, C; Balenghien, T; Tran, A

    2015-06-01

    An accurate understanding and prediction of mosquito population dynamics are needed to identify areas where there is a high risk of mosquito-borne disease spread and persistence. Simulation tools are relevant for supporting decision-makers in the surveillance of vector populations, as models of vector population dynamics provide predictions of the greatest risk periods for vector abundance, which can be particularly helpful in areas with a highly variable environment. We present a generic weather-driven model of mosquito population dynamics, which was applied to one species of each of the genera Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes, located in the same area and thus affected by similar weather conditions. The predicted population dynamics of Anopheles hyrcanus, Culex pipiens, and Aedes caspius were not similar. An. hyrcanus was abundant in late summer. Cx. pipiens was less abundant but throughout the summer. The abundance of both species showed a single large peak with few variations between years. The population dynamics of Ae. caspius showed large intra- and inter-annual variations due to pulsed egg hatching. Predictions of the model were compared to longitudinal data on host-seeking adult females. Data were previously obtained using CDC-light traps baited with carbon dioxide dry ice in 2005 at two sites (Marais du Viguerat and Tour Carbonnière) in a favourable temperate wetland of southern France (Camargue). The observed and predicted periods of maximal abundance for An. hyrcanus and Cx. pipiens tallied very well. Pearson's coefficients for these two species were over 75% for both species. The model also reproduced the major trends in the intra-annual fluctuations of Ae. caspius population dynamics, with peaks occurring in early summer and following the autumn rainfall events. Few individuals of this species were trapped so the comparison of predicted and observed dynamics was not relevant. A global sensitivity analysis of the species-specific models enabled us to

  3. Evaluation of six mosquito traps for collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and associated mosquito species in a suburban setting in North Central Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  4. Evaluation of Six Mosquito Traps for Collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Associated Mosquito Species in a Suburban Setting in North Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  5. Characteristics and Efficacy of Three Commercial Handheld Thermal Foggers with Pyrethroid Insecticides Against Three Species of Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Ali; Farooq, Muhammad; Richardson, Alec G; Smith, Michael L; Scott, Jodi M; Gaines, Marcia K; Xue, Rui-De

    2016-03-01

    The field study's objectives were to compare the physical characteristics as well as efficacy with multiple insecticides for Bonide(®) Fog Rx Insect Fogger, Black Flag(®) Propane Insect Fogger, and Burgess(®) Outdoor Propane Insect Fogger. Evaluations were conducted with 7 machine chemical combinations, 3 depths of spray, and 3 species of laboratory-reared mosquitoes, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Combinations of these factors were analyzed in conjunction with environmental parameters. Data showed statistical significance between all machines. The Bonide machine maintained integrity and durability for the longest period of time compared with the other 2 machines. When evaluating the 3 machines with DUET™, mortality was highest with the Bonide and lowest with the Burgess machine. PMID:27105215

  6. The invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus: current knowledge and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Chen, Xioaguang; James, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most dynamic events in public health is being mediated by the global spread of the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus. Its rapid expansion and vectorial capacity for various arboviruses affect an increasingly larger proportion of the world population. Responses to the challenges of controlling this vector are expected to be enhanced by an increased knowledge of its biology, ecology, and vector competence. Details of population genetics and structure will allow following, and possibly predicting, the geographical and temporal dynamics of its expansion, and will inform the practical operations of control programs. Experts are coming together now to describe the history, characterize the present circumstances, and collaborate on future efforts to understand and mitigate this emerging public health threat. PMID:23916878

  7. Glacial History of a Modern Invader: Phylogeography and Species Distribution Modelling of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Bellini, Romeo; Somboon, Pradya; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background The tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the 100 most invasive species in the world and a vector of human diseases. In the last 30 years, it has spread from its native range in East Asia to Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Although this modern invasion has been the focus of many studies, the history of the species’ native populations remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the role of Pleistocene climatic changes in shaping the current distribution of the species in its native range. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and species distribution of Ae. albopictus native populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Individuals from 16 localities from East Asia were analyzed for sequence variation at two mitochondrial genes. No phylogeographic structure was observed across the study area. Demographic analyses showed a signature of population expansion that started roughly 70,000 years BP. The occurrence of a continuous and climatically suitable area comprising Southeast China, Indochinese Peninsula, and Sundaland during LGM was indicated by species distribution modelling. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which, during the last glacial phase, Ae. albopictus did not experience a fragmentation phase but rather persisted in interconnected populations and experienced demographic growth. The wide ecological flexibility of the species probably played a crucial role in its response to glacial-induced environmental changes. Currently, there is little information on the impact of Pleistocene climatic changes on animal species in East Asia. Most of the studies focused on forest-associated species and suggested cycles of glacial fragmentation and post-glacial expansion. The case of Ae. albopictus, which exhibits a pattern not previously observed in the study area, adds an important piece to our understanding of the Pleistocene history of East Asian biota

  8. Synchronous peaks in trap catches of malaria-infected mosquito species at Daeseongdong, a border village between North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Wilkerson, Richard C; Harrison, Genelle; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Lee, Won-Ja

    2012-06-01

    Malaria continues to be a major health threat near the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that separates North and South Korea. Adult mosquitoes were collected from 20 July through 21 October, 2010 at Daeseongdong, a small village within the DMZ. Molecular techniques were used to identify Anopheles to species and for detection of Plasmodium vivax sporozoites in their head and thorax. Trap catches showed concordant peaks of Anopheles belenrae and An. kleini early in the study period and concordant peaks of An. pullus and An. sinensis later in the season. Three well defined peaks of the 107 sporozoite positive mosquitoes were observed: 34.6% were An. kleini, 23.4% were An. belenrae, 21.5% were An. sinensis, 19.6% were An. pullus, and 0.9% were An. lesteri. Estimation of the extrinsic incubation period from daily temperatures did not help identify preceding biting peaks of An. pullus and An. sinensis, when infection should have been acquired. We explore possible reasons for the sudden appearance and disappearance of sporozoite-infected mosquitoes, including the influx of infected mosquitoes from adjoining areas, and weather patterns. Regular surveillance for infected mosquitoes near border areas of the Republic of Korea may provide advance warning of increased malaria risk potential. PMID:22548534

  9. The sequence divergence in cytochrome C oxidase I gene of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito and its comparison with four other Culex species.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Hafiz Muhammad; Kanwal, Naila; Mehwish

    2016-07-01

    The genetic diversity of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito based on the standard barcode region of cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) gene fragment was studied in the present study. The COI gene sequences of Cx. quinquefasciatus were also compared with four other species of Genus Culex (i.e. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. pipiens, and Cx. theileri). Our data set included sequences of Culex mosquitoes from 16 different countries of world. The average intraspecific and interspecific divergences recorded were 0.67% and 8.27%, respectively. The clades for five species were clearly separated except Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens. It is concluded that the DNA barcoding is effective and reliable tool for the identification of selected Culex species but create little problem in case of sister species. PMID:26258502

  10. Insecticidal potency of Aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-11-01

    the C-H group. The band at 1023.59 cm(-1) developed for C-O and C=N, respectively, and was commonly found in carboxylic acid and amine groups. GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extracts showed the presence of six compounds, of which the major compounds were identified as n-hexadecanoic acid (15.31%) and methyl 12,15-octadecadienoate (31.989%), based on their peak molecular weight. The HPLC analysis result highlights that the A. terreus ethyl acetate extract was compared with pure n-hexadecanoic acid which resulted in similar retention time of 19.52 and 19.38, respectively. Thus, the active compound produced by this species would be more useful against vectors responsible for diseases of public health importance. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of ethyl acetate extract produced by A. terreus species. PMID:26139412

  11. Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector. PMID:25415198

  12. Risky Behaviors: Effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) Predator on the Behavior of Three Mosquito Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. “Thrashing” and “browsing” activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the “wall” position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:26386041

  13. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti. PMID:26386041

  14. Mesoniviridae: a proposed new family in the order Nidovirales formed by a single species of mosquito-borne viruses.

    PubMed

    Lauber, Chris; Ziebuhr, John; Junglen, Sandra; Drosten, Christian; Zirkel, Florian; Nga, Phan Thi; Morita, Kouichi; Snijder, Eric J; Gorbalenya, Alexander E

    2012-08-01

    Recently, two independent surveillance studies in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam, respectively, led to the discovery of two mosquito-borne viruses, Cavally virus and Nam Dinh virus, with genome and proteome properties typical for viruses of the order Nidovirales. Using a state-of-the-art approach, we show that the two insect nidoviruses are (i) sufficiently different from other nidoviruses to represent a new virus family, and (ii) related to each other closely enough to be placed in the same virus species. We propose to name this new family Mesoniviridae. Meso is derived from the Greek word "mesos" (in English "in the middle") and refers to the distinctive genome size of these insect nidoviruses, which is intermediate between that of the families Arteriviridae and Coronaviridae, while ni is an abbreviation for "nido". A taxonomic proposal to establish the new family Mesoniviridae, genus Alphamesonivirus, and species Alphamesonivirus 1 has been approved for consideration by the Executive Committee of the ICTV. PMID:22527862

  15. The physiology of salinity tolerance in larvae of two species of Culex mosquitoes: the role of compatible solutes.

    PubMed

    Patrick, M L; Bradley, T J

    2000-02-01

    We investigated the physiological basis for differences in salinity tolerance ranges in mosquito larvae of the genus Culex. We examined the response of larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, a freshwater obligate, and C. tarsalis, a euryhaline osmoconformer, following transfer from fresh water to 34% sea water. Hemolymph Na(+) and Cl(-) levels increased similarly in both species, indicating that ion regulation does not differ under these conditions. C. quinquefasciatus responded to increased environmental salinity with increased hemolymph levels of serine, but suffered a significant reduction in levels of trehalose. C. tarsalis responded to increased environmental salinity with increased hemolymph levels of both proline and trehalose. When C. tarsalis larvae were held in 64% sea water, which C. quinquefasciatus larvae cannot tolerate, hemolymph proline and trehalose were accumulated approximately 50-fold and twofold, respectively, relative to freshwater values. We found that proline serves as both an intra- and extracellular compatible solute in C. tarsalis, the first such circumstance documented in an animal in response to increased environmental salinity. Analyses of the acute responses of the two species to an increase in salinity (from 30% to 50% sea water) indicate that larvae of C. tarsalis are able to volume-regulate via drinking and to attenuate increases in hemolymph NaCl concentration using unknown mechanisms during large, rapid increases in salinity. PMID:10648224

  16. Preliminary findings on Bagaza virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae) growth kinetics, transmission potential & transovarial transmission in three species of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Sudeep, A.B.; Bondre, V.P.; Mavale, M.S.; Ghodke, Y.S.; George, R.P.; Aher, R.V.; Gokhale, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Bagaza virus (BAGV), a flavivirus synonymous with Israel turkey meningoencephalitis virus, has been found to circulate in India. BAGV has recently been held responsible for inducing febrile illness in humans and causing unusually high mortality to wild birds in Spain. A study was therefore, undertaken to determine its replication kinetics in certain mosquitoes and to determine vector competence and potential of the mosquitoes to transmit BAGV experimentally. Methods: Aedes aegypti, Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Cx quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were inoculated with BAGV; samples were harvested every day and titrated in BHK-21 cell line. Vector competence and experimental transmission were determined by examining the saliva of infected mosquitoes for virus and induction of sickness in suckling mice, respectively. Results: Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes yielded 5 log10 and 4.67 log10 TCID50/ml of virus on day 3 post-infection (PI), respectively while Cx. quinquefasciatus yielded a titre of 4 log10 TCID50/ml on day 4 PI. BAGV was detected in saliva of all the infected mosquitoes demonstrating their vector competence. Experimental transmission of BAGV to infant mice as well as transovarial transmission was demonstrated by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus but not by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: Replication of BAGV to high titres and dissemination to saliva in three most prevalent mosquitoes in India is of immense public health importance. Though no major outbreak involving man has been reported yet, BAGV has a potential to cause outbreaks in future. PMID:24056604

  17. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  18. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    PubMed

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species. PMID:26336214

  19. Mosquitoes of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae) Group: Species Diagnostic and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Khrabrova, Natalia V.; Andreeva, Yulia V.; Sibataev, Anuarbek K.; Alekseeva, Svetlana S.; Esenbekova, Perizat A.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the results of study of Anopheles species in Primorsk and Khabarovsk regions of Russia. Three species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group: An. kleini, An. pullus, and An. lesteri were identified by molecular taxonomic diagnostics for the first time in Russia. Surprisingly, An. sinensis, which earlier was considered the only species of Anopheles in Russian Far East, was not observed. We analyzed nucleotide variation in the 610-bp fragment of the 5′ end of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region. All species possessed a distinctive set of COI sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for members of the hyrcanus group. The examined Anopheles hyrcanus group members could be divided into two major subgroups: subgroup 1 (An. hyrcanus and An. pullus) and subgroup 2 (An. sinensis, An. kleini, and An. lesteri), which were found to be monophyletic. PMID:26149867

  20. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  1. New Records of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Bolívar State in South Eastern Venezuela, with 27 New Species for the State and 5 of Them New in the Country

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Jesús; Guzmán, Hernán; Estrada, Yarys; Ramírez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of studies related to mosquito ecological and biogeographic aspects. A total of 69 mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was collected in 16 localities sampled in the Gran Sabana Municipality, Canaima National Park, and Venezuela. Twenty-seven mosquito species are recorded for the first time from Bolívar State, Venezuela. Five of them species are reported for the first time in Venezuela: Anopheles malefactor Dyar and Knab (1907); Chagasia bonneae Root (1927); Chagasia ablusa Harbach (2009); Culex anduzei Lane (1944), and Uranotaenia leucoptera Theobald (1907). Their medical importance is commented, and ecological and epidemiological aspects are discussed. A checklist of the mosquito species reported in the Gran Sabana County is given. PMID:25853113

  2. Genetic diversity in two sibling species of the Anopheles punctulatus group of mosquitoes on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The mosquito Anopheles irenicus, a member of the Anopheles punctulatus group, is geographically restricted to Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. It shows remarkable morphological similarities to one of its sibling species, An. farauti sensu stricto (An. farauti s.s.), but is dissimilar in host and habitat preferences. To infer the genetic variations between these two species, we have analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences from Guadalcanal and from one of its nearest neighbours, Malaita, in the Solomon Islands. Results An. farauti s.s. was collected mostly from brackish water and by the human bait method on both islands, whereas An. irenicus was only collected from fresh water bodies on Guadalcanal Island. An. irenicus is distributed evenly with An. farauti s.s. (ΦSC = 0.033, 0.38%) and its range overlaps in three of the seven sampling sites. However, there is a significant population genetic structure between the species (ΦCT = 0.863, P < 0.01; ΦST = 0.865, P < 0.01 and FST = 0.878, P < 0.01). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that An. irenicus is a monophyletic species, not a hybrid, and is closely related to the An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal. The time estimator suggests that An. irenicus diverged from the ancestral An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal within 29,000 years before present (BP). An. farauti s.s. expanded much earlier on Malaita (texp = 24,600 BP) than the populations on Guadalcanal (texp = 16,800 BP for An. farauti s.s. and 14,000 BP for An. irenicus). Conclusion These findings suggest that An. irenicus and An. farauti s.s. are monophyletic sister species living in sympatry, and their populations on Guadalcanal have recently expanded. Consequently, the findings further suggest that An. irenicus diverged from the ancestral An. farauti s.s. on Guadalcanal. PMID:19025663

  3. Individual identification of endangered species using mosquito blood meals: a proof-of-concept study in Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Méndez, María; Ruiz, Santiago; Godoy, José A; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Host identification from mosquito blood meals has been routinely used to identify the feeding preferences of insects in studies on transmission of vector-borne pathogens. Here, we identified for the first time the susceptibility of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to the attack of a wild mosquito female, the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus. Furthermore, we used 11 microsatellite markers to test for the utility of vertebrate DNA isolated from insect blood meals for individual identification of wildlife. Only the three smallest markers were successfully amplified; however, this genotype did not match with any of the previously genotyped individuals in southern Spain. These results support the use of DNA from mosquito blood meals as a non-invasive source of DNA and a powerful tool on epidemiological and conservation biology studies. However, as may be the case of other non-invasive sampling methods, the utility of this technique is probably limited by the quantity and quality of vertebrate DNA. PMID:25656463

  4. Larvicidal efficacy of five cucurbitaceous plant leaf extracts against mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P

    2008-06-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf of five species of cucurbitaceous plants, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Cucumis sativus, Momordica charantia, and Trichosanthes anguina, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis, methanol extracts of C. indica, C. sativus, M. charantia, and acetone extract of T. anguina against the larvae of A. aegypti (LC50=74.57, 309.46, 492.73, 199.14, and 554.20 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC50=88.24, 377.69, 623.80, 207.61, and 842.34 ppm), respectively. The petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis and methanol extract of M. charantia were more effective than the other extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18340464

  5. Abundance and Diversity of Mosquito Species Collected From a Rural Area of Central Mississippi: Implications for West Nile Virus Transmission in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Varnado, Wendy; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    To determine abundance and seasonality of potential West Nile virus (WNV) mosquito vectors in a forested area of central Mississippi, mosquitoes were collected weekly from a wildlife management area located approximately 10 mi from a local urban area known to have numerous human WNV cases. We were particularly interested in the presence or absence of Culex quinquefasciatus, the primary vector of WNV in Mississippi, although other Culex species were assayed. Two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps baited with CO2 were set once a week from 2005 through 2006 in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area (PRWMA), which consists of 6,925 acres primarily composed of bottomland hardwood forest with wetland areas. Traps were placed midafternoon and picked up the following morning. A total of 199,222 mosquitoes were collected during the 2-year study. No Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected throughout the entire study, although other health department surveys have indicated they are abundant just a few miles away. As for other potential WNV vectors, 1,325 (0.6%) Cx. nigripalpus, 1,804 (0.9%) Cx. restuans, and 6,076 (3.1%) Cx. salinarius were collected in the PRWMA over the 2-year period. These data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus is not usually found in remote forested environments, but is more associated with human habitation. PMID:26181696

  6. Mosquito genomics: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Severson, David W; Behura, Susanta K

    2012-01-01

    The whole-genome sequencing of mosquitoes has facilitated our understanding of fundamental biological processes at their basic molecular levels and holds potential for application to mosquito control and prevention of mosquito-borne disease transmission. Draft genome sequences are available for Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Collectively, these represent the major vectors of African malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever viruses, and lymphatic filariasis, respectively. Rapid advances in genome technologies have revealed detailed information on genome architecture as well as phenotype-specific transcriptomics and proteomics. These resources allow for detailed comparative analyses within and across populations as well as species. Next-generation sequencing technologies will likely promote a proliferation of genome sequences for additional mosquito species as well as for individual insects. Here we review the current status of genome research in mosquitoes and identify potential areas for further investigations. PMID:21942845

  7. The Importance of Interspecific Interactions on the Present Range of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Persistence of Resident Container Species in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fader, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) established in the United States over 30 yr ago and quickly spread throughout the entire eastern half of the country. It has recently spread into western regions and projected climate change scenarios suggest continued expansion to the west and north. Aedes albopictus has had major impacts on, and been impacted by, a diverse array of resident mosquito species. Laying eggs at the edges of small, water-holding containers, hatched larvae develop within these containers feeding on detritus-based resources. Under limited resource conditions, Ae. albopictus has been shown to be a superior competitor to essentially all native and resident species in the United States. Adult males also mate interspecifically with at least one resident species with significant negative impacts on reproductive output for susceptible females. Despite these strong interference effects on sympatric species, competitor outcomes have been highly variable, ranging from outright local exclusion by Ae. albopictus, to apparent exclusion of Ae. albopictus in the presence of the same species. Context-dependent mechanisms that alter the relative strengths of inter- and intraspecific competition, as well as rapid evolution of satyrization-resistant females, may help explain these patterns of variable coexistence. Although there is a large body of research on interspecific interactions of Ae. albopictus in the United States, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the most important species interactions. Addressing these gaps is important in predicting the future distribution of this species and understanding consequences for resident species, including humans, that interact with this highly invasive mosquito. PMID:27354436

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS IN THREE SPECIES OF FALSE ROSEMARY (CONRADINA SP.) NATIVE TO FLORIDA AS CANDIDATE MOSQUITO REPELLENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Bloodsucking flies and mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases such as Leishmaniasis, malaria, and West Nile fever. One method of reducing disease risk is through the use of topical or spatial repellents. Natural compounds from plants and animals that exhibit repe...

  9. Mosquito repellents in frog skin

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C.R; Smith, B.P.C; Best, S.M; Tyler, M.J

    2006-01-01

    The search for novel insect repellents has been driven by health concerns over established synthetic compounds such as diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Given the diversity of compounds known from frog skin and records of mosquito bite and ectoparasite infestation, the presence of mosquito repellents in frogs seemed plausible. We investigated frog skin secretions to confirm the existence of mosquito repellent properties. Litoria caerulea secretions were assessed for mosquito repellency by topical application on mice. The secretions provided protection against host-seeking Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. Olfactometer tests using aqueous washes of skin secretions from L. caerulea and four other frog species were conducted to determine whether volatile components were responsible for repellency. Volatiles from Litoria rubella and Uperoleia mjobergi secretions were repellent to C. annulirostris, albeit not as repellent as a DEET control. The demonstration of endogenous insect repellents in amphibians is novel, and demonstrates that many aspects of frog chemical ecology remain unexplored. PMID:17148373

  10. Mosquitoes in Moose Country: A Mosquito Survey of Northern Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, A C; Moon, R D; Johnson, K; Carstensen, M; Neitzel, D; Craft, M E

    2016-06-01

    An adult mosquito survey was conducted at 12 sites using carbon dioxide traps in northern Minnesota throughout the summer of 2012. Specimens were counted, identified to species, sorted into pools, and tested for eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) and West Nile virus (WNV). Our findings extend the known range of Culiseta melanura, Anopheles barberi, and An. quadrimaculatus and document the presence and abundance of 27 other mosquito taxa in the region. None of the pools tested positive for EEEV or WNV. PMID:27280346

  11. Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

  12. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of metropolitan Hamburg, Germany.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E

    2014-08-01

    In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250

  13. Measurement, analysis, and depiction of activity in adult mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globalization, open trading practices, and climate change increase the likelihood of introduction of exotic mosquito species. These mosquitoes may harbor disease agents that threaten public and animal health. Successful containment and eradication of exotic mosquito species and (in the case of exo...

  14. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Ciano, Kristen A.; Saredy, Jason J.; Bowers, Doria F.

    2014-01-01

    Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito. PMID:25533661

  15. Comparative phylogeography reveals a shared impact of pleistocene environmental change in shaping genetic diversity within nine Anopheles mosquito species across the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Katy; O'Loughlin, Samantha M; Chen, Bin; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Thongwat, Damrongpan; Somboon, Pradya; Fong, Mun Yik; Butlin, Roger; Verity, Robert; Prakash, Anil; Htun, Pe Than; Hlaing, Thaung; Nambanya, Simone; Socheat, Duong; Dinh, Trung Ho; Walton, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    South-East Asia is one of the world's richest regions in terms of biodiversity. An understanding of the distribution of diversity and the factors shaping it is lacking, yet essential for identifying conservation priorities for the region's highly threatened biodiversity. Here, we take a large-scale comparative approach, combining data from nine forest-associated Anopheles mosquito species and using statistical phylogeographical methods to disentangle the effects of environmental history, species-specific ecology and random coalescent effects. Spatially explicit modelling of Pleistocene demographic history supports a common influence of environmental events in shaping the genetic diversity of all species examined, despite differences in species' mtDNA gene trees. Populations were periodically restricted to allopatric northeastern and northwestern refugia, most likely due to Pleistocene forest fragmentation. Subsequent southwards post-glacial recolonization is supported by a north-south gradient of decreasing genetic diversity. Repeated allopatric fragmentation and recolonization have led to the formation of deeply divergent geographical lineages within four species and a suture zone where these intraspecific lineages meet along the Thai-Myanmar border. A common environmental influence for this divergence was further indicated by strong support for simultaneous divergence within the same four species, dating to approximately 900 thousand years ago (kya). Differences in the geographical structuring of genetic diversity between species are probably the result of varying species' biology. The findings have important implications for conservation planning; if the refugial regions and suture zone identified here are shared by other forest taxa, the unique and high levels of genetic diversity they house will make these areas conservation priorities. PMID:21981746

  16. Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

    2012-01-01

    The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective plants

  17. Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

    2012-01-01

    The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC(50) value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC(50) value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC(50) values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective

  18. Population Structure and Distribution Patterns of the Sibling Mosquito Species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae) Reveal Different Evolutionary Paths

    PubMed Central

    Werblow, Antje; Klimpel, Sven; Bolius, Sarah; Dorresteijn, Adriaan W. C.; Sauer, Jan; Melaun, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays a number of endemic mosquito species are known to possess vector abilities for various diseases, as e.g. the sibling species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium. Due to their morphological similarity, ecology, distribution and vector abilities, knowledge about these species' population structure is essential. Culicidae from 25 different sampling sites were collected from March till October 2012. All analyses were performed with aligned cox1 sequences with a total length of 658 bp. Population structure as well as distribution patterns of both species were analysed using molecular methods and different statistical tests like distance based redundancy analysis (dbDRA), analysis of molecular variances (AMOVA) or McDonald & Kreitman test and Tajima's D. Within both species, we could show a genetic variability among the cox1 fragment. The construction of haplotype networks revealed one dominating haplotype for Cx. pipiens, widely distributed within Germany and a more homogeneous pattern for Cx. torrentium. The low genetic differences within Cx. pipiens could be a result of an infection with Wolbachia which can induce a sweep through populations by passively taking the also maternally inherited mtDNA through the population, thereby reducing the mitochondrial diversity as an outcome of reproductive incompatibility. Pairwise population genetic differentiation (FST) ranged significantly from moderate to very great between populations of Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. Analyses of molecular variances revealed for both species that the main genetic variability exists within the populations (Cx. pipiens [88.38%]; Cx. torrentium [66.54%]). Based on a distance based redundancy analysis geographical origin explained a small but significant part of the species' genetic variation. Overall, the results confirm that Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium underlie different factors regarding their mitochondrial differentiation, which could be a result of endosymbiosis, dispersal

  19. Gene Expression Studies in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xlao-Guang; Mathur, Geetika; James, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on gene expression in mosquitoes is motivated by both basic and applied interests. Studies of genes involved in hematophagy, reproduction, olfaction, and immune responses reveal an exquisite confluence of biological adaptations that result in these highly-successful life forms. The requirement of female mosquitoes for a bloodmeal for propagation has been exploited by a wide diversity of viral, protozoan and metazoan pathogens as part of their life cycles. Identifying genes involved in host-seeking, blood feeding and digestion, reproduction, insecticide resistance and susceptibility/refractoriness to pathogen development is expected to provide the bases for the development of novel methods to control mosquito-borne diseases. Advances in mosquito transgenesis technologies, the availability of whole genome sequence information, mass sequencing and analyses of transcriptomes and RNAi techniques will assist development of these tools as well as deepen the understanding of the underlying genetic components for biological phenomena characteristic of these insect species. PMID:19161831

  20. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  1. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  2. Effect of collection method on estimates of adult mosquito density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We made simultaneous comparison of the number of female mosquitoes captured by suction traps and portable light traps (augmented with CO2) in a Florida swamp with the landing rate of female mosquitoes on a human subject. Depending on the mosquito species, capture rates in light traps ranged between...

  3. DNA barcoding and development of species-specific markers for the identification of tea mosquito bugs (Miridae: Heteroptera) in India.

    PubMed

    Rebijith, K B; Asokan, R; Kumar, N K Krishna; Srikumar, K K; Ramamurthy, V V; Bhat, P Shivarama

    2012-10-01

    Rapid, accurate, and timely identification of insects as a group is important and challenging worldwide, as they outnumber all other animals in number and diversity. DNA barcoding is a method for the identification of species in a wide range of animal taxa, which uses the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase-I (CO-I). Yet another easy, accurate, and economical method of species discrimination is by developing species-specific markers, which produce specific amplicon for the species in question. The method is handy because it is not limited by life stages, sex, polymorphism, and other factors. Herein, we measured the usefulness of CO-I for the species discrimination of mirids in India viz. Helopeltis antonii Signoret, H. thievora Waterhouse, H. bradyi Waterhouse, and Pachypeltis maesarum Kirkaldy in their various life stages. Furthermore, our study showed the utility of species-specific markers in differentiating H. antonii (295) and H. bradyi (514) regardless of their life stages. Analysis of CO-I gene revealed <1% intraspecific divergence for all four species examined, whereas the interspecific distances ranged from 7 to 13%. This study showed that the DNA barcode and species-specific markers will aid the identification of mirids in India and will stand as a decisive tool in formulating integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, quick identification of invasive and cryptic species, haplotypes, biotypes, and other factors, if any. PMID:23068182

  4. Adult longevity of certain mosquito species after larval and pupal exposure to sublethal concentration of an insect growth regulator, hexaflumuron.

    PubMed

    Vasuki, V

    1992-03-01

    Longevity of the adults of three vector species, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, and Aedes aegypti was drastically reduced when they were exposed at larval and pupal stages to sublethal concentrations of an insect growth regulator hexaflumuron. When the three species were exposed to 0.05 mg/l at the pupal stage, males and females of Cx. quinquefasciatus suffered a more shortened life span than other species. Among the females whose feeding activity was adversely affected by IGR treatment at the pupal stage, Ae. aegypti showed the minimum survival duration with LT50 of 2.74 days. PMID:1523463

  5. Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  6. Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  7. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:23923330

  8. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  9. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  10. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  11. When genetic distance matters: Measuring genetic differentiation at microsatellite loci in whole-genome scans of recent and incipient mosquito species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zheng, Liangbiao; Touré, Yeya T.; Dandekar, Thomas; Kafatos, Fotis C.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic distance measurements are an important tool to differentiate field populations of disease vectors such as the mosquito vectors of malaria. Here, we have measured the genetic differentiation between Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, as well as between proposed emerging species of the latter taxon, in whole genome scans by using 23–25 microsatellite loci. In doing so, we have reviewed and evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of standard parameters of genetic distance, FST, RST, (δμ)2, and D. Further, we have introduced new parameters, D′ and DK, which have well defined statistical significance tests and complement the standard parameters to advantage. D′ is a modification of D, whereas DK is a measure of covariance based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that A. gambiae and A. arabiensis are closely related at most autosomal loci but appear to be distantly related on the basis of X-linked chromosomal loci within the chromosomal Xag inversion. The M and S molecular forms of A. gambiae are practically indistinguishable but differ significantly at two microsatellite loci from the proximal region of the X, outside the Xag inversion. At one of these loci, both M and S molecular forms differ significantly from A. arabiensis, but remarkably, at the other locus, A. arabiensis is indistinguishable from the M molecular form of A. gambiae. These data support the recent proposal of genetically differentiated M and S molecular forms of A. gambiae. PMID:11553812

  12. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Bartumeus, Frederic; Oltra, Aitana; Sousa, Carla A; Chouin, Sébastien; Werner, Doreen

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order to assess the current species occurrence, distribution and, when possible, abundance, in order to permit the early detection of invasive species and the spread of competent vectors. As active mosquito collection, e.g. by trapping adults, dipping preimaginal developmental stages or ovitrapping, is usually cost-, time- and labour-intensive and can cover only small parts of a country, passive data collection approaches are gradually being integrated into monitoring programmes. Thus, scientists in several EU member states have recently initiated programmes for mosquito data collection and analysis that make use of sources other than targeted mosquito collection. While some of them extract mosquito distribution data from zoological databases established in other contexts, community-based approaches built upon the recognition, reporting, collection and submission of mosquito specimens by citizens are becoming more and more popular and increasingly support scientific research. Based on such reports and submissions, new populations, extended or new distribution areas and temporal activity patterns of invasive and native mosquito species were found. In all cases, extensive media work and communication with the participating individuals or groups was fundamental for success. The presented projects demonstrate that passive approaches are powerful tools to survey the mosquito fauna in order to supplement active mosquito surveillance strategies and render them more focused. Their ability to continuously produce biological data permits the early recognition of changes in the mosquito fauna that may have an impact on biting nuisance and the risk of pathogen transmission associated

  13. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  14. Genetic control of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Alphey, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Genetics can potentially provide new, species-specific, environmentally friendly methods for mosquito control. Genetic control strategies aim either to suppress target populations or to introduce a harm-reducing novel trait. Different approaches differ considerably in their properties, especially between self-limiting strategies, where the modification has limited persistence, and self-sustaining strategies, which are intended to persist indefinitely in the target population and may invade other populations. Several methods with different molecular biology are under development and the first field trials have been completed successfully. PMID:24160434

  15. Current status on the Florida Abate Monitoring program--susceptibility levels of three species of mosquitoes during 1984.

    PubMed

    Boike, A H; Rathburn, C B; Lang, K L; Masters, H M; Floore, T G

    1985-12-01

    During 1984, larval susceptibility tests of temephos were performed on Aedes taeniorhynchus and Culex nigripalpus collected from the same general areas as in 1980-82, and the results compared to the susceptible laboratory strains. No resistance was detected against these two species. When strains of Culex quinquefasciatus from some new areas were tested against temephos, malathion, naled, fenthion and chlorpyrifos, their tolerance varied according to the insecticide tested and the origin of the strain. Some strains ranged from 1.6 to 43.0X more tolerant to temephos when compared to the West Florida Arthropod Research Laboratory strain (WFARL strain). PMID:2466107

  16. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  17. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  18. A dynamic model of some malaria-transmitting anopheline mosquitoes of the Afrotropical region. II. Validation of species distribution and seasonal variations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The first part of this study aimed to develop a model for Anopheles gambiae s.l. with separate parametrization schemes for Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. The characterizations were constructed based on literature from the past decades. This part of the study is focusing on the model’s ability to separate the mean state of the two species of the An. gambiae complex in Africa. The model is also evaluated with respect to capturing the temporal variability of An. arabiensis in Ethiopia. Before conclusions and guidance based on models can be made, models need to be validated. Methods The model used in this paper is described in part one (Malaria Journal 2013, 12:28). For the validation of the model, a data base of 5,935 points on the presence of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis was constructed. An additional 992 points were collected on the presence An. gambiae s.l.. These data were used to assess if the model could recreate the spatial distribution of the two species. The dataset is made available in the public domain. This is followed by a case study from Madagascar where the model’s ability to recreate the relative fraction of each species is investigated. In the last section the model’s ability to reproduce the temporal variability of An. arabiensis in Ethiopia is tested. The model was compared with data from four papers, and one field survey covering two years. Results Overall, the model has a realistic representation of seasonal and year to year variability in mosquito densities in Ethiopia. The model is also able to describe the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in sub-Saharan Africa. This implies this model can be used for seasonal and long term predictions of changes in the burden of malaria. Before models can be used to improving human health, or guide which interventions are to be applied where, there is a need to understand the system of interest. Validation is an important part of this process. It is

  19. Wolbachia and cytoplasmic incompatibility in the California Culex pipiens mosquito species complex: parameter estimates and infection dynamics in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Rasgon, Jason L; Scott, Thomas W

    2003-01-01

    Before maternally inherited bacterial symbionts like Wolbachia, which cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI; reduced hatch rate) when infected males mate with uninfected females, can be used in a program to control vector-borne diseases it is essential to understand their dynamics of infection in natural arthropod vector populations. Our study had four goals: (1) quantify the number of Wolbachia strains circulating in the California Culex pipiens species complex, (2) investigate Wolbachia infection frequencies and distribution in natural California populations, (3) estimate the parameters that govern Wolbachia spread among Cx. pipiens under laboratory and field conditions, and (4) use these values to estimate equilibrium levels and compare predicted infection prevalence levels to those observed in nature. Strain-specific PCR, wsp gene sequencing, and crossing experiments indicated that a single Wolbachia strain infects Californian Cx. pipiens. Infection frequency was near or at fixation in all populations sampled for 2 years along a >1000-km north-south transect. The combined statewide infection frequency was 99.4%. Incompatible crosses were 100% sterile under laboratory and field conditions. Sterility decreased negligibly with male age in the laboratory. Infection had no significant effect on female fecundity under laboratory or field conditions. Vertical transmission was >99% in the laboratory and approximately 98.6% in the field. Using field data, models predicted that Wolbachia will spread to fixation if infection exceeds an unstable equilibrium point above 1.4%. Our estimates accurately predicted infection frequencies in natural populations. If certain technical hurdles can be overcome, our data indicate that Wolbachia can invade vector populations as part of an applied transgenic strategy for vector-borne disease reduction. PMID:14704183

  20. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008–2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008–2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0–2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008–2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008–2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0–2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  1. Mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008-2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008-2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0-2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008-2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008-2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0-2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  2. Enhanced vector borne disease surveillance of California Culex mosquito populations reveals spatial and species-specific barriers of infection.

    SciTech Connect

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Curtis, Deanna Joy; Koh, Chung-Yan; Brodsky, Benjamin H; Lane, Todd

    2014-08-01

    terium and c am p y l o bacter bac t er i al spec i e s . W e utilized the s e mic r obial transcri p tomes pre s e nt in g e ogra p hical l y defined Cul e x po p ul a tions to defi n e spatial and m osqui t o specie s -spec i fic ba r r iers of i n fecti o n. T he v i r ome and microbi o me c o mpos i tion id e ntified in e ach mosqui t o p o ol pr o v i ded suf f icient resolut i on to dete r m i ne both the mosq u ito species and the g e o graphic regi o n in Californ i a w h e re t h e mosqui t o po o l orig i n ated. T his d a ta pr o v i des ins i ght in t o the compl e x i t y of microb i al spec i es cir c ulati n g in med i cal l y i mport a nt Culex mosqui t oes a nd t h eir potent i al im p act o n t he tran s missi o n of v ector-b o rne human / veter i na r y p a t hogens in C a liforn i a.

  3. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  4. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-01-01

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  5. MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY AND EVOLUTION OF MOSQUITO PARASTIC MICROSPORIDIA (MICROSPORIDIA: AMBLYOSPORIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amblyospora and related species were isolated from mosquitoes, black flies and copepods and the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene was sequenced. The comparative phylogenetic analysis for this study shows co-evolution agreement between the mosquito host genera and Amblyospora parasite species with a ...

  6. Mosquito management: Ecological approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, R.

    1983-01-01

    This article discusses organism use for management of mosquitoes included are considerations of the introduction and/or manipulation of plants, animals, and microorganisms into breeding habitats in which they act to make conditions less suitable for mosquito production. The importance of foresight and careful planning is stressed with regard to developing mosquito management strategies

  7. Mosquitoes and the Environment in Nile Delta Villages with Previous Rift Valley Fever Activity.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Abdelbaset B; Britch, Seth C; Soliman, Mohamed I; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    Egypt is affected by serious human and animal mosquito-borne diseases such as Rift Valley fever (RVF). We investigated how potential RVF virus mosquito vector populations are affected by environmental conditions in the Nile Delta region of Egypt by collecting mosquitoes and environmental data from 3 key governorates before and after 2012 seasonal flooding. We found that environmental effects varied among species, life stages, pre- and postflood groupings, and geographic populations of the same species, and that mosquito community composition could change after flooding. Our study provides preliminary data for modeling mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the Nile Delta region. PMID:26181689

  8. Direct sequencing and expression analysis of a large number of miRNAs in Aedes aegypti and a multi-species survey of novel mosquito miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of gene regulators whose biogenesis involves hairpin structures called precursor miRNAs, or pre-miRNAs. A pre-miRNA is processed to make a miRNA:miRNA* duplex, which is then separated to generate a mature miRNA and a miRNA*. The mature miRNAs play key regulatory roles during embryonic development as well as other cellular processes. They are also implicated in control of viral infection as well as innate immunity. Direct experimental evidence for mosquito miRNAs has been recently reported in anopheline mosquitoes based on small-scale cloning efforts. Results We obtained approximately 130, 000 small RNA sequences from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, by 454 sequencing of samples that were isolated from mixed-age embryos and midguts from sugar-fed and blood-fed females, respectively. We also performed bioinformatics analysis on the Ae. aegypti genome assembly to identify evidence for additional miRNAs. The combination of these approaches uncovered 98 different pre-miRNAs in Ae. aegypti which could produce 86 distinct miRNAs. Thirteen miRNAs, including eight novel miRNAs identified in this study, are currently only found in mosquitoes. We also identified five potential revisions to previously annotated miRNAs at the miRNA termini, two cases of highly abundant miRNA* sequences, 14 miRNA clusters, and 17 cases where more than one pre-miRNA hairpin produces the same or highly similar mature miRNAs. A number of miRNAs showed higher levels in midgut from blood-fed female than that from sugar-fed female, which was confirmed by northern blots on two of these miRNAs. Northern blots also revealed several miRNAs that showed stage-specific expression. Detailed expression analysis of eight of the 13 mosquito-specific miRNAs in four divergent mosquito genera identified cases of clearly conserved expression patterns and obvious differences. Four of the 13 miRNAs are specific to certain lineage(s) within mosquitoes. Conclusion

  9. Insights into host-finding by Culex mosquitoes: New tools for surveillance?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens and parasites causing diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and bancroftian filariasis. Surveillance of these species is based on traps using conventional mosquito attractan...

  10. First molecular identification of Dirofilaria spp. (Onchocercidae) in mosquitoes from Serbia.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Kornélia; Kepner, Anett; Krtinic, Bosiljka; Zana, Brigitta; Földes, Fanni; Bányai, Krisztián; Oldal, Miklós; Jakab, Ferenc; Kemenesi, Gábor

    2016-08-01

    Dirofilariosis is a common and widespread veterinary health issue in several European countries with notable zoonotic potential. The causative agents are Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens nematoda species which are transmitted by different mosquito vectors. Similar to other mosquito-borne infections, the knowledge about mosquito species involved in disease transmission is crucial for the complex understanding of local transmission cycles. Since there is no available data on mosquito species, potentially involved in disease transmission from Serbia, 6369 female mosquito individuals were retrospectively tested for Dirofilaria nematodes, collected from 13 localities in Vojvodina province, Serbia, in 2013. Altogether, 8.33 % of tested pools showed positivity, composed of five mosquito species, mainly, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans. D. immitis and D. repens were both detected from multiple localities, during the whole period of mosquito breeding season, which provides the first data on local transmission characteristics regarding mosquitoes from the Balkans. PMID:27193348

  11. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: choice of study sites based on geospatial characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is an introduced invasive species in the U.S. responsible for a significant proportion of service requests to local mosquito control programs. This container-utilizing mosquito is refractory to standard mosquito abatement measures in th...

  12. Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2015-12-01

    The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), <1 % (for An. dirus), and <1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species. PMID:26337270

  13. Laboratory observations on the larvicidal efficacy of three plant species against mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) and lymphatic filariasis in the semi-arid desert.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna; Sherwani, M R K

    2012-05-01

    Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera (Aiton), Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data 24 and 48 hr LC50and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response were determined by log probit regression analysis. Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. procera which revealed that methanol (24 hr LC50: 127.2, 194.8, 361.0) and acetone (229.9, 368.1,193.0 mg l(-1)) extracts were more effective with the three mosquito species, respectively. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. stephensi while aqueous extracts were not effective at all with any of the mosquito species (mortality < 10-30%). Tests carried out with methanol extracts of fresh leaves (24 hr LC50: 89.2, 171.2, 369.7) and flowers (24 hr LC50: 94.7,617.3, 1384.0 mg l-(-1)) of Calotropis showed that preparations from fresh parts were 2-3 times more effective as compared to the stored plant parts. Efficacy was less than 10-30% with both An. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while An. stephensi was still susceptible to extracts from both leaves and flowers even after two years of storage. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for methanol extracts of seeds of T. purpurea and leaves of P. juliflora were 74.9, 63.2 and 47.0 and 96.2,128.1 and 118.8 mg l(-1) for the above three mosquito species, respectively. Experiments carried out up to 500 mg l-(1) with leaves (T. purpurea) and seeds (P. juliflora) extracts show only up to 10-30% mortality indicating that

  14. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. PMID:26556361

  15. Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle; Schaffner, Francis; Coosemans, Marc; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic

    2015-12-01

    Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species). PMID:26611977

  16. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  17. Recombinant bacteria for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Federici, B A; Park, H-W; Bideshi, D K; Wirth, M C; Johnson, J J

    2003-11-01

    Bacterial insecticides have been used for the control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes for more than two decades. Nevertheless, due primarily to their high cost and often only moderate efficacy, these insecticides remain of limited use in tropical countries where mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent. Recently, however, recombinant DNA techniques have been used to improve bacterial insecticide efficacy by markedly increasing the synthesis of mosquitocidal proteins and by enabling new endotoxin combinations from different bacteria to be produced within single strains. These new strains combine mosquitocidal Cry and Cyt proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis with the binary toxin of Bacillus sphaericus, improving efficacy against Culex species by 10-fold and greatly reducing the potential for resistance through the presence of Cyt1A. Moreover, although intensive use of B. sphaericus against Culex populations in the field can result in high levels of resistance, most of this can be suppressed by combining this bacterial species with Cyt1A; the latter enables the binary toxin of this species to enter midgut epithelial cells via the microvillar membrane in the absence of a midgut receptor. The availability of these novel strains and newly discovered mosquitocidal proteins, such as the Mtx toxins of B. sphaericus, offers the potential for constructing a range of recombinant bacterial insecticides for more effective control of the mosquito vectors of filariasis, Dengue fever and malaria. PMID:14506223

  18. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  19. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown. PMID:25674945

  20. [Mosquitoes as vectors for exotic pathogens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Krüger, A; Kuhn, C; Plenge-Bönig, A; Thomas, S M; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Tannich, E

    2014-05-01

    As a result of intensified globalization of international trade and of substantial travel activities, mosquito-borne exotic pathogens are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. In Germany some 50 different mosquito species are known, several of which have vector competence for pathogens. During the last few years a number of zoonotic arboviruses that are pathogenic for humans have been isolated from mosquitoes in Germany including Usutu, Sindbis and Batai viruses. In addition, filarial worms, such as Dirofilaria repens have been repeatedly detected in mosquitoes from the federal state of Brandenburg. Other pathogens, in particular West Nile virus, are expected to emerge sooner or later in Germany as the virus is already circulating in neighboring countries, e.g. France, Austria and the Czech Republic. In upcoming years the risk for arbovirus transmission might increase in Germany due to increased occurrence of new so-called "invasive" mosquito species, such as the Asian bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus or the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. These invasive species are characterized by high vector competence for a broad range of pathogens and a preference for human blood meals. For risk assessment, a number of mosquito and pathogen surveillance projects have been initiated in Germany during the last few years; however, mosquito control strategies and plans of action have to be developed and put into place to allow early and efficient action against possible vector-borne epidemics. PMID:24781910

  1. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported. PMID:26336302

  2. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  3. Combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and metabolomic data in support of dry-season survival in the two main species of the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, K; Mouline, K; Mamai, W; Foucreau, N; Dabiré, K R; Bouchereau, A; Simard, F; Renault, D

    2015-12-01

    In dry savannahs of West-Africa, the malarial mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto complex annually survive the harsh desiccating conditions of the dry season. However, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying how these mosquitoes survive such desiccating conditions are still undefined, and controversial. In this context, we provide the first work examining both proteomic and metabolomic changes in the two molecular forms of A. gambiae s.s (M and S forms) experimentally exposed to the rainy and dry season conditions as they experience in the field. Protein abundances of the mosquitoes were measured using a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification. These assays were conducted by Applied Biomics (http://www.appliedbiomics.com, Applied Biomics, Inc. Hayward, CA, USA), and the mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000294. The metabolomic analysis was conducted using both Acquity UPLC(®) system (for amino acid identification), and a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry platform (for sugars identification). Metabolomic fingerprintings were assessed in the University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6553 EcoBio (France). A detailed interpretation of the obtained data can be found in Hidalgo et al. (2014) [1] (Journal of Insect Physiology (2014)). PMID:26543889

  4. Mosquito production from four constructed treatment wetlands in peninsular Florida.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Meara, George F; O'Connell, Sheila M; Cutwa-Francis, Michele M

    2006-06-01

    Several techniques were used to sample adult and immature mosquitoes in 4 constructed treatment wetlands in Florida. Adults of 19 species (7 genera) of mosquitoes were collected, and immatures of the most abundant species and of 60% of all species also were collected. Few significant differences between sites and stations in the numbers of mosquitoes collected were discovered. Culex nigripalpus Theobald was the most abundant mosquito found in adult (carbon dioxide-baited suction traps) and ovitrap collections, whereas Mansonia spp. and Uranotaenia spp. were most common in pump-dip-grab samples. The roles of rooted and floating vegetation and of water quality in determining mosquito production from these areas are discussed. PMID:17019764

  5. Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

    2013-06-01

    Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

  6. Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

  7. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  8. New and improved mosquito repellents based on structural similarity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) is the most effective and best studied mosquito repellent currently on the market in the U.S.; however, this repellent is not a highly efficacious, repellent of long duration that prevents bites from all medically important mosquito species, especially those that...

  9. Immunological aspects of the immune response induced by mosquito allergens.

    PubMed

    Cantillo, José Fernando; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals. PMID:25661054

  10. Detection, monitoring, and evaluation of spatio-temporal change in mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS scientists seek to implement a sampling and global information technology based system that can be used for mosquito detection and trap deployment, to estimate mosquito species composition and distribution in space and time, and for targeting and evaluation of mosquito controls. Knowledge ...

  11. Using satellite climate measurements to understand dynamics of mosquito populations in the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise, accurate predictions of mosquito densities and distributions would be significant assets to reducing the severity of existing or emerging mosquito-borne disease events in the U.S. We are examining changes in populations of mosquito species from long-term surveillance records provided by mos...

  12. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification

    PubMed Central

    Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  13. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  14. How Mosquitoes Detect People

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquito-borne diseases are endemic,” Ray says. — by Carol Torgan, Ph.D. Related Links Targeting the Mosquito's ... Assistant Editors: Vicki Contie, Tianna Hicklin, Ph.D., Carol Torgan, Ph.D. NIH Research Matters is a ...

  15. Performance of mosquito's pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    The flow of human blood in Mosquito's proboscis on Hagen-Poiseuille flow is investigated by using micro PIV system to apply mosquito's sucking system for micro-TAS devises. We want to know how high the power of Mosquito's pump is and how small the resistance in a proboscis is, a structure of Mosquito's sucking pump, and its characteristics as mechanical pump. We made the mosquito suck blood of our arm to obtain the average value, made many slices of a mosquito with 2μm thickness after fixed by wax. We anatomized the mosquito's head and picked up the sucking pump under the microscope to know its volume. Mosquito's pump shows high performance compared with the artificial pumps. The surfaces of proboscis were taken by using SEM, AFM because it is important factor for interaction between flow and its wall. Visualization of the blood flows near the tip of and inside proboscis are taken by micro PIV system to know the flow rate. We estimate the power of pump and the friction drag of proboscis by using these data.

  16. Geographic distribution of wolbachial infections in mosquitoes from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun

    2013-11-01

    Members of the genus Wolbachia are inherited intracellular bacterial endosymbionts that infect a diverse range of arthropods. Here I report the results of a survey of these endosymbionts in different mosquito species from six geographic regions of Northern, Northeastern, Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Thailand. Using gene amplification assays with wsp and groE gene primers, wolbachiae were detected in 999 mosquitoes representing 28 species of 1622 specimens collected representing 74 species of wild-caught mosquitoes from all regions of Thailand. Results using wsp primers were similar to those using groE primers in all cases. Wolbachiae had not been reported previously from five of the species tested, namely, Aedes lineatopennis, Aedes vexans, Aedes vittatus, Culex pallidothorax and Culex whitmorei. Infections were found in all major disease vector genera except Anopheles. These results indicate that wolbachial infections are distributed throughout many mosquito species in Thailand. PMID:23660513

  17. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: II. Gauging the efficacy of traditional integrated pest control measures against urban container mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is an introduced invasive species in the U.S. responsible for a significant proportion of service requests to local mosquito control programs. This container-utilizing mosquito is refractory to standard mosquito abatement measures in th...

  18. Natural and engineered mosquito immunity.

    PubMed

    Alphey, Luke

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper in BMC Microbiology shows how suppression of mosquito innate immunity against a virus that the mosquito can normally tolerate increases mosquito mortality. This is just one of several approaches that may soon bring genetics-based mosquito control methods from the laboratory into the field. PMID:19439051

  19. Natural and engineered mosquito immunity

    PubMed Central

    Alphey, Luke

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper in BMC Microbiology shows how suppression of mosquito innate immunity against a virus that the mosquito can normally tolerate increases mosquito mortality. This is just one of several approaches that may soon bring genetics-based mosquito control methods from the laboratory into the field. PMID:19439051

  20. Virus-derived DNA drives mosquito vector tolerance to arboviral infection.

    PubMed

    Goic, Bertsy; Stapleford, Kenneth A; Frangeul, Lionel; Doucet, Aurélien J; Gausson, Valérie; Blanc, Hervé; Schemmel-Jofre, Nidia; Cristofari, Gael; Lambrechts, Louis; Vignuzzi, Marco; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes develop long-lasting viral infections without substantial deleterious effects, despite high viral loads. This makes mosquitoes efficient vectors for emerging viral diseases with enormous burden on public health. How mosquitoes resist and/or tolerate these viruses is poorly understood. Here we show that two species of Aedes mosquitoes infected with two arboviruses from distinct families (dengue or chikungunya) generate a viral-derived DNA (vDNA) that is essential for mosquito survival and viral tolerance. Inhibition of vDNA formation leads to extreme susceptibility to viral infections, reduction of viral small RNAs due to an impaired immune response, and loss of viral tolerance. Our results highlight an essential role of vDNA in viral tolerance that allows mosquito survival and thus may be important for arbovirus dissemination and transmission. Elucidating the mechanisms of mosquito tolerance to arbovirus infection paves the way to conceptualize new antivectorial strategies to selectively eliminate arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. PMID:27580708

  1. Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

    2008-12-01

    For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa. PMID:19181075

  2. Mosquitoes of Western Yunnan Province, China: Seasonal Abundance, Diversity, and Arbovirus Associations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-Hong; Feng, Yun; Nasci, Roger S.; Yang, Jie; Liu, Yong-Hua; Dong, Chao-Liang; Li, Shi; Zhang, Bao-Sen; Yin, Zheng-Liu; Wang, Pi-Yu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hua; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Jie; Li, Can-Wei; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Petersen, Lyle R.; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective The western borderland between Yunnan Province, China, and Myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. Numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. This project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in Mangshi and Ruili cities of Dehong Prefecture near the border of China and Burma in Yunnan Province, the Peoples Republic of China in 2010. We monitored mosquito species abundance for a 12-month period using ultraviolet light, carbon dioxide baited CDC light and gravid traps; and tested the captured mosquitoes for the presence of virus to evaluate mosquito-virus associations in rural/agricultural settings in the area. Results A total of 43 species of mosquitoes from seven genera were collected, including 15 Culex species, 15 Anopheles spp., four Aedes spp., three Armigeres spp., one Mimomyia spp., two Uranotaenia spp. and three Mansonia spp.. Species richness and diversity varied between Mangshi and Ruili. Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles peditaeniatus were the most abundant species in both sampling sites. Ultraviolet light traps collected more specimens than CDC light traps baited with dry ice, though both collected the same variety of mosquito species. The CDC gravid trap was the most effective trap for capture of Culex quinquefasciatus, a species underrepresented in light trap collections. A total of 26 virus strains were isolated, which included 13 strains of Japanese encephalitis virus, four strains of Getah virus, one strain of Oya virus, one strain from the orbivirus genus, and seven strains of Culex pipien pallens densovirus. Conclusions The present study illustrates the value of monitoring mosquito populations and mosquito-transmitted viruses year-round in areas where the climate supports

  3. Mosquitoes of Grand Teton National Park, Teton County, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Moore, J P

    2001-12-01

    An inventory of the mosquitoes of Grand Teton National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway was conducted during 1998 and 2000. Twenty-five culicid species belonging to 3 genera and 5 subgenera were recorded. This is the 1st substantive effort to record the mosquito fauna of this national park since its establishment in 1929. Collection of specimens of Ochlerotatus communis and Ochlerotatus nevadensis from the same larval site supports the species status of Oc. nevadensis. PMID:11804462

  4. Analyzing Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Diversity in Pakistan by DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, Jawwad H.; Khan, Arif M.; Zafar, Yusuf; Mirza, M. Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. Methodology/Principal Findings Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010–2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection). The genus Aedes (Stegomyia) comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0–2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3–17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. Conclusions As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations. PMID:24827460

  5. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development.

    PubMed

    Coon, Kerri L; Vogel, Kevin J; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here, we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood-feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested that the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with G. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate that three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  6. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired primarily from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with Ge. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  7. Studies on prophenoloxidase activation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Ashida, M; Kinoshita, K; Brey, P T

    1990-03-30

    This study, the first of its kind in a mosquito vector species, demonstrates the feasibility of studying prophenoloxidase activation in an insect containing not more than a few microliters of hemolymph. Mosquito phenoloxidase was found to be in an inactive proenzyme form, prophenoloxidase. Mosquito prophenoloxidase required bivalent cation for its activation; Ca2+ was found to be the most efficient for activation. Concomitant amidase activity was also observed prior to phenoloxidase activity. Through Western blotting, using a cross-reactive silkworm antiprophenoloxidase antibody, our results strongly suggest that mosquito prophenoloxidase activation resulted from limited proteolysis. Protease inhibitor studies reinforced this contention showing the involvement of (a) serine protease(s) with trypsin-like activity in the activation of mosquito prophenoloxidase. PMID:2110057

  8. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  9. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  10. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  11. Genetic control of mosquitoes: population suppression strategies.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods. PMID:22983293

  12. Distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Fu, Shihong; Gong, Zhengda; Ge, Junqi; Meng, Weishan; Feng, Yun; Wang, Jinglin; Zhai, Yougang; Wang, Huanqin; Nasci, Roger; Wang, Huanyu; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guodong

    2009-12-01

    From July to September in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' N and 29 degrees 00' N latitude in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, China. A total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using UV light traps at 59 sites. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. The density of mosquitoes as well as the diversity of species decreased with increasing altitude. A total of 21,008 mosquitoes in 281 pools representing all of the 15 species was tested for the presence of viruses using cell culture. Viruses identified included Japanese encephalitis virus (13 isolates), Getah virus (five isolates), Banna virus (three isolates), Kadipiro virus (five isolates), and Densovirus (seven isolates). These isolates were obtained from Culex tritaeniorhynchus (20 isolates), Anopheles sinensis (three isolates), Armigeres subalbatus (six isolates), Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (two isolates), and from unidentified, mixed mosquitoes (two isolates). Most of the isolates were from collections made at elevations below 2,500 m. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 0, 000-000. PMID:19196130

  13. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    , including exploration of the approach with additional medically important mosquito species. The novelty and importance of this approach is an ability to safely achieve auto-dissemination at levels of intensity that may not be possible with an auto-dissemination approach that is based on indigenous females. Specifically, artificially-reared males can be released and sustained at any density required, so that the potential for impact is limited only by the practical logistics of mosquito rearing and release, rather than natural population densities and the self-limiting impact of an intervention upon them. PMID:25590626

  14. Chemosensory Cues for Mosquito Oviposition Site Selection.

    PubMed

    Afify, Ali; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Gravid mosquitoes use chemosensory (olfactory, gustatory, or both) cues to select oviposition sites suitable for their offspring. In nature, these cues originate from plant infusions, microbes, mosquito immature stages, and predators. While attractants and stimulants are cues that could show the availability of food (plant infusions and microbes) and suitable conditions (the presence of conspecifics), repellents and deterrents show the risk of predation, infection with pathogens, or strong competition. Many studies have addressed the question of which substances can act as positive or negative cues in different mosquito species, with sometimes apparently contradicting results. These studies often differ in species, substance concentration, and other experimental details, making it difficult to compare the results. In this review, we compiled the available information for a wide range of species and substances, with particular attention to cues originating from larval food, immature stages, predators, and to synthetic compounds. We note that the effect of many substances differs between species, and that many substances have been tested in few species only, revealing that the information is scattered across species, substances, and experimental conditions. PMID:26336295

  15. Mosquito-Disseminated Pyriproxyfen Yields High Breeding-Site Coverage and Boosts Juvenile Mosquito Mortality at the Neighborhood Scale

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Padilla-Torres, Samael D.; Luz, Sérgio L. B.

    2015-01-01

    promising complement to current and novel mosquito control strategies; it will probably be especially relevant for the control of urban disease vectors, such as Aedes and Culex species, that often cause large epidemics. PMID:25849040

  16. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens to thousands flying males. Yet little information is known about mosquito swarming mechanism. Discovering chemical cues involved in mosquito biology leads to better adaptation of disease control interventions. In this study, we aimed ...

  17. Survey of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  18. Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M.; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  19. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle EH; Parker, Andrew G; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators. PMID:19917076

  20. Mosquito larvicidal activity of botanical-based mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei; Zeng, Xiaopeng; O'Neal, Megan; Schultz, Gretchen; Tucker, Brad; Coats, Joel; Bartholomay, Lyric; Xue, Rui-De

    2008-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of 4 plant essential oils--innamon oil, lemon eucalyptus oil, sandalwood oil, and turmeric oil--previously reported as insect repellents was evaluated in the laboratory against 4th instars of Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens. Sandalwood oil appeared to be the most effective of the larvicides, killing larvae of all 3 mosquito species in relatively short times. The values of LT50 and LT90 at the application dosage (0.2 mg/ml) were 1.06 +/- 0.11 and 3.24 +/- 0.14 h for Ae. aegypti, 1.82 +/- 0.06 and 3.33 +/- 0.48 h for Ae. albopictus, and 1.55 +/- 0.07 and 3.91 +/- 0.44 h for Cx. pipiens, respectively. Chemical compositions of these essential oils were also studied, and the lavicidal activity of their major ingredient compounds was compared with that of each of the essential oils. The acute toxicity of the 4 essential oils to fathead minnows was also evaluated. The safe use of these natural plant essential oils in future applications of mosquito control was discussed. PMID:18437833

  1. Tropical Mosquito Assemblages Demonstrate ‘Textbook’ Annual Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Donald C.; Whelan, Peter I.

    2009-01-01

    Background Annual biological rhythms are often depicted as predictably cyclic, but quantitative evaluations are few and rarely both cyclic and constant among years. In the monsoon tropics, the intense seasonality of rainfall frequently drives fluctuations in the populations of short-lived aquatic organisms. However, it is unclear how predictably assemblage composition will fluctuate because the intensity, onset and cessation of the wet season varies greatly among years. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult mosquitoes were sampled using EVS suction traps baited with carbon dioxide around swamplands adjacent to the city of Darwin in northern Australia. Eleven sites were sampled weekly for five years, and one site weekly for 24 years, the sample of c. 1.4 million mosquitoes yielding 63 species. Mosquito abundance, species richness and diversity fluctuated seasonally, species richness being highly predictable. Ordination of assemblage composition demonstrated striking annual cycles that varied little from year to year. The mosquito assemblage was temporally structured by a succession of species peaks in abundance. Conclusion/Significance Ordination provided strong visual representation of annual rhythms in assemblage composition and the means to evaluate variability among years. Because most mosquitoes breed in shallow freshwater which fluctuates with rainfall, we did not anticipate such repeatability; we conclude that mosquito assemblage composition appears adapted to predictable elements of the rainfall. PMID:20011531

  2. Towards management of mosquitoes at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia. I. Seasonal activity and relative abundance of adults of Aedes vigilax, Culex sitiens, and other salt-marsh species, 1993-94 through 1997-98.

    PubMed

    Webb, C E; Russell, R C

    1999-06-01

    The mosquitoes associated with 2 saline wetlands at Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia, were investigated over 5 consecutive seasons. Twenty-one species were collected in adult traps at the 2 sites but the saline wetlands supported larvae of only 4 species: Aedes alternans, Aedes camptorhynchus, Aedes vigilax, and Culex sitiens. Of these, Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens were the most common, and their peak abundances generally occurred during February and April, respectively. Both wetlands were influenced by tides and rainfall-runoff, and a lack of regular tidal exchange in the mangroves and inadequate drainage of the saltmarsh provided potential habitat. Populations of Ae. vigilax and Cx. sitiens at the Newington site were greater than those at the Bicentennial Park site, because of more extensive habitat at the former, but were diminished by irregular ground-based applications of temephos during the middle 3 years of the study. Populations at the Bicentennial Park site, not subjected to the larvicide, were typically smaller but more consistently related to influences of tide and rainfall through the 5 seasons. During the final season, populations of both species in both wetlands were enhanced by exceptional tide penetration and rainfall. Helicopter applications of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis larvicide were employed at both sites and effectively suppressed populations of both pest species. For future management, provision of full tidal exchange and water recirculation to reduce the area of water impounded within the mangroves and retained in depressions on the marshes should significantly suppress the pest populations and relieve reliance on control agents. PMID:10412120

  3. Driven to extinction? The ethics of eradicating mosquitoes with gene-drive technologies.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a significant global disease burden, and recent outbreaks of such diseases have led to calls to reduce mosquito populations. Furthermore, advances in 'gene-drive' technology have raised the prospect of eradicating certain species of mosquito via genetic modification. This technology has attracted a great deal of media attention, and the idea of using gene-drive technology to eradicate mosquitoes has been met with criticism in the public domain. In this paper, I shall dispel two moral objections that have been raised in the public domain against the use of gene-drive technologies to eradicate mosquitoes. The first objection invokes the concept of the 'sanctity of life' in order to claim that we should not drive an animal to extinction. In response, I follow Peter Singer in raising doubts about general appeals to the sanctity of life, and argue that neither individual mosquitoes nor mosquitoes species considered holistically are appropriately described as bearing a significant degree of moral status. The second objection claims that seeking to eradicate mosquitoes amounts to displaying unacceptable degrees of hubris. Although I argue that this objection also fails, I conclude by claiming that it raises the important point that we need to acquire more empirical data about, inter alia, the likely effects of mosquito eradication on the ecosystem, and the likelihood of gene-drive technology successfully eradicating the intended mosquito species, in order to adequately inform our moral analysis of gene-drive technologies in this context. PMID:27118691

  4. Identification of Swedish mosquitoes based on molecular barcoding of the COI gene and SNP analysis.

    PubMed

    Engdahl, Cecilia; Larsson, Pär; Näslund, Jonas; Bravo, Mayra; Evander, Magnus; Lundström, Jan O; Ahlm, Clas; Bucht, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Mosquito-borne infectious diseases are emerging in many regions of the world. Consequently, surveillance of mosquitoes and concomitant infectious agents is of great importance for prediction and prevention of mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Currently, morphological identification of mosquitoes is the traditional procedure. However, sequencing of specified genes or standard genomic regions, DNA barcoding, has recently been suggested as a global standard for identification and classification of many different species. Our aim was to develop a genetic method to identify mosquitoes and to study their relationship. Mosquitoes were captured at collection sites in northern Sweden and identified morphologically before the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences of 14 of the most common mosquito species were determined. The sequences obtained were then used for phylogenetic placement, for validation and benchmarking of phenetic classifications and finally to develop a hierarchical PCR-based typing scheme based on single nucleotide polymorphism sites (SNPs) to enable rapid genetic identification, circumventing the need for morphological characterization. The results showed that exact phylogenetic relationships between mosquito taxa were preserved at shorter evolutionary distances, but at deeper levels, they could not be inferred with confidence using COI gene sequence data alone. Fourteen of the most common mosquito species in Sweden were identified by the SNP/PCR-based typing scheme, demonstrating that genetic typing using SNPs of the COI gene is a useful method for identification of mosquitoes with potential for worldwide application. PMID:24215491

  5. Distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Lyaruu, Lucille J; Ooi, Eng Eong; Mosha, Franklin W; Crump, John A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the presence and distribution of Aedes mosquitoes in northern Tanzania despite the occurence of viruses transmitted by these mosquitoes such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) in the region. Adult and larval mosquitoes were collected from rural and urban settings across a wide range of altitudes in the Kilimanjaro Region using the Mosquito Magnet CO2 Trap for collection of adults and old tires for breeding of larvae. Polymerase chain reaction assays were performed on captured adult mosquitoes to detect the presence of CHIKV and DENV. A total of 2609 Aedes aegypti adult mosquitoes were collected; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Mosquito yields were significantly higher in urban settings than rural settings (26.5 vs. 1.9 mosquitoes per day, p = 0.037). A total of 6570 Ae. aegypti larvae were collected from old tires; no other Aedes species larvae were found. Of the 2609 adult mosquitoes collected, none tested positive for CHIKV or DENV. As far as we are aware, this paper reports for the first time the presence of Ae. aegypti in the Kilimanjaro Region of northern Tanzania. Although CHIKV and DENV were not isolated from any of the collected mosquitoes in this study, the apparent absence of other Aedes species in the area suggests that Ae. aegypti is the primary local vector of these infections. PMID:27376502

  6. Mosquito surveillance for prevention and control of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in Portugal - 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Osório, Hugo C; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J

    2014-11-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program-REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)-has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes-collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2-and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  7. The isolation of spiroplasmas from mosquitoes in Macon County, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A A; Johnson, W E; Stevens, C; Tang, A Y

    1987-06-01

    During the summer months of 1985, 1,298 adult mosquitoes comprising 21 species and 7 genera were collected in Macon County, Alabama. Mosquitoes were collected from four sections of the county with CO2-baited light traps. Spiroplasma cultures were isolated from two pools of 24 and 25 Aedes fulvus pallens, one pool of 22 Anopheles punctipennis and one pool of 7 Culex nigripalpus. Electron microscopic studies of the isolates revealed helical, wall-less cells. PMID:2904950

  8. Flavivirus-mosquito interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2014-11-01

    The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1-4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. PMID:25421894

  9. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Higgs, Stephen; Horne, Kate McElroy; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations. PMID:25421894

  10. Mosquito Infection Studies with Aotus Monkeys and Humans Infected with the Chesson Strain of Plasmodiun vivax

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Sullivan, JoAnn S.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.; Nace, Douglas; Williams, Tyrone; Galland, G. Gale; Williams, Allison; Barnwell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Oocyst counts were compared between mosquitoes that fed on humans versus mosquitoes that fed on Aotus monkeys, both of which were infected with the Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax. Oocyst counts obtained from mosquitoes fed on humans were almost 10-fold higher in number. Mosquitoes were more likely to be infected and with a higher rate of infection when they fed on monkeys before the peak in the asexual parasite count. Mosquitoes that fed on humans were more likely to be more heavily infected when fed after the peak in the asexual count. Of several species of owl monkeys, Aotus vociferans was infected at a higher frequency. On the basis of oocyst counts, Anopheles dirus were the most susceptible and An. maculatus were the least susceptible of the mosquito species tested. PMID:22403307

  11. Bifenthrin: a useful pyrethroid insecticide for treatment of mosquito nets.

    PubMed

    Hougard, J M; Zaim, S Duchony M; Guillet, P

    2002-05-01

    Bifenthrin, a pyrethroid insecticide already used in agriculture was evaluated in laboratory conditions against susceptible and pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes, as a potential insecticide for treatment of mosquito nets. Two laboratory strains of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, the major malaria vector in Africa, and two of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, a major pest mosquito in urban areas, were used. Compared with other pyrethroids such as permethrin and deltamethrin, the intrinsic toxicity of bifenthrin, measured by topical application with susceptible strains, was intermediate. By forced tarsal contact on filter papers (cylinder tests) or on netting materials (cone tests), bifenthrin was found slightly more effective against A. gambiae than against C. quinquefasciatus, in terms of mortality and knock-down effect. With free flying mosquitoes (tunnel tests), bifenthrin was very efficient in killing mosquitoes and inhibiting blood feeding. Against the two pyrethroid resistant strains, bifenthrin was relatively efficient against A. gambiae but the impact of resistance was greater with C. quinquefasciatus. In tunnel tests, blood feeding remained almost entirely inhibited with the two species despite resistance. The high mortality of susceptible mosquitoes and excellent blood feeding inhibition of susceptible and resistant strains makes bifenthrin a good candidate for treatment of netting materials, particularly in areas where C. quinquefasciatus, the main nuisance in urban areas, is resistant to pyrethroids. The slower knock-down and lower irritant effect also makes this insecticide especially attractive when a mass killing effect on mosquito populations is expected. PMID:12061451

  12. Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The personal protection capability of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) is compared under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species and using human volunteers for lan...

  13. Midgut Microbial Community of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Populations from India

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Kshitij; Mendki, Murlidhar J.; Parikh, Rasesh Y.; Kulkarni, Girish; Tikar, Sachin N.; Sukumaran, Devanathan; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, Brahma D.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Veer, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is a ubiquitous species that serves as a major vector for west nile virus and lymphatic filariasis. Ingestion of bloodmeal by females triggers a series of physiological processes in the midgut and also exposes them to infection by these pathogens. The bacteria normally harbored in the midgut are known to influence physiology and can also alter the response to various pathogens. The midgut bacteria in female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected over a large geographical area from India was studied. Examination of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from culturable microflora revealed the presence of 83 bacterial species belonging to 31 bacterial genera. All of these species belong to three phyla i.e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum (37 species), followed by Firmicutes (33 species) and Actinobacteria (13 species). Phylum Proteobacteria, was dominated by members of γ-proteobacteria class. The genus Staphylococcus was the largest genus represented by 11 species whereas Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and recovered from all the field stations except Leh. Highest bacterial prevalence was observed from Bhuj (22 species) followed by Nagrota (18 species), Masimpur (18 species) and Hathigarh (16 species). Whereas, least species were observed from Leh (8 species). It has been observed that individual mosquito harbor extremely diverse gut bacteria and have very small overlap bacterial taxa in their gut. This variation in midgut microbiota may be one of the factors responsible for variation in disease transmission rates or vector competence within mosquito population. The present data strongly encourage further investigations to verify the potential role of the detected bacteria in mosquito for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on midgut microbiota of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus from over a

  14. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003–2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011–2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency

  15. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  16. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito. PMID:16041723

  17. Guppies as predators of common mosquito larvae in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2014-03-01

    Observation on predation activities of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) on the larvae of three species of mosquito, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was carried out under laboratory conditions. Male and female guppies were used as predators for predation experiments on the 4th instars of mosquito larvae. The daily feeding rates comparing male and female guppies on mosquito larvae were different; the female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae than male guppies did. The daily feeding rates of female guppies were 121.3 for Ae. aegypti, 105.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 72.3 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. The daily feeding rates of male guppies were 98.6 for Ae. aegypti, 73.6 for Ae. albopictus, and 47.6 for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In terms of prey preference, there was greater preference towards mosquito larvae of Ae. aegypti, followed by Ae. albopictus, and the least preferred was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Male and female guppies consumed more mosquito larvae during lights on (day time) compared with lights off (night time). The water volume, prey species, number of fish predators available, prey densities, and prey's sex also influenced the predation activities. PMID:24968669

  18. Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2015-11-01

    Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. japonicus japonicus, Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus. These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Wolbachia), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method. PMID:26037532

  19. Genetics of Mosquito Vector Competence

    PubMed Central

    Beerntsen, Brenda T.; James, Anthony A.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2000-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality. PMID:10704476

  20. Spatio-temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools of a biosphere reserve of Southern Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Anbalagan, S; Arunprasanna, V; Kannan, M; Dinakaran, S; Krishnan, M

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of mosquitoes in stream pools were examined in a biosphere reserve of the Southern Western Ghats, India. The immature mosquitoes in stream pools were collected from stream substrates of bedrock pool, boulder cavity and sand puddle. The collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified. In total, 16 species from four genera of mosquitoes were collected. The mosquito species from Culex and Anopheles were predominantly occurred. The bedrock pool had the highest diversity and abundance of mosquitoes. The statistical analyses showed that the substrate specificity and the seasons were positively related to the distribution of mosquitoes rather than spatial pattern. This study described the spatial and temporal pattern of mosquitoes in stream pools of the Southern Western Ghats. This information would be helpful to National Vector borne disease control program for surveillance and control. PMID:26434940

  1. Genomes of microsporidia in mosquitoes: status and preliminary findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The status and preliminary findings for full genome sequencing of three species of microsporidia with mosquitoes as type hosts will be presented. Vavraia culicis, the type species of the genus Vavraia, was originally described from Culex pipiens. Type material was not available and therefore Vavra...

  2. Effects of combination of leaf resources on competition in container mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, M H; Zarrabi, A A; Lounibos, L P

    2012-08-01

    Resource diversity is critical to fitness in many insect species, and may determine the coexistence of competitive species and the function of ecosystems. Plant material provides the nutritional base for numerous aquatic systems, yet the consequences of diversity of plant material have not been studied in aquatic container systems important for the production of mosquitoes. To address how diversity in leaf detritus affects container-inhabiting mosquitoes, we examined how leaf species affect competition between two container inhabiting mosquito larvae, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, that co-occur in many parts of the world. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species changes the outcome of intra- and interspecific competition between these mosquito species, and that combinations of leaf species affect competition in a manner not predictable based upon the response to each leaf species alone (i.e. the response to leaf combinations is non-additive). We find support for our first hypothesis that leaf species can affect competition, evidence that, in general, leaf combination alters competitive interactions, and no support that leaf combination impacts interspecific competition differently than intraspecific competition. We conclude that combinations of leaves increase mosquito production non-additively such that combinations of leaves act synergistically, in general, and result in higher total yield of adult mosquitoes in most cases, although certain leaf combinations for A. albopictus are antagonistic. We also conclude that leaf diversity does not have a different effect on interspecific competition between A. aegypti and A. albopictus, relative to intraspecific competition for each mosquito. PMID:22314102

  3. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  4. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  5. The biological activity of a-mangostin, a larvicidal botanic mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. Alpha-mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against 3rd instar larvae of six mosquito species and the LC50 values range from 0.84 to 2.90 ppm....

  6. Potential for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Florida to transmit rift valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 8 species of mosquitoes collected in Florida to determine which of these should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America. Female mosquitoes that had fed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV were incubated for 7-21 d at 26°C, allowed to...

  7. A High Throughput Screening Method to Identify Potential Pesticides for Mosquito Control.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes that transmit human diseases are of major importance to the international public health community. Pesticides remain a major component of integrated programs to control these medically important species. However, very few types of pesticides are currently registered for mosquito control. ...

  8. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  9. How mosquitoes fly in the rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Shankles, Peter; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

    2011-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. If raindrops are 50 times heavier than mosquitoes, how do mosquitoes fly in the rain? In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we measure the impact force between a falling drop and a free-flying mosquito. High-speed videography of mosquitoes and custom-built mimics reveals a mosquito's low inertia renders it impervious to falling drops. Drops do not splash on mosquitoes, but simply push past them allowing a mosquito to continue on its flight path undeterred. We rationalize the force imparted using scaling relations based on the time of rebound between a falling drop and a free body of significantly less mass.

  10. Biocontrol of larval mosquitoes by Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam; Mandal, Samir K; Ghosh, Arup K; Das, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Siddhartha S; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2008-01-01

    Background Problems associated with resistant mosquitoes and the effects on non-target species by chemicals, evoke a reason to find alternative methods to control mosquitoes, like the use of natural predators. In this regard, aquatic coleopterans have been explored less compared to other insect predators. In the present study, an evaluation of the role of the larvae of Acilius sulcatus Linnaeus 1758 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) as predator of mosquito immatures was made in the laboratory. Its efficacy under field condition was also determined to emphasize its potential as bio-control agent of mosquitoes. Methods In the laboratory, the predation potential of the larvae of A. sulcatus was assessed using the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823 (Diptera: Culicidae) as prey at varying predator and prey densities and available space. Under field conditions, the effectiveness of the larvae of A. sulcatus was evaluated through augmentative release in ten cemented tanks hosting immatures of different mosquito species at varying density. The dip density changes in the mosquito immatures were used as indicator for the effectiveness of A. sulcatus larvae. Results A single larva of A. sulcatus consumed on an average 34 IV instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus in a 24 h period. It was observed that feeding rate of A. sulcatus did not differ between the light-on (6 a.m. – 6 p.m.), and dark (6 p.m. – 6 a.m.) phases, but decreased with the volume of water i.e., space availability. The prey consumption of the larvae of A. sulcatus differed significantly (P < 0.05) with different prey, predator and volume combinations, revealed through univariate ANOVA. The field study revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in larval density of different species of mosquitoes after 30 days from the introduction of A. sulcatus larvae, while with the withdrawal, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in larval density was noted indicating the efficacy of A. sulcatus in regulating mosquito

  11. Silica nanoparticle: a potential new insecticide for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Barik, Tapan K; Kamaraju, Raghavendra; Gowswami, Arunava

    2012-09-01

    Presently, there is a need for increased efforts to develop newer and effective methods to control mosquito vectors as the existing chemical and biological methods are not as effective as in earlier period owing to different technical and operational reasons. The use of nanomaterial products in various sectors of science including health increased during the last decade. We tested three types of nanosilica, namely lipophilic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, to assess their larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitor properties and also their influence on oviposition behaviour (attraction/deterrence) of mosquito species that transmit human diseases, namely malaria (Anopheles), yellow fever, chickungunya and dengue (Aedes), lymphatic filariasis and encephalitis (Culex and Aedes). Application of hydrophobic nanosilica at 112.5 ppm was found effective against mosquito species tested. The larvicidal effect of hydrophobic nanosilica on mosquito species tested was in the order of Anopheles stephensi > Aedes aegypti > Culex quinquefasciatus, and the pupicidal effect was in the order of A. stephensi > C. quinquefasciatus > Ae. aegypti. Results of combined treatment of hydrophobic nanosilica with temephos in larvicidal test indicated independent toxic action without any additive effect. This is probably the first report that demonstrated that nanoparticles particularly nanosilica could be used in mosquito vector control. PMID:22565400

  12. Transmission potential of Rickettsia felis infection by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Bechah, Yassina; Socolovschi, Cristina; Audoly, Gilles; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Faye, Ousmane; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of recent reports have implicated Rickettsia felis as a human pathogen, paralleling the increasing detection of R. felis in arthropod hosts across the globe, primarily in fleas. Here Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary malarial vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, were fed with either blood meal infected with R. felis or infected cellular media administered in membrane feeding systems. In addition, a group of mosquitoes was fed on R. felis-infected BALB/c mice. The acquisition and persistence of R. felis in mosquitoes was demonstrated by quantitative PCR detection of the bacteria up to day 15 postinfection. R. felis was detected in mosquito feces up to day 14. Furthermore, R. felis was visualized by immunofluorescence in salivary glands, in and around the gut, and in the ovaries, although no vertical transmission was observed. R. felis was also found in the cotton used for sucrose feeding after the mosquitoes were fed infected blood. Natural bites from R. felis-infected An. gambiae were able to cause transient rickettsemias in mice, indicating that this mosquito species has the potential to be a vector of R. felis infection. This is particularly important given the recent report of high prevalence of R. felis infection in patients with “fever of unknown origin” in malaria-endemic areas. PMID:26056256

  13. Using infective mosquitoes to challenge monkeys with Plasmodium knowlesi in malaria vaccine studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are used to test malaria vaccines, animals are often challenged by the intravenous injection of sporozoites. However, natural exposure to malaria comes via mosquito bite, and antibodies can neutralize sporozoites as they traverse the skin. Thus, intravenous injection may not fairly assess humoral immunity from anti-sporozoite malaria vaccines. To better assess malaria vaccines in rhesus, a method to challenge large numbers of monkeys by mosquito bite was developed. Methods Several species and strains of mosquitoes were tested for their ability to produce Plasmodium knowlesi sporozoites. Donor monkey parasitaemia effects on oocyst and sporozoite numbers and mosquito mortality were documented. Methylparaben added to mosquito feed was tested to improve mosquito survival. To determine the number of bites needed to infect a monkey, animals were exposed to various numbers of P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes. Finally, P. knowlesi-infected mosquitoes were used to challenge 17 monkeys in a malaria vaccine trial, and the effect of number of infectious bites on monkey parasitaemia was documented. Results Anopheles dirus, Anopheles crascens, and Anopheles dirus X (a cross between the two species) produced large numbers of P. knowlesi sporozoites. Mosquito survival to day 14, when sporozoites fill the salivary glands, averaged only 32% when donor monkeys had a parasitaemia above 2%. However, when donor monkey parasitaemia was below 2%, mosquitoes survived twice as well and contained ample sporozoites in their salivary glands. Adding methylparaben to sugar solutions did not improve survival of infected mosquitoes. Plasmodium knowlesi was very infectious, with all monkeys developing blood stage infections if one or more infected mosquitoes successfully fed. There was also a dose-response, with monkeys that received higher numbers of infected mosquito bites developing malaria sooner. Conclusions Anopheles dirus, An. crascens and a

  14. A multi-detection assay for malaria transmitting mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoosook; Weakley, Allison M; Nieman, Catelyn C; Malvick, Julia; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes the major malaria transmitting mosquitoes in Africa. Because these species are of such medical importance, several traits are typically characterized using molecular assays to aid in epidemiological studies. These traits include species identification, insecticide resistance, parasite infection status, and host preference. Since populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex are morphologically indistinguishable, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is traditionally used to identify species. Once the species is known, several downstream assays are routinely performed to elucidate further characteristics. For instance, mutations known as KDR in a para gene confer resistance against DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or Plasmodium parasite DNA detection PCR assays are used to detect parasites present in mosquito tissues. Lastly, a combination of PCR and restriction enzyme digests can be used to elucidate host preference (e.g., human vs. animal blood) by screening the mosquito bloodmeal for host-specific DNA. We have developed a multi-detection assay (MDA) that combines all of the aforementioned assays into a single multiplex reaction genotyping 33SNPs for 96 or 384 samples at a time. Because the MDA includes multiple markers for species, Plasmodium detection, and host blood identification, the likelihood of generating false positives or negatives is greatly reduced from previous assays that include only one marker per trait. This robust and simple assay can detect these key mosquito traits cost-effectively and in a fraction of the time of existing assays. PMID:25867057

  15. Attraction of mosquitoes to domestic cats in a heartworm enzootic region.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Luciana A M; Serrão, Maria Lucia; Duarte, Rosemere; Bendas, Alexandre; Labarthe, Norma

    2007-08-01

    Heartworm disease is caused by a mosquito-borne parasite that can affect many different mammalian species and has worldwide distribution. The agent, Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856), infect mainly dogs but feline infection have been frequently reported in the last decade. Feline heartworm infection is difficult to detect, therefore, low reported prevalence could reflect true low prevalence or poor diagnostic efficiency. As mosquitoes are known to be attracted differently by different mammalian species, mosquitoes were collected from both a cattery and a contiguous home located in a canine heartworm enzootic area in Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. For 14 months, mosquitoes were collected weekly for genus identification, speciation when possible, and for individual blood meal identification. Culex species mosquitoes were the most captured and those most frequently found with feline blood meal, followed by Aedes species that, although captured in lower numbers, also fed on feline blood. While Culex species mosquitoes have been reported as potential secondary heartworm vectors for dogs and primary vectors for cats, the present results suggest that Aedes species mosquitoes may also be involved in feline heartworm transmission in a larger proportion than previously thought. PMID:17383920

  16. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  17. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: Not a Royal Air Force de Havilland DH-98, but an Air Force de Havilland F-8 Mosquito. A pair of these Canadian built, U. S. Army Air Force procured aircraft were flown at Langley. The Americans used these aircraft as photo-reconnaissance and meteorological aircraft.

  18. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: This de Havilland F-8 Mosquito was flown at Langley by NACA pilot Bill Gray during longitudinal stability and control studies of the aircraft. This fast twin engine design was noteworthy for its wooden construction and its versatility.

  19. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes. PMID:27515809

  20. Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18∶00 to 21∶00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment. PMID

  1. [The mosquito-borne viruses in Europe].

    PubMed

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiologic changes of vector-borne diseases in recent years have multiple causes, including climate change. There are about 3500 species of mosquitoes worldwide, three-quarters of which live in tropical and subtropical wetlands. Main viruses transmitted by mosquitoes in Europe belong to the genus Flavivirus; some of them have been recently reported in Italy (Usutu and Japanese encephalitis virus), while others have been circulating for years and autochthonous transmission has been documented (West Nile virus). Mosquito-borne viruses can be classified according to the vector (Aedes or Culex), which, in turn, is associated with different vertebrate host and pathology. The Flavivirus transmitted by Culex have birds as a reservoir and can cause meningoencephalitis, while viruses transmitted by Aedes have primates as reservoir, do not have neurotropism and mainly cause hemorrhagic diseases. Other arbovirus, potentially responsible of epidemics, are the Chikungunya virus (Alphavirus family), introduced for the first time in Europe in 2007, and the virus of Rift Valley fever (Phlebovirus family). The spread in non-endemic areas of vector-born diseases have highlighted the importance of surveillance systems and vector control strategies. PMID:25805223

  2. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease. PMID:26565610

  3. Malaria Mosquitoes Host-Locate and Feed upon Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts. PMID:25372720

  4. Bacterial Communities Associated with Culex Mosquito Larvae and Two Emergent Aquatic Plants of Bioremediation Importance

    PubMed Central

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G.; Hall, Michael W.; Neufeld, Josh D.; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314

  5. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert R.; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R. W.; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey. PMID:26064534

  6. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species. PMID:23967314

  7. Malaria and the Anopheles mosquitoes of Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Habirov, Zamonidin; Kadamov, Dilshod; Iskandarov, Firuz; Komilova, Saodat; Cook, Shelley; McAlister, Erica; Harbach, Ralph E

    2012-12-01

    Surveys of Anopheles mosquitoes were conducted in urban, rural, and natural areas of Tajikistan to obtain updated information on their distributions, especially in southern districts of the country where malaria is a prevalent disease. Nine species of Anopheles are found in Tajikistan. Anopheles superpictus, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. pulcherrimus are the most widespread and abundant species. Investigations in northern Tajikistan confirmed the presence of An. artemievi and the absence of An. martinius, both members of the An. maculipennis complex of malaria vectors. Anopheles barianensis, An. lindesayi, and An. marteri sogdianus, species previously recorded in the country, were not encountered during our surveys. The history of Anopheles and malaria research in Tajikistan is reviewed and bionomical and distributional information is provided for each of the nine species. PMID:23181867

  8. Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,…

  9. Rapid identification of female Culexmosquito species using Expert System in the South East Asian region

    PubMed Central

    Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Kumar, Duvvuri Venkata Rama Satya; Rao, Mutheneni Srinivasa; Reuben, Rachel; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Hiriyan, J; Akiyama, J; Akavaram, Deepa

    2005-01-01

    Rapid identification of mosquito (vector) species is critical for vector control and disease management. Pictorial keys of mosquito species are currently used for the identification of new mosquito species. However, this approach is not very effective. Here, we describe the use of an ID3 algorithm (part of artificial intelligence) for the rapid identification of the South East Asian female Culex mosquito species. Availability http://www.envisiict.org/ PMID:17597850

  10. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of

  11. British Container Breeding Mosquitoes: The Impact of Urbanisation and Climate Change on Community Composition and Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

  12. British container breeding mosquitoes: the impact of urbanisation and climate change on community composition and phenology.

    PubMed

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

  13. Spectral sensitivity of the nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...

  14. Challenges in microbial control of invasive mosquitoes and lessons learned

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public health agencies are concerned with the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes in the U.S. and their involvement in the transmission of pathogens to man and animals. Some established species include but are not limited to Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, A. japonicus, and Culex bahamens...

  15. Plasmodium evasion of mosquito immunity and global malaria transmission: The lock-and-key theory

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E.; Kamath, Nitin; Pavlovic, Noelle V.; Mu, Jianbing; Ramphul, Urvashi N.; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria originated in Africa and became global as humans migrated to other continents. During this journey, parasites encountered new mosquito species, some of them evolutionarily distant from African vectors. We have previously shown that the Pfs47 protein allows the parasite to evade the mosquito immune system of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Here, we investigated the role of Pfs47-mediated immune evasion in the adaptation of P. falciparum to evolutionarily distant mosquito species. We found that P. falciparum isolates from Africa, Asia, or the Americas have low compatibility to malaria vectors from a different continent, an effect that is mediated by the mosquito immune system. We identified 42 different haplotypes of Pfs47 that have a strong geographic population structure and much lower haplotype diversity outside Africa. Replacement of the Pfs47 haplotypes in a P. falciparum isolate is sufficient to make it compatible to a different mosquito species. Those parasites that express a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with a given vector evade antiplasmodial immunity and survive. We propose that Pfs47-mediated immune evasion has been critical for the globalization of P. falciparum malaria as parasites adapted to new vector species. Our findings predict that this ongoing selective force by the mosquito immune system could influence the dispersal of Plasmodium genetic traits and point to Pfs47 as a potential target to block malaria transmission. A new model, the “lock-and-key theory” of P. falciparum globalization, is proposed, and its implications are discussed. PMID:26598665

  16. Plasmodium evasion of mosquito immunity and global malaria transmission: The lock-and-key theory.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Canepa, Gaspar E; Kamath, Nitin; Pavlovic, Noelle V; Mu, Jianbing; Ramphul, Urvashi N; Ramirez, Jose Luis; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria originated in Africa and became global as humans migrated to other continents. During this journey, parasites encountered new mosquito species, some of them evolutionarily distant from African vectors. We have previously shown that the Pfs47 protein allows the parasite to evade the mosquito immune system of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Here, we investigated the role of Pfs47-mediated immune evasion in the adaptation of P. falciparum to evolutionarily distant mosquito species. We found that P. falciparum isolates from Africa, Asia, or the Americas have low compatibility to malaria vectors from a different continent, an effect that is mediated by the mosquito immune system. We identified 42 different haplotypes of Pfs47 that have a strong geographic population structure and much lower haplotype diversity outside Africa. Replacement of the Pfs47 haplotypes in a P. falciparum isolate is sufficient to make it compatible to a different mosquito species. Those parasites that express a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with a given vector evade antiplasmodial immunity and survive. We propose that Pfs47-mediated immune evasion has been critical for the globalization of P. falciparum malaria as parasites adapted to new vector species. Our findings predict that this ongoing selective force by the mosquito immune system could influence the dispersal of Plasmodium genetic traits and point to Pfs47 as a potential target to block malaria transmission. A new model, the "lock-and-key theory" of P. falciparum globalization, is proposed, and its implications are discussed. PMID:26598665

  17. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    PubMed

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens. PMID:27405207

  18. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pitasawat, B; Champakaew, D; Choochote, W; Jitpakdi, A; Chaithong, U; Kanjanapothi, D; Rattanachanpichai, E; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Tuetun, B; Chaiyasit, D

    2007-04-01

    Five aromatic plants, Carum carvi (caraway), Apium graveolens (celery), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Zanthoxylum limonella (mullilam) and Curcuma zedoaria (zedoary) were selected for investigating larvicidal potential against mosquito vectors. Two laboratory-reared mosquito species, Anopheles dirus, the major malaria vector in Thailand, and Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in urban areas, were used. All of the volatile oils exerted significant larvicidal activity against the two mosquito species after 24-h exposure. Essential oil from mullilam was the most effective against the larvae of A. aegypti, while A. dirus larvae showed the highest susceptibility to zedoary oil. PMID:17337133

  19. Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Tingström, Olov; Wesula Lwande, Olivia; Näslund, Jonas; Spyckerelle, Iris; Engdahl, Cecilia; Von Schoenberg, Pontus; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV). Materials and Methods: A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Results and Discussion: SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses. PMID:27159120

  20. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa. PMID:20684480

  1. Anopheles sinensis mosquito insecticide resistance: comparison of three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods and mosquito age in resistance measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria mosquitoes is essential for guiding the rational use of insecticides in vector control programs. Resistance bioassay is the first step for insecticide monitoring and it lays an important foundation for molecular examination of resistance mechanisms. In the literature, various mosquito sample collection and preparation methods have been used, but how mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affect insecticide susceptibility bioassay results is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine whether mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affected bioassay results, which may cause incorrect classification of mosquito resistance status. Methods The study was conducted in Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes in two study sites in central China. Three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods were compared for insecticide susceptibility, kdr frequencies and metabolic enzyme activities: 1) adult mosquitoes collected from the field; 2) F1 adults from field collected, blood-fed mosquitoes; and 3) adult mosquitoes reared from field collected larvae. Results Mosquito sample collection and preparation methods significantly affected mortality rates in the standard WHO tube resistance bioassay. Mortality rate of field-collected female adults was 10-15% higher than in mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae and F1 adults from field collected blood-fed females. This pattern was consistent in mosquitoes from the two study sites. High kdr mutation frequency (85-95%) with L1014F allele as the predominant mutation was found in our study populations. Field-collected female adults consistently exhibited the highest monooxygenase and GST activities. The higher mortality rate observed in the field-collected female mosquitoes may have been caused by a mixture of mosquitoes of different ages, as older mosquitoes were more susceptible to deltamethrin than younger mosquitoes. Conclusions

  2. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  3. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562

  4. Accelerated evolution of constraint elements for hematophagic adaptation in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Ming-Shan; ADEOLA, Adeniyi C.; LI, Yan; ZHANG, Ya-Ping; WU, Dong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics is a powerful approach that comprehensively interprets the genome. Herein, we performed whole genome comparative analysis of 16 Diptera genomes, including four mosquitoes and 12 Drosophilae. We found more than 540 000 constraint elements (CEs) in the Diptera genome, with the majority found in the intergenic, coding and intronic regions. Accelerated elements (AEs) identified in mosquitoes were mostly in the protein-coding regions (>93%), which differs from vertebrates in genomic distribution. Some genes functionally enriched in blood digestion, body temperature regulation and insecticide resistance showed rapid evolution not only in the lineage of the recent common ancestor of mosquitoes (RCAM), but also in some mosquito lineages. This may be associated with lineage-specific traits and/or adaptations in comparison with other insects. Our findings revealed that although universally fast evolution acted on biological systems in RCAM, such as hematophagy, same adaptations also appear to have occurred through distinct degrees of evolution in different mosquito species, enabling them to be successful blood feeders in different environments. PMID:26646568

  5. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-12-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562

  6. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development.

    PubMed

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  7. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Bingham, Andrea M.; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November–April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1–5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida. PMID:26336227

  8. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  9. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob A.; DiMenna, Mark A.; Hanelt, Ben

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. This is the first study in which the flight distance of wild mosquitoes has been assessed using blood meal analysis and the first in which zoo animals have served as the exclusive source of blood meals. PMID:22548540

  10. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Su, Chien-Ling; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Lin, Cheo; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chen, Li-Yu; Chang, Shu-Fen; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI), providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy. PMID:25275652

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Mosquitoes in Taiwan during 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chien-Ling; Yang, Cheng-Fen; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Lin, Cheo; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chen, Li-Yu; Chang, Shu-Fen; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. In this study, we conducted a JEV survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in Taiwan during 2005 to 2012. A total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. Among the 26 mosquito species collected, 11 tested positive for JEV by RT-PCR, including Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. annulus, Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, and Cx. fuscocephala. Among those testing positive, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was the predominant vector species for the transmission of JEV genotypes I and III in Taiwan. The JEV infection rate was significantly higher in the mosquitoes from the pig farms than those from the wetlands. A phylogenetic analysis of the JEV envelope gene sequences isolated from the captured mosquitoes demonstrated that the predominant JEV genotype has shifted from genotype III to genotype I (GI), providing evidence for transmission cycle maintenance and multiple introductions of the GI strains in Taiwan during 2008 to 2012. This study demonstrates the intense JEV transmission activity in Taiwan, highlights the importance of JE vaccination for controlling the epidemic, and provides valuable information for the assessment of the vaccine's efficacy. PMID:25275652

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and Vector Mosquito Developmental Genes

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K.; Haugen, Morgan; Flannery, Ellen; Sarro, Joseph; Tessier, Charles R.; Severson, David W.; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects have presented the opportunity for analysis of developmental genes in three vector mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A comparative genomic analysis of developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster and these three important vectors of human disease was performed in this investigation. While the study was comprehensive, special emphasis centered on genes that 1) are components of developmental signaling pathways, 2) regulate fundamental developmental processes, 3) are critical for the development of tissues of vector importance, 4) function in developmental processes known to have diverged within insects, and 5) encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate developmental transcripts in Drosophila. While most fruit fly developmental genes are conserved in the three vector mosquito species, several genes known to be critical for Drosophila development were not identified in one or more mosquito genomes. In other cases, mosquito lineage-specific gene gains with respect to D. melanogaster were noted. Sequence analyses also revealed that numerous repetitive sequences are a common structural feature of Drosophila and mosquito developmental genes. Finally, analysis of predicted miRNA binding sites in fruit fly and mosquito developmental genes suggests that the repertoire of developmental genes targeted by miRNAs is species-specific. The results of this study provide insight into the evolution of developmental genes and processes in dipterans and other arthropods, serve as a resource for those pursuing analysis of mosquito development, and will promote the design and refinement of functional analysis experiments. PMID:21754989

  14. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  15. The Temporal Spectrum of Adult Mosquito Population Fluctuations: Conceptual and Modeling Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  16. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  17. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  18. Heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Grandon, G Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A; Armour, John A L; Pickett, John A; Logan, James G

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  19. Native microbiome impedes vertical transmission of Wolbachia in Anopheles mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Grant L.; Dodson, Brittany L.; Johnson, Rebecca M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yasutsugu; Patt, Alyssa A.; Cui, Long; Nossa, Carlos W.; Barry, Rhiannon M.; Sakamoto, Joyce M.; Hornett, Emily A.; Rasgon, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Over evolutionary time, Wolbachia has been repeatedly transferred between host species contributing to the widespread distribution of the symbiont in arthropods. For novel infections to be maintained, Wolbachia must infect the female germ line after being acquired by horizontal transfer. Although mechanistic examples of horizontal transfer exist, there is a poor understanding of factors that lead to successful vertical maintenance of the acquired infection. Using Anopheles mosquitoes (which are naturally uninfected by Wolbachia) we demonstrate that the native mosquito microbiota is a major barrier to vertical transmission of a horizontally acquired Wolbachia infection. After injection into adult Anopheles gambiae, some strains of Wolbachia invade the germ line, but are poorly transmitted to the next generation. In Anopheles stephensi, Wolbachia infection elicited massive blood meal-induced mortality, preventing development of progeny. Manipulation of the mosquito microbiota by antibiotic treatment resulted in perfect maternal transmission at significantly elevated titers of the wAlbB Wolbachia strain in A. gambiae, and alleviated blood meal-induced mortality in A. stephensi enabling production of Wolbachia-infected offspring. Microbiome analysis using high-throughput sequencing identified that the bacterium Asaia was significantly reduced by antibiotic treatment in both mosquito species. Supplementation of an antibiotic-resistant mutant of Asaia to antibiotic-treated mosquitoes completely inhibited Wolbachia transmission and partly contributed to blood meal-induced mortality. These data suggest that the components of the native mosquito microbiota can impede Wolbachia transmission in Anopheles. Incompatibility between the microbiota and Wolbachia may in part explain why some hosts are uninfected by this endosymbiont in nature. PMID:25114252

  20. Limited Dengue Virus Replication in Field-Collected Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Infected with Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Frentiu, Francesca D.; Zakir, Tasnim; Walker, Thomas; Popovici, Jean; Pyke, Alyssa T.; van den Hurk, Andrew; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dengue is one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. The causative agent, dengue virus (DENV), is primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a species that has proved difficult to control using conventional methods. The discovery that A. aegypti transinfected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia showed limited DENV replication led to trial field releases of these mosquitoes in Cairns, Australia as a biocontrol strategy for the virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Field collected wMel mosquitoes that were challenged with three DENV serotypes displayed limited rates of body infection, viral replication and dissemination to the head compared to uninfected controls. Rates of dengue infection, replication and dissemination in field wMel mosquitoes were similar to those observed in the original transinfected wMel line that had been maintained in the laboratory. We found that wMel was distributed in similar body tissues in field mosquitoes as in laboratory ones, but, at seven days following blood-feeding, wMel densities increased to a greater extent in field mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that virus-blocking is likely to persist in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes after their release and establishment in wild populations, suggesting that Wolbachia biocontrol may be a successful strategy for reducing dengue transmission in the field. PMID:24587459

  1. Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Katelyn; Olson, Bradley J S C; Huang, Ning; Unis, Dave; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-03-10

    Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors. PMID:25713358

  2. Avian Plasmodium infection in field-collected mosquitoes during 2012-2013 in Tarlac, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Aure, Wilfredo E; Cruz, Estrella Irlandez; Malbas, Fedelino F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Global warming threatens to increase the spread and prevalence of mosquito-transmitted diseases. Certain pathogens may be carried by migratory birds and transmitted to local mosquito populations. Mosquitoes were collected in the northern Philippines during bird migration seasons to detect avian malaria parasites as well as for the identification of potential vector species and the estimation of infections among local mosquito populations. We used the nested PCR to detect the avian malaria species. Culex vishnui (47.6%) was the most abundant species collected and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (13.8%) was the second most abundant. Avian Plasmodium parasites were found in eight mosquito species, for which the infection rates were between 0.5% and 6.2%. The six Plasmodium genetic lineages found in this study included P. juxtanucleare -GALLUS02, Tacy7 (Donana04), CXBIT01, Plasmodium species LIN2 New Zealand, and two unclassified lineages. The potential mosquito vectors for avian Plasmodium parasites in the Philippines were Cq. crassipes, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. vishnui, and Ma. Uniformis; two major genetic lineages, P. juxtanucleare and Tacy7, were identified. PMID:26611975

  3. Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EaAs1, Isolated from the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Hughes, Grant L.; Koundal, Vikas; Mwangi, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of a strain of the Gram-negative bacterial species Elizabethkingia anophelis, which is an important component of the Anopheles mosquito microbiome. This genome sequence will add to the list of resources used to examine host-microbe interactions in mosquitoes. PMID:26966196

  4. Quantifying the impact of mosquitoes on quality of life and enjoyment yard and porch activities in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Jersey, like many mid-Atlantic and southeastern states, has a persistent problem with the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus). This species and other mosquitoes reduce residents’ quality of life through discomfort and possible risk of disease transmission. To guide a comprehensive area-wide ...

  5. Landscape Effects on the Presence, Abundance and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. In this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of West Nile and other pathogens (Usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the Doñana Natural Park, Spain. Traps were distributed over an area of 54,984 ha divided into six ecological units: marshland, sand dunes, scrubland, ricefields, crops and fishponds. We collected mosquitoes once a month from up to 112 locations using BG-Sentinel traps baited with BG-lure and CO2 during March-November 2010. Hydroperiod, NDVI and Inundation surface were estimated at several resolution scales (100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 metres) from corrected and normalized Landsat Images. We sampled 972,346 female mosquitoes, the most abundant species being Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex modestus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus detritus. Our results suggest that: (1) hydroperiod, inundation surface and NDVI are strongly related to the spatial distribution of mosquitoes; (2) the spatial scales used to measure these variables affected quantification of these relationships, the larger scale being more informative; (3) these relationships are species-specific; (4) hydroperiod is negatively related to mosquito presence and richness; (5) Culex abundance is positively related to hydroperiod; (6) NDVI is positively related to mosquito diversity, presence and abundance, except in the case of the two salt marsh species (Oc. caspius and Oc. detritus); and (7) inundation surfaces positively condition the abundance and richness of most species except the salt marsh mosquitoes. Remote sensing data provided reliable information for monitoring mosquito populations

  6. Landscape Effects on the Presence, Abundance and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Mediterranean Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. In this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of West Nile and other pathogens (Usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the Doñana Natural Park, Spain. Traps were distributed over an area of 54,984 ha divided into six ecological units: marshland, sand dunes, scrubland, ricefields, crops and fishponds. We collected mosquitoes once a month from up to 112 locations using BG-Sentinel traps baited with BG-lure and CO2 during March-November 2010. Hydroperiod, NDVI and Inundation surface were estimated at several resolution scales (100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 metres) from corrected and normalized Landsat Images. We sampled 972,346 female mosquitoes, the most abundant species being Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex modestus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus detritus. Our results suggest that: (1) hydroperiod, inundation surface and NDVI are strongly related to the spatial distribution of mosquitoes; (2) the spatial scales used to measure these variables affected quantification of these relationships, the larger scale being more informative; (3) these relationships are species-specific; (4) hydroperiod is negatively related to mosquito presence and richness; (5) Culex abundance is positively related to hydroperiod; (6) NDVI is positively related to mosquito diversity, presence and abundance, except in the case of the two salt marsh species (Oc. caspius and Oc. detritus); and (7) inundation surfaces positively condition the abundance and richness of most species except the salt marsh mosquitoes. Remote sensing data provided reliable information for monitoring mosquito populations

  7. Molecular identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Batovska, Jana; Blacket, Mark J; Brown, Karen; Lynch, Stacey E

    2016-05-01

    DNA barcoding is a modern species identification technique that can be used to distinguish morphologically similar species, and is particularly useful when using small amounts of starting material from partial specimens or from immature stages. In order to use DNA barcoding in a surveillance program, a database containing mosquito barcode sequences is required. This study obtained Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) sequences for 113 morphologically identified specimens, representing 29 species, six tribes and 12 genera; 17 of these species have not been previously barcoded. Three of the 29 species ─ Culex palpalis, Macleaya macmillani, and an unknown species originally identified as Tripteroides atripes ─ were initially misidentified as they are difficult to separate morphologically, highlighting the utility of DNA barcoding. While most species grouped separately (reciprocally monophyletic), the Cx. pipiens subgroup could not be genetically separated using COI. The average conspecific and congeneric p-distance was 0.8% and 7.6%, respectively. In our study, we also demonstrate the utility of DNA barcoding in distinguishing exotics from endemic mosquitoes by identifying a single intercepted Stegomyia aegypti egg at an international airport. The use of DNA barcoding dramatically reduced the identification time required compared with rearing specimens through to adults, thereby demonstrating the value of this technique in biosecurity surveillance. The DNA barcodes produced by this study have been uploaded to the 'Mosquitoes of Australia-Victoria' project on the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD), which will serve as a resource for the Victorian Arbovirus Disease Control Program and other national and international mosquito surveillance programs. PMID:27217948

  8. Indoor Application of Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) in Combination with Mosquito Nets for Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Zachary P.; Oxborough, Richard M.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Kirby, Matthew J.; Rowland, Mark W.; Irish, Seth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. Results In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05). Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. Conclusions Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor use of ATSB has the

  9. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  10. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  11. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  12. Inside Flow of Mosquito's Proboscis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Terada, Nobuyuki; Mochizuki, Osamu

    2006-11-01

    Mosquito has a magnificent pump mechanism which has been never achieved by technology. We want to apply this high performance mechanism to a micro-TAS system which is designed for a daily check of blood to keep a human health. We need a high powered pump similar to a mosquito's sucking blood mechanism and a low-resistance micro channel mimicked a surface of proboscis. The details of mosquito's pump mechanism, however, have not been ascertained yet. Therefore we tried to investigate the mosquito's pump mechanism by measuring the flow due to suction. A visualization of flow was done by a confocal micro-PIV system. We could analyze the velocity vector profile in the proboscis. The velocity distribution in the proboscis is necessary to estimate the friction drag. In the experiment, a live mosquito was fixed on the glass plate and fed nano-particles near the tip of proboscis. We found that the inside flow of proboscis deviate from Hargen-Poisueuille Flow. It indicates that the surface of inside proboscis has unknown fact for the friction drag reduction.

  13. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the ‘harmonic convergence’ phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male–female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male–male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  14. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Homer, Martin; Robert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the 'harmonic convergence' phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male-female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male-male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  15. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens. PMID:15228722

  16. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

  17. The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes

  18. Mosquito Host Selection Varies Seasonally with Host Availability and Mosquito Density

    PubMed Central

    Thiemann, Tara C.; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV) that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes a variety of avian and mammalian hosts and tends to feed more frequently on mammals in the late summer than during the rest of the year. To further explore this and other temporal changes in host selection, bloodfed females were collected at a rural farmstead and heron nesting site in Northern California from May 2008 through May 2009, and bloodmeal hosts identified using either a microsphere-based array or by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Host composition during summer was dominated by four species of nesting Ardeidae. In addition, the site was populated with various passerine species as well as domestic farm animals and humans. When present, Cx. tarsalis fed predominantly (>80%) upon the ardeids, with Black-crowned Night-Herons, a highly competent WNV host, the most prevalent summer host. As the ardeids fledged and left the area and mosquito abundance increased in late summer, Cx. tarsalis feeding shifted to include more mammals, primarily cattle, and a high diversity of avian species. In the winter, Yellow-billed Magpies and House Sparrows were the predominant hosts, and Yellow-billed Magpies and American Robins were fed upon more frequently than expected given their relative abundance. These data demonstrated that host selection was likely based both on host availability and differences in utilization, that the shift of bloodfeeding to include more mammalian hosts was likely the result of both host availability and increased mosquito abundance, and that WNV-competent hosts were fed upon by Cx. tarsalis throughout the year. PMID:22206038

  19. Mosquito host selection varies seasonally with host availability and mosquito density.

    PubMed

    Thiemann, Tara C; Wheeler, Sarah S; Barker, Christopher M; Reisen, William K

    2011-12-01

    Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV) that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes a variety of avian and mammalian hosts and tends to feed more frequently on mammals in the late summer than during the rest of the year. To further explore this and other temporal changes in host selection, bloodfed females were collected at a rural farmstead and heron nesting site in Northern California from May 2008 through May 2009, and bloodmeal hosts identified using either a microsphere-based array or by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Host composition during summer was dominated by four species of nesting Ardeidae. In addition, the site was populated with various passerine species as well as domestic farm animals and humans. When present, Cx. tarsalis fed predominantly (>80%) upon the ardeids, with Black-crowned Night-Herons, a highly competent WNV host, the most prevalent summer host. As the ardeids fledged and left the area and mosquito abundance increased in late summer, Cx. tarsalis feeding shifted to include more mammals, primarily cattle, and a high diversity of avian species. In the winter, Yellow-billed Magpies and House Sparrows were the predominant hosts, and Yellow-billed Magpies and American Robins were fed upon more frequently than expected given their relative abundance. These data demonstrated that host selection was likely based both on host availability and differences in utilization, that the shift of bloodfeeding to include more mammalian hosts was likely the result of both host availability and increased mosquito abundance, and that WNV-competent hosts were fed upon by Cx. tarsalis throughout the year. PMID:22206038

  20. AN IMPROVED TRAP TO CAPTURE ADULT CONTAINER-INHABITING MOSQUITOES

    PubMed Central

    BARRERA, ROBERTO; MACKAY, ANDREW J.; AMADOR, MANUEL

    2015-01-01

    Although dengue viruses are thought to be transmitted by Aedes aegypti in Puerto Rico, Aedes mediovittatus, the Caribbean tree hole mosquito, is also a potential vector. This species is native to the Greater Antilles and has been shown to be a competent vector of dengue viruses in the laboratory. Consequently, it has been suggested that Ae. mediovittatus could be acting as a secondary vector or virus reservoir. This study was part of an ongoing investigation into this, and it aimed to determine whether BG-Sentinel traps (BGS traps) could be used to collect adults of this mosquito and could be modified to increase the number of captures of this species in the field. We conducted experiments to test the relative attractiveness of BGS traps to Ae. mediovittatus and Ae. aegypti and explored the effects of chemical lures (BG-Lure, CO2, octenol) and optical properties (color, size) on the capture rates of BGS traps in a large, outdoor cage in San Juan city, Puerto Rico. We also conducted field tests to compare modified BGS traps with the original traps in a rural community in Patillas municipality, Puerto Rico. Results obtained from the large, outdoor cage experiments indicated that trap captures of both mosquito species could be significantly enhanced by using black instead of white BGS traps combined with BG-Lure. Field experiments revealed that the modified traps captured a significantly greater number of Ae. aegypti, Ae. mediovittatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus, with greater sensitivity for the latter 2 species, and also captured a larger number of mosquito species and a smaller ratio of Ae. aegypti to Ae. mediovittatus, with greater than expected species co-occurrences. PMID:24551969

  1. Residual effectiveness of lambda-cyhalothrin harbourage sprays against foliage-resting mosquitoes in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Muzari, Odwell M; Adamczyk, Rebecca; Davis, Joseph; Ritchie, Scott; Devine, Gregor

    2014-03-01

    The residual efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin sprayed on foliage was evaluated against various mosquito species in sections of forest in Cairns, Queensland, Australia Weekly sweep-net collections in treated and untreated areas before and after spraying showed 87-100% reductions in mosquito numbers for the first 9 wk postspray. After that period, reductions fluctuated but remained >71% up to 14 wk posttreatment. Mosquito mortality ranged from 96 to 100% in contact bioassays of treated leaves during the 14 wk study. Our results demonstrate that spraying harborage vegetation with lambda-cyhalothrin is an extremely effective strategy for the control of sylvan and peridomestic mosquito species in tropical north Queensland. PMID:24724295

  2. Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities

    PubMed Central

    LaDeau, Shannon L.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods. PMID:23583963

  3. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed. PMID:24605456

  4. New Innovations in Biological Control of Mosquitoes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of mosquitoes is a component of an integrated pest management strategy and includes general predators, parasites and pathogens. Pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists. The most successful group for applied mosquito control include the bacteria Baci...

  5. Measurement of landing mosquito density on humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In conventional vector surveillance systems, adult mosquito density and the rate of human-mosquito contact is estimated from the mosquito numbers captured in mechanical traps. However, the design of the traps, their placement in the habitat and operating time, microclimate, and other environmental ...

  6. Avian malaria prevalence and mosquito abundance in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The close relationship between vector-borne diseases and their environment is well documented, especially for diseases with water-dependent vectors such as avian malaria. Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of avian malaria and also the definitive hosts in the disease life cycle. Factors pertinent to mosquito ecology are likely to be influential to observed infection patterns; such factors include rainfall, season, temperature, and water quality. Methods The influence of mosquito abundance and occurrence on the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in the Ploceidae family (weavers) was examined, taking into account factors with an indirect influence upon mosquito ecology. Mosquitoes and weaver blood samples were simultaneously collected in the Western Cape, South Africa over a two-year period, and patterns of vector abundance and infection prevalence were compared. Dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature and salinity measurements were taken at 20 permanent waterbodies. Rainfall during this period was also quantified using remotely sensed data from up to 6 months prior to sampling months. Results Sixteen wetlands had weavers infected with avian malaria. More than half of the mosquitoes caught were trapped at one site; when this site was excluded, the number of mosquitoes trapped did not vary significantly between sites. The majority of mosquitoes collected belonged to the predominant vector species group for avian malaria (Culex culex species complex). Seasonal variation occurred in infection and mosquito prevalence, water pH and water temperature, with greater variability observed in summer than in winter. There was a significant correlation of infection prevalence with rainfall two months prior to sampling months. Mosquito prevalence patterns across the landscape also showed a close relationship to patterns of rainfall. Contrary to predictions, a pattern of asynchronous co-variation occurred between mosquito prevalence and infection prevalence. Conclusion Overall

  7. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  8. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  9. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  10. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew D; Leahy, David J; Norton, Bryan J; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  11. Synanthropy of mosquitoes and sand flies near the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barata, R A; Ursine, R L; Nunes, F P; Morais, D H; Araújo, H S

    2012-12-01

    The environmental changes resulting from the construction of hydroelectric dams may affect the fauna of insect vectors and consequently the epidemiology of the diseases they transmit. This work examined the mosquito and sand fly fauna in the area of the Aimorés hydroelectric power plant, analyzing the seasonal distribution and the degree of species synanthropy in different ecotopes. Between November, 2008 and September, 2009, entomological captures were performed with the help of HP light traps in the rural, urban, and forest areas of Aimorés, Ituêta, Resplendor, and Baixo Guandu counties. The fauna proved to be quite diversified. Twenty-two species of mosquitoes and 11 species of sand flies were found. Culex quinquefasciatus was predominant among mosquitoes (76.7%), while Lutzomyia intermedia prevailed among sand flies (34.5%). Some of the captured species have medical interest. Supported by the high degree of synanthropy, those species reinforce the need for epidemiological surveillance. PMID:23181864

  12. Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching.

    PubMed

    Grubaugh, Nathan D; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Murrieta, Reyes A; Fauver, Joseph R; Garcia-Luna, Selene M; Prasad, Abhishek N; Black, William C; Ebel, Gregory D

    2016-04-13

    The emergence of mosquito-borne RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), is facilitated by genetically complex virus populations within hosts. Here, we determine whether WNV enzootic (Culex tarsalis, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. pipiens) and bridge vectors (Aedes aegypti) have differential impacts on viral mutational diversity and fitness. During systemic mosquito infection, WNV faced stochastic reductions in genetic diversity that rapidly was recovered during intra-tissue population expansions. Interestingly, this intrahost selection and diversification was mosquito species dependent with Cx. tarsalis and Cx. quinquefasciatus exhibiting greater WNV divergence. However, recovered viral populations contained a preponderance of potentially deleterious mutations (i.e., high mutational load) and had lower relative fitness in avian cells compared to input virus. These findings demonstrate that the adaptive potential associated with mosquito transmission varies depending on the mosquito species and carries a significant fitness cost in vertebrates. PMID:27049584

  13. Genes and Odors Underlying the Recent Evolution of Mosquito Preference for Humans.

    PubMed

    McBride, Carolyn S

    2016-01-11

    Mosquito species that specialize in biting humans are few but dangerous. They include the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii, as well as Aedes aegypti, the cosmopolitan vector of dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes have evolved a remarkable innate preference for human odor that helps them find and bite us. Here I review what is known about this important evolutionary adaptation, from its historical documentation to its chemical and molecular basis. PMID:26766234

  14. Fauna and Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes in Neka County, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Ataei, Abolfazl; Anjamrooz, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ecological studies on mosquitoes are very important in vector control programs. There are a few studies about the ecology of mosquitoes in northern Iran. This study was carried out to detect fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes. Methods: This study aimed to determine fauna and the ecology of mosquitoes in Neka County, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran from April to December, 2009. The larval collection was conducted using standard dipper, and the characteristics of larval habitat were investigated based on degree of transparency of water, type of water (stagnant or running), plant vegetation, sunny or shady, temperature and altitude of the natural or artificial breeding places. Results: The mosquito larvae were collected from 72 habitats and identified using systematic keys. Nine species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles claviger (0.31%), An. maculipennis (0.54%), An. plumbeus (10.28%), An. superpictus (0.01%), Culiseta annulata (1.07%), Cs. longiareolata (8.91%), Culex mimeticus (0.03%), Cx. pipiens (63.99%), and Ochlerotatus geniculatus (14.85%). The range of temperature in the larval habitats was 19.6–22.5 °C. Significant difference was observed in the rate of temperature among the species in the larval habitats (P< 0.05). A checklist of mosquitoes including seven genera and 32 species has been provided for Mazandaran Province. Conclusion: The most dominant species were Cx. pipiens. They were collected from the larval habitats like Border Rivers, ponds, rain water pools, discarded tires and tree holes. Culiseta annulata was included to the checklist of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province. PMID:26623437

  15. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. PMID:26775817

  16. A global assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform the control of mosquito-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency and blood meal host preferences. Methods We assembled a comprehensive database describing adult female MMRR experiments. Bibliographic searches were used to build a digital library of MMRR studies and selected data describing the reported outcomes were extracted. Results The resulting database contained 774 unique adult female MMRR experiments involving 58 vector mosquito species from the three main genera of importance to human health: Aedes, Anopheles and Culex. Crude examination of these data revealed patterns associated with geography as well as mosquito genus, consistent with bionomics varying by species-specific life history and ecological context. Recapture success varied considerably and was significantly different amongst genera, with 8, 4 and 1% of adult females recaptured for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species, respectively. A large proportion of experiments (59%) investigated dispersal and survival and many allowed disaggregation of the release and recapture data. Geographic coverage was limited to just 143 localities around the world. Conclusions This MMRR database is a substantial contribution to the compilation of global data that can be used to better inform basic research and public health interventions, to identify and fill knowledge gaps and to enrich theory and evidence-based ecological and epidemiological studies of mosquito vectors, pathogen transmission and disease prevention. The database revealed limited geographic coverage and a relative scarcity of information for vector species of substantial public health relevance. It represents, however, a wealth of entomological information not previously compiled and of particular interest for mosquito

  17. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years. PMID:24473809

  18. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management. PMID:22820024

  19. Temporal and spatial habitat preferences and biotic interactions between mosquito larvae and antagonistic crustaceans in the field.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Liess, Matthias; Duquesne, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    Investigations on natural antagonists of mosquito larvae found that micro-crustaceans (e.g., Cladocera) control mosquito populations under experimental conditions. However, their relevance for mosquito control under field situations remains widely unclear because important information about habitat preferences and time of occurrence of crustaceans and mosquito larvae are still missing. In order to fill this knowledge gap, a field study was undertaken in different wetland areas of Saxony, Germany, in different habitats (i.e., grassland, forest, and reed-covered wetlands). We found negative interactions between larvae of Ae. vexans and predatory Cyclopoida (Crustacean: Copepoda), which both were dominant during the first two weeks of hydroperiod, at ponds located at grassland habitats. Larvae of Cx. pipiens were spatially associated with competing Cladocera, but they colonized ponds more rapidly. Populations of Cladocera established from the third week of hydroperiod and prevented Cx. pipiens colonization thereafter. Ostracoda were highly abundant during the whole hydroperiod, but their presence was restricted to habitats of reed-covered wetland at one geographical area. Mosquito larvae hardly occurred at those ponds. In general, we found that ponds at the reed-covered wetlands provided better conditions for the initial development of crustaceans and hence, mosquito larval colonization was strongly inhibited. Grassland habitat, in contrast, favored early development of mosquito larvae. This study showed that micro-crustaceans are relevant for mosquito management but their impact on mosquito larvae varies between species and depends on environmental conditions. PMID:24820562

  20. Culex Tarsalis Mosquitoes as Vectors of Highlands J Virus.

    PubMed

    Borland, Erin M; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Highlands J virus (HJV) is an alphavirus closely related to western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). HJV is an avian pathogen with the potential for disruption of poultry operations, but is not known to cause human or equine disease. HJV has only been identified in the eastern United States and is thought to have a transmission cycle similar to that of EEEV involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and birds. However, HJV is more genetically similar to WEEV and it remains unclear if it may be transmitted by Culex species mosquitoes like WEEV. Seven strains of HJV were characterized to assess this potential. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences revealed four distinct HJV lineages (lineages 1-4), and vector competence studies in Cx. tarsalis with four of the HJV strains from different lineages yielded two distinct infection patterns. Lineage 1 strains had low infection rates, while lineages 2 and 4 had significantly higher infection rates similar to those previously published for WEEV. The average mosquito body viral titer was highest at 8 dpi (6.60-7.26 log10 pfu equivalents/body), and head titers at all time points ranged between 6.01 and 6.80 log10 pfu equivalents/head. Nearly 45% of mosquitoes infected with strain AB-80-9 were able to transmit virus in saliva with an average titer of 5.02 log10 pfu equivalents/saliva. A single amino acid difference between high and low infectivity phenotypes was identified at genome position 8605, in the E2 gene. A nonpolar glycine was present in the low infectivity lineage 1 strains, while an acidic glutamic acid was present in the higher infectivity lineage 2 and 4 strains. This study demonstrates HJV transmission by Cx. tarsalis mosquitoes and clearly identifies the potential for transmission in the western United States. Two infection phenotypes were exhibited, indicating the need for further studies to understand Culex species transmission patterns. PMID:27248005

  1. Differential Attraction of Malaria Mosquitoes to Volatile Blends Produced by Human Skin Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Andriessen, Rob; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bukovinszkiné Kiss, Gabriella; Schulz, Stefan; Takken, Willem; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Schraa, Gosse; Smallegange, Renate C.

    2010-01-01

    The malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is mainly guided by human odour components to find its blood host. Skin bacteria play an important role in the production of human body odour and when grown in vitro, skin bacteria produce volatiles that are attractive to A. gambiae. The role of single skin bacterial species in the production of volatiles that mediate the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes has remained largely unknown and is the subject of the present study. Headspace samples were taken to identify volatiles that mediate this behaviour. These volatiles could be used as mosquito attractants or repellents. Five commonly occurring species of skin bacteria were tested in an olfactometer for the production of volatiles that attract A. gambiae. Odour blends produced by some bacterial species were more attractive than blends produced by other species. In contrast to odours from the other bacterial species tested, odours produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not attractive to A. gambiae. Headspace analysis of bacterial volatiles in combination with behavioural assays led to the identification of six compounds that elicited a behavioural effect in A. gambiae. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for a role of selected bacterial species, common on the human skin, in determining the attractiveness of humans to malaria mosquitoes. This information will be used in the further development of a blend of semiochemicals for the manipulation of mosquito behaviour. PMID:21209854

  2. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

  3. Colonization of abandoned swimming pools by larval mosquitoes and their predators following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Carlson, John C; Wesson, Dawn; Jordan, Frank

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of flooded swimming pools were abandoned in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina and provided a natural experiment to examine colonization of a novel aquatic habitat by mosquito larvae and their aquatic predators. We conducted a randomized survey of flooded swimming pools in two neighborhoods in January 2006 and found that 64% contained mosquito larvae, 92% contained predatory invertebrates, and 47% contained fishes. We collected 12,379 immature mosquitoes representing five species, primarily Culiseta inornata, and secondarily, the arboviral vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Dragonfly nymphs in the families Aeshnidae and Libellulidae were the most common predatory invertebrates collected among a total of 32 non-mosquito invertebrate species. Eleven species of fishes were collected, with Gambusia affinis accounting for 76% of the catch. Diversity of fishes in swimming pools was positively correlated with proximity to a levee breach and the fish assemblage found in swimming pools was similar to that found along shorelines of Lake Pontchartrain and drainage canals that flooded the study area. Mosquito larvae were rare or absent from pools containing fishes; however, path analysis indicated that the presence of top predators or abundant competitors may somewhat mitigate the effect of Gambusia affinis on mosquito presence. PMID:18697320

  4. Innate Cellular Immune Responses in Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Soliman, D E; Farid, H A; Hammad, R E; Gad, A M; Bartholomay, L C

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit a variety of pathogens that have devastating consequences for global public and veterinary health. Despite their capacity to serve as vectors, these insects have a robust capacity to respond to invading organisms with strong cellular and humoral immune responses. In Egypt, Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771) has been suspected to act as a bridge vector of Rift Valley Fever virus between animals and humans. Microscopic analysis of Ae. caspius hemolymph revealed the presence of phagocytic cells called granulocytes. We further evaluated cellular immune responses produced by Ae. caspius as a result of exposure to a Gram-negative, and Gram-positive bacterium, and to latex beads. After challenge, a rapid and strong phagocytic response against either a natural or synthetic invader was evident. Hemocyte integrity in bacteria-inoculated mosquitoes was not morphologically affected. The number of circulating granulocytes decreased with age, reducing the overall phagocytic capacity of mosquitoes over time. The magnitude and speed of the phagocytic response suggested that granulocytes act as an important force in the battle against foreign invaders, as has been characterized in other important mosquito vector species. PMID:26792848

  5. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  6. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  7. Analysis of the metabolome of Anopheles gambiae mosquito after exposure to Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Hoxmeier, J. Charles; Thompson, Brice D.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Small, Pamela; Foy, Brian D.; Prenni, Jessica; Dobos, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans causes Buruli Ulcer, a neglected tropical disease. Mosquito vectors are suspected to participate in the transmission and environmental maintenance of the bacterium. However, mechanisms and consequences of mosquito contamination by M. ulcerans are not well understood. We evaluated the metabolome of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito to profile the metabolic changes associated with bacterial colonization. Contamination of mosquitoes with live M. ulcerans bacilli results in disruptions to lipid metabolic pathways of the mosquito, specifically the utilization of glycerolipid molecules, an affect that was not observed in mosquitoes exposed to dead M. ulcerans. These results are consistent with aberrations of lipid metabolism described in other mycobacterial infections, implying global host-pathogen interactions shared across diverse saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacterial species. This study implicates features of the bacterium, such as the putative M. ulcerans encoded phospholipase enzyme, which promote virulence, survival, and active adaptation in concert with mosquito development, and provides significant groundwork for enhanced studies of the vector-pathogen interactions using metabolomics profiling. Lastly, metabolic and survival data suggest an interaction which is unlikely to contribute to transmission of M. ulcerans by A. gambiae and more likely to contribute to persistence of M. ulcerans in waters cohabitated by both organisms. PMID:25784490

  8. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes. PMID:26514271

  9. Artificial Selection for Different Host Preferences in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences in host preferences between mosquitoes selected to prefer pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations. PMID:26336219

  10. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  11. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

  12. Observations on mosquito breeding in wells and its control.

    PubMed

    Rajnikant; Bhatt, R M; Gupta, D K; Sharma, R C; Srivastava, H C; Gautam, A S

    1993-12-01

    Studies on mosquito breeding in wells revealed the dominance of An. stephensi among the malaria vectors, whereas Cx. quinquefasciatus was most abundant in disused wells and was present in wells of all depths. None of the anopheline species was encountered when well depth up to water level exceeded 12 m. Larval breeding was effectively controlled through the introduction of larvivorous fish Poecilia reticulata and expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in comparison to untreated control wells. PMID:8034110

  13. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  14. Plants traditionally used as mosquito repellents and the implication for their use in vector control.

    PubMed

    Tisgratog, Rungarun; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Grieco, John P; Ngoen-Kluan, Ratchadawan; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2016-05-01

    Numerous plants with insect repelling properties are native to the tropics where they are produced for a wide range of medicinal purposes. In Thailand, these native plant species have a history of use for personal protection against biting insects. From our investigation we identified 37 plant species within 14 plant families that showed some mosquito repellent properties. Of these, 9 plant species were characterized using an excito-repellency test system against several Thai mosquito species. Results from these studies revealed that five essential oils extracted from plants demonstrated promising insect repellent activity. These active ingredients show promise for further development into formulations that may serve as alternatives to DEET or possibly be used as natural bio-pesticides to kill mosquitoes. PMID:26826392

  15. Avian Plasmodium lineages found in spot surveys of mosquitoes from 2007 to 2010 at Sakata wetland, Japan: do dominant lineages persist for multiple years?

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Tsuda, Y

    2012-11-01

    The ecology and geographical distribution of disease vectors are major determinants of spatial and temporal variations in the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens. However, there are limited studies on the ecology of vectors that contribute to the natural transmission of most vector-borne pathogens. Avian Plasmodium parasites are multihost mosquito-borne pathogens transmitted by multiple mosquito species, which might regulate the diversity and persistence of these parasites. From 2007 to 2010, we conducted entomological surveys at Sakata wetland in central Japan, to investigate temporal variation in mosquito occurrence and prevalence of avian Plasmodium lineages in the mosquito populations. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used to detect Plasmodium parasites and identify the blood sources of mosquitoes. Culex inatomii and C. pipiens pallens represented 60.0% and 34.8% of 11 mosquito species collected, respectively. Our results showed that the two dominant mosquito species most likely serve as principal vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites during June, which coincides with the breeding season of bird species nesting in the wetland reed beds. Fourteen animal species were identified as blood sources of mosquitoes, with the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) being the commonest blood source. Although there was significant temporal variation in the occurrence of mosquitoes and prevalence of Plasmodium lineages in the mosquitoes, the dominant Plasmodium lineages shared by the two dominant mosquito species were consistently found at the same time during transmission seasons. Because vector competence cannot be confirmed solely by PCR approaches, experimental demonstration is required to provide definitive evidence of transmission suggested in this study. PMID:23036191

  16. Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, R M; Zalazar, L P

    2010-04-01

    The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Córdoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations. PMID:19413916

  17. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  18. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  19. Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Ruktanonchai, N W; Lounibos, L P; Smith, D L; Allan, S A

    2015-09-01

    In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful. PMID:25982411

  20. Modeling habitat and environmental factors affecting mosquito abundance in Chesapeake, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellows, Alan Scott

    The models I present in this dissertation were designed to enable mosquito control agencies in the mid-Atlantic region that oversee large jurisdictions to rapidly track the spatial and temporal distributions of mosquito species, especially those species known to be vectors of eastern equine encephalitis and West Nile virus. I was able to keep these models streamlined, user-friendly, and not cost-prohibitive using empirically based digital data to analyze mosquito-abundance patterns in real landscapes. This research is presented in three major chapters: (II) a series of semi-static habitat suitability indices (HSI) grounded on well-documented associations between mosquito abundance and environmental variables, (III) a dynamic model for predicting both spatial and temporal mosquito abundance based on a topographic soil moisture index and recent weather patterns, and (IV) a set of protocols laid out to aid mosquito control agencies for the use of these models. The HSIs (Chapter II) were based on relationships of mosquitoes to digital surrogates of soil moisture and vegetation characteristics. These models grouped mosquitoes species derived from similarities in habitat requirements, life-cycle type, and vector competence. Quantification of relationships was determined using multiple linear regression models. As in Chapter II, relationships between mosquito abundance and environmental factors in Chapter III were quantified using regression models. However, because this model was, in part, a function of changes in weather patterns, it enables the prediction of both 'where' and 'when' mosquito outbreaks are likely to occur. This model is distinctive among similar studies in the literature because of my use of NOAA's NEXRAD Doppler radar (3-hr precipitation accumulation data) to quantify the spatial and temporal distributions in precipitation accumulation. \\ Chapter IV is unique among the chapters in this dissertation because in lieu of presenting new research, it

  1. Infection of Laboratory-Colonized Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzmán, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector–pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingi–Plasmodium interactions. PMID:24534811

  2. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas. PMID:25185006

  3. The remarkable journey of adaptation of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite to New World anopheline mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Plasmodium falciparum originated in Africa, dispersed around the world as a result of human migration and had to adapt to several different indigenous anopheline mosquitoes. Anophelines from the New World are evolutionary distant form African ones and this probably resulted in a more stringent selection of Plasmodium as it adapted to these vectors. It is thought that Plasmodium has been genetically selected by some anopheline species through unknown mechanisms. The mosquito immune system can greatly limit infection and P. falciparum evolved a strategy to evade these responses, at least in part mediated by Pfs47, a highly polymorphic gene. We propose that adaptation of P. falciparum to new vectors may require evasion of their immune system. Parasites with a Pfs47 haplotype compatible with the indigenous mosquito vector would be able to survive and be transmitted. The mosquito antiplasmodial response could be an important determinant of P. falciparum population structure and could affect malaria transmission in the Americas. PMID:25185006

  4. Effects of weathering on fabrics treated with permethrin for protection against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Rutledge, L C; Reifenrath, W G; Gutierrez, G A; Korte, D W

    1989-06-01

    Permethrin-impregnated and untreated fabrics were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti after both types of fabrics were subjected to accelerated weathering for 9 weeks, under a simulated wet/tropical environment. The toxic (knockdown) effect of permethrin-impregnated fabrics against both species of mosquitoes diminished rapidly after 1 week compared to the repellent effect. After 6 weeks of weathering, the remaining low amounts of permethrin provided fair protection from mosquito bites; however, no knockdown was observed at those levels. Permethrin-treated fabric was effective in providing protection from mosquito bites and appears to be a means of attenuating both the nuisance effects and, possibly, disease transmission by mosquitoes. PMID:2568392

  5. Investigations of Koutango Virus Infectivity and Dissemination Dynamics in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Lobo, Jaime M; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has already been implicated in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the southern US. Vector competence is the ability of a mosquito species to support transmission of an arbovirus, which is bounded by its ability to support replication and dissemination of the virus through the mosquito body to the salivary glands to be expectorated in the saliva at the time of feeding on a vertebrate host. Here, we investigate the vector competence of A. aegypti for the arbovirus koutango by orally challenging mosquitoes with two titers of virus. We calculated the effective vector competence, a cumulative measure of transmission capability weighted by mosquito survival, and determined that A. aegypti was competent at the higher dose only. We conclude that further investigation is needed to determine the infectiousness of vertebrate hosts to fully assess the emergence potential of this virus in areas rich in A. aegypti. PMID:25574140

  6. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship.

    PubMed

    Arik, Anam J; Hun, Lewis V; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal-specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25550465

  7. [Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and their medical importance for Portugal: challenges for the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Gouveia de Almeida, A Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are dipterous insects, responsible for the transmission of several pathogenic agents to humans, causing vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, lymphatic and other filariasis, and several arboviral diseases such as yellow fever and dengue. In this revision, Culicidae or mosquitoes are summarily characterized, as well as their bioecology, internal morphology, digestive and egg maturation physiology, and the main methods for their collection and control. The epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases depends on parameters such as Vectorial efficiency, Vector competence and Vectorial capacity, the concepts of which are presented. Forty one species of mosquitoes have been detected so far in mainland Portugal. Malaria was endemic till 1959, yellow fever outbreaks were registered in the XIX century, and human cases of dirofilarisis and West Nile fever have been detected. In face of the current climate changes in course and the threat of the (re)-introduction of exotic mosquito species, not only new cases of some of these diseases may occur, increasing their risk, but also other mosquito-borne diseases may be introduced constituting challenges for the XXI century, demanding a continued surveillance in a Public Health perspective. PMID:22713191

  8. Importance of the "what," "when," and "where" of mosquito collection events.

    PubMed

    Foley, Desmond H; Wilkerson, Richard C; Rueda, Leopoldo M

    2009-07-01

    There is increasing need to apply established standards for recording data on mosquito collection events, because of the diversity of potential data providers, and the growth and interoperability of online databases designed to host these collection records. In particular, adequate taxonomic and georeference data are needed for geodatabases such as Mosquitomap (http://www. mosquitomap.org/) that map and compare these collection points with other spatial information in a geographical information system (GIS) setting. Accurately georeferenced collection data are crucial for understanding mosquito biogeography, ecology, and the impact of environmental changes, as well as for species distribution modeling, planning mosquito surveys, and for determining disease risk. We sampled representative published reports of new mosquito species records from 1980 in North America to the present to ascertain the quality of georeference information. Our results show that authors have increased the frequency of reporting georeferences but that they vary in the precision of the georeference, and some information, such as the source, date, and datum of the georeference, are usually not given. We discuss recently established standards for recording collection events, some relevant online resources available to researchers to assist them in their georeferencing, and the data input schema developed for the Mosquitomap database. We propose that the mosquito research community adopt data standards for recording and reporting the results of mosquito collection events to increase the value of these data. In particular, we recommend authors lodge voucher specimens and use a GPS set to the WGS84 datum. PMID:19645273

  9. Blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The foraging behavior of blood-sucking arthropods is the defining biological event shaping the transmission cycle of vector-borne parasites. It is also a phenomenon that pertains to the realm of community ecology, since blood-feeding patterns of vectors can occur across a community of vertebrate hosts. Although great advances in knowledge of the genetic basis for blood-feeding choices have been reported for selected vector species, little is known about the role of community composition of vertebrate hosts in determining such patterns. Methods & Results Here, we present an analysis of feeding patterns of vectors across a variety of locations, looking at foraging patterns of communities of mosquitoes, across communities of hosts primarily comprised of mammals and birds. Using null models of species co-occurrence, which do not require ancillary information about host abundance, we found that blood-feeding patterns were aggregated in studies from multiple sites, but random in studies from a single site. This combination of results supports the idea that mosquito species in a community may rely primarily on host availability in a given landscape, and that contacts with specific hosts will be influenced more by the presence/absence of hosts than by innate mosquito choices. This observation stresses the importance of blood-feeding plasticity as a key trait explaining the emergence of many zoonotic mosquito transmitted diseases. Discussion From an epidemiological perspective our observations support the idea that phenomena promoting synchronization of vectors and hosts can promote the emergence of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, as suggested by observations on the linkages between deforestation and the emergence of several human diseases. PMID:20205866

  10. Features of the genomes of microsporidia in mosquitoes:status and preliminary findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The status and preliminary findings for full genome sequencing of two distantly related species of microsporidia with mosquitoes as type hosts will be presented. Vavraia culicis, the type species of the genus Vavraia, was originally described from Culex pipiens. Type material was not available and...

  11. Potential for Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora ciliata mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collect...

  12. Mosquito immune responses and compatibility between Plasmodium parasites and anopheline mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional screens based on dsRNA-mediated gene silencing identified several Anopheles gambiae genes that limit Plasmodium berghei infection. However, some of the genes identified in these screens have no effect on the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum; raising the question of whether different mosquito effector genes mediate anti-parasitic responses to different Plasmodium species. Results Four new An. gambiae (G3) genes were identified that, when silenced, have a different effect on P. berghei (Anka 2.34) and P. falciparum (3D7) infections. Orthologs of these genes, as well as LRIM1 and CTL4, were also silenced in An. stephensi (Nijmegen Sda500) females infected with P. yoelii (17XNL). For five of the six genes tested, silencing had the same effect on infection in the P. falciparum-An. gambiae and P. yoelii-An. stephensi parasite-vector combinations. Although silencing LRIM1 or CTL4 has no effect in An. stephensi females infected with P. yoelii, when An. gambiae is infected with the same parasite, silencing these genes has a dramatic effect. In An. gambiae (G3), TEP1, LRIM1 or LRIM2 silencing reverts lysis and melanization of P. yoelii, while CTL4 silencing enhances melanization. Conclusion There is a broad spectrum of compatibility, the extent to which the mosquito immune system limits infection, between different Plasmodium strains and particular mosquito strains that is mediated by TEP1/LRIM1 activation. The interactions between highly compatible animal models of malaria, such as P. yoelii (17XNL)-An. stephensi (Nijmegen Sda500), is more similar to that of P. falciparum (3D7)-An. gambiae (G3). PMID:19643026

  13. MOSQUITO IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR XENOMONITORING OF LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS IN SELECTED ENDEMIC AREAS IN GIZA AND QUALIOUBIYA GOVERNORATES, EGYPT.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoeib, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Edmardash, Yusuf; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne health problem that has been focally endemic in Egypt for centuries. The chief vectors of transmission are Culicinae species. Control measures in the form of mass drug administration of DEC citrate treatment have been implemented in Nile delta for almost a decade. This study aimed to identify the prevalent mosquito species in endemic areas in Giza and Qualioubiya governorates and to monitor Wuchereria bancrofti infection by detecting the parasite DNA in collected mosquitoes. Adult mosquitoes were collected using light traps hung indoors. Microscopic examination was performed to identify and examine the morphologic characters of mosquitoes. Female Culex mosquitoes were subjected to semi-nested PCR to detect filarial DNA targeting repetitive DNA sequences (pWbl2 repetitive region) specific for W. bancrofti. The results revealed 3 species of mosquitoes Culex pipiens, Culex pusillus and Culex quinquefasciatus with the predominance of Culex pipiens (85.7%). Wuchereria bancrofti DNA was not detected in any of the collected mosquito pools. With progress of elimination programme in Nile Delta, follow up studies with larger sample size are recommended as the predominance of Culex pipiens the main lymphatic filariasis vector remains a risk of transmission in such areas. PMID:27363044

  14. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

  15. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model.

    PubMed

    Morin, Cory W; Comrie, Andrew C

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model (P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions. PMID:20683620

  16. Entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in Western and Eastern Ghats hill ranges of Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Senthamarai Selvan, P; Jebanesan, A; Reetha, D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. The aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in Tamilnadu, India. In addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between June, 2014 and May, 2015. Six hills ranges viz., Anaimalai hills, Kodaikanal hills, Sitheri hills, Kolli hills, Yercaud hills, and Megamalai were selected, the immatures collected from tree holes by the help of suction tube. Collections were made at dusk and dawn at randomly selected 15 different tree species. The collected samples were stored and morphologically identified to species level in the laboratory. Mosquito diversity was calculated by Simpson's and Shannon-Weiner diversity indicies with spatial and temporal aspects. Over 2642 mosquitoes comprising the primary vectors of dengue, chickungunya, malaria, filariasis were identified. Other species collected from the fifteen sites in each hill during the study included Christophersiomyia annularis, Christophersiomyia thomsoni, Downsiomyia albolateralis, Downsiomyia nivea and Toxorhynchites splendens, etc. Study revealed high species diversity and relative density associated with different study sites. Based on the Shannon diversity index high number of species was recorded with Aedes pseudoalbopicta (0.0829) followed by Ae. aegypti (0.0805) and least species was recorded as Anopheles elegans (0.0059). The distribution of the primary vectors of DF along the high occurrence was evident with most study sites representing proportions of this vector population. This showed the high risk level associated with the livestock movement in amplification and circulation of the virus during the outbreaks. The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrated the potential vulnerability of nomadic communities to

  17. Identification and Characterization of Seminal Fluid Proteins in the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Boes, Kathryn E.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Wong, Alex; Harrington, Laura C.; Wolfner, Mariana F.; Sirot, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is an important vector for pathogens that affect human health, including the viruses that cause dengue and Chikungunya fevers. It is also one of the world's fastest-spreading invasive species. For these reasons, it is crucial to identify strategies for controlling the reproduction and spread of this mosquito. During mating, seminal fluid proteins (Sfps) are transferred from male mosquitoes to females, and these Sfps modulate female behavior and physiology in ways that influence reproduction. Despite the importance of Sfps on female reproductive behavior in mosquitoes and other insects, the identity of Sfps in Ae. albopictus has not previously been reported. We used transcriptomics and proteomics to identify 198 Sfps in Ae. albopictus. We discuss possible functions of these Sfps in relation to Ae. albopictus reproduction-related biology. We additionally compare the sequences of these Sfps with proteins (including reported Sfps) in several other species, including Ae. aegypti. While only 72 (36.4%) of Ae. albopictus Sfps have putative orthologs in Ae. aegypti, suggesting low conservation of the complement of Sfps in these species, we find no evidence for an elevated rate of evolution or positive selection in the Sfps that are shared between the two Aedes species, suggesting high sequence conservation of those shared Sfps. Our results provide a foundation for future studies to investigate the roles of individual Sfps on feeding and reproduction in this mosquito. Functional analysis of these Sfps could inform strategies for managing the rate of pathogen transmission by Ae. albopictus. PMID:24945155

  18. Improvised microinjection technique for mosquito vectors

    PubMed Central

    Sampath, Kumar S.; Puttaraju, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Bio-manipulation technique is of primary importance during the development of transgenic mosquitoes. The study describes the variable factors that influence the viability of medically important mosquito vectors during microinjection. Methods: Three mosquito vectors belonging to the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were microinjected at different developmental stages of their life cycle viz., egg, larvae, pupae and adult. Results: The improvisations revealed an increased survivability of biomanipulated mosquitoes during the embryonic and adult microinjection. The study of injecting larvae and pupae resulted in poor survivability. Interpretation & conclusions: The microinjection protocol was successfully tested on three important mosquito vectors. The critical period after biomanipulation which contributes heavily for the survivability factor was evaluated. The results provide a common protocol for biomanipulation of three mosquito vectors with enhanced survivability. PMID:23391792

  19. A Mosquito Survey of the Twin-Island Caribbean Nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, 2010.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Hamish; Evanson, Jessica; Revan, Floyd; Lee, Elise; Krecek, Rosina C; Smith, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Adult mosquito surveys of Saint Kitts and Nevis (SKN) were performed in the dry season (March 16-23, 2010) in Saint Kitts, and the rainy season (October 18-25, 2010) in SKN. Biogents (BG) Sentinel Traps were set with CO₂and BG Lure in urban, rural, mangrove, and dry forest habitats. Mosquitoes were identified to species, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on potential vector species for dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV). The most abundant species during both seasons in St. Kitts were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Aedes aegypti. There were 3 new records for Saint Kitts: Aedes tortilis, Anopheles albimanus, and Culex nigripalpus. Traps were also set in Nevis. No mosquito pool tested positive for DENV, CHIKV, or WNV. PMID:26675458

  20. Zika Threat Calls for Extra Mosquito Protection This Summer

    MedlinePlus

    ... marigolds or citronella, which are considered natural mosquito repellents. Instead of regular light bulbs, use LED lights outdoors because they do not attract mosquitoes. Insect repellent is one of the best defenses against mosquitoes. ...

  1. [Landscape and zonal distribution of bloodsucking mosquitoes and horse flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae) in the northeastern Russian Plain].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The data on the distribution of 34 species of bloodsucking mosquitoes and on 42 horsefly species of the fauna of the northeastern Russian Plain are given. The analysis of the landscape and zonal changes in species diversity and their abundance was performed. Species diversity of these families increased northwards. Two borders of the fauna's depletion were discovered: at the border between the middle and northern taiga subzones (mosquitoes and horseflies) and at the border between the northernmost taiga subzone and the forest-tundra zone (horseflies only). The northern and southern boundaries of species ranges in the region are identified. PMID:25507795

  2. [Landscape and zonal distribution of bloodsucking mosquitoes and horse flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae) in the northeastern Russian Plain].

    PubMed

    Pestov, S V; Paniukova, E V

    2013-01-01

    The data on the distribution of 34 species of bloodsucking mosquitoes and on 42 horsefly species of the fauna of the northeastern Russian Plain are given. The analysis of the landscape and zonal changes in species diversity and their abundance was performed. Species diversity of these families increased northwards. Two borders of the fauna's depletion were discovered: at the border between the middle and northern taiga subzones (mosquitoes and horseflies) and at the border between the northernmost taiga subzone and the forest-tundra zone (horseflies only). The northern and southern boundaries of species ranges in the region are identified. PMID:25434197

  3. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant–insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector–plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito–plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  4. Transcriptome of the adult female malaria mosquito vector Anopheles albimanus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Transmission is a complex phenomenon involving biological and environmental factors of humans, parasites and mosquitoes. Among more than 500 anopheline species, only a few species from different branches of the mosquito evolutionary tree transmit malaria, suggesting that their vectorial capacity has evolved independently. Anopheles albimanus (subgenus Nyssorhynchus) is an important malaria vector in the Americas. The divergence time between Anopheles gambiae, the main malaria vector in Africa, and the Neotropical vectors has been estimated to be 100 My. To better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to explore the mosquito biology beyond the An. gambiae complex. Results We sequenced the transcriptome of the An. albimanus adult female. By combining Sanger, 454 and Illumina sequences from cDNA libraries derived from the midgut, cuticular fat body, dorsal vessel, salivary gland and whole body, we generated a single, high-quality assembly containing 16,669 transcripts, 92% of which mapped to the An. darlingi genome and covered 90% of the core eukaryotic genome. Bidirectional comparisons between the An. gambiae, An. darlingi and An. albimanus predicted proteomes allowed the identification of 3,772 putative orthologs. More than half of the transcripts had a match to proteins in other insect vectors and had an InterPro annotation. We identified several protein families that may be relevant to the study of Plasmodium-mosquito interaction. An open source transcript annotation browser called GDAV (Genome-Delinked Annotation Viewer) was developed to facilitate public access to the data generated by this and future transcriptome projects. Conclusions We have explored the adult female transcriptome of one important New World malaria vector, An. albimanus. We identified protein-coding transcripts involved in

  5. Seasonal dynamics and habitat specificity of mosquitoes in an English wetland: implications for UK wetland management and restoration.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2015-06-01

    We engaged in field studies of native mosquitoes in a Cambridgeshire Fen, investigating a) the habitat specificity and seasonal dynamics of our native fauna in an intensively managed wetland, b) the impact of water-level and ditch management, and c) their colonization of an arable reversion to flooded grassland wetland expansion project. Studies from April to October, 2010 collected 14,000 adult mosquitoes (15 species) over 292 trap-nights and ∼4,000 pre-imaginal mosquitoes (11 species). Open floodwater species (Aedes caspius and Aedes cinereus, 43.3%) and wet woodland species (Aedes cantans/annulipes and Aedes rusticus, 32.4%) dominated, highlighting the major impact of seasonal water-level management on mosquito populations in an intensively managed wetland. In permanent habitats, managing marginal ditch vegetation and ditch drying significantly affect densities of pre-imaginal anophelines and culicines, respectively. This study presents the first UK field evidence of the implications of wetland expansion through arable reversion on mosquito colonization. Understanding the heterogeneity of mosquito diversity, phenology, and abundance in intensively managed UK wetlands will be crucial to mitigating nuisance and vector species through habitat management and biocidal control. PMID:26047189

  6. Roles of spatial partitioning, competition, and predation in the North American invasion of an exotic mosquito.

    PubMed

    Freed, T Z; Leisnham, P T

    2014-06-01

    Invasion success and species coexistence are often mediated by species interactions across patchily distributed habitats and resources. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus has established in the North American range of the competitively superior resident congener, Aedes albopictus, and the predatory native mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus. We tested predictions for two hypotheses of invasion success and species coexistence: keystone predation and spatial partitioning. We tested competition between A. japonicus japonicus and A. albopictus with or without T. rutilus in laboratory microcosms, and measured abundances of A. japonicus japonicus, A. albopictus, other resident competing mosquito species, and the presence of T. rutilus among tree holes and tires in metropolitan Washington, DC. In laboratory microcosms, A. albopictus was competitively dominant over A. japonicus japonicus, which is consistent with the few prior studies of competition between these two Aedes species. T. rutilus predation severely lowered performances of both Aedes species but more severely lowered A. japonicus japonicus performance than A. albopictus performance when all three species co-occurred, thus yielding no evidence for keystone predation. Consistent with the spatial partitioning hypothesis, A. japonicus japonicus was negatively correlated and independently aggregated with A. albopictus and all combined resident mosquito competitors and was not associated with T. rutilus among field containers. These results suggest that predation from T. rutilus and competition from A. albopictus are barriers to the spread of A. japonicus japonicus, but that A. japonicus japonicus may escape these interspecific effects by utilizing spatially partitioned container habitats. PMID:24569942

  7. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G.J.; Samson, Robert A.; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  8. Mosquito gut antiparasitic and antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Raúl G; Kang, Seokyoung; Simões, Maria L; Angleró-Rodríguez, Yesseinia I; Dimopoulos, George

    2016-11-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases with a serious impact on global human health, such as malaria and dengue. All mosquito-transmitted pathogens complete part of their life cycle in the insect gut, where they are exposed to mosquito-encoded barriers and active factors that can limit their development. Here we present the current understanding of mosquito gut immunity against malaria parasites, filarial worms, and viruses such as dengue, Chikungunya, and West Nile. The most recently proposed immune mediators involved in intestinal defenses are discussed, as well as the synergies identified between the recognition of gut microbiota and the mounting of the immune response. PMID:26827888

  9. Modeling Mosquito Distribution. Impact of the Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.

    2011-09-01

    In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide mosquito density estimate and mosquito distribution, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. Mosquito dispersal modeling, together with a compartmental approach, leads to a quasilinear parabolic system. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering various landscapes, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and, thus, in the efficiency or not of vector control.

  10. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Mosquito Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.

    2011-11-01

    We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.

  11. Evaluation of the enantiomers of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octyn-3-ol as attractants for mosquitoes associated with a freshwater swamp in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted in wooded wetlands against natural populations of mosquitoes to determine their responses to the enantiomers of 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octyn-3-ol. The (R)-(+) isomer of octenol was generally more effective than the other isomers in attracting most mosquito species. Traps b...

  12. Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

  13. Divergent and Conserved Elements Comprise the Chemoreceptive Repertoire of the Nonblood-Feeding Mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Rinker, David C.; Pitts, Ronald Jason; Rokas, Antonis; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Many mosquito species serve as vectors of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, wherein pathogen transmission is tightly associated with the reproductive requirement of taking vertebrate blood meals. Toxorhynchites is one of only three known mosquito genera that does not host-seek and initiates egg development in the absence of a blood-derived protein bolus. These remarkable differences make Toxorhynchites an attractive comparative reference for understanding mosquito chemosensation as it pertains to host-seeking. We performed deep transcriptome profiling of adult female Toxorhynchites amboinensis bodies, antennae and maxillary palps, and identified 25,084 protein-coding “genes” in the de novo assembly. Phylogenomic analysis of 4,266 single-copy “genes” from T. amboinensis, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, and Culex quinquefasciatus robustly supported Ae. aegypti as the closest relative of T. amboinensis, with the two species diverged approximately 40 Ma. We identified a large number of T. amboinensis chemosensory “genes,” the majority of which have orthologs in other mosquitoes. Finally, cross-species expression analyses indicated that patterns of chemoreceptor transcript abundance were very similar for chemoreceptors that are conserved between T. amboinensis and Ae. aegypti, whereas T. amboinensis appeared deficient in the variety of expressed, lineage-specific chemoreceptors. Our transcriptome assembly of T. amboinensis represents the first comprehensive genomic resource for a nonblood-feeding mosquito and establishes a foundation for future comparative studies of blood-feeding and nonblood-feeding mosquitoes. We hypothesize that chemosensory genes that display discrete patterns of evolution and abundance between T. amboinensis and blood-feeding mosquitoes are likely to play critical roles in host-seeking and hence the vectorial capacity. PMID:25326137

  14. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles. PMID:24895318

  15. Evaluation of mosquito responses to pyrethroid insecticides topically applied to sheep.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G D; Goosey, H B; Rolston, M G; Miller, W L; Hokit, D G; Redden, R R; Kott, R W

    2013-06-01

    A rise in the incidence of mosquito-transmitted Cache Valley virus (CVV) in lambs in 2011 prompted a study to evaluate on-animal pyrethroid insecticides to reduce mosquito attacks on sheep. Using enclosure traps for 1 night per wk for 6 wk, we compared engorgement rates of mosquitoes given the opportunity to feed on untreated sheep and sheep treated with 1 Python insecticide ear tag (containing 10% zeta-cypermethrin and 20% piperonyl butoxide) per animal or 2 synergized permethrin body spray treatments (containing 2.5% permethrin and 2.5% piperonyl butoxide). During the 6-wk study, 18,920 mosquitoes were collected in the animal-baited enclosure traps. Thirteen species were identified from these collections with the floodwater species Aedes increpitus and Ae. idahoensis making up 68% of the total. Potential CVV vector species, making up 25% of the samples, included Ae. vexans, Ae. dorsalis, Culex tarsalis, and Culiseta inornata. Traps baited with untreated sheep collected 9,701 mosquitoes with 65% of these engorged. Traps baited with sheep treated with Python ear tags or permethrin spray collected 4,034 and 4,555, respectively, with engorgement rates of 23% and 35%. Blood feeding on ear-tagged sheep was significantly reduced by as much as 90% compared to the untreated sheep, and protection lasted 4 wk or longer. Permethrin spray treatments were most effective within 24 h after application and provided better protection against Ae. dorsalis than the Python tag. Effectiveness of the permethrin spray diminished 1 wk after the 2nd application was made. The effect of these treatments appeared to be repellency because negligible mosquito mortality was observed at the time of collection. Further evaluation of these insecticides under conditions of natural exposure to a mosquito-borne pathogen is warranted. PMID:23923329

  16. Adulticidal & larvicidal efficacy of three neonicotinoids against insecticide susceptible & resistant mosquito strains

    PubMed Central

    Uragayala, Sreehari; Verma, Vaishali; Natarajan, Elamathi; Velamuri, Poonam Sharma; Kamaraju, Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Due to ever growing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes to commonly used insecticides in many parts of the globe, there is always a need for introduction of new insecticides for the control of resistant vector mosquitoes. In this study, larvicidal and adulticidal efficacies of three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) were tested against resistant and susceptible populations of Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Laboratory-reared mosquito species were used. Insecticide susceptibility tests were done using standard WHO procedures and using diagnostic dosages of insecticide test papers and larvicides. Adulticidal efficacy of candidate insecticides was assessed using topical application method and larval bioassays were conducted using standard WHO procedure. Results: The results of topical application on 3-5 day old female mosquitoes indicated that resistant strain of An. stephensi registered lower LC50 values than the susceptible strain. Among the three insecticides tested, thiacloprid was found more effective than the other two insecticides. Culex quinquefasciatus registered lowest LC50 for imidacloprid than the other two mosquito species tested. In larval bioassays, the LC50 values registered for imidacloprid were in the order of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito species tested showed more susceptibility to the three neonicotinoids tested, and the possibility of using neonicotinoids for the control of resistant mosquitoes

  17. [Molecular genetic analysis of malaria mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis (Diptera, Culicidae) complex in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, M I; Bezzhonova, O V; Goriacheva, I I; Shaĭkevich, E V; Zvantsov, A B; Mamedov, S; Mutdalibov, N; Gasymov, E; Ezhov, M N

    2010-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of malaria vectors in the Republic of Azerbaijan has identified three species of malaria mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex: An. maculipennis, An. sacharovi, and An. persiensis. An. melanoon has not been found. An. sacharovi has been ascertained to predominate in the low-lying areas of the country. An. maculipennis prevails in the north, on the foothills of the Great Caucasus and it is also observed in the south, on the Talysh foothills and mountains. An. persiensis has been first recorded for the malaria mosquito fauna in the CNS. This species has been detected only in the south of the republic (Lenkoran and Astar districts). PMID:21395043

  18. Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Johansen, C A; Power, S L; Broom, A K

    2009-09-01

    A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the bloodmeal sources of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in encephalitis vector surveillance mosquito traps in Western Australia between May 1993 and August 2004. In total, 2,606 blood-fed mosquitoes, representing 29 mosquito species, were tested, and 81.7% reacted with one or more of the primary antibodies. Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Culex annulirostris Skuse were the most common species tested, making up 47.2% (1,234) and 35.6% (930), respectively. These species obtained bloodmeals from a variety of vertebrate hosts but particularly marsupials and cows. In contrast, Culex pullus Theobald (72.7%; 24/33), Culiseta atra (Lee) (70.0%; 7/10), Culex globocoxitus Dobrotworsky (54.5%; 12/22), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (39.3%; 22/56) often obtained bloodmeals from birds. Although Ae. camptorhynchus and Cx. annulirostris are well established vectors of arboviruses, other mosquitoes also may have a role in enzootic and/ or epizootic transmission. PMID:19769051

  19. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-01-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

  20. Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (αi ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The αi values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey. PMID:23437887

  1. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster.

    PubMed

    Culler, Lauren E; Ayres, Matthew P; Virginia, Ross A

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator-prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2-1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human-natural systems. PMID:26378217

  2. Tracking Dengue Virus Intra-host Genetic Diversity during Human-to-Mosquito Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. PMID:26325059

  3. How environmental conditions impact mosquito ecology and Japanese encephalitis: an eco-epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huai-Yu; Bi, Peng; Cazelles, Bernard; Zhou, Sen; Huang, Shan-Qian; Yang, Jing; Pei, Yao; Wu, Xiao-Xu; Fu, Shi-Hong; Tong, Shi-Lu; Wang, Huan-Yu; Xu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the major vector-borne diseases in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region, posing a threat to human health. In rural and suburban areas, traditional rice farming and intensive pig breeding provide an ideal environment for both mosquito development and the transmission of JEV among human beings. Combining surveillance data for mosquito vectors, human JE cases, and environmental conditions in Changsha, China, 2004-2009, generalized threshold models were constructed to project the mosquito and JE dynamics. Temperature and rainfall were found to be closely associated with mosquito density at 1, and 4month lag, respectively. The two thresholds, maximum temperature of 22-23°C for mosquito development and minimum temperature of 25-26°C for JEV transmission, play key roles in the ecology of JEV. The model predicts that, in the upper regime, a 1g/m(3) increase in absolute humidity would on average increase human cases by 68-84%. A shift in mosquito species composition in 2007 was observed, and possibly caused by a drought. Effective predictive models could be used in risk management to provide early warnings for potential JE transmission. PMID:25771078

  4. Wolbachia infections in mosquitoes and their predators inhabiting rice field communities in Thailand and China.

    PubMed

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Zhang, Chongxing

    2016-07-01

    Wolbachia are inherited, endocytoplasmic bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. Here is the first systematic report on the study of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes and their predators from both Thailand and China. In Thailand, 632 mosquito specimens (20 spp.) and 424 insect predators (23 spp.) were collected from the rice agroecosystem, mostly from the Central region, followed by the Northeast, the North and the South and were inhabiting rice fields, wetlands and ditches. In China, 928 mosquitoes (15 spp.) and 149 insect predators (16 spp.) were collected from rice fields along the Weishan Lake in Shandong province. Specimens were classified in the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Odonata and Hemiptera. Using wsp, ftsZ, 16S rRNA and groE gene amplifications, Wolbachia were detected in 12 mosquito spp. and 6 predator spp. from Thailand and 11 mosquito spp. and 5 predator spp. from China. The relative Wolbachia densities of these species were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the predator, Agriocnemis femina, had the highest bacterial densities. These results imply that Wolbachia of supergroup B are distributed throughout these insects, probably via horizontal transmission in rice agroecosystems. PMID:27012719

  5. Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing for Environmental Modeling of Mosquito Population Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Kimball, John S; Vanroekel-Patton, Denise L; Hildreth, Michael B; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    Environmental variability has important influences on mosquito life cycles and understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control and vector-borne disease prevention. Meteorological data used for model-based predictions of mosquito abundance and life cycle dynamics are typically acquired from ground-based weather stations; however, data availability and completeness are often limited by sparse networks and resource availability. In contrast, environmental measurements from satellite remote sensing are more spatially continuous and can be retrieved automatically. This study compared environmental measurements from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) and in situ weather station data to examine their ability to predict the abundance of two important mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex tarsalis) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA from 2005 to 2010. The AMSR-E land parameters included daily surface water inundation fraction, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and microwave vegetation opacity. The AMSR-E derived models had better fits and higher forecasting accuracy than models based on weather station data despite the relatively coarse (25-km) spatial resolution of the satellite data. In the AMSR-E models, air temperature and surface water fraction were the best predictors of Aedes vexans, whereas air temperature and vegetation opacity were the best predictors of Cx. tarsalis abundance. The models were used to extrapolate spatial, seasonal, and interannual patterns of climatic suitability for mosquitoes across eastern South Dakota. Our findings demonstrate that environmental metrics derived from satellite passive microwave radiometry are suitable for predicting mosquito population dynamics and can potentially improve the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease early warning systems. PMID:23049143

  6. Predicting the Timing and Magnitude of Tropical Mosquito Population Peaks for Maximizing Control Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Brook, Barry W.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2009-01-01

    The transmission of mosquito-borne diseases is strongly linked to the abundance of the host vector. Identifying the environmental and biological precursors which herald the onset of peaks in mosquito abundance would give health and land-use managers the capacity to predict the timing and distribution of the most efficient and cost-effective mosquito control. We analysed a 15-year time series of monthly abundance of Aedes vigilax, a tropical mosquito species from northern Australia, to determine periodicity and drivers of population peaks (high-density outbreaks). Two sets of density-dependent models were used to examine the correlation between mosquito abundance peaks and the environmental drivers of peaks or troughs (low-density periods). The seasonal peaks of reproduction (r) and abundance () occur at the beginning of September and early November, respectively. The combination of low mosquito abundance and a low frequency of a high tide exceeding 7 m in the previous low-abundance (trough) period were the most parsimonious predictors of a peak's magnitude, with this model explaining over 50% of the deviance in . Model weights, estimated using AICc, were also relatively high for those including monthly maximum tide height, monthly accumulated tide height or total rainfall per month in the trough, with high values in the trough correlating negatively with the onset of a high-abundance peak. These findings illustrate that basic environmental monitoring data can be coupled with relatively simple density feedback models to predict the timing and magnitude of mosquito abundance peaks. Decision-makers can use these methods to determine optimal levels of control (i.e., least-cost measures yielding the largest decline in mosquito abundance) and so reduce the risk of disease outbreaks in human populations. PMID:19238191

  7. Satellite Microwave Remote Sensing for Environmental Modeling of Mosquito Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Henebry, Geoffrey M.; Kimball, John S.; VanRoekel-Patton, Denise L.; Hildreth, Michael B.; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variability has important influences on mosquito life cycles and understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of mosquito populations is critical for mosquito control and vector-borne disease prevention. Meteorological data used for model-based predictions of mosquito abundance and life cycle dynamics are typically acquired from ground-based weather stations; however, data availability and completeness are often limited by sparse networks and resource availability. In contrast, environmental measurements from satellite remote sensing are more spatially continuous and can be retrieved automatically. This study compared environmental measurements from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E) and in situ weather station data to examine their ability to predict the abundance of two important mosquito species (Aedes vexans and Culex tarsalis) in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA from 2005 to 2010. The AMSR-E land parameters included daily surface water inundation fraction, surface air temperature, soil moisture, and microwave vegetation opacity. The AMSR-E derived models had better fits and higher forecasting accuracy than models based on weather station data despite the relatively coarse (25-km) spatial resolution of the satellite data. In the AMSR-E models, air temperature and surface water fraction were the best predictors of Aedes vexans, whereas air temperature and vegetation opacity were the best predictors of Cx. tarsalis abundance. The models were used to extrapolate spatial, seasonal, and interannual patterns of climatic suitability for mosquitoes across eastern South Dakota. Our findings demonstrate that environmental metrics derived from satellite passive microwave radiometry are suitable for predicting mosquito population dynamics and can potentially improve the effectiveness of mosquito-borne disease early warning systems. PMID:23049143

  8. Study of mosquito fauna in rice ecosystems around Hanoi, northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Van Soai, Nguyen; Van Anh, Dinh Thi; Nguyen, Yen T; Takagi, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Species of the Culex vishnui subgroup, Cx. fuscocephala and Cx. gelidus, which are known Japanese encephalitis (JE) vectors, are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Hence, although ecological studies of rice agroecosystems in northern Vietnam are necessary, very few integrated studies of breeding habitats of mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted. We carried out a field study and investigated the mosquito fauna in six rice production areas in northern Vietnam during the rainy and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and potential mosquito predators were collected from aquatic habitats by using larval dippers. We collected 1780 Culex individuals (including 254 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus; 113 Cx. vishnui, 58 Cx. vishnui complex, consisting of Cx. vishnui and Cx. pseudovishnui; 12 Cx. gelidus; 1 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus; and 1 Cx. fuscocephala), 148 Anopheles individuals (including 5 An. vagus), 1 Mansonia annulifera, and 1 Mimomyia chamberlaini during the rainy season. During the dry season, we collected 176 Culex individuals (including 33 Cx. vishnui, 24 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 8 Cx. vishnui complex, and 1 Cx. gelidus) and 186 Anopheles individuals (including 9 An. tessellatus, 2 An. kochi, and 2 An. barbumbrosus). We found mosquitoes in all aquatic habitats, namely, rice fields, ditches, ponds, wetlands, irrigation canals, and rice nurseries, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui complex were found in all the above six areas. Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both the seasons. The abundance of mosquito larvae was higher in the rice fields, ditches, and ponds during the rainy season than during the dry season. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui complex, Cx. fuscocephala, and Cx. gelidus were abundant in rice agroecosystems (rice fields, ditches, ponds, and wetlands) in northern Vietnam, and their abundance was high during the rainy season. These findings deepen our understanding of

  9. Arm-in-cage testing of natural human-derived mosquito repellents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Individual human subjects are differentially attractive to mosquitoes and other biting insects. Previous investigations have demonstrated that this can be attributed partly to enhanced production of natural repellent chemicals by those individuals that attract few mosquitoes in the laboratory. The most important compounds in this respect include three aldehydes, octanal, nonanal and decanal, and two ketones, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone [(E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-one]. In olfactometer trials, these compounds interfered with attraction of mosquitoes to a host and consequently show promise as novel mosquito repellents. Methods To test whether these chemicals could provide protection against mosquitoes, laboratory repellency trials were carried out to test the chemicals individually at different concentrations and in different mixtures and ratios with three major disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Results Up to 100% repellency was achieved depending on the type of repellent compound tested, the concentration and the relative composition of the mixture. The greatest effect was observed by mixing together two compounds, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone in a 1:1 ratio. This mixture exceeded the repellency of DEET when presented at low concentrations. The repellent effect of this mixture was maintained over several hours. Altering the ratio of these compounds significantly affected the behavioural response of the mosquitoes, providing evidence for the ability of mosquitoes to detect and respond to specific mixtures and ratios of natural repellent compounds that are associated with host location. Conclusion The optimum mixture of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and geranylacetone was a 1:1 ratio and this provided the most effective protection against all species of mosquito tested. With further improvements in formulation, selected blends of these compounds have the potential to be exploited and

  10. Patterns of spatio-temporal distribution, abundance, and diversity in a mosquito community from the eastern Smoky Hills of Kansas.

    PubMed

    Ganser, Claudia; Wisely, Samantha M

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 30% of emerging infectious disease events are caused by vector-borne pathogens with wildlife origins. Their transmission involves a complex interplay among pathogens, arthropod vectors, the environment and host species, and they pose a risk for public health, livestock and wildlife species. Examining habitat associations of vector species known to transmit infectious diseases, and quantifying spatio-temporal dynamics of mosquito vector communities is one aspect of the holistic One Health approach that is necessary to develop effective control measures. A survey was conducted from May to August, 2010 of the abundance and diversity of mosquito species occurring in the mixed-grass prairie habitat of the Smoky Hills of Kansas. This region is an important breeding ground for North America's grassland nesting birds and, as such, it could represent an important habitat for the enzootic amplification cycle of avian malaria and infectious encephalitides, as well as spill-over events to humans and livestock. A total of 11 species, belonging to the three genera Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex, was collected during this study. Aedes nigromaculis, Ae. sollicitans, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Culex salinarius, and Cx. tarsalis accounted for 98% of the collected species. Multiple linear regression models suggested that mosquito abundances in the grasslands of the central Great Plains were explained by meteorological and environmental variables. Temporal dynamics in mosquito abundances were well supported by models that included maximum and minimum temperature indices (adjusted R(2) = 0.73). Spatial dynamics of mosquito abundances were best explained by a model containing the following environmental variables (adjusted R(2) =0.37): ground curvature, topographic wetness index, distance to woodland, and distance to road. The mosquito species we detected are known vectors for infectious encephalitides, including West Nile virus. Understanding the microhabitat characteristics of these

  11. Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel.

    PubMed

    Revay, Edita E; Kline, Daniel L; Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ghattas, Nina; Pstygo, Irina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-07-01

    The present study assessed the personal protection efficiency of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species, using human volunteers as bait in landing catch experiments. Results show that under minimal air-movement, three spatial repellent based products (ThermaCELL(®) Patio Lantern, OFF!(®) PowerPad lamp, and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller) significantly reduced the biting-pressure (t-test - P<0.01) when positioned at short distances from a volunteer (3, 7.5, and 10ft.), with the ThermaCELL unit being most effective (96.1, 89.9, and 76.66% reduction, respectively). No significant differences were seen between the three aforementioned devices at distances of 3 and 7.5ft., while at a distance of 10ft., only the ThermaCELL patio lantern repelled significantly more mosquitoes then the Terminix ALLCLEAR Tabletop Mosquito Repeller (t-test, P<0.05). In contrast, mosquito traps using attracting cues to bait mosquitoes (Dynatrap(®), Vortex(®) Electronic Insect Trap, Blue Rhino(®) SV3100) either significantly increased or had no effect on the biting-pressure at short distances compared with the unprotected control. Trials conducted over large areas showed that only the Blue Rhino trap was able to significantly reduce the biting-pressure (40.1% reduction), but this was only when operating four units at the corners of an intermediate sized area. PMID:23545129

  12. Mosquito larval habitats and public health implications in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, M A; Mafiana, C F; Idowu, A B; Adekunle, M F; Sam-Wobo, S O

    2008-04-01

    The larval habitats of mosquitoes were investigated in Abeokuta, Nigeria in order to determine the breeding sites of the existing mosquito fauna and its possible public health implications on the residents of the City. The habitats were sampled between August 2005 and July 2006 using plastic dippers and a pipette. The habitats were grouped as ground pools/ponds, gutters/open drains, tyres, domestic containers and treeholes/ leaf axils. Ten species of mosquitoes were encountered in the five habitats namely Mansonia africana, M. uniformis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. vittatus, Cx tigripes, Anopheles gambiae s.l., An. funestus and Eretmapodite clnysogaster. Ae. aegypti bred in all the habitats sampled while Cx quinquefasciatus bred in four habitats except tree holes/leaf axils. An. gambiae s.l and Ae. albopictus occurred in three habitats while other species bred only in one or two habitats. Ground pools and domestic containers recorded the highest number of species followed by gutters/open drains. Tree holes/leaf axils was the least preferred habitat with the lowest number of species occurrence. However, statistical analysis revealed non-significant difference in species occurrence in the five habitats. The availability of the habitats to support the breeding of Aedes, Culex and Anopheles, which are known vectors of urban yellow fever, lymphatic filariasis and malaria suggest that the residents ofAbeokuta City are at risk of mosquito-borne diseases. It is important that residents of the City are enlighten on the environmental factors that contribute to mosquito breeding and that the Government should institute proper sanitation measures to reduce mosquito breeding sites. PMID:18846789

  13. The USDA-ARS area-wide project for management of the asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is among the most invasive species in the world. Established in the U.S. since 1985, this species now infests 30 states and continues to spread internationally. Concerned public health officials recognize this species as an important vector of chikunguny...

  14. Surplus Killing by Predatory Larvae of Corethrella appendiculata: Prepupal Timing and Site-Specific Attack on Mosquito Prey

    PubMed Central

    Lounibos, L. P.; Makhni, S.; Alto, B. W.; Kesavaraju, B.

    2008-01-01

    Surplus or ‘wasteful’ killing of uneaten prey has been documented in the fourth larval instar of various species of the mosquito genus Toxorhynchites that occur in treeholes and other phytotelmata. Here we document surplus killing by the predatory midge Corethrella appendiculata, which in Florida cohabits treeholes and artificial containers with larvae of Toxorhynchites rutilus. Provided with a surfeit of larval mosquito prey, surplus killing was observed only in the fourth instar of C. appendiculata, peaking in intensity in the final 24 h prior to pupation, as observed for Toxorhynchites spp. Attack sites identified from videotaped encounters with mosquito prey were divided among head, thorax, abdomen, and siphon. Consumed mosquito larvae (n = 70) were attacked primarily on the head (46%) or siphon (34%), but surplus-killed prey (n = 30) were attacked predominantly on the thorax (83%). Despite its independent evolution among different insect species in aquatic container habitats, the functional significance of prepupal surplus killing remains unclear. PMID:19081802

  15. Susceptibility of mosquitoes to ingested insecticides.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are important vectors of many diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Control of adult mosquitoes is conventionally through application of aerial sprays, however, there are environmental and health concerns associated with these sprays. One approach for targeted control of mosqui...

  16. Novel Methods for Mosquito Control using RNAi.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The discovery and development of novel insecticides for vector control is a primary focus of toxicology research conducted at the Mosquito and Fly Research Unit, Gainesville, FL. Targeting critical genes/proteins in mosquitoes using RNA interference (RNAi) is being investigated as a method to devel...

  17. An innovative mosquito trap for testing attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe a simple trap modification for testing or using attractants to collect flying mosquitoes. The trap also can test the effectiveness of spatial repellents. The proposed design may facilitate standardized testing of mosquito attractants and repellents. The trap uses a standard Centers f...

  18. Vertical Oviposition Preferences of the Asian Tiger Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, In Temperate North America.

    PubMed

    Williges, Eric; Faraji, Ary; Gaugler, Randy

    2014-09-01

    As a hyperaggressive mosquito that is also a public health threat, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is a major priority for control efforts. We examine one aspect of Ae. albopictus biology: oviposition height. Field-based research in an urban habitat was conducted to determine if a height preference exists for this species. Larval and egg counts showed a significant preference for oviposition at ground level (0 m) compared to heights of 1, 2, 3, or 4 m (P < 0.01). An experiment conducted under semi-field conditions supported our conclusion of oviposition preference at ground level (P < 0.001), and further defines the search image needed by mosquito control personnel when dealing with this invasive species. PMID:25843091

  19. A Review of Mosquitoes Associated with Rift Valley Fever Virus in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Tantely, Luciano M.; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral zoonotic disease occurring throughout Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and Madagascar. The disease is caused by a Phlebovirus (RVF virus [RVFV]) transmitted to vertebrate hosts through the bite of infected mosquitoes. In Madagascar, the first RVFV circulation was reported in 1979 based on detection in mosquitoes but without epidemic episode. Subsequently, two outbreaks occurred: the first along the east coast and in the central highlands in 1990 and 1991 and the most recent along the northern and eastern coasts and in the central highlands in 2008 and 2009. Despite the presence of 24 mosquitoes species potentially associated with RVFV transmission in Madagascar, little associated entomological information is available. In this review, we list the RVFV vector, Culex antennatus, as well as other taxa as candidate vector species. We discuss risk factors from an entomological perspective for the re-emergence of RVF in Madagascar. PMID:25732680

  20. Mosquito flight failure in heavy fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Telljohann, Luke; Thornton, Lee-Ellen; Moyer, Caitlin; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Mosquitoes thrive during rainfall and high humidity. We previously found that mosquitoes are successful fliers through rainfall. Heavy fog, consisting of drops three orders of magnitude smaller in mass than raindrops, presents an environment in which mosquitoes cannot maintain flight. Through high-speed videography, we observe mosquitoes reduce wingbeat frequency in heavy fog, but retain the ability to generate sufficient force to lift their bodies, even after significant dew deposition. They are unable, however, to maintain an upright position required for sustainable flight. A mosquito's primary flight control mechanism is its halteres, small knobbed structures evolved from the hind wings, which flap anti-phase with the wings and provide gyroscopic feedback through Coriolis forces. Though the halteres are hydrophobic, repeated collisions with 10-micron fog particles hinders flight control, leading to flight failure.

  1. Flow in the proboscis of a mosquito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Mochizuki, Osamu

    2004-11-01

    A flow of human blood in mosquito's proboscis is investigated by using a micro PIV system to apply mosquito's sucking system to a micro-TAS device. A live mosquito is glued on a prepared specimen for microscopic observation. The inner diameter of the proboscis is 21 micro meters and the length is 1620 micro meters. The proboscis is immersed in dilute blood with a physiological salt solution, because sipping is caused by stimulation of blood. A converging flow into the tip of the proboscis and inner flow in the proboscis are measured and analyzed to understand mechanical characteristics of mosquito's pump system. The inner surface of the proboscis is observed by a SEM and TEM. The protein structure of the proboscis is analyzed to throw light on a correlation between fluid and surface molecules. We discuss comprehensively the micro flow and surface friction in the proboscis, and indicate the mosquito's pump performance to design a micro pump for a micro-TAS.

  2. Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized. PMID:26553981

  3. Phylogenetic analyses of vector mosquito basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D B; Wang, Y; Liu, A K; Wang, X H; Dang, C W; Yao, Q; Chen, K P

    2013-10-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms and have been identified in more than 20 organisms. Mosquitoes are important vectors of certain human diseases. In this study, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae str. PEST and Culex quinquefasciatus genomes were found to encode 55, 55 and 57 bHLH genes, respectively. Further phylogenetic analyses and OrthoDB and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes orthology database searches led us to define orthology for all the identified mosquito bHLHs successfully. This provides useful information with which to update annotations to 40 Ae. aegypti, 55 An. gambiae and 38 C. quinquefasciatus bHLH genes in VectorBase. The mosquito lineage has more bHLH genes in the Atonal, neurogenin (Ngn) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey) families than do other insect species, suggesting that mosquitoes have evolved to be more sensitive to vibration, light and chemicals. Mosquito bHLH genes generally have higher evolutionary rates than other insect species. However, no pervasive positive selection occurred in the evolution of insect bHLH genes. Only episodic positive selection was found to affect evolution of bHLH genes in 11 families. Besides, coding regions of several Ae. aegypti bHLH motifs have unusually long introns in which multiple copies of transposable elements have been identified. These data provide a solid basis for further studies on structures and functions of bHLH proteins in the regulation of mosquito development and for prevention and control of mosquito-mediated human diseases. PMID:23906262

  4. An adulticidal sticky ovitrap for sampling container-breeding mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Long, Sharron; Hart, Alistair; Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2003-09-01

    The efficacy of a standard ovitrap and an ovitrap featuring an internal wall covered by a polybutylene adhesive was compared in field studies in Cairns, Australia. The sticky ovitrap was as effective as the standard ovitrap in detecting Aedes aegypti, with 67.5% and 64% of traps positive for Ae. aegypti, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of Ae. aegypti were collected by traps set outside rather than inside premises. Sticky ovitraps also readily collected Ochlerotatus notoscriptus and, especially, Culex quinquefasciatus. With a 10X hand lens, mosquitoes of these species could readily be identified in traps set for 3 and 7 days. The sticky ovitraps were comparable in cost and as time efficient as standard ovitraps. The greatest advantage of the sticky ovitrap is the collection of adult female mosquitoes, negating the need to rear larvae for identification and providing a faster, more direct measure of the effectiveness of ovipositional attractants than egg counts. Finally, we demonstrated that sticky ovitraps, being adulticidal, have potential as a supplementary control measure, especially for quarantine programs designed to prevent the import and export of container-breeding vector mosquitoes at sea- and airports. PMID:14524545

  5. Mosquitoes in Bromeliads at Ground Level of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the Relationship Between Mosquito Fauna, Water Volume, and Plant Type

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, C. A. A.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R.; Codeço, C. T.; Motta, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Water accumulating in the axils of bromeliads provides habitat for numerous invertebrates, frequently among them, immature mosquitoes. To evaluate mosquito richness in bromeliads and the relationship between mosquito presence and biotic and abiotic variables, we performed a study in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mosquitoes of genus Culex were the most abundant and varied in species richness, among which nine belonged to subgenus Microculex, Culex (Microculex) neglectus Lutz and Culex ocellatus Theobald being the most frequent species. Sabethines of genera Wyeomyia and Runchomyia were found in low numbers. Wyeomyia (Spilonympha) airosai Lane and Cerqueira and Wyeomyia (Spilonympha) finlayi Lane and Cerqueira tend to proliferate in bromeliads of the genus Bilbergia which hold less than 50 ml of water and grow either alone or with Runchomyia frontosa (Theobald). The larger the volume of water, the greater the chance of finding Culex, Anopheles as well as Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) species, which seems to be the more generalist as it is present in different bromeliad types with a large range of plant water holding capacities. PMID:27418695

  6. Urban Habitat Evaluation For West Nile Virus Surveillance In Mosquitoes In Albuquerque, New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DiMenna, Mark A.; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R.; Norris, Douglas E.; Sheyka, Jeff M.; Molina, Josephine L.; LaBeau, Elisa M.; Hatton, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, Christine M.; Glass, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  7. Urban habitat evaluation for West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    DiMenna, Mark A; Bueno, Rudy; Parmenter, Robert R; Norris, Douglas E; Sheyka, Jeff M; Molina, Josephine L; LaBeau, Elisa M; Hatton, Elizabeth S; Roberts, Christine M; Glass, Gregory E

    2007-06-01

    As part of an ongoing mosquito surveillance program, 27 sites in the greater metropolitan Albuquerque area (Bernalillo County, New Mexico) were trapped from May through September 2004. Each site was sampled for 1 night weekly, using a standard CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap and a gravid trap. Captured mosquitoes were catalogued by location, species, and date, and selected pools were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on previous surveillance, WNV was already established in the state of New Mexico. Surveillance during 2003, the 1st year of WNV detection in New Mexico mosquitoes, was focused on the bosque forest of the Rio Grande river valley. Surveillance during summer of 2004 was extended to additional areas around the city of Albuquerque, the state's largest population center. In addition to the standard surveillance objectives, a secondary goal was to determine whether foci of WNV activity were detectable in other habitats besides the riparian ecosystem of the Rio Grande, and in other species not previously identified as vectors. There was no demonstrable advantage to extending the traditional trapping area outside of the Rio Grande valley. Sites in the valley area had WNV-positive mosquitoes earlier in the season, and for a longer period than the added sites. In addition, riparian sites had the highest diversity of species, the largest numbers of Culex spp. captured, and the largest proportion of the WNV-positive mosquito pools from the study. Species found in other areas of the metropolitan area were also represented in the valley. Although WNV activity was detected in other areas of the city, its activity began later and ended earlier than in the river valley. We surmise that the greatest benefit to mosquito surveillance could be achieved by focusing on the river valley area. PMID:17847847

  8. Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Heidi E.

    Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports

  9. The costs of infection and resistance as determinants of West Nile virus susceptibility in Culex mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the phenotypic consequences of interactions between arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and their mosquito hosts has direct implications for predicting the evolution of these relationships and the potential for changes in epidemiological patterns. Although arboviruses are generally not highly pathogenic to mosquitoes, pathology has at times been noted. Here, in order to evaluate the potential costs of West Nile virus (WNV) infection and resistance in a primary WNV vector, and to assess the extent to which virus-vector relationships are species-specific, we performed fitness studies with and without WNV exposure using a highly susceptible Culex pipiens mosquito colony. Specifically, we measured and compared survival, fecundity, and feeding rates in bloodfed mosquitoes that were (i) infected following WNV exposure (susceptible), (ii) uninfected following WNV exposure (resistant), or (iii) unexposed. Results In contrast to our previous findings with a relatively resistant Cx. tarsalis colony, WNV infection did not alter fecundity or blood-feeding behaviour of Cx. pipiens, yet results do indicate that resistance to infection is associated with a fitness cost in terms of mosquito survival. Conclusions The identification of species-specific differences provides an evolutionary explanation for variability in vector susceptibility to arboviruses and suggests that understanding the costs of infection and resistance are important factors in determining the potential competence of vector populations for arboviruses. PMID:21975028

  10. Role of fish as predators of mosquito larvae on the floodplain of the Gambia River.

    PubMed

    Louca, Vasilis; Lucas, Martyn C; Green, Clare; Majambere, Silas; Fillinger, Ulrike; Lindsay, Steve W

    2009-05-01

    We examined the potential of using native fish species in regulating mosquitoes in the floodplain of the Gambia River, the major source of mosquitoes in rural parts of The Gambia. Fishes and mosquito larvae were sampled along two 2.3-km-long transects, from the landward edge of the floodplain to the river from May to November 2005 to 2007. A semifield trial was used to test the predatory capacity of fish on mosquito larvae and the influence of fish chemical cues on oviposition. In the field, there was less chance of finding culicine larvae where Tilapia guineensis, the most common floodplain fish, were present; however, the presence of anophelines was not related to the presence or absence of any fish species. In semifield trials, both T. guineensis and Epiplatys spilargyreius were effective predators, removing all late-stage culicine and anopheline larvae within 1 d. Fewer culicines oviposited in sites with fish, suggesting that ovipositing culicine females avoid water with fish. In contrast, oviposition by anophelines was unaffected by fish. Our studies show that T. guineensis is a potential candidate for controlling mosquitoes in The Gambia. PMID:19496426

  11. High-throughput genotyping of Anopheles mosquitoes using intact legs by Agena Biosciences iPLEX.

    PubMed

    Fabrigar, Danica Joy; Hubbart, Christina; Miles, Alistair; Rockett, Kirk

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in genotyping technologies coupled with the growing desire to characterize genome variation in Anopheles populations open the opportunity to develop more effective genotyping strategies for high-throughput screening. A major bottleneck of this goal is nucleic acid extraction. Here, we examined the feasibility of using intact portions of a mosquito's leg as sources of template DNA for whole-genome amplification (WGA) by primer-extension preamplification. We used the Agena Biosciences MassARRAY(®) platform (formerly Sequenom) to genotype 78 SNPs for 265 WGA leg samples. We performed nucleic acid extraction on 36 mosquito carcasses and compared the genotype call concordance with their corresponding legs and observed full concordance. Using three legs instead of one improved genotyping success rates (96% vs. 89%, respectively), although this difference was not significant. We provide a proof of concept that WGA reactions can be performed directly on mosquito legs, thereby eliminating the need to extract nucleic acid. This approach is straightforward and sensitive and allows both species determination and genotyping of Anopheles mosquitoes to be performed in a high-throughput manner. Our protocol also leaves the mosquito body intact facilitating other experimental analysis to be undertaken on the same sample. Based on our findings, this method would also be suitable for use with other insect species. PMID:26426152

  12. Role of Fish as Predators of Mosquito Larvae on the Floodplain of the Gambia River

    PubMed Central

    LOUCA, VASILIS; LUCAS, MARTYN C.; GREEN, CLARE; MAJAMBERE, SILAS; FILLINGER, ULRIKE; LINDSAY, STEVE W.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the potential of using native fish species in regulating mosquitoes in the floodplain of the Gambia River, the major source of mosquitoes in rural parts of The Gambia. Fishes and mosquito larvae were sampled along two 2.3-km-long transects, from the landward edge of the floodplain to the river from May to November 2005 to 2007. A semifield trial was used to test the predatory capacity of fish on mosquito larvae and the influence of fish chemical cues on oviposition. In the field, there was less chance of finding culicine larvae where Tilapia guineensis, the most common floodplain fish, were present; however, the presence of anophelines was not related to the presence or absence of any fish species. In semifield trials, both T. guineensis and Epiplatys spilargyreius were effective predators, removing all late-stage culicine and anopheline larvae within 1 d. Fewer culicines oviposited in sites with fish, suggesting that ovipositing culicine females avoid water with fish. In contrast, oviposition by anophelines was unaffected by fish. Our studies show that T. guineensis is a potential candidate for controlling mosquitoes in The Gambia. PMID:19496426

  13. Pteridine fluorescence for age determination of Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; Lehane, M J

    1999-02-01

    The age structure of mosquito populations is of great relevance to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and in monitoring the success of control operations. Unfortunately, the ovarian dissection methods currently available for determining the age of adult mosquitoes are technically difficult, slow and may be of limited value, because the proportion of diagnostic ovarioles in the ovary declines with age. By means of reversed-phase HPLC this study investigated the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and An. stephensi to see if changes in fluorescent pteridine pigments, which have been used in other insects to determine the age of field-caught individuals, may be useful for age determination in mosquitoes. Whole body fluorescence was inversely proportional to age (P < 0.001, r2 > 91%) up to 30 days postemergence, with the regression values: y = 40580-706x for An. gambiae, and y = 52896-681x for An. stephensi. In both species the main pteridines were 6-biopterin, pterin-6-carboxylic acid and an unidentified fluorescent compound. An. gambiae had only 50-70% as much fluorescence as An. stephensi, and fluorescent compounds were relatively more concentrated in the head than in the thorax (ratios 1:0.8 An. gambiae; 1:0.5 An. stephensi). The results of this laboratory study are encouraging. It seems feasible that this simpler and faster technique of fluorescence quantification could yield results of equivalent accuracy to the interpretation of ovarian dissection. A double-blind field trial comparing the accuracy of this technique to marked, released and recaptured mosquitoes is required to test the usefulness of the pteridine method in the field. PMID:10194749

  14. Historical applications of induced sterilisation in field populations of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Dame, David A; Curtis, Christopher F; Benedict, Mark Q; Robinson, Alan S; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Research on sterile mosquito technology from 1955 to the 1980s provided a substantial body of knowledge on propagation and release of sterile mosquitoes. Radiation sterilisation and chemosterilisation have been used effectively to induce dominant lethality and thereby sterilise important mosquito vectors in the laboratory. Experimental releases of chemosterilised males provided complete control of Anopheles albimanus in a small breeding population (14-15 sq km) in El Salvador. Releases of radiation sterilised males failed to control either Aedes aegypti or Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the USA. Releases of radiation-sterilised and chemosterilised male Culex quinquefasciatus in the USA and India were successful in some instances. Development of genetic sexing systems for Anopheles and improved physical separation methods for Culex have made it possible to rear and release males almost exclusively (> 99%) minimizing the release of potential vectors, the females. Factors that affected efficacy in some field programmes included reduction of competitiveness by radiation, immigration of fertilized females from outside the release zones, and inability of laboratory-bred males to perform in the wild. Despite significant progress, institutional commitments to carry the process further were generally lacking in the late 1970s and until recently. Now, with renewed interest and support for further assessment of this technology, this paper summarizes the current knowledge base, prioritizes some areas of investigation, and challenges scientists and administrators to maintain an awareness of progress, remain realistic about the interpretation of new findings, and make decisions about the sterile insect technique on the basis of informed scientific documentation. Areas recommended for priority research status include the establishment of genetic sexing mechanisms that can be transferred to other mosquito species, re-examination of radiation sterilisation, aerial release technology

  15. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  16. Green nanoparticles for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  17. The value of long-term mosquito surveillance data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important activities performed by mosquito and vector control agencies is mosquito population surveillance. Mosquito population surveillance data are the written results of adult or larval mosquito sampling, recorded and preserved on paper forms or entered into electronic spreadshee...

  18. Community Ecology of Container Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virginia Following Invasion by Aedes japonicus

    PubMed Central

    ARMISTEAD, JENNIFER S.; NISHIMURA, NAOYA; ARIAS, JORGE R.; LOUNIBOS, L. PHILIP

    2012-01-01

    The success of an invasive species in a new region depends on its interactions with ecologically similar resident species. Invasions by disease vector mosquitoes are important as they may have ecological and epidemiological consequences. Potential interactions of a recent invasive mosquito, Aedes japonicus Theobald, with resident species in Virginia were evaluated by sampling larvae from containers and trapping adults. Distinct species compositions were observed for artificial containers and rock pools, with Ae. albopictus most abundant in the former and Ae. japonicus in the latter. However, these two species were found to co-occur in 21.2% of containers sampled. Among the six mosquito species most common in containers from May through September, 2006, only interspecific associations of Ae.japonicus with Aedesalbopictus(Skuse) and Aedestriseriatus(Say) were significant, and both were negative. In addition to differences in habitat preference, mean crowding estimates suggest that interspecific repulsion may contribute to the significant negative associations observed between these species. High relative abundances of late instars and pupae of Ae. japonicus seem to provide this species with a mechanism of evading competition with Ae. albopictus, facilitating their coexistence in artificial containers. Although annual fluctuations were observed, trends in adult populations over a 6-yr period provide no evidence of declines. In summary, this survey of diverse container types and all life stages provided only limited evidence for competitive displacements or reductions of resident container species by Ae. japonicus, as observed elsewhere in its invasive range. PMID:23270159

  19. Host selection by Culex pipiens mosquitoes and West Nile virus amplification.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Gabriel L; Kitron, Uriel D; Goldberg, Tony L; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Loss, Scott R; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Hayes, Daniel B; Walker, Edward D

    2009-02-01

    Recent field studies have suggested that the dynamics of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission are influenced strongly by a few key super spreader bird species that function both as primary blood hosts of the vector mosquitoes (in particular Culex pipiens) and as reservoir-competent virus hosts. It has been hypothesized that human cases result from a shift in mosquito feeding from these key bird species to humans after abundance of the key birds species decreases. To test this paradigm, we performed a mosquito blood meal analysis integrating host-feeding patterns of Cx. pipiens, the principal vector of WNV in the eastern United States north of the latitude 36 degrees N and other mosquito species with robust measures of host availability, to determine host selection in a WNV-endemic area of suburban Chicago, Illinois, during 2005-2007. Results showed that Cx. pipiens fed predominantly (83%) on birds with a high diversity of species used as hosts (25 species). American robins (Turdus migratorius) were marginally overused and several species were underused on the basis of relative abundance measures, including the common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), and European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Culex pipiens also fed substantially on mammals (19%; 7 species with humans representing 16%). West Nile virus transmission intensified in July of both years at times when American robins were heavily fed upon, and then decreased when robin abundance decreased, after which other birds species were selected as hosts. There was no shift in feeding from birds to mammals coincident with emergence of human cases. Rather, bird feeding predominated when the onset of the human cases occurred. Measures of host abundance and competence and Cx. pipiens feeding preference were combined to estimate the amplification fractions of the different bird species. Predictions were that approximately 66% of WNV-infectious Cx. pipiens became infected from feeding on just

  20. Hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from sea cucumber expressed in transgenic mosquitoes impairs malaria parasite development.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shigeto; Shimada, Yohei; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Ghosh, Anil K; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Sinden, Robert E

    2007-12-01

    The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes that express the C-type lectin CEL-III from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria echinata, in a midgut-specific manner. CEL-III has strong and rapid hemolytic activity toward human and rat erythrocytes in the presence of serum. Importantly, CEL-III binds to ookinetes, leading to strong inhibition of ookinete formation in vitro with an IC(50) of 15 nM. Thus, CEL-III exhibits not only hemolytic activity but also cytotoxicity toward ookinetes. In these transgenic mosquitoes, sporogonic development of Plasmodium berghei is severely impaired. Moderate, but significant inhibition was found against Plasmodium falciparum. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of stably engineered anophelines that affect the Plasmodium transmission dynamics of human malaria. Although our laboratory-based research does not have immediate applications to block natural malaria transmission, these findings have significant implications for the generation of refractory mosquitoes to all species of human Plasmodium and elucidation of mosquito-parasite interactions. PMID:18159942

  1. Seasonal distribution, biology, and human attraction patterns of culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a forest near Puerto Almendras, Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Jones, James W; Turell, Michael J; Sardelis, Michael R; Watts, Douglas M; Coleman, Russell E; Fernandez, Roberto; Carbajal, Faustino; Pecor, James E; Calampa, Carlos; Klein, Terry A

    2004-05-01

    This study was conducted as part of a field ecology study of arboviral activity in the Amazon Basin, Peru, to determine the taxonomy, frequency, seasonal, and vertical distributions of potential mosquito vectors. In addition, the relative efficiency of human-landing collections and dry ice-baited Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-type light traps was determined for collecting mosquitoes. A total of 70 species of mosquitoes from 14 genera were collected from June 1996 through December 1997 at a forested site near Puerto Almendras, approximately 20 km west-southwest of Iquitos, Peru. Three species [Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassu), Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), and Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) serratus (Theobald)] accounted for 70% of all mosquitoes captured in human-landing collections. Overall, biting activity occurred throughout the 24-h cycle but was higher during the daytime, primarily because of large populations of two day-biting species, Ps. albigenu and Oc. serratus. Oc. fulvus was active throughout the 24-h cycle but was more frequently collected during the evening. Oc. fulvus, Ps. albigenu, Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi Sirivanakarn & Belkin, and a mixture of Culex (Melaonoconion) vomerifer Komp, and Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Huchings & Ferreira, accounted for 73% of the mosquitoes captured during darkness) by human collectors. In general, Ochlerotatus spp. and Psorophora spp. were more commonly captured in human-landing collections, whereas most Culex spp. were more frequently collected in the dry ice-baited CDC-type light traps. In general, mosquito populations were lowest from June through August when river levels were at their lowest. Two large population peaks occurred in November-December and in February-March as a result of "flood water" mosquito populations (e.g., Ps. albigenu). These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal distribution of potential mosquito

  2. Genome analysis and polar tube firing dynamics of mosquito-infecting microsporidia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are highly divergent fungi that are obligate intracellular pathogens of a wide range of host organisms. Here we review recent findings from the genome sequences of mosquito-infecting microsporidian species Edhazardia aedis and Vavraia culicis, which show large differences in genome siz...

  3. Dengue in Java, Indonesia: Relevance of Mosquito Indices as Risk Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Wijayanti, Siwi P. M.; Sunaryo, Sunaryo; Suprihatin, Suprihatin; McFarlane, Melanie; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Dietrich, Isabelle; Schnettler, Esther; Biek, Roman; Kohl, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background No vaccine is currently available for dengue virus (DENV), therefore control programmes usually focus on managing mosquito vector populations. Entomological surveys provide the most common means of characterising vector populations and predicting the risk of local dengue virus transmission. Despite Indonesia being a country strongly affected by DENV, only limited information is available on the local factors affecting DENV transmission and the suitability of available survey methods for assessing risk. Methodology/principal findings We conducted entomological surveys in the Banyumas Regency (Central Java) where dengue cases occur on an annual basis. Four villages were sampled during the dry and rainy seasons: two villages where dengue was endemic, one where dengue cases occurred sporadically and one which was dengue-free. In addition to data for conventional larvae indices, we collected data on pupae indices, and collected adult mosquitoes for species identification in order to determine mosquito species composition and population density. Traditionally used larval indices (House indices, Container indices and Breteau indices) were found to be inadequate as indicators for DENV transmission risk. In contrast, species composition of adult mosquitoes revealed that competent vector species were dominant in dengue endemic and sporadic villages. Conclusions/significance Our data suggested that the utility of traditional larvae indices, which continue to be used in many dengue endemic countries, should be re-evaluated locally. The results highlight the need for validation of risk indicators and control strategies across DENV affected areas here and perhaps elsewhere in SE Asia. PMID:26967524

  4. Host preferences in host-seeking and blood-fed mosquitoes in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schönenberger, A C; Wagner, S; Tuten, H C; Schaffner, F; Torgerson, P; Furrer, S; Mathis, A; Silaghi, C

    2016-03-01

    The avian zoonotic agent for West Nile virus (WNV) can cause neuroinvasive disease in horses and humans and is expanding its range in Europe. Analyses of the risk for transmission to these hosts in non-endemic areas are necessary. Host preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vectors of WNV, were determined in Switzerland using animal-baited trap (horse, chickens) experiments at a natural and a periurban site. This was undertaken on four occasions during May-September 2014. In addition, the hosts of 505 blood-fed mosquitoes collected in a zoo and in the field were determined. Mosquito data obtained in the animal bait experiments were corrected for host weight and body surface area and by Kleiber's scaling factor. Collections of 11-14 different mosquito species were achieved with these approaches. Statistically significant host preferences were identified in three species in both approaches. The other species showed opportunistic feeding behaviours to varying extents. Specifically, the invasive species Hulecoeteomyia japonica (= Aedes japonicus) was identified for the first time as feeding on avians in nature. Abundance data, spatiotemporal activity and laboratory vector competence for WNV suggested that, in addition to the main WNV vector Culex pipiens, H. japonica and Aedimorphus vexans (= Aedes vexans) are the most likely candidate bridge vectors for WNV transmission in Switzerland. PMID:26685926

  5. Host-Feeding Patterns of Culex Mosquitoes in Relation to Trap Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, Laura E.; McGowan, Jay W.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Lee, Joon-Hak

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito feeding patterns identify vertebrate species potentially involved in the amplification of West Nile virus. In New York, northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) were the predominant hosts in most habitats. Crow (Corvus sp.) blood meals were most frequently identified from sewage treatment plant and storm water catch basin habitats. PMID:18258048

  6. Natural vertical transmission of Ndumu virus in Culex pipiens (Diptera; Culicidae) mosquitoes collected as larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ndumu virus (NDUV) is a member of the Family: Togaviridae and Genus: Alphavirus. In Kenya the virus has been isolated from a range of mosquito species but has not been associated with human or animal morbidity. Little is know about the transmission dynamics or vertebrate reservoirs of this virus. We...

  7. Mosquito biting activity on humans & detection of Plasmodium falciparum infection in Anopheles stephensi in Goa, India

    PubMed Central

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S.; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S.; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Knowledge of the bionomics of mosquitoes, especially of disease vectors, is essential to plan appropriate vector avoidance and control strategies. Information on biting activity of vectors during the night hours in different seasons is important for choosing personal protection measures. This study was carried out to find out the composition of mosquito fauna biting on humans and seasonal biting trends in Goa, India. Methods: Biting activities of all mosquitoes including vectors were studied from 1800 to 0600 h during 85 nights using human volunteers in 14 different localities of three distinct ecotypes in Goa. Seasonal biting trends of vector species were analysed and compared. Seasonal biting periodicity during different phases of night was also studied using William's mean. Results: A total of 4,191 mosquitoes of five genera and 23 species were collected. Ten species belonged to Anopheles, eight to Culex, three to Aedes and one each to Mansonia and Armigeres. Eleven vector species had human hosts, including malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi (1.3%), An. fluviatilis (1.8%), and An. culicifacies (0.76%); filariasis vectors Culex quinquefasciatus (40.8%) and Mansonia uniformis (1.8%); Japanese encephalitis vectors Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (17.4%), Cx. vishnui (7.7%), Cx. pseudovishnui (0.1%), and Cx. gelidus (2.4%); and dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes albopictus (0.9%) and Ae. aegypti (0.6%). Two An. stephensi of the total 831 female anophelines, were found positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) of P. falciparum was 18.1 and 2.35 for Panaji city and Goa, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Most of the mosquito vector species were collected in all seasons and throughout the scotophase. Biting rates of different vector species differed during different phases of night and seasons. Personal protection methods could be used to stop vector-host contact. PMID:22382193

  8. Nest Mosquito Trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Caillouët, Kevin A.; Riggan, Anna E.; Rider, Mark; Bulluck, Lesley P.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. We designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. In the laboratory, the NMT collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. We then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-collected bird-seeking mosquitoes collected over 66 trap nights. We estimated that 7.5 mosquitoes per trap night attempted to feed on nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. Presence of the NMT did not have a negative effect on avian nest success when compared to occupied nest boxes that were not sampled with the trap. Future studies using the NMT may elucidate the role of nestlings in arbovirus transmission and further refine estimates of nesting bird and vector contact rates. PMID:22548555

  9. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2016-03-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources. PMID:26963245

  10. Unbiased Characterization of Anopheles Mosquito Blood Meals by Targeted High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Logue, Kyle; Keven, John Bosco; Cannon, Matthew V.; Reimer, Lisa; Siba, Peter; Walker, Edward D.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Serre, David

    2016-01-01

    Understanding mosquito host choice is important for assessing vector competence or identifying disease reservoirs. Unfortunately, the availability of an unbiased method for comprehensively evaluating the composition of insect blood meals is very limited, as most current molecular assays only test for the presence of a few pre-selected species. These approaches also have limited ability to identify the presence of multiple mammalian hosts in a single blood meal. Here, we describe a novel high-throughput sequencing method that enables analysis of 96 mosquitoes simultaneously and provides a comprehensive and quantitative perspective on the composition of each blood meal. We validated in silico that universal primers targeting the mammalian mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA) should amplify more than 95% of the mammalian 16S rRNA sequences present in the NCBI nucleotide database. We applied this method to 442 female Anopheles punctulatus s. l. mosquitoes collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While human (52.9%), dog (15.8%) and pig (29.2%) were the most common hosts identified in our study, we also detected DNA from mice, one marsupial species and two bat species. Our analyses also revealed that 16.3% of the mosquitoes fed on more than one host. Analysis of the human mitochondrial hypervariable region I in 102 human blood meals showed that 5 (4.9%) of the mosquitoes unambiguously fed on more than one person. Overall, analysis of PNG mosquitoes illustrates the potential of this approach to identify unsuspected hosts and characterize mixed blood meals, and shows how this approach can be adapted to evaluate inter-individual variations among human blood meals. Furthermore, this approach can be applied to any disease-transmitting arthropod and can be easily customized to investigate non-mammalian host sources. PMID:26963245

  11. Malaria Parasites Produce Volatile Mosquito Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Megan; Su, Chih-Ying; Schaber, Chad; Crowley, Jan R.; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Carlson, John R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains a nonphotosynthetic plastid organelle that possesses plant-like metabolic pathways. Plants use the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway to produce volatile odorants, known as terpenes. In this work, we describe the volatile chemical profile of cultured malaria parasites. Among the identified compounds are several plant-like terpenes and terpene derivatives, including known mosquito attractants. We establish the molecular identity of the odorant receptors of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae, which responds to these compounds. The malaria parasite produces volatile signals that are recognized by mosquitoes and may thereby mediate host attraction and facilitate transmission. PMID:25805727

  12. Molecular Genetic Manipulation of Vector Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Terenius, Olle; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Sieglaff, Douglas; James, Anthony A.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic strategies for reducing populations of vector mosquitoes or replacing them with those that are not able to transmit pathogens benefit greatly from molecular tools that allow gene manipulation and transgenesis. Mosquito genome sequences and associated EST (Expressed Sequence Tags) databases enable large-scale investigations to provide new insights into evolutionary, biochemical, genetic, metabolic and physiological pathways. Additionally, comparative genomics reveals the bases for evolutionary mechanisms with particular focus on specific interactions between vectors and pathogens. We discuss how this information may be exploited for the optimization of transgenes that interfere with the propagation and development of pathogens in their mosquito hosts. PMID:18996342

  13. Combining Synthetic Human Odours and Low-Cost Electrocuting Grids to Attract and Kill Outdoor-Biting Mosquitoes: Field and Semi-Field Evaluation of an Improved Mosquito Landing Box

    PubMed Central

    Matowo, Nancy S.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Moore, Sarah J.; Mmbando, Arnold S.; Mapua, Salum A.; Coetzee, Maureen; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2016-01-01

    Background On-going malaria transmission is increasingly mediated by outdoor-biting vectors, especially where indoor insecticidal interventions such as long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are widespread. Often, the vectors are also physiologically resistant to insecticides, presenting major obstacles for elimination. We tested a combination of electrocuting grids with synthetic odours as an alternative killing mechanism against outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Methods An odour-baited device, the Mosquito Landing Box (MLB), was improved by fitting it with low-cost electrocuting grids to instantly kill mosquitoes attracted to the odour lure, and automated photo switch to activate attractant-dispensing and mosquito-killing systems between dusk and dawn. MLBs fitted with one, two or three electrocuting grids were compared outdoors in a malaria endemic village in Tanzania, where vectors had lost susceptibility to pyrethroids. MLBs with three grids were also tested in a large semi-field cage (9.6×9.6×4.5m), to assess effects on biting-densities of laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis on volunteers sitting near MLBs. Results Significantly more mosquitoes were killed when MLBs had two or three grids, than one grid in wet and dry seasons (P<0.05). The MLBs were highly efficient against Mansonia species and malaria vector, An. arabiensis. Of all mosquitoes, 99% were non-blood fed, suggesting host-seeking status. In the semi-field, the MLBs reduced mean number of malaria mosquitoes attempting to bite humans fourfold. Conclusion The improved odour-baited MLBs effectively kill outdoor-biting malaria vector mosquitoes that are behaviourally and physiologically resistant to insecticidal interventions e.g. LLINs. The MLBs reduce human-biting vector densities even when used close to humans, and are insecticide-free, hence potentially antiresistance. The devices could either be used as surveillance tools or complementary mosquito control interventions to accelerate malaria

  14. Origin of pitcher plant mosquitoes in Aedes (Stegomyia): a molecular phyloge