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Sample records for aedine mosquito species

  1. List of aedine species with published illustrations and/or descriptions of female genitalia (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of the mosquito tribe Aedini with illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia are listed and include corresponding literature citations. Approximately 44% of aedine species currently have published partial or complete illustrations and/or descriptions of the female genitalia....

  2. Recent introductions of aedine species (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) into new geographic areas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information on introductions to new geographic areas of species in the aedine generic-level taxa Aedimorphus, Finlaya, Georgecraigius, Howardina, Hulecoeteomyia, Rampamyia, Stegomyia, Tanakaius and Verrallina is provided....

  3. Gustatory reception of chemicals affecting feeding in aedine mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes vector dangerous human diseases during blood feeding. Gustatory (taste) receptor neurons in the mosquito provide important chemical information including the nature and suitability of a potential host. Here we discuss the behavior, neurophysiology and molecular mechanisms associated wit...

  4. Eggshells as an index of aedine mosquito production. 2: Relationship of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshell density to larval production.

    PubMed

    Addison, D S; Ritchie, S A; Webber, L A; Van Essen, F

    1992-03-01

    To test if eggshell density could be used as an index of aedine mosquito production, we compared eggshell density with the larval production of Aedes taeniorhynchus in Florida mangrove basin forests. Quantitative (n = 7) and categorical (n = 34) estimates of annual larval production were regressed against the number of eggshells per cc of soil. Significant regressions were obtained in both instances. Larval production was concentrated in zones with the highest eggshell density. We suggest that eggshell density and distribution can be used to identify oviposition sites and the sequence of larval appearance.

  5. A Review of the Invasive Mosquitoes in Europe: Ecology, Public Health Risks, and Control Options

    PubMed Central

    Hansford, Kayleigh M.; Schaffner, Francis; Versteirt, Veerle; Hendrickx, Guy; Zeller, Herve; Bortel, Wim Van

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There has been growing interest in Europe in recent years in the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes, notably the incursion of Aedes albopictus through the international trade in used tires and lucky bamboo, with onward spread within Europe through ground transport. More recently, five other non-European aedine mosquito species have been found in Europe, and in some cases populations have established locally and are spreading. Concerns have been raised about the involvement of these mosquito species in transmission cycles of pathogens of public health importance, and these concerns were borne out following the outbreak of chikungunya fever in Italy in 2007, and subsequent autochthonous cases of dengue fever in France and Croatia in 2010. This article reviews current understanding of all exotic (five introduced invasive and one intercepted) aedine species in Europe, highlighting the known import pathways, biotic and abiotic constraints for establishment, control strategies, and public health significance, and encourages Europe-wide surveillance for invasive mosquitoes. PMID:22448724

  6. Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-12-01

    We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice.

  7. Abridged pupa identification key to the common container-breeding mosquitoes in urban Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Bangs, Michael J; Focks, Dana A

    2006-09-01

    Pupal surveys have been advocated as an alternative or surrogate surveillance method for estimating densities of adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Usually, this survey strategy has required that collected pupae eclose to adults before attempting species identification. Using the pupal survey method in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, this rearing step was obviated with the pupal morphological key described herein for identifying preserved or live pupae. Examination of pupae for the identification of various container-inhabiting mosquito genera and target aedine species proved to be accurate and far less time-consuming and problematic than rearing pupae to adults.

  8. Extensive genetic diversity of Rickettsiales bacteria in multiple mosquito species

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Tian, Jun-Hua; Lin, Xian-Dan; Ni, Xue-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liao, Yong; Yang, Si-Yuan; Dumler, J. Stephen; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiales are important zoonotic pathogens, causing severe disease in humans globally. Although mosquitoes are an important vector for diverse pathogens, with the exception of members of the genus Wolbachia little is known about their role in the transmission of Rickettsiales. Herein, Rickettsiales were identified by PCR in five species of mosquitoes (Anopheles sinensis, Armigeres subalbatus, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cu. tritaeniorhynchus) collected from three Chinese provinces during 2014–2015. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses of the rrs, groEL and gltA genes revealed the presence of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Candidatus Neoehrlichia, and Rickettsia bacteria in mosquitoes, comprising nine documented and five tentative species bacteria, as well as three symbionts/endosybionts. In addition, bacteria were identified in mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae sampled from aquatic environments. Hence, these data suggest that Rickettsiales circulate widely in mosquitoes in nature. Also of note was that Ehrlichia and Rickettsia bacteria were detected in each life stage of laboratory cultured mosquitoes, suggesting that Rickettsiales may be maintained in mosquitoes through both transstadial and transovarial transmission. In sum, these data indicate that mosquitoes may have played an important role in the transmission and evolution of Rickettsiales in nature. PMID:27934910

  9. Isolation of Jamestown Canyon virus (California serogroup) from Aedes mosquitoes in an enzootic focus in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Heard, P B; Zhang, M B; Grimstad, P R

    1990-09-01

    Twenty isolates of Jamestown Canyon virus were obtained from adult females of 5 Aedes species collected at the Houghton Lake Wildlife Research Area, Missaukee County, in north-central Michigan between 1985 and 1989. Fourteen were from Aedes provocans, and 6 were from 4 other snowmelt Aedes species. One isolate of trivittatus virus and one Cache Valley-like virus were also obtained. Seasonal succession patterns for numerous mosquito species were recorded over 4 years. The temporal association of adult mosquito emergence, virus isolations, and infection and seroconversion of sentinel deer suggest that Ae. provocans is a primary enzootic vector of Jamestown Canyon virus in that focus. We hypothesize that Ae. provocans provides an overwintering reservoir for Jamestown Canyon virus at the study site. A large dry ice-baited "tent trap" was the most productive method for collecting numerous aedine and other mosquito species.

  10. [The species composition of mosquitoes and ticks in Armenia].

    PubMed

    Manukian, D V; Oganesian, A S; Shakhnazarian, S A; Aleksanian, Iu T

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive epidemiological, entomological, virological, and parasitological studies were conducted to examine the species composition and size of bloodsucking arthropoda (mosquitoes and ticks). A total of 64,567 mosquitoes and 45,180 Ixodes ticks were collected. Among the mosquitoes, Anopheles maculipennis was a prevalent species (81.6%). In all climatic zones, Dermacentor marginatus was the largest in number and most abundant during flag collections from cattle and plants (62.5% and 95.5%, respectively). Virological studies of the collected field material identified 125 strains of arboviruses belonging to 10 viruses: Tyaginya, Sindbis, Batai, Dkhori, tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile fever, Tamdy, KGL, Geta, and Bkhandzha. The identified arboviruses are environmentally associated with both mosquitoes and ticks. The larger number and diversity of bloodsucking artropoda present a potential risk of outbursts of arbovirus infections on the territory of the republic.

  11. Culex (Culex) declarator, a mosquito species new to Florida.

    PubMed

    Darsie, Richard F; Shroyer, Donald A

    2004-09-01

    One specimen of a mosquito new to Florida, Culex declarator, was first found in 1998 in Indian River County. A 2nd specimen was collected in 2002. Beginning in September 2003, Cx. declarator adults were regularly encountered in routine mosquito surveillance sampling, with more than 300 specimens appearing in 45 collections. Prior to our find, the U.S. distrubution was thought to be restricted to south Texas. The full extent of this species' distribution in Florida has yet to be determined.

  12. Identification of Belgian mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Nagy, Z T; Roelants, P; Denis, L; Breman, F C; Damiens, D; Dekoninck, W; Backeljau, T; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2015-03-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, DNA barcoding has proven to be a promising method for the identification of many taxa, including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Many mosquito species are potential vectors of pathogens, and correct identification in all life stages is essential for effective mosquito monitoring and control. To use DNA barcoding for species identification, a reliable and comprehensive reference database of verified DNA sequences is required. Hence, DNA sequence diversity of mosquitoes in Belgium was assessed using a 658 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, and a reference data set was established. Most species appeared as well-supported clusters. Intraspecific Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances averaged 0.7%, and the maximum observed K2P distance was 6.2% for Aedes koreicus. A small overlap between intra- and interspecific K2P distances for congeneric sequences was observed. Overall, the identification success using best match and the best close match criteria were high, that is above 98%. No clear genetic division was found between the closely related species Aedes annulipes and Aedes cantans, which can be confused using morphological identification only. The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex, that is Anopheles maculipennis s.s. and An. messeae, were weakly supported as monophyletic taxa. This study showed that DNA barcoding offers a reliable framework for mosquito species identification in Belgium except for some closely related species.

  13. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  14. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839

  15. Mosquitoes of Zika Forest, Uganda: species composition and relative abundance.

    PubMed

    Kaddumukasa, M A; Mutebi, J-P; Lutwama, J J; Masembe, C; Akol, A M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito collections were conducted in Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda, from July 2009 through June 2010 using CO2-baited light traps, ovitraps, and human-baited catches. In total, 163,790 adult mosquitoes belonging to 12 genera and 58 species were captured. Of these, 22 species (38%) were captured in Zika Forest for the first time. All the new records found in the forest in this study had previously been captured in other regions of Uganda, implying that they are native to the country and do not represent new introductions. More than 20 species previously collected in Zika Forest were not detected in our collections, and this may suggest a change in the mosquito fauna during the past 40 yr or variation in species composition from year to year. Arboviruses of public health importance have previously been isolated from >50% of the 58 mosquito species captured in Zika Forest, which suggests ahigh potential for transmission and maintenance of a wide range of arboviruses in Zika Forest.

  16. Mosquito larvicidal activity of active constituent derived from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves against 3 mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young-Su; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2005-12-01

    Mosqutio larvicidal activity of Chamaecyparis obtusa leaf-derived materials against the 4th-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.), Ochlerotatus togoi (Theobald), and Culex pipiens pallens (Coquillett) was examined in the laboratory. A crude methanol extract of C. obtusa leaves was found to be active (percent mortality rough) against the 3 species larvae; the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity (100% mortality) at 100 ppm. The bioactive component in the C. obtusa leaf extract was characterized as beta-thujaplicin by spectroscopic analyses. The LC50 value of beta-thujaplicin was 2.91, 2.60, and 1.33 ppm against Ae. aegypti, Oc. togoi, and Cx. pipiens pallens larvae. This naturally occurring C. obtusa leaves-derived compound merits further study as a potential mosquito larval control agent or lead compound.

  17. Direct PCR of indigenous and invasive mosquito species: a time- and cost-effective technique of mosquito barcoding.

    PubMed

    Werblow, A; Flechl, E; Klimpel, S; Zittra, C; Lebl, K; Kieser, K; Laciny, A; Silbermayr, K; Melaun, C; Fuehrer, H-P

    2016-03-01

    Millions of people die each year as a result of pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes. However, the morphological identification of mosquito species can be difficult even for experts. The identification of morphologically indistinguishable species, such as members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex (Diptera: Culicidae), and possible hybrids, such as Culex pipiens pipiens/Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae), presents a major problem. In addition, the detection and discrimination of newly introduced species can be challenging, particularly to researchers without previous experience. Because of their medical importance, the clear identification of all relevant mosquito species is essential. Using the direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method described here, DNA amplification without prior DNA extraction is possible and thus species identification after sequencing can be achieved. Different amounts of tissue (leg, head; larvae or adult) as well as different storage conditions (dry, ethanol, -20 and -80 °C) and storage times were successfully applied and showed positive results after amplification and gel electrophoresis. Overall, 28 different indigenous and non-indigenous mosquito species were analysed using a gene fragment of the COX1 gene for species differentiation and identification by sequencing this 658-bp fragment. Compared with standard PCR, this method is time- and cost-effective and could thus improve existing surveillance and control programmes.

  18. New records of mosquito species for different islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako; Higa, Yukiko

    2011-06-01

    During an 11-year study period (1999-2010) on the islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, 20 mosquito species were identified. The results revealed new records of species hitherto not reported on these islands. This contribution updates the mosquito fauna of the various islands of the Ryukyu Archipelago.

  19. Species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. Relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. Asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. Predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emergent effects of multiple predators, particularly interference among predators. Nonlethal effects of predators on mosquito oviposition, foraging, and life history are common, and their consequences for populations and for mosquito-borne disease are poorly understood. Context-dependent beneficial effects of detritus shredders on mosquitoes occur in container habitats, but these interactions appear to involve more than simple resource modification by shredders. Investigations of context-dependent interactions among mosquito larvae will yield greater understanding of mosquito population dynamics and provide useful model systems for testing theories of context dependence in communities.

  20. Species Interactions Among Larval Mosquitoes: Context Dependence Across Habitat Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Biotic interactions involving mosquito larvae are context dependent, with effects of interactions on populations altered by ecological conditions. Relative impacts of competition and predation change across a gradient of habitat size and permanence. Asymmetrical competition is common and ecological context changes competitive advantage, potentially facilitating landscape-level coexistence of competitors. Predator effects on mosquito populations sometimes depend on habitat structure and on emergent effects of multiple predators, particularly interference among predators. Nonlethal effects of predators on mosquito oviposition, foraging, and life history are common, and their consequences for populations and for mosquito-borne disease are poorly understood. Context-dependent beneficial effects of detritus shredders on mosquitoes occur in container habitats, but these interactions appear to involve more than simple resource modification by shredders. Investigations of context-dependent interactions among mosquito larvae will yield greater understanding of mosquito population dynamics and provide useful model systems for testing theories of context dependence in communities. PMID:19067629

  1. Identifying the Main Mosquito Species in the Taiwan Strait Using DNA Barcoding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Fang, Yiliang; Zhang, Jianqing; Wu, Rongquan; Xu, Baohai; Xie, Lianhui

    2017-02-17

    Mosquitoes can transmit many types of viruses such West Nile virus and Zika virus and are responsible for virus-causing diseases including malaria, Dengue fever, yellow fever, lymphatic filariasis, and Japanese B encephalitis. On January 19, 2016, the first case of Zika virus infection was identified in Taiwan, which presents the need for studying the mosquito species in the Taiwan Strait and evaluating the risk of the outbreak of this infection. In this study, we collected a total of 144 specimens from 42 mosquito specimens belonging to 9 genera from both sides of the Taiwan Strait during 2013 and 2014. We then applied the COI DNA Barcoding technique to classify the specimens and performed a phylogenetic analysis to infer the evolutionary history of these mosquitoes. Based on the analyses, we found that though the mosquitoes from different sides of the Taiwan Strait share a lot of commonality, they have a few regional specificities. Our results also suggested a very small divergences (1%~9%) between specimens from the same mosquito species and relatively large divergences (8%~25%) between specimens from different mosquito species. Within the same species, the divergence of specimens from the same region is significantly smaller than that between two regions. A few highly divergent species between Fujian and Taiwan (e.g., An.maculatus and Ae.elsiae) might be formed due to the so called "cryptic evolutionary events", in which the species has differentiation into cryptic species due to geographical differences without changing morphological characteristics. Finally, the phylogenetic analyses showed a very similar taxonomy to the historical one based on morphological characteristics, validating again the application of COI DNA Barcoding technique in classifying mosquito species. However, there are also some inconsistencies between COI DNA Barcoding and historical taxonomy, which points out the differences between mosquito DNA and morphological characteristics and

  2. Molecular Identification of Vertebrate and Hemoparasite DNA Within Mosquito Blood Meals From Eastern North Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Jefferson A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To understand local transmission of vector-borne diseases, it is important to identify potential vectors, characterize their host feeding patterns, and determine if vector-borne pathogens are circulating within the region. This study simultaneously investigated these aspects of disease transmission by collecting engorged mosquitoes within two rural study sites in the central Red River Valley of North Dakota. Mosquitoes were identified, midguts were excised, and the blood was expelled from the midguts. DNA was extracted from blood meals and subjected to PCR and direct sequencing to identify the vertebrate origin of the blood. Using different primer sets, PCR was used to screen for two types of vector-borne pathogens, filarioid nematodes and hemosporidian parasites. White-tailed deer were the primary source of blood meals for the eight aedine mosquito species collected. None of the 288 deer-derived blood meals contained filarioid or hemosporidian DNA. In contrast, 18 of 32 Culex tarsalis and three of three Cx. pipiens blood meals contained avian blood, representing eight different species of birds. Of 24 avian-derived blood meals examined, 12 contained Plasmodium DNA, three of which also contained Leucocytozoon DNA (i.e., dual infection). Potential confounding effects resulting from parasite acquisition and development from previous blood meals (e.g., oocysts) were eliminated because host blood had been removed from the midguts prior to DNA extraction. Thus, specific parasite lineages/species could be unequivocally linked to specific vertebrate species. By combining mosquito identification with molecular techniques for identifying blood meal source and pathogens, a relatively small sample of engorged mosquitoes yielded important new information about mosquito feeding patterns and hemosporidia infections in birds. Thorough analyses of wild-caught engorged mosquitoes and other arthropods represent a powerful tool in understanding the local transmission of

  3. Rapid and high throughput molecular identification of diverse mosquito species by high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mararo, Enock; Omondi, David; Onchuru, Thomas; Muigai, Anne W T; Masiga, Daniel; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a diverse group of invertebrates, with members that are among the most important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is paramount to the control of the diseases that they transmit. However, morphological techniques depend on the quality of the specimen and often unavailable taxonomic expertise, which may still not be able to distinguish mosquitoes among species complexes (sibling and cryptic species). High resolution melting (HRM) analyses, a closed-tube, post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method used to identify variations in nucleic acid sequences, has been used to differentiate species within the Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens complexes. We validated the use of PCR-HRM analyses to differentiate species within Anopheles and within each of six genera of culicine mosquitoes, comparing primers targeting cytochrome b ( cyt b), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), intergenic spacer region (IGS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( COI) gene regions. HRM analyses of amplicons from all the six primer pairs successfully differentiated two or more mosquito species within one or more genera ( Aedes ( Ae. vittatus from Ae. metallicus), Culex ( Cx. tenagius from Cx. antennatus, Cx. neavei from Cx. duttoni, cryptic Cx. pipiens species), Anopheles ( An. gambiae s.s. from An. arabiensis) and Mansonia ( Ma. africana from Ma. uniformis)) based on their HRM profiles. However, PCR-HRM could not distinguish between species within Aedeomyia ( Ad. africana and Ad. furfurea), Mimomyia ( Mi. hispida and Mi. splendens) and Coquillettidia ( Cq. aurites, Cq. chrysosoma, Cq. fuscopennata, Cq. metallica, Cq. microannulatus, Cq. pseudoconopas and Cq. versicolor) genera using any of the primers. The IGS and COI barcode region primers gave the best and most definitive separation of mosquito species among anopheline and culicine mosquito genera, respectively, while the other markers may serve to confirm identifications of closely related sub-species

  4. Rapid and high throughput molecular identification of diverse mosquito species by high resolution melting analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Mararo, Enock; Omondi, David; Onchuru, Thomas; Muigai, Anne W. T.; Masiga, Daniel; Villinger, Jandouwe

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are a diverse group of invertebrates, with members that are among the most important vectors of diseases. The correct identification of mosquitoes is paramount to the control of the diseases that they transmit. However, morphological techniques depend on the quality of the specimen and often unavailable taxonomic expertise, which may still not be able to distinguish mosquitoes among species complexes (sibling and cryptic species). High resolution melting (HRM) analyses, a closed-tube, post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method used to identify variations in nucleic acid sequences, has been used to differentiate species within the Anopheles gambiae and Culex pipiens complexes. We validated the use of PCR-HRM analyses to differentiate species within Anopheles and within each of six genera of culicine mosquitoes, comparing primers targeting cytochrome b ( cyt b), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1), intergenic spacer region (IGS) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( COI) gene regions. HRM analyses of amplicons from all the six primer pairs successfully differentiated two or more mosquito species within one or more genera ( Aedes ( Ae. vittatus from Ae. metallicus), Culex ( Cx. tenagius from Cx. antennatus, Cx. neavei from Cx. duttoni, cryptic Cx. pipiens species), Anopheles ( An. gambiae s.s. from An. arabiensis) and Mansonia ( Ma. africana from Ma. uniformis)) based on their HRM profiles. However, PCR-HRM could not distinguish between species within Aedeomyia ( Ad. africana and Ad. furfurea), Mimomyia ( Mi. hispida and Mi. splendens) and Coquillettidia ( Cq. aurites, Cq. chrysosoma, Cq. fuscopennata, Cq. metallica, Cq. microannulatus, Cq. pseudoconopas and Cq. versicolor) genera using any of the primers. The IGS and COI barcode region primers gave the best and most definitive separation of mosquito species among anopheline and culicine mosquito genera, respectively, while the other markers may serve to confirm identifications of closely related sub-species

  5. Mosquito Surveillance and the First Record of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    DOOSTI, Sara; YAGHOOBI-ERSHADI, Mohammad Reza; SCHAFFNER, Francis; MOOSA-KAZEMI, Seyed Hassan; AKBARZADEH, Kamran; GOOYA, Mohammad Mehdi; VATANDOOST, Hassan; SHIRZADI, Mohammad Reza; MOSTA-FAVI, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemics of mosquito-borne viral infections such as dengue, chikungunya, West Nile and Rift Valley fevers in neighbouring countries and risk of introduction of exotic vectors into Iran have placed this country at a significant risk for these mosquito-borne diseases. Methods: After the first dengue case reported in Iran in 2008, active entomological surveillance of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus) were conducted in May/Jun, Sep, and Oct/Nov, 2008–2014. Based on occurrence of dengue cases and the presence of potential entry sides including ports and boarder gates, 121 sites in eight provinces were monitored for mosquito vectors. Larval collections were carried out using droppers or dippers and adult collections with CDC light traps, human landing catches, aspirator and Pyrethrum spray space catches. Results: A total of 8,186 larvae and 3,734 adult mosquitoes were collected belonging to 23 Culicinae species, including 13 of the genus Culex, 1 Culiseta, 1 Uranotaenia, and 8 of the genus Aedes. Five Aedes albopictus larvae were identified from the Sistan & Baluchestan province bordering Pakistan in 2009. In 2013, seven Ae. albopictus adult mosquitoes were also collected in a coastal locality near the city of Chabahar in the same province. Conclusion: The detection of larvae and adults of this species in different parts of this province reveal its probable establishment in southeast Iran, which has implications for public health and requires active entomological surveillance as well as the implementation of vector control to prevent the further spread of this critical vector. PMID:27928533

  6. Toxicity Comparison of Eight Repellents Against Four Species of Female Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    TOXICITY COMPARISON OF EIGHT REPELLENTS AGAINST FOUR SPECIES OF FEMALE MOSQUITOES JULIA W. PRIDGEON, ULRICH R. BERNIER AND JAMES J. BECNEL Center for...repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti...repellent toxicity, topical application INTRODUCTION Females of the mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.) transmit viral pathogens to humans, resulting in

  7. Allethrin-Based Mosquito Control Device Causing Knockdown, Morbidity, and Mortality in Four Species of Field-Caught Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bibbs, Christopher S; Fulcher, Ali; Xue, Rui-De

    2015-07-01

    A mosquito control device marketed for spatial repellency, the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance, was evaluated in semifield trials against multiple field-caught species of mosquito. Using paper and mesh cages, mosquito test groups of at least 30 mosquitoes were suspended in a 2,337 cubic foot outdoor space while two ThermaCELL repellent devices were active. After 30 min of treatment, cages were moved to the laboratory to observe knockdown, morbidity, and mortality for 24 h. Species tested included Aedes atlanticus Dyar and Knab (98% average mortality), Psorophora ferox Humboldt (97% average mortality), Psorophora columbiae Dyar and Knab (96% average mortality), and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann (84% average mortality). The repellent devices showed effectiveness with high knockdown and mortality across all species tested. Mosquito control devices like the ThermaCELL Mosquito Repellent Appliance may have further practical applications to help combat viral exposures by limiting host mosquitoes. Such devices may provide a functional alternative to DEET dependence in the current state of mosquito management.

  8. Different mosquito species host Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala): perspectives on vector-borne diseases symbiotic control.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Irene; Mosca, Michela; Valzano, Matteo; Damiani, Claudia; Scuppa, Patrizia; Rossi, Paolo; Crotti, Elena; Cappelli, Alessia; Ulissi, Ulisse; Capone, Aida; Esposito, Fulvio; Alma, Alberto; Mandrioli, Mauro; Sacchi, Luciano; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele; Favia, Guido

    2011-01-01

    The genetic manipulation of the microbial community associated with hematophagus insects is particularly relevant for public health applications. Within mosquito populations, this relationship has been overlooked until recently. New advances in molecular biotechnology propose the genetic manipulation of mosquito symbionts to prevent the transmission of pathogens to humans by interfering with the obligatory life cycle stages within the insect through the use of effector molecules. This approach, defined as 'paratransgenesis', has opened the way for the investigation and characterization of microbes residing in the mosquito body, particularly those localised within the gut. Some interesting bacteria have been identified as candidates for genetic modification, however, endosymbiotic yeasts remain largely unexplored with little information on the symbiotic relationships to date. Here we review the recent report of symbiotic relationship between Wickerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala) and several mosquito vector species as promising methods to implement control of mosquito-borne diseases.

  9. Effect of sampling method on the species composition and abundance of adult mosquitoes in a Florida swamp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of the adult mosquito populations in a Florida swamp (Sumter Co.) were obtained using suction traps and portable CDC light traps (augmented with CO2) and the results compared with mosquitoes captured by mechanical aspirator when landing on a human subject. Sixteen mosquito species total wer...

  10. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs.

  11. Resistance Level of Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Hai-Fang; Liu, Li-Juan; Huang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhang, Chong-Xing; Gong, Mao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the aquatic habitats, species composition, and the insecticide resistance level of the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens in Shandong Province, China. A cross-sectional survey of mosquito larval habitats was conducted from May to November 2014 to determine the species composition and larval abundance. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique, and a total of four habitat types were sampled. The fourth instar larvae of Cx. pipiens pallens collected in each habitat type were tested for resistance to five insecticides according to a WHO bioassay. A total of 7,281 mosquito larvae were collected, of which 399 (5.48%) were categorized as Anopheles mosquito larvae (An. sinensis), 6636 (91.14%) as culicine larvae (Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. halifaxii, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus), 213 (2.93%) as Armigeres larvae, and 33 (0.45%) as Aedes larvae (Aedes albopictus). In addition, a total of 1,149 mosquito pupae were collected. Culex larvae were distributed in all habitats investigated. Tukeys HSD analysis showed that roadside drainages were the most productive habitat type for Culex larvae. Armigeres species were found only in drains, Aedes only in water tanks, and Anopheles in water that was comparatively clear and rich in emergent plants. Bioassay showed that the maximum resistance level of Cx. pipiens pallens was to deltamethrin, while it was lowest to plifenate. The productivity of various mosquitoes in different habitat types is very heterogeneous. It is particularly important to modify human activity and the environment to achieve effective mosquito vector control. For effective larval control, the type of habitat should be considered, and the most productive habitat type should be given priority in mosquito abatement programs. PMID:26816489

  12. Interspecific competition during transmission of two sympatric malaria parasite species to the mosquito vector.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rick E L; Nu, Van Anh Ton; Krettli, Antoniana U; Brey, Paul T

    2002-01-01

    The role of species interactions in structuring parasite communities remains controversial. Here, we show that interspecific competition between two avian malaria parasite species, Plasmodium gallinaceum and P. juxtanucleare, occurs as a result of interference during parasite fertilization within the bloodmeal of the mosquito. The significant reduction in the transmission success of P. gallinaceum to mosquitoes, due to the co-infecting P. juxtanucleare, is predicted to have compromised its colonization of regions occupied by P. juxtanucleare and, thus, may have contributed to the restricted global distribution of P. gallinaceum. Such interspecies interactions may occur between human malaria parasites and, thus, impact upon parasite species epidemiology, especially in regions of seasonal transmission. PMID:12573069

  13. Artificial Neural Network applied as a methodology of mosquito species identification.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Camila; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2015-12-01

    There are about 200 species of mosquitoes (Culicidae) known to be vectors of pathogens that cause diseases in humans. Correct identification of mosquito species is an essential step in the development of effective control strategies for these diseases; recognizing the vectors of pathogens is integral to understanding transmission. Unfortunately, taxonomic identification of mosquitoes is a laborious task, which requires trained experts, and it is jeopardized by the high variability of morphological and molecular characters found within the Culicidae family. In this context, the development of an automatized species identification method would be a valuable and more accessible resource to non-taxonomist and health professionals. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) technique was proposed for the identification and classification of 17 species of the genera Anopheles, Aedes, and Culex, based on wing shape characters. We tested the hypothesis that classification using ANN is better than traditional classification by discriminant analysis (DA). Thirty-two wing shape principal components were used as input to a Multilayer Perceptron Classification ANN. The obtained ANN correctly identified species with accuracy rates ranging from 85.70% to 100%, and classified species more efficiently than did the traditional method of multivariate discriminant analysis. The results highlight the power of ANNs to diagnose mosquito species and to partly automatize taxonomic identification. These findings also support the hypothesis that wing venation patterns are species-specific, and thus should be included in taxonomic keys.

  14. Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae) Persistence and Synchrony Across an Urban Altitudinal Gradient.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2017-03-01

    Patterns of mosquito spatial persistence and temporal presence, as well as synchrony, i.e., the degree of concerted fluctuations in abundance, have been scarcely studied at finely grained spatial scales and over altitudinal gradients. Here, we present a spatial persistence, temporal presence, and synchrony analysis of four common mosquito species across the altitudinal gradient of Mt. Konpira in Nagasaki, Japan. We found that Aedes albopictus (Skuse) was more frequently found at the mountain base. In contrast, Aedes japonicus (Theobald) and Aedes flavopictus Yamada were common higher in the mountain, while Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillet) was uniformly present across the mountain, yet less frequently than the other species during the studied period. Our analysis showed that these spatial heterogeneities were associated with differences in landscape and microclimatic elements of Mt. Konpira. Temporally we found that presence across sampling locations was mainly synchronous across the four species and positively associated with rainfall and temperature. With the exception of Ae albopictus, where no significant synchrony was observed, mosquito species mainly showed flat synchrony profiles in Mt. Konpira when looking at the geographic (2-D) distance between their sampling locations. By contrast, when synchrony was studied across altitude, it was observed that Ae. flavopictus tracked the temperature synchrony pattern, decreasing its synchrony with the separation in altitude between sampling locations. Finally, our results suggest that differences in mosquito species persistence, temporal presence, and synchrony might be useful to understand the entomological risk of vector-borne disease transmission in urban landscapes.

  15. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C

    2009-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100 x 100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  16. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E.; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100×100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. PMID:20073347

  17. Wyeomyia exallos, a new species of sylvatic mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Glauber Pereira; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Motta, Monique de Albuquerque

    2012-11-01

    Wyeomyia exallos, a new mosquito species from Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, is described based on morphological characters of the adult female, male, male genitalia, pupa and fourth-instar larva. The morphological characters of Wy. exallos sp. nov. are compared with those of different subgenera of Wyeomyia as well as of species without subgeneric position. It is proposed that the new species should be placed in genus Wyeomyia Theobald without subgeneric assignment.

  18. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology.

    PubMed

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Colombia, one of the world's megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia.

  19. Mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in three ecosystems from the Colombian Andes: identification through DNA barcoding and adult morphology

    PubMed Central

    Rozo-Lopez, Paula; Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colombia, one of the world’s megadiverse countries, has a highly diverse mosquito fauna and a high prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases. In order to provide relevant information about the diversity and taxonomy of mosquito species in Colombia and to test the usefulness of DNA barcodes, mosquito species collected at different elevations in the departments of Antioquia and Caldas were identified combining adult morphology and barcode sequences. A total of 22 mosquito species from eight genera were identified using these combined techniques. We generated 77 barcode sequences with 16 species submitted as new country records for public databases. We examined the usefulness of DNA barcodes to discriminate mosquito species from the Neotropics by compiling 1,292 sequences from a total of 133 species and using the tree-based methods of neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood. Both methodologies provided similar results by resolving 105 species of mosquitoes separated into distinct clusters. This study shows the importance of combining classic morphological methodologies with molecular tools to accurately identify mosquitoes from Colombia. PMID:26257568

  20. [Biological factors influencing infectious diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes].

    PubMed

    Boštíková, Vanda; Pasdiorová, Markéta; Marek, Jan; Prášil, Petr; Salavec, Miloslav; Sleha, Radek; Střtítecká, Hana; Blažek, Pavel; Hanovcová, Irena; Šošovičková, Renáta; Špliňo, Milan; Smetana, Jan; Chlíbek, Roman; Hytych, Václav; Kuča, Kamil; Boštík, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Studies focused on arbovirus diseases transmitted by invasive species of mosquitoes have become increasingly significant in recent years, due to the fact that these vectors have successfully migrated to Europe and become established in the region. Mosquitoes, represented by more than 3 200 species, occur naturally worldwide, except in Antarctica. They feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals and by this route, they are capable of transmitting dangerous diseases. Some species can travel a distance of 10 km per night and can fly continuously for up to 4 hours at a speed of 1-2 km/h. Most species are active at night, in the evening or morning. It usually takes a mosquito female about 50 seconds to penetrate the skin of mammals and the subsequent blood meal usually takes about 2.5 minutes. Mosquitoes live for several weeks or months, depending on the environmental conditions. The VectorNet project is a European network of information exchange and sharing of data relating to the geographical distribution of arthropod vectors and transmission of infectious agents between human populations and animals. It aims at the development of strategic plans and vaccination policies which are the main tasks of this time, as well as the development and application of new disinfectants to control vector populations.

  1. Vector Competence of Selected African Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species for Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Egypt, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia have indicated the potential for this disease to spread from its enzootic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. Because little is known about the potential for most African mosquito species to transmit RVF virus (RVFV), we conducted stud...

  2. Human blood-feeding rates among sympatric sibling species of Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes in northern Florida.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T; Cockburn, A F; Kaiser, P E; Barnard, D R

    1996-05-01

    We compared rates of feeding on human hosts for blood-engorged female Anopheles quadrimaculatus species A, B and C1 collected from daytime resting sites in Manatee Springs State Park, Levy County, Florida during 1992-1993. Quick-blot DNA probes were used to identify mosquito taxa and also the presence of human blood in the mosquito gut. In collections from a campground area, human blood-feeding rates differed significantly among mosquito species (10.7% [19 of 177], 0%, [0 of 62], and 1.2%, [4 of 327]), respectively for species A, B and C1). In collections from a woodland site (1 km from the campground), 1.5% (2 of 129) of the species B females had fed on humans, whereas none of 19 species A or 159 species C1 females had done so. Of the three species in this study area, species A appears the most likely to be a biting pest of humans and a vector of human malaria.

  3. Pathogenicity Tests on Nine Mosquito Species and Several Non-target Organisms with Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nemata Mermithidae)

    PubMed Central

    Becnel, James J.; Johnson, Margaret A.

    1998-01-01

    Nine species of mosquitoes and several species of non-target aquatic organisms were tested for susceptibility to the mernaithid nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus. All species of Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, and Toxorhynchites exposed to S. spiculatus were susceptible. Of the nine mosquito species tested, C. pipiens quinquefasciatus had the greatest tolerance to initial invasion and the highest percent infection of those that survived. High levels of infection were also achieved with Aedes taeniorhynchus and A. albopictus, but these mosquitoes were significantly less tolerant to parasitism than C. pipiens quinquefasciatus. Strelkovimermis spiculatus did not infect or develop in any of the non-target hosts tested. PMID:19274233

  4. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  5. A checklist of the mosquitoes of New Jersey with notes on established invasive species.

    PubMed

    Farajollahi, Ary; Crans, Scott C

    2012-09-01

    A checklist of 63 species of mosquitoes endemic in New Jersey is presented. Although Aedes albopictus was included in the previous checklist, the species has dramatically increased its geographic range and population numbers in recent years, and it is now prevalent in 19 of New Jersey's 21 counties. The invasive Aedes japonicus japonicus is also now widespread throughout the state and is an addition to the previous checklist. Culex erraticus, an endemic species with a previous distribution primarily in the southern portion of the state, has also expanded its range significantly in New Jersey in recent years and is now detected state-wide. Mosquito control personnel periodically discover localized populations of Ae. aegypti, but the species fails to overwinter successfully in New Jersey and is not included on the checklist.

  6. Introduction and establishment of the exotic mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Schaffner, F; Garros, C; Dekoninck, W; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2009-11-01

    The establishment of the potential vector species Aedes (Finlaya) japonicusjaponicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Belgium is reported. The species was most likely introduced through the international trade in used tires. It was first collected in 2002 on the premises of a second-hand tire company and was sampled using different sampling methods in the two consecutive years (2003-2004). It was only in 2007 and 2008, during a national mosquito survey (MODIRISK), that its presence as adults and larvae at the above-mentioned site and at another tire company in the area was confirmed based on morphological and molecular identification. This discovery is the first record for Belgium of an exotic mosquito species that established successfully and raises the question on the need for monitoring and control. Considering the accompanying species found during the surveys, we also report here the first observation of Culex (Maillotia) hortensis hortensis (Ficalbi) in Belgium.

  7. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) Markers Readily Distinguish Cryptic Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae: Anopheles)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Paskewitz & Collins. 1990; approaches to overcome these are suggested. J. Scott , W. Brogden and F. Collins, pers. comm.). Even though this is an...characterized, yet morphologically cryptic, mosquito Bowditch et al (1993). Total reaction volumes of 25 11l were used species portend that RAPD analysis...Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Mary- Acknowledgements land, USA. The identities of the species were confirmed using PCR primers supplied by J. Scott , W

  8. [MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA, PSYCHODIDAE, PHLEBOTOMINAE) IN CENTRAL ASIA: SPECIES COMPOSITION AND SPREAD].

    PubMed

    Baranets, M S; Ponirovsky, E N; Kadamov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Based on the data available in the literature and the results of their investigations, the authors analyzed the spread of mosquitoes in Central Asia (Kazikhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan). It has been established that there are 27 mosquito species: P. papatasii, P. sergenti, P. caucasicus, P. mongolensis, P. andrejevi, P. alexandri, P. nuri, P. kandelakii, P. keshishiani, P. smirnovi, P. notus, P. wenioni, P. 1ongiductus, P. tuianicus, P. rupester, P. angustus, P. halepensis, P. zufagarensis, S. murgaitensis, S. dentata, S. pawlowsil, S. ciyda, S. pakistanica, S. sogdiana, S. sumbarica, S. grekovi, and G. dreyfussi turkestanica in this region. Five species of them (P. papatasii, P. sergenti, P. smirnovi, P. longiductus, and P. turanicus) are of medical importance. Maps of the spread of the species of medical importance have been compiled. Entomological observations should be made in individual areas of this region due to climate changes in the environment and to man-made interventions.

  9. Species composition and seasonal dynamics of mosquito larvae in the Wrocław, Poland area.

    PubMed

    Rydzanicz, K; Lonc, E

    2003-12-01

    A total of 13,214 larvae specimens representing eight species (Culex pipiens, Culiseta annulata, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus communis, Ochlerotatus excrucians, Ochlerotatus sticticus, Aedes vexans, and Anopheles maculipennis) from twelve sampling places in the Wrocław area in Poland were collected between May and October, 1998-2000. The development rate of each mosquito species depended on hydrological types and various plant communities in water bodies. The water quality (temperature, pH and ion concentration) influenced mosquito larvae dynamics as well. The most abundant and constant species was Cx. pipiens. Its monthly population was significantly higher in the water bodies located in the city center as compared to those in the suburbs.

  10. Ecological Niche Modeling of Potential West Nile Virus Vector Mosquito Species in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Scott R.; DeGroote, John P.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2010-01-01

    Ecological niche modeling (ENM) algorithms, Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) and Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP), were used to develop models in Iowa for three species of mosquito — two significant, extant West Nile virus (WNV) vectors (Culex pipiens L and Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)), and the nuisance mosquito, Aedes vexans Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae), a potential WNV bridge vector. Occurrence data for the three mosquito species from a state-wide arbovirus surveillance program were used in combination with climatic and landscape layers. Maxent successfully created more appropriate niche models with greater accuracy than GARP. The three Maxent species' models were combined and the average values were statistically compared to human WNV incidence at the census block group level. The results showed that the Maxent-modeled species' niches averaged together were a useful indicator of WNV human incidence in the state of Iowa. This simple method for creating probability distribution maps proved useful for understanding WNV dynamics and could be applied to the study of other vector-borne diseases. PMID:20874412

  11. Species Composition of Bacterial Communities Influences Attraction of Mosquitoes to Experimental Plant Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Wesson, Dawn M.; Arellano, Consuelo; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    In the container habitats of immature mosquitoes, catabolism of plant matter and other organic detritus by microbial organisms produces metabolites that mediate the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Public health agencies commonly use oviposition traps containing plant infusions for monitoring populations of these mosquito species, which are global vectors of dengue viruses. In laboratory experiments, gravid females exhibited significantly diminished responses to experimental infusions made with sterilized white oak leaves, showing that attractive odorants were produced through microbial metabolic activity. We evaluated effects of infusion concentration and fermentation time on attraction of gravid females to infusions made from senescent bamboo or white oak leaves. We used plate counts of heterotrophic bacteria, total counts of 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained bacterial cells, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to show that changes in the relative abundance of bacteria and the species composition of bacterial communities influenced attraction of gravid A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes to infusions. DGGE profiles showed that bacterial species composition in infusions changed over time. Principal components analysis indicated that oviposition responses to plant infusions were in general most affected by bacterial diversity and abundance. Analysis of bacterial 16S rDNA sequences derived from DGGE bands revealed that Proteo-bacteria (Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Gamma-) were the predominant bacteria detected in both types of plant infusions. Gravid A. aegypti were significantly attracted to a mix of 14 bacterial species cultured from bamboo leaf infusion. The oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes to plant infusions is strongly influenced by abundance and diversity of bacterial species, which in turn is affected by plant species, leaf biomass, and fermentation

  12. A survey of mosquitoes breeding in used tires in Spain for the detection of imported potential vector species.

    PubMed

    Roiz, D; Eritja, R; Escosa, R; Lucientes, J; Marquès, E; Melero-Alcíbar, R; Ruiz, S; Molina, R

    2007-06-01

    The used tire trade has facilitated the introduction, spread, and establishment of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and other mosquito species in several countries of America, Africa, Oceania, and Europe. A strategy for detecting these imported mosquito vectors was developed in Spain during 2003-2004 by EVITAR (multidisciplinary network for the study of viruses transmitted by arthropods and rodents). A survey in 45 locations found no invasive species. Eight autochthonous species of mosquitoes were detected in used tires, including Culex pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. modestus, Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, Culiseta longiareolata, Cs. annulata, and Aedes caspius. Dominant species were Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. Aedes caspius was found in only once, near its natural breeding habitat. Considering the recent discovery of an established population of Ae. albopictus in Catalonia, the increasing commerce of used tires in Spain for recycling, storage, and recapping might greatly contribute to the rapid spread of this species across the Iberian Peninsula.

  13. Mosquito species succession and physicochemical factors affecting their abundance in rice fields in Mwea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muriu, Simon; Jacob, Benjamin; Kabiru, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The succession of mosquito species and abiotic factors affecting their distribution and abundance in rice (Oryza spp.) fields was investigated over a 16-wk rice growing cycle covering the period between January and May 2006. Fifteen experimental rice plots were sampled for mosquito larvae and characterized based on rice height, number of tillers, floating vegetation cover, water depth, water temperature, turbidity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. Microscopic identification of 3,025 larvae yielded nine mosquito species predominated by Anopheles arabiensis Patton (45.0%), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (35.8%), Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (9.0%) and Ficalbia splendens Theobald (7.1%). Other species, including Anopheles rufipes Gough, Anopheles coustani Laveran, Anonopheles maculipalpis Giles, Culex annulioris Theobald, and Culex poicilipes Theobald made up 3.1% of the total collection. Anopheles gambiae s.l., Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. pharoensis occurred throughout the cycle, but they were more abundant up to 4 wk posttransplanting with peaks after fertilizer application. As rice plants became established, three groups of mosquitoes were recognized: the first groups included An. rufipes, Fl. splendens, and Cx. annulioris, which occurred throughout much of the second half of the rice cycle, whereas the second group included Cx. poicilipes, which was found in the middle of the rice cycle. An. coustani and An. maculipalpis formed the third group occurring toward the end of the cycle. Dissolved oxygen, number of tillers, and rice height were negatively associated with the abundance ofAn. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. In addition, Cx. quinquefasciatus also was associated with water depth (-ve) and turbidity (+ve). Abundance of An. pharoensis larvae was significantly associated with water temperature (+ve), the number of tillers (-ve), and rice height (-ve), whereas Fl. splendens was significantly associated with

  14. Genomic and evolutionary analyses of Tango transposons in Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and other mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Coy, M R; Tu, Z

    2007-08-01

    Tango is a transposon of the Tc1 family and was originally discovered in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Here we report a systematic analysis of the genome sequence of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which uncovered three distinct Tango transposons. We name the only An. gambiae Tango transposon AgTango1 and the three Ae. aegypti Tango elements AeTango1-3. Like AgTango1, AeTango1 and AeTango2 elements both have members that retain characteristics of autonomous elements such as intact open reading frames and terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). AeTango3 is a degenerate transposon with no full-length members. All full-length Tango transposons contain subterminal direct repeats within their TIRs. AgTango1 and AeTango1-3 form a single clade among other Tc1 transposons. Within this clade, AgTango1 and AeTango1 are closely related and share approximately 80% identity at the amino acid level, which exceeds the level of similarity of the majority of host genes in the two species. A survey of Tango in other mosquito species was carried out using degenerate PCR. Tango was isolated and sequenced in all members of the An. gambiae species complex, Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus atropalpus. Oc. atropalpus contains a rich diversity of Tango elements, while Tango elements in Ae. albopictus and the An. gambiae species complex all belong to Tango1. No Tango was detected in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles farauti or Anopheles albimanus using degenerate PCR. Bioinformatic searches of the Cx. p. quinquefasciatus (~10 x coverage) and An. stephensi (0.33 x coverage) databases also failed to uncover any Tango elements. Although other evolutionary scenarios cannot be ruled out, there are indications that Tango1 underwent horizontal transfer among divergent mosquito species.

  15. Insight into Global Mosquito Biogeography from Country Species Records

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    of species. and Brazil al’io had the highe.’it taxonomic output and number of type locations. Brazil, Australia, the Philippines. and Indonesia had...had higher numbc!"l; of publications and type locations. possibly due to greater sanlpling effort andlor species endemism on islands. The taxonomic...a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED

  16. Mosquito species and outdoor breeding places in residential areas in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Saleeza, S N R; Norma-Rashid, Y; Azirun, M Sofian

    2013-11-01

    We conducted mosquito surveillance at outdoor breeding habitat in 459 households at 7 urban locations in Putrajaya, Malaysia from January to December 2010 to determine the predominant species and breeding locations. The most common species found at all locations was Aedes albopictus. Gardening utensils were the most common breeding sites. Of the 1,885 mosquito larvae specimens found, 1,774 (94.1%) were Ae. albopictus larvae, 84 (4%) were Ae. aegypti larvae and 27 (1%) were Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The Aedes index for each of the locations was higher than the goal set by the Ministry of Health for Malaysia. However, the container index at each of the locations was within the goal. The Breateau index was above the goal set by the Ministry of Health at Precinct 9B1 but the other locations were within the goal.

  17. Reintroduction of the invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus in Belgium in July 2013.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Schaffner, Francis; Bawin, Thomas; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Since its first report in 2000, the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus was not found any more during the different entomological inspections performed at its place of introduction in Belgium between 2001 and 2012. In July 2013, one adult male was captured at the same site (a platform of imported used tires located in Vrasene, Oost-Vlaanderen Province), during a monitoring using CO2-baited trap. This finding suggests the reintroduction of the species in Belgium via the used tire trade.

  18. Superior reproductive success on human blood without sugar is not limited to highly anthropophilic mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Braks, M A H; Juliano, S A; Lounibos, L P

    2006-03-01

    Anthropophilic mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) have been shown to have superior reproductive success on human blood when sugar is not available. Life-table experiments were conducted with Aedes albopictus Skuse and Ae. aegypti to compare the effects of sugar availability on age-specific survivorship, lifetime and daily fecundity, and blood-feeding frequency when offered human blood daily. There were no significant interactions between the effects of sugar availability and mosquito species for these four variables, indicating similar effects of sugar availability for both species. Lifetime fecundity was not significantly affected by sugar availability, but sugar-deprived females had significantly reduced age-specific survivorship than did sugar-fed females. In absence of sugar, females took bloodmeals twice as often, resulting in a higher daily fecundity. The results indicate that superior reproductive success on human blood without sugar does not seem to be limited to highly anthropophilic mosquito species, such as Ae. aegypti. We conclude that evolution of a highly anthropophilic feeding strategy is not an inevitable result of the ability to thrive on human blood alone.

  19. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki in the control of two mosquito species (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Senthil; Moorthi, M; Ramakrishnan, N; Dhanapakiam, P; Ramasamy, V K; Rajeswari, A Raja

    2009-05-01

    Bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) was used for controlling the mosquito species (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus) which gave a significant (p<0.05) mortality in both species. The higher concentration of Btk was highly effective compared to the control ones. The controlling effect was dose and time dependent. Among the studied mosquitoes the C. quinquefasciatus (LC5 0.154%) was more susceptible than A. stephensi (LC50 0.372%) towards the bioinsecticide Btk.

  20. Mosquitocidal Effect of Glycosmis pentaphylla Leaf Extracts against Three Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Suganya, Ponnusamy; Natarajan, Devarajan; Kweka, Eliningaya J.; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The resistance status of malaria vectors to different classes of insecticides used for public health has raised concern for vector control programmes. Alternative compounds to supplement the existing tools are important to be searched to overcome the existing resistance and persistence of pesticides in vectors and the environment respectively. The mosquitocidal effects of Glycosmis pentaphylla using different solvents of acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts against three medically important mosquito vectors was conducted. Methods Glycosmis pentaphylla plant leaves were collected from Kolli Hills, India. The WHO test procedures for larval and adult bioassays were used to evaluate extracts against mosquito vectors, and the chemical composition of extracts identified using GC-MS analysis. Results The larvicidal and adulticidal activity of G. pentaphylla plant extracts clearly impacted the three species of major mosquitoes vectors. Acetone extracts had the highest larvicidal effect against An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.0004, 138.54; 0.2669, 73.7413 and 0.0585, 303.746 mg/ml, respectively. The LC50 and LC90 adulticide values of G. pentaphylla leaf extracts in acetone, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate, solvents were as follows for Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and Ae. Aegypti: 2.957, 5.458, 2.708, and 4.777, 3.449, 6.676 mg/ml respectively. The chemical composition of G. pentaphylla leaf extract has been found in 20 active compounds. Conclusions The plant leaf extracts of G. pentaphylla bioactive molecules which are effective and can be developed as an eco-friendly approach for larvicides and adulticidal mosquitoes vector control. Detailed identification and characterization of mosquitocidal effect of individual bioactive molecules ingredient may result into biodegradable effective tools for the control of mosquito vectors. PMID:27391146

  1. Environmental correlates of abundances of mosquito species and stages in discarded vehicle tires.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A; Kneitel, Jamie M; Juliano, Steven A

    2010-01-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for container mosquito larvae, although the environmental factors that may control their presence or abundance within a tire are largely unknown. We sampled discarded vehicle tires in six sites located within four counties of central Illinois during the spring and summer of 2006 to determine associations between a suite of environmental factors and community composition of container mosquitoes. Our goal was to find patterns of association between environmental factors and abundances of early and late instars. We hypothesized that environmental factors correlated with early instars would be indicative of oviposition cues, whereas environmental factors correlated with late instars would be those important for larval survival. We collected 13 species of mosquitoes, with six species (Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Aedes albopictus, Cx. salinarius, Ae. atropalpus, and Ae. triseriatus) accounting for r95% of all larvae. There were similar associations between congenerics and environmental factors, with Aedes associated with detritus type (fine detritus, leaves, seeds) and Culex associated with factors related to the surrounding habitat (human population density, canopy cover, tire size) or microorganisms (bacteria, protozoans). Although there was some consistency in factors that were important for early and late instar abundance, there were few significant associations between early and late instars for individual species. Lack of correspondence between factors that explain variation in early versus late instars, most notable for Culex, suggests a difference between environmental determinants of oviposition and survival within tires. Environmental factors associated with discarded tires are important for accurate predictions of mosquito occurrence at the generic level.

  2. Identification and Characterization of Two Novel RNA Viruses from Anopheles gambiae Species Complex Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Carissimo, Guillaume; Eiglmeier, Karin; Reveillaud, Julie; Holm, Inge; Diallo, Mawlouth; Diallo, Diawo; Vantaux, Amélie; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier; Siv, Sovannaroth; Belda, Eugeni; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Antoniewski, Christophe; Vernick, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex display strong preference for human bloodmeals and are major malaria vectors in Africa. However, their interaction with viruses or role in arbovirus transmission during epidemics has been little examined, with the exception of O’nyong-nyong virus, closely related to Chikungunya virus. Deep-sequencing has revealed different RNA viruses in natural insect viromes, but none have been previously described in the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Here, we describe two novel insect RNA viruses, a Dicistrovirus and a Cypovirus, found in laboratory colonies of An. gambiae taxa using small-RNA deep sequencing. Sequence analysis was done with Metavisitor, an open-source bioinformatic pipeline for virus discovery and de novo genome assembly. Wild-collected Anopheles from Senegal and Cambodia were positive for the Dicistrovirus and Cypovirus, displaying high sequence identity to the laboratory-derived virus. Thus, the Dicistrovirus (Anopheles C virus, AnCV) and Cypovirus (Anopheles Cypovirus, AnCPV) are components of the natural virome of at least some anopheline species. Their possible influence on mosquito immunity or transmission of other pathogens is unknown. These natural viruses could be developed as models for the study of Anopheles-RNA virus interactions in low security laboratory settings, in an analogous manner to the use of rodent malaria parasites for studies of mosquito anti-parasite immunity. PMID:27138938

  3. Larval Habitats Diversity and Distribution of the Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Species in the Republic of Moldova.

    PubMed

    Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K

    2015-11-01

    A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova.

  4. Established Population of the Invasive Mosquito Species Aedes albopictus in Romania, 2012-14.

    PubMed

    Prioteasa, Liviu F; Dinu, Sorin; Fălcuţă, Elena; Ceianu, Cornelia S

    2015-06-01

    During an entomological investigation carried out in Bucharest and surroundings in fall of 2012, 45 adult mosquitoes (38 females and 7 males) of Aedes albopictus were collected in a neighborhood from the southern area of the city. The morphological identification of the species was further confirmed by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA markers: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Aedes albopictus was collected again in 2013 in the same area from July until October. During late summer the species was found also in another location in the city, downtown Bucharest. Larvae were found in water barrels and other types of household containers, as well as in rain catch basins. In 2014, following a nuisance complaint of a Bucharest inhabitant, the entomological investigation found aggressive Ae. albopictus adults on his property that harbored many mosquito larvae in container-type breeding habitats. These findings are the 1st records of this invasive species and of its breeding population in Romania, and show maintenance of the species over 2 winter seasons. Surveillance of the species outside the area of the capital city was not performed, therefore it is not known whether Ae. albopictus has been introduced in other regions of the country. The presence of Ae. albopictus has been reported every year (2012-14) to competent public health authorities, stressing on the importance of surveillance and of implementation of control measures.

  5. Laboratory transmission of Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses (Bunyaviridae: California serogroup) by several species of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Heard, P B; Zhang, M B; Grimstad, P R

    1991-03-01

    The ability of 14 species of mosquitoes to biologically transmit Jamestown Canyon virus was tested. Four species not previously described as vectors of that virus transmitted to suckling mice. Among membrane-fed mosquitoes with disseminated infections, field-collected Aedes canadensis (1/3), Anopheles punctipennis (1/12), Coquillettidia perturbans (2/14) and a laboratory strain of Ae. epactius (19/67) transmitted virus. Two species were tested for their ability to transmit snowshoe hare virus: field-collected Ae. provocans (4/20) and Ae. abserratus-punctor (2/20) successfully transmitted to suckling mice. Evidence regarding the role of these species as field vectors is summarized.

  6. Species Composition and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Neka County, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nikookar, SH; Moosa-Kazemi, SH; Oshaghi, MA; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, MR; Vatandoost, H; Kianinasab, A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Regarding to the significant of the possibility of the malaria epidemic and nuisance of mosquitoes during the active season, the fauna and some ecological activities of mosquitoes in related to tree holes were investigated from April to December 2009 in Neka county of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. Methods: Larval collection was carried out from natural, artificial breeding places, and tree holes inside the forest in Neka County, Mazandaran Province in 2009. In addition, human bait net trap collection was conducted using suction tube several times during this investigation. Results: Four genera and five species were found in tree holes. Anopheles plumbeus, Culiseta annulata, Culex pipiens, and Ochlerotatus geniculatus were collected by larval collection whereas, Ochlerotatus pulcritarsis was found by adult collection. Overall Cx. pipiens 44.6%, Oc. geniculatus 32.6%, An. plumbeus 22.5%, and Cs. annulata 0.3% were collected by larval collection. During the bait net collection five specie were identified including: Oc. geniculatus 55.87%, Oc. echinus 1.33%, Oc. pulcritarsis 8.8%, Cx. pipiens 33.8%, and An. plumbeus 0.2%. Cs. annulata larvae was detected for the first time with a low abundance in tree cavity. Conclusion: Tree holes were found the main habitat for the species of Oc. geniculatus. The species of Cs. annulata was found in tree holes PMID:22808397

  7. Mosquito genomics. Extensive introgression in a malaria vector species complex revealed by phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Michael C; Pease, James B; Steele, Aaron; Waterhouse, Robert M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Sharakhov, Igor V; Jiang, Xiaofang; Hall, Andrew B; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Kakani, Evdoxia; Mitchell, Sara N; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Smith, Hilary A; Love, R Rebecca; Lawniczak, Mara K; Slotman, Michel A; Emrich, Scott J; Hahn, Matthew W; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-02

    Introgressive hybridization is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon, but its role in evolution remains contested. Here, we use newly available reference genome assemblies to investigate phylogenetic relationships and introgression in a medically important group of Afrotropical mosquito sibling species. We have identified the correct species branching order to resolve a contentious phylogeny and show that lineages leading to the principal vectors of human malaria were among the first to split. Pervasive autosomal introgression between these malaria vectors means that only a small fraction of the genome, mainly on the X chromosome, has not crossed species boundaries. Our results suggest that traits enhancing vectorial capacity may be gained through interspecific gene flow, including between nonsister species.

  8. Species Composition and WNV Screening of Mosquitoes from Lagoons in a Wetland Area of the Algarve, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Ferdinando B.; Novo, Maria Teresa; Esteves, Aida; de Almeida, A. Paulo G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mosquito abundance, species diversity, larval and adult population dynamics in seven lagoons integrated in the wetland coastal system of the Algarve, Portugal, in the summer of 2007, as well as the screening of these for West Nile virus (WNV). WNV has been isolated from mosquitoes in this region, in the summer of 2004, next to the putative area of infection of two linked human WN cases. Adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps baited with CO2, and potential breeding sites were surveyed for immature stages. Morphological identification of 1,432 adult mosquitoes and 85 larvae revealed the presence of 10 species: Anopheles atroparvus, Anopheles algeriensis, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens, Culex theileri, Culex univittatus, Culiseta longiareolata, Aedes caspius, and Aedes detritus. Adult mosquito peak densities were recorded in July, contrasting with null larval breeding in the same month in the surveyed biotopes. Most abundant species were C. pipiens (52%), C. theileri (29%), and A. caspius (11%). Lagoon Salgados and Quinta das Salinas, exhibited the highest similarity of culicid fauna, despite being most distant from each other, Female mosquitoes (1,249 specimens) screened by RT-PCR, did not reveal WNV products. However, previous detection of WNV activity in this area, susceptible to re-introductions, demands for continued vigilance. PMID:22347862

  9. Mosquito Species Composition and Plasmodium vivax Infection Rates on Baengnyeong-do (Island), Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    mosquitoes of Japan (including the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Ogasawara Islands ) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Con­ trib Am Entomol Inst 1979; 16: 1­987...north, other species are frequently more common [4,12] and may play a greater role in malaria transmission. Baengnyeong­do is a 45.8 km2 island ...located near the North­ ern Limit Line (Fig. 1). This island is the westernmost point of the ROK, and is 16 km from the DPRK coast. As such, ento­

  10. Mosquito biosurveillance on Kyushu Island, Japan, with emphasis on Anopheles Hyrcanus Group and related species (Diptera: culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Pagac, Benedict; Iwakami, Masashiro; Spring, Alexandra R; Motoki, Mayasa T; Pecor, James E; Higa, Yukiko; Futami, Kyoko; Imanishi, Nozomi; Long, Lewis S; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    This report includes the distribution records of the Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group and associated species in Kyushu Island, Japan, based on our field collections from various localities of 4 prefectures (Fukuoka, Kumamoto, Nagasaki, Saga), primarily from 2002-2013. The status of common and potential mosquito vectors, particularly Anopheles species, in Japan are noted.

  11. Predicting the Mosquito Species and Vertebrate Species Involved in the Theoretical Transmission of Rift Valley Fever Virus in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Golnar, Andrew J.; Turell, Michael J.; LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Kading, Rebekah C.; Hamer, Gabriel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the family Bunyaviridiae that has spread throughout continental Africa to Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. The establishment of RVFV in North America would have serious consequences for human and animal health in addition to a significant economic impact on the livestock industry. Published and unpublished data on RVFV vector competence, vertebrate host competence, and mosquito feeding patterns from the United States were combined to quantitatively implicate mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts that may be important to RVFV transmission in the United States. A viremia-vector competence relationship based on published mosquito transmission studies was used to calculate a vertebrate host competence index which was then combined with mosquito blood feeding patterns to approximate the vector and vertebrate amplification fraction, defined as the relative contribution of the mosquito or vertebrate host to pathogen transmission. Results implicate several Aedes spp. mosquitoes and vertebrates in the order Artiodactyla as important hosts for RVFV transmission in the U.S. Moreover, this study identifies critical gaps in knowledge which would be necessary to complete a comprehensive analysis identifying the different contributions of mosquitoes and vertebrates to potential RVFV transmission in the U.S. Future research should focus on (1) the dose-dependent relationship between viremic exposure and the subsequent infectiousness of key mosquito species, (2) evaluation of vertebrate host competence for RVFV among North American mammal species, with particular emphasis on the order Artiodactyla, and (3) identification of areas with a high risk for RVFV introduction so data on local vector and host populations can help generate geographically appropriate amplification fraction estimates. PMID:25211133

  12. Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien

    2015-09-01

    Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar.

  13. Potential mosquito repellent compounds of Ocimum species against 3N7H and 3Q8I of Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Gaddaguti, Venugopal; Venkateswara Rao, Talluri; Prasada Rao, Allu

    2016-06-01

    Mosquitoes are exceptionally efficient in detecting their hosts for blood meal using odorant binding proteins, viz. 3N7H and 3Q8I and spread several dreadful diseases. DEET is a synthetic mosquito repellent widely used all over world for protection against mosquito bite. Reports reveal that, synthetic mosquito repellents may pose health problems in considerably large population. In view of the above fact, we made an attempt to discover efficient and novel natural mosquito repellent compounds with least impact on human health. Methanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (willd.)-Benth and Ocimum tenuiflorum var. CIM-AYU were subjected to GC-MS analysis and obtained 35 phytochemical constituents. Repellent potentiality of the Ocimum compounds was assessed against 3Q8I and 3N7H of Anopheles gambiae. PDB structures of mosquito odorant binding proteins were downloaded, processed and docking studies were performed along with reference ligand DEET using Schrodinger MAESTRO 9.2 software. Molecular docking results reveal that phenol, 2-methoxy-3-(2-propenyl)-, licopersin, gamma sitosterol and benzene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)- from O. tenuiflorum var. CIM-AYU are strongly bound with 3N7H. Whereas, 4h-1-benzopyran-4-one, 5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-, catechol and monoacetin from O. basilicum Linn. var. pilosum (willd.)-Benth. show high binding affinity with odorant binding protein 3Q8I. All natural compounds tested in the present study display better docking scores than DEET. The results further substantiate that the 12 out of 35 compounds of the two Ocimum species found to be ideal candidates for design and development of potential mosquito repellents. ADME properties of the tested compounds further confirm that bioactive compounds of Ocimum species were found to be in acceptable range. Synchronized application of at least two different natural compounds (with best docking scores) which target 3N7H and 3Q8I (Odorant Binding Proteins

  14. Plasmodium prevalence across avian host species is positively associated with exposure to mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Matthew C I; Ricklefs, Robert E; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of vector-borne parasites varies greatly across host species, and this heterogeneity has been used to relate infectious disease susceptibility to host species traits. However, a few empirical studies have directly associated vector-borne parasite prevalence with exposure to vectors across hosts. Here, we use DNA sequencing of blood meals to estimate utilization of different avian host species by Culex mosquitoes, and relate utilization by these malaria vectors to avian Plasmodium prevalence. We found that avian host species that are highly utilized as hosts by avian malaria vectors are significantly more likely to have Plasmodium infections. However, the effect was not consistent among individual Plasmodium taxa. Exposure to vector bites may therefore influence the relative number of all avian Plasmodium infections among host species, while other processes, such as parasite competition and host-parasite coevolution, delimit the host distributions of individual Plasmodium species. We demonstrate that links between avian malaria susceptibility and host traits can be conditioned by patterns of exposure to vectors. Linking vector utilization rates to host traits may be a key area of future research to understand mechanisms that produce variation in the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens among host species.

  15. A study on the resting preference of mosquito species in wells in Vellore in Tamilnadu, South India.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, V; Elango, S; Jeykumar, K; Madhavan, J; Alamelu, M; Shanthi, S

    2010-03-01

    The resting preferences of mosquito species was investigated in domestic wells. In addition to the routine adult surveys in human dwellings, adult collections were also made in domestic wells using an innovated equipment operating on the principles of spray sheet collections. Above the water surface, wells provide humid and dark microclimate along the inner walls. It has been observed that this microclimate provides very congenial resting place for few mosquito species; specially for the males and for the females between their gonotropic cycles. Larval collections in the wells did not reveal breeding of majority of the mosquito species collected by this technique. Investigations were conducted in 87 wells in 11 localities during 2005. A total of 4969 mosquitos were collected of which 69.1% (3441) were males and 30.9% (1528) were females. From among the mosquitos collected 96.5% were Cu. quinquifasciatus, 0.26% All stephensi, 3.0% Aedes agypti and 0.24% Armegeres sp. The results of the analysis of the physical and chemical parameter of water samples of the study wells before and after the surveys endorsed the utility of this technique for entomological investigations in outbreak situations, for monitoring the liquidation of outbreak foci and for other research purposes.

  16. Antagonistic relationships between intron content and codon usage bias of genes in three mosquito species: functional and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K; Singh, Brajendra K; Severson, David W

    2013-01-01

    Genome biology of mosquitoes holds potential in developing knowledge-based control strategies against vectorborne diseases such as malaria, dengue, West Nile, and others. Although the genomes of three major vector mosquitoes have been sequenced, attempts to elucidate the relationship between intron and codon usage bias across species in phylogenetic contexts are limited. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intron content and codon bias of orthologous genes among three vector mosquito species. We found an antagonistic relationship between codon usage bias and the intron number of genes in each mosquito species. The pattern is further evident among the intronless and the intron-containing orthologous genes associated with either low or high codon bias among the three species. Furthermore, the covariance between codon bias and intron number has a directional component associated with the species phylogeny when compared with other nonmosquito insects. By applying a maximum likelihood–based continuous regression method, we show that codon bias and intron content of genes vary among the insects in a phylogeny-dependent manner, but with no evidence of adaptive radiation or species-specific adaptation. We discuss the functional and evolutionary significance of antagonistic relationships between intron content and codon bias. PMID:24187589

  17. Behavioural responses of females of two anopheline mosquito species to human-occupied, insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), used extensively to reduce human exposure to malaria, work through physical and chemical means to block or deter host-seeking mosquitoes. Despite the importance of ITNs, very little is known about how host-seeking mosquitoes behave around occupied bed nets. As a result, evidence-based evaluations of the effects of physical damage on bed net effectiveness are not possible and there is a dearth of knowledge on which to base ITN design. Methods The dispersion of colony-raised female Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albimanus was observed in 2-hr laboratory experiments in which up to 200 mosquitoes were released inside a mosquito-proof 3 m × 3 m tent housing a bed net arrayed with 18 30 cm × 30 cm sticky screen squares on the sides, ends and roof. Numbers of mosquitoes caught on the sticky squares were interpreted as the ‘mosquito pressure’ on that part of the net. Results Presence of a human subject in the bed net significantly increased total mosquito pressure on the net for both species and significantly re-oriented An. gambiae to the roof of the net. Anopheles albimanus pressure was greatest on the bed net roof in both host-present and no-host conditions. The effects of different human subjects in the bed net, of different ambient conditions (dry, cool conditions vs warm, humid conditions) and of bed net treatment (deltamethrin-treated or no insecticide) on mosquito pressure patterns were tested for both species. Species-specific pressure patterns did not vary greatly as a result of any of these factors though some differences were noted that may be due the size of the different human subjects. Conclusions As a result of the interaction between host-seeking responses and the convective plume from the net occupant, species-specific mosquito pressure patterns manifest more or less predictably on the bed net. This has implications for bed net design and suggests that current methods of assessing damaged

  18. Anthropogenic Habitat Disturbance and Ecological Divergence between Incipient Species of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Kamdem, Colince; Tene Fossog, Billy; Simard, Frédéric; Etouna, Joachim; Ndo, Cyrille; Kengne, Pierre; Boussès, Philippe; Etoa, François-Xavier; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Besansky, Nora J.; Costantini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a prime cause in the current trend of the Earth’s reduction in biodiversity. Here we show that the human footprint on the Central African rainforest, which is resulting in deforestation and growth of densely populated urban agglomerates, is associated to ecological divergence and cryptic speciation leading to adaptive radiation within the major malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Methodology/Principal Findings In southern Cameroon, the frequency of two molecular forms–M and S–among which reproductive isolation is strong but still incomplete, was correlated to an index of urbanisation extracted from remotely sensed data, expressed as the proportion of built-up surface in each sampling unit. The two forms markedly segregated along an urbanisation gradient forming a bimodal cline of ∼6-km width: the S form was exclusive to the rural habitat, whereas only the M form was present in the core of densely urbanised settings, co-occurring at times in the same polluted larval habitats of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus–a species association that was not historically recorded before. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that when humans create novel habitats and ecological heterogeneities, they can provide evolutionary opportunities for rapid adaptive niche shifts associated with lineage divergence, whose consequences upon malaria transmission might be significant. PMID:22745756

  19. Mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in a riceland agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Shililu, Josephat; Jacob, Benjamin; Gu, Weidong; Githure, John; Novak, Robert

    2006-06-01

    We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in the Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Adult mosquitoes were collected by indoor spraying of houses and outdoors by CDC light traps in three villages representing planned (Mbuinjeru) and unplanned (Kiamachiri) rice agroecosystems and a non-irrigated agroecosystem (Murinduko). During the 12-month sampling period, a total of 98,708 mosquitoes belonging to five genera and 25 species were collected. The five most common species collected during this study were Anopheles arabiensis Patton (52.5%), Culex quinquefasciatus Say (36.7%), Anopheles pharoensis Theobald (5.2%), Anopheles coustani Laveran (1.4%), and Anopheles funestus Giles (1.3%). Anopheles arabiensis, Cx quinquefasciatus, and An. pharoensis were more abundant in rice agroecosystems than in the non-irrigated agroecosystem, and in planned than in the unplanned rice agroecosystems. In contrast, An. funestus was more abundant in the non-irrigated agroecosystem. The mosquito species diversity (H) and evenness (E(H)) in the non-irrigated agroecosystem (Shannon diversity Index, H = 1.507, EH = 0.503) was significantly higher than in the rice agroecosystems (H) = 0.968, E(H) = 0.313, unplanned; and H= 1.040, E(H) = 0.367 planned). Results of lag cross correlation analysis revealed a strong relationship between rainfall and the abundance of An. arabiensis, and C. quinquefasciatus in the non-irrigated agroecosystem but not in the rice agroecosystems. It is inferred from the data that different levels of habitat perturbations with regard to rice cultivation have different effects on mosquito diversity and abundance. This provides an understanding of how mosquito diversity is impacted by different habitat management and rice cropping strategies.

  20. Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-06-01

    In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus.

  1. Impact of larval pathogen infection on conspecific oviposition preference of three medically important mosquito species of Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition responses of three medically important mosquito species were evaluated in two-choice bioassays to determine if larval pathogen infection affected oviposition site choice. Both Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus laid significantly fewer eggs in cups containing infected larvae, however, Cule...

  2. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = -0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae.

  3. Species composition and habitat characterization of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in semi-urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Bashar, Kabirul; Rahman, Md. Sayfur; Nodi, Ila Jahan; Howlader, Abdul Jabber

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito larvae are purely aquatic and develop in water bodies, the type of which is more or less specific to each species. Therefore, a study was carried out to identify the habitat characters of different mosquito species along with their species composition in semi-urban area of Dhaka in Bangladesh during the month of May and June 2012. A total of 6088 mosquito larvae belonging to 12 species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles vagus, Culex gelidus, Culex hutchinsoni, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia uniformis, and Toxorhynchites splendens) under 5 genera were collected from 14 different types of habitats. Culex quinquefsciatus was the dominant (21.7/500 ml) species followed by Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (10.53/500 ml). Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were the preeminent predictors for the abundance of all collected mosquito larvae except Ae. aegypti. Water temperature was positively associated with the breeding of An. vagus (r = 0.421, p = <0.001), An. barbirostris (r = 0.489, p = <0.001) and An. peditaeniatus (r = 0.375, p = <0.001). Water depth, distance from nearest house, emergent plant coverage, and alkalinity were found as the basis of larval abundance. Every Culex species and Tx. splendens (r = 0.359, p = 0.001) were found positively associated with chemical oxygen demand, while Mn. annulifera showed negative association (r = −0.115, p = 0.0297). This study also highlighted that various physicochemical factors affect the presence or abundance of mosquito larvae. PMID:27241953

  4. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  5. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, Richard C.; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M.; Schultz, Ted R.; Price, Dana C.; Strickman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the “number and nature of the characters that support the branches” subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K’s generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data

  6. Colonization of a newly constructed urban wetland by mosquitoes in England: implications for nuisance and vector species.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Vaux, Alexander G C

    2014-12-01

    Urban wetlands are being created in the UK as part of sustainable urban drainage strategies, to create wetland habitats lost during development, to provide a habitat for protected species, and to increase the public's access to 'blue-space' for the improvement of health and well-being. Sewage treatment reedbeds are also being incorporated into newly constructed wetlands to offer an alternative approach to dealing with sewage. This field study aims to provide the first UK evidence of how such newly constructed aquatic habitats are colonized by mosquitoes. A number of new aquatic habitats were surveyed for immature mosquitoes every fortnight over the first two years following wetland construction. The majority of mosquitoes collected were Culex sp. and were significantly associated with the sewage treatment reedbed system, particularly following storm events and sewage inflow. Other more natural aquatic habitats that were subject to cycles of drying and re-wetting contributed the majority of the remaining mosquitoes colonizing. Colonization of permanent habitats was slow, particularly where fluctuations in water levels inhibited emergent vegetation growth. It is recommended that during the planning process for newly constructed wetlands consideration is given on a case-by-case basis to the impact of mosquitoes, either as a cause of nuisance or as potential vectors. Although ornithophagic Culex dominated in this wetland, their potential role as enzootic West Nile virus vectors should not be overlooked.

  7. Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Galapagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cedeño, Virna; Patiño, Leandro; Constantinou, Andreas; Kramer, Laura D; Goodman, Simon J

    2009-06-23

    Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife have been recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity. Endemic species on isolated oceanic islands, such as the Galápagos, are particularly at risk in the face of introduced pathogens and disease vectors. The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus) is the only mosquito widely distributed across the Galápagos Archipelago. Here we show that this mosquito naturally colonized the Galápagos before the arrival of man, and since then it has evolved to represent a distinct evolutionary unit and has adapted to habitats unusual for its coastal progenitor. We also present evidence that A. taeniorhynchus feeds on reptiles in Galápagos in addition to previously reported mammal and bird hosts, highlighting the important role this mosquito might play as a bridge-vector in the transmission and spread of extant and newly introduced diseases in the Galápagos Islands. These findings are particularly pertinent for West Nile virus, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality in mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles, and which recently has spread from an introductory focus in New York to much of the North and South American mainland and could soon reach the Galápagos Islands. Unlike Hawaii, there are likely to be no highland refugia free from invading mosquito-borne diseases in Galápagos, suggesting bleak outcomes to possible future pathogen introduction events.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nisha; Anitha, M G; Bala, T S L; Sivakumar, S M; Narmadha, R; Kalyanasundaram, M

    2009-04-01

    Screening of natural products for mosquito larvicidal activity against three major mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles stephensi resulted in the identification of three potential plant extracts viz., Saraca indica/asoca, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea for mosquito larval control. In the case of S. indica/asoca, the petroleum ether extract of the leaves and the chloroform extract of the bark were effective against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus with respective LC(50) values 228.9 and 291.5 ppm. The LC(50) values of chloroform extract of N. arbor-tristis leaves were 303.2, 518.2, and 420.2 ppm against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The methanol and chloroform extracts of flowers of N. arbor-tristis showed larvicidal activity against larvae of A. stephensi with the respective LC(50) values of 244.4 and 747.7 ppm. Among the methanol extracts of C. ternatea leaves, roots, flowers, and seeds, the seed extract was effective against the larvae of all the three species with LC(50) values 65.2, 154.5, and 54.4 ppm, respectively, for A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Among the three plant species studied for mosquito larvicidal activity, C. ternatea was showing the most promising mosquito larvicidal activity. The phytochemical analysis of the promising methanolic extract of the seed extract was positive for carbohydrates, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and proteins. In conclusion, bioassay-guided fractionation of effective extracts may result in identification of a useful molecule for the control of mosquito vectors.

  9. Insecticidal potency of bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis SV2 and Serratia nematodiphila SV6 against larvae of mosquito species Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2012-05-01

    The tremendous worldwide efforts to isolate novel mosquito larvicidal bacteria with improved efficacy present significant promise to control vector-borne diseases of public health importance. In the present study, two native bacterial isolates, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt SV2) and Serratia species (SV6) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal potential against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus with reference to B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) H 14. The native Gram-positive, spore-forming Bt SV2 isolate showed 100% mortality against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, in parallel to Bti H14 strain. After 24 h, Bt SV2 showed 98%, 89%, and 80.67%, and Bti H14 showed 92%, 98.33%, and 60% mortality against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Serratia SV6 showed highest activity against Culex quinquefasciatus (100%) followed by Anopheles stephensi (95%) and Aedes aegypti (91%) after 48 h of exposure. The Gram-negative Serratia SV6 showed delayed toxicity compared to Bti H14 and Bt SV2 against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The relative mortality of all treatments after 12-h exposures showed the varied toxicity with respect to exposure time, bacterial treatment, and mosquito species. Genetic relatedness of the strains was confirmed on the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions based on alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences which indicated a strong clustering of the strain SV2 with B. thuringiensis and the strain SV6 with Serratia nematodiphila. In conclusion, the native isolate B. thuringiensis SV2 showed significant toxicity while Serratia SV6 showed less and delayed toxicity against several mosquito species compared with BtiH14. They may be used as novel bacterial insecticidal agents in mosquito vector-borne disease control. To our knowledge, this is the

  10. Eggshells as an index of aedine mosquito production. 1: Distribution, movement and sampling of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshells.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, S A; Addison, D S; van Essen, F

    1992-03-01

    The distribution of Aedes taeniorhynchus eggshells in Florida mangrove basin forests was determined and used to design a sampling plan. Eggshells were found in 10/11 sites (91%), with a mean +/- SE density of 1.45 +/- 0.75/cc; density did not change significantly year to year. Highest densities were located on the sloping banks of hummocks, ponds and potholes. Eggshells were less clumped in distribution than eggs and larvae and thus required a smaller sample size for a given precision level. While eggshells were flushed from compact soil that was subject to runoff during heavy rain, mangrove peat, the dominant soil of eggshell-bearing sites, was less dense and had little runoff or eggshell flushing. We suggest that eggshell surveys could be used to identify Ae. taeniorhynchus oviposition sites and oviposition patterns.

  11. Satyrization and satyrization-resistance in competitive displacements of invasive mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Bargielowski, Irka Ewa; Lounibos, Leon Philip

    2016-04-01

    Competitive displacements or reductions of resident populations of insects, often effected by a related species, may be caused by a variety of mechanisms. Satyrization is a form of mating interference in which males of one species mate with females of another species, significantly decreasing their fitness and not generating hybrids. Satyrization has been established to be the probable cause of competitive displacements of resident mosquitoes by invasive species, especially of Aedes aegypti by Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Mathematical models predict that even low levels of asymmetric mating interference are capable of producing competitive displacements or reductions. Couplings of virgin Ae. aegypti females with Ae. albopictus males effectively sterilize these females through the monogamizing actions of male accessory gland products, but the converse interspecific mating does not impact the future reproduction of Ae. albopictus females. Populations of Ae. aegypti exposed to satyrization quickly evolve resistance to interspecific mating, which is believed to ameliorate reproductive interference from, and promote co-existence with, Ae. albopictus. The evolution of satyrization resistance among Ae. aegypti in laboratory cages is accompanied by fitness costs, such as reduced fecundity and slower receptivity to conspecific males. Cage experiments and field observations indicate that Ae. albopictus males are capable of satyrizing females of other species of the Stegomyia subgenus, potentially leading to competitive displacements, and possible extinctions, especially of endemic species on islands. Examination of other examples of reproductive interference in insects reveals few parallels to the mechanism and outcomes of satyrization by Ae. albopictus. We conclude by posing the hypothesis that satyrization may favor the ecological success of Ae. albopictus, and suggest many lines for future research on this phenomenon.

  12. Nature, nurture and evolution of intra-species variation in mosquito arbovirus transmission competence.

    PubMed

    Tabachnick, Walter J

    2013-01-11

    Mosquitoes vary in their competence or ability to transmit arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Many arboviruses cause disease in humans and animals. Identifying the environmental and genetic causes of variation in mosquito competence for arboviruses is one of the great challenges in public health. Progress identifying genetic (nature) and environmental (nurture) factors influencing mosquito competence for arboviruses is reviewed. There is great complexity in the various traits that comprise mosquito competence. The complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors controlling these traits and the factors shaping variation in Nature are largely unknown. The norms of reaction of specific genes influencing competence, their distributions in natural populations and the effects of genetic polymorphism on phenotypic variation need to be determined. Mechanisms influencing competence are not likely due to natural selection because of the direct effects of the arbovirus on mosquito fitness. More likely the traits for mosquito competence for arboviruses are the effects of adaptations for other functions of these competence mechanisms. Determining these other functions is essential to understand the evolution and distributions of competence for arboviruses. This information is needed to assess risk from mosquito-borne disease, predict new mosquito-arbovirus systems, and provide novel strategies to mitigate mosquito-borne arbovirus transmission.

  13. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  14. A GEOSPATIAL STUDY OF THE POTENTIAL OF TWO EXOTIC SPECIES OF MOSQUITOES TO IMPACT THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF WEST NITLE VIRUS IN MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory


    Geospatial techniques were used to study the potential impact of two exotic mosquitoes, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), on the epidemiology of West Nile virus in Maryland. These two species have established p...

  15. Local impact of temperature and precipitation on West Nile virus infection in Culex species mosquitoes in northeast Illinois, USA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Models of the effects of environmental factors on West Nile virus disease risk have yielded conflicting outcomes. The role of precipitation has been especially difficult to discern from existing studies, due in part to habitat and behavior characteristics of specific vector species and because of differences in the temporal and spatial scales of the published studies. We used spatial and statistical modeling techniques to analyze and forecast fine scale spatial (2000 m grid) and temporal (weekly) patterns of West Nile virus mosquito infection relative to changing weather conditions in the urban landscape of the greater Chicago, Illinois, region for the years from 2004 to 2008. Results Increased air temperature was the strongest temporal predictor of increased infection in Culex pipiens and Culex restuans mosquitoes, with cumulative high temperature differences being a key factor distinguishing years with higher mosquito infection and higher human illness rates from those with lower rates. Drier conditions in the spring followed by wetter conditions just prior to an increase in infection were factors in some but not all years. Overall, 80% of the weekly variation in mosquito infection was explained by prior weather conditions. Spatially, lower precipitation was the most important variable predicting stronger mosquito infection; precipitation and temperature alone could explain the pattern of spatial variability better than could other environmental variables (79% explained in the best model). Variables related to impervious surfaces and elevation differences were of modest importance in the spatial model. Conclusion Finely grained temporal and spatial patterns of precipitation and air temperature have a consistent and significant impact on the timing and location of increased mosquito infection in the northeastern Illinois study area. The use of local weather data at multiple monitoring locations and the integration of mosquito infection data from

  16. MAN, MOSQUITOES AND MICROBES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOONOVER, ROBERT A.

    THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES IS A MATTER OF INCREASING CONCERN IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE CYCLE, VARIOUS SPECIES, CONTROL, AND DESCRIPTION OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY THE MOSQUITO WAS PRESENTED. THE ARTICLE CONCLUDED THAT MOSQUITO CONTROL IS NOT ONLY A HEALTH PROBLEM, BUT ALSO A MATTER OF IMPROVED ECONOMICS IN RELATION TO…

  17. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  18. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Mackay, Ian M.; McMahon, Jamie L.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Moore, Frederick A.J.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the last 10 years Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. We evaluated the vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for ZIKV to assess their potential role in virus transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were exposed to infectious blood meals containing the prototype African ZIKV strain. After 14 days incubation at 28°C and high relative humidity, infection, dissemination and transmission rates were assessed. Infection in Culex annulirostris and Cx. sitiens could not be detected. 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus were infected, but the virus did not disseminate in this species. Despite having infection rates > 50%, Aedes notoscriptus and Ae. vigilax did not transmit ZIKV. In contrast, Ae. aegypti had infection and transmission rates of 57% and 27%, respectively. In susceptibility trials, the virus dose required to infect 50% (ID50) of Ae. aegypti was106.4 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50)/mL. Additionally, a threshold viral load within the mosquito of at least 105.1 TCID50 equivalents/mL had to be reached before virus transmission occurred. Conclusions/Significance We confirmed Ae. aegypti to be the most likely mosquito vector of ZIKV in Australia, although the restricted distribution of this species will limit the receptive zone to northern Queensland where this species occurs. Importantly, the role in ZIKV transmission of Culex and other Aedes spp. tested will be negligible. Despite being the implicated vector, the relatively high ID50 and need for a high titer disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti suggest that high mosquito population densities will be required to facilitate epidemic ZIKV transmission among the currently immunologically naïve human population in Australia. PMID:27643685

  19. High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Maquart, Marianne; Boyer, Sébastien; Rakotoharinome, Vincent Michel; Ravaomanana, Julie; Tantely, Michael Luciano; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Cardinale, Eric

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting.

  20. Reticulate evolutionary history and extensive introgression in mosquito species revealed by phylogenetic network analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Dingqiao; Yu, Yun; Hahn, Matthew W; Nakhleh, Luay

    2016-06-01

    The role of hybridization and subsequent introgression has been demonstrated in an increasing number of species. Recently, Fontaine et al. (Science, 347, 2015, 1258524) conducted a phylogenomic analysis of six members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Their analysis revealed a reticulate evolutionary history and pointed to extensive introgression on all four autosomal arms. The study further highlighted the complex evolutionary signals that the co-occurrence of incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) and introgression can give rise to in phylogenomic analyses. While tree-based methodologies were used in the study, phylogenetic networks provide a more natural model to capture reticulate evolutionary histories. In this work, we reanalyse the Anopheles data using a recently devised framework that combines the multispecies coalescent with phylogenetic networks. This framework allows us to capture ILS and introgression simultaneously, and forms the basis for statistical methods for inferring reticulate evolutionary histories. The new analysis reveals a phylogenetic network with multiple hybridization events, some of which differ from those reported in the original study. To elucidate the extent and patterns of introgression across the genome, we devise a new method that quantifies the use of reticulation branches in the phylogenetic network by each genomic region. Applying the method to the mosquito data set reveals the evolutionary history of all the chromosomes. This study highlights the utility of 'network thinking' and the new insights it can uncover, in particular in phylogenomic analyses of large data sets with extensive gene tree incongruence.

  1. Evaluation of Six Mosquito Traps for Collection of Aedes albopictus and Associated Mosquito Species in a Suburban Setting in North Central Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    with and without light. The Mosquito Deleto trap (Coleman Co., Wichita, KS) combusts propane to produce heat, moisture, and CO2 and uses an adhesive ...selection included 2 commercial propane traps (Mosquito MagnetTM Professional trap and Mosquito Magnet Liberty trap), 2 Aedes-specific traps (Fay...the second most common mosquito trapped. The results of these trials indicate that propane -powered commercial traps would serve as useful substitutes in

  2. Evaluation of Species Distribution Model Algorithms For Fine-Scale Container Breeding Mosquito Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Khatchikian, C.; Sangermano, F.; Kendell, D.; Livdahl, T.

    2010-01-01

    The present work evaluates the use of species distribution model (SDM) algorithms to classify high density of small container Aedes mosquitoes at a fine scale, in the Bermuda islands. Weekly ovitrap data collected by the Health Department of Bermuda (UK) for the years 2006 and 2007 were used for the models. The models evaluated included the following algorithms: Bioclim, Domain, GARP, logistic regression, and MaxEnt. Models were evaluated according to performance and robustness. The area Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate each model’s performance, and robustness was assessed considering the spatial correlation between classification risks for the two datasets. Relative to the other algorithms, logistic regression was the best model for classifying high risk areas, and the maximum entropy approach (MaxEnt) presented the second best performance. We report the importance of covariables for these two models, and discuss the utility of SDMs for vector control efforts and the potential for the development of scripts that automate the task of creating risk assessment maps. PMID:21198711

  3. Impact of an Alien Invasive Shrub on Ecology of Native and Alien Invasive Mosquito Species (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Gardner, Allison M; Bara, Jeffrey J

    2015-10-01

    We examined how leaf litter of alien invasive honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii Rupr.) either alone or in combination with leaf litter of one of two native tree species, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), affects the ecology of Culex restuans Theobald, Ochlerotatus triseriatus Say, and Ochlerotatus japonicus Theobald. Experimental mesocosms containing single species litter or a mixture of honeysuckle and one of two native tree species litter were established at South Farms and Trelease Woods study sites in Urbana, IL, and examined for their effect on 1) oviposition site selection by the three mosquito species, and 2) adult production and body size of Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus. There were no significant effects of study site and leaf treatment on Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus oviposition preference and adult production. In contrast, significantly more Cx. restuans eggs rafts were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Significantly larger adult females of Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus were collected at South Farms relative to Trelease Woods and in honeysuckle litter relative to native tree species litter. Combining honeysuckle litter with native tree species litter had additive effects on Cx. restuans oviposition preference and Oc. japonicus and Oc. triseriatus body size, with the exception of honeysuckle and northern red oak litter combination, which had antagonistic effects on Oc. triseriatus body size. We conclude that input of honeysuckle litter into container aquatic habitats may alter the life history traits of vector mosquito species.

  4. Brazilian mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna: I. Anopheles species from Porto Velho, Rondônia state, western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Kuniy, Adriana Akemi; Moresco, Gilberto Gilmar; Fernandes, Aristides; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Natal, Delsio

    2012-12-01

    This study contributes to knowledge of Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium from the western Brazilian Amazon in Porto Velho, Rondônia State. The sampling area has undergone substantial environmental changes as a consequence of agricultural and hydroelectric projects, which have caused intensive deforestation and favored habitats for some mosquito species. The purpose of this study was to diagnose the occurrence of anopheline species from collections in three locations along an electric-power transmission line. Each locality was sampled three times from 2010 to 2011. The principal adult mosquitoes captured in Shannon trap were Anopheles darlingi, An. triannulatus, An. nuneztovari l.s., An.gilesi and An. costai. In addition, larvae were collected in ground breeding sites for Anopheles braziliensis, An. triannulatus, An. darlingi, An. deaneorum, An. marajoara, An. peryassui, An. nuneztovari l.s. and An. oswaldoi-konderi. Anopheles darlingi was the most common mosquito in the region. We discuss Culicidae systematics, fauna distribution, and aspects of malaria in altered habitats of the western Amazon.

  5. Toxicity of VectoLex (Bacillus sphaericus) products to selected Australian mosquito and nontarget species.

    PubMed

    Brown, I D; Watson, T M; Carter, J; Purdie, D M; Kay, B H

    2004-02-01

    Laboratory and field bioassay studies were conducted in southeast Queensland, Australia, on the efficacy of VectoLex Control Granule (CG; active ingredient [AI]:50 Bacillus sphaericus [B.s.] International Toxic Units [ITU]/mg) and VectoLex Water Dispersible Granule (WDG) (AI: 650 B.s. ITU/mg) formulations against third-instar larvae of Culex annulirostris Skuse, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Culex sitiens Wiedemann, Ochlerotatus rigilax (Skuse), Ochlerotatus. notoscriptus (Skuse), and Aedes aegypti (L.). The Gompertz model for log-linear mortality data were used to determine laboratory 48-h LC95 values. As with foreign evaluations, the B.s. formulations were most effective against Culex spp., with the WDG 10-100 times more effective than the CG on an ITU/mosquito basis. Consequently, Cx. annulirostris and Cx. quinquefasciatus were selected as target species for small-plot field evaluation of WDG efficacy over time. Weekly cohorts of caged third-instar Cx. annulirostris were exposed to replicated low (250 g/ha), medium (500 g/ha), and high (1,000 g/ha) dosages of WDG. Concurrent assessment of Cx. quinquefasciatus mortality outside the cages was also conducted. In water with high organic content, the low rate produced > 99% Cx. annulirostris mortality at 48 h, decreasing to 79% at week 3 and no control at week 4. The medium and high rates resulted in 100% Cx. annulirostris mortality for 2 wk posttreatment, decreasing to 95% at week 3, and no control at week 4. The WDG was equally effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Treatment did not affect water quality or nontarget shrimp and fish species survival.

  6. Distribution of Culex species in vegetation bands of a constructed wetland undergoing integrated mosquito management.

    PubMed

    Walton, William E; Popko, David A; Van Dam, Alex R; Merrill, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    The distribution and abundance of emerging Culex spp. were assessed within narrow (width: 3 m) and wide (width: 20 m) bands of California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus) and in the open water adjacent to emergent vegetation in 2 marshes of an ammonia-dominated wastewater treatment wetland in southern California. Emerging mosquitoes were collected along transects perpendicular to the path of water flow at 3 distances (1.5, 5, and 10 m) from the vegetation-open water interface in the wide bands of emergent vegetation, at the center of narrow bands of emergent vegetation, and at 1.5 m from the edge of emergent vegetation in the open water. The width of vegetation bands (3 vs. 20 m) influenced the effectiveness of integrated mosquito management practices, especially the application of mosquito control agents. Mosquito production from the 2 marshes also differed up to 14-fold, suggesting that the distance between the shorelines (62 vs. 74 m) of each marsh also influenced the efficacy of mosquito control agents applied from the shore and boats. Hot spots of mosquito production (75424 female Culex/m2/day) were found within the wide bands of bulrush. During summer, the relative abundance of Culex stigmatosoma among emerging mosquitoes increased from the periphery to the center of wide bands of emergent vegetation. Culex erythrothorax emergence rates were comparatively similar among the transects in the wide bands of emergent vegetation. Culex tarsalis adults increased in number from the periphery to the center of wide bands of bulrush and, in May, were > 95% of emerged mosquitoes.

  7. Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus by culex and aedes Species Mosquitoes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    strains of Aedes albopictus. Ae. aegypti, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Female mosquitoes were infected by intrathoracic inoculation with WN virus , and the...of Cx. tritae- periment. West Nile virus infection of the pa- niorhYnchus.Ae. albopcwtus, and Ae. aeg’ypi was rental female mosquitoes in all... females in experiment no. i we e infected with stock virus that had received 16 intracerebral passailes in mice and four intsthoeiaeie pauffiie in Cx

  8. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M.; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L.; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence. PMID:26463078

  9. Fighting Arbovirus Transmission: Natural and Engineered Control of Vector Competence in Aedes Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kean, Joy; Rainey, Stephanie M; McFarlane, Melanie; Donald, Claire L; Schnettler, Esther; Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie

    2015-03-23

    Control of aedine mosquito vectors, either by mosquito population reduction or replacement with refractory mosquitoes, may play an essential role in the fight against arboviral diseases. In this review, we will focus on the development and application of biological approaches, both natural or engineered, to limit mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. The study of mosquito antiviral immunity has led to the identification of a number of host response mechanisms and proteins that are required to control arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, though more factors influencing vector competence are likely to be discovered. We will discuss key aspects of these pathways as targets either for selection of naturally resistant mosquito populations or for mosquito genetic manipulation. Moreover, we will consider the use of endosymbiotic bacteria such as Wolbachia, which in some cases have proven to be remarkably efficient in disrupting arbovirus transmission by mosquitoes, but also the use of naturally occurring insect-specific viruses that may interfere with arboviruses in mosquito vectors. Finally, we will discuss the use of paratransgenesis as well as entomopathogenic fungi, which are also proposed strategies to control vector competence.

  10. Mosquitoes of the Caatinga: 1. Adults stage survey and the emerge of seven news species endemic of a dry tropical forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marteis, Letícia Silva; Natal, Delsio; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Oliveira, Tatiane Marques Porangaba; La Corte, Roseli

    2017-02-01

    The Caatinga is the least known Brazilian biome in terms of the diversity of Culicidae. No systematic study of the diversity or ecology of the mosquitoes of this biome is available, despite the importance of vector diseases in Brazil. The present study addressed the mosquito biodiversity in the Caatinga biome by sampling adult populations. Specimens were sampled monthly from March 2013 to September 2014 in a Caatinga conservation unit located in the Brazilian semiarid zone. Mosquito collections were carried out in Shannon traps from late afternoon to early evening, and manual aspiration was used to capture diurnal species as well. A total of 4,692 mosquitoes were collected. The most dominant and constant species were all undescribed species belonging to the genera Wyeomyia and Runchomyia, which together represented 80% of the specimens. The most abundant species of epidemiological importance was Haemagogus (Con.) leucocelaenus. The abundance of mosquitoes was positively associated with the relative humidity and temperature recorded during the month preceding the collection date. In the Caatinga, the diversity of adult mosquitoes was associated with the availability (quantity and diversity) of natural larval habitats found in the different phytophysiognomies of the biome, which vary according to temperature and humidity. The number of species unknown to science reflects the levels of endemism that exist in the study area, and reinforces the need to further taxonomic investigation in the biome.

  11. A comparison of gravid and under-house CO2-baited CDC light traps for mosquito species of public health importance in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    White, Stephanie L; Ward, Michael P; Budke, Christine M; Cyr, Tracy; Bueno, Rudy

    2009-11-01

    The relative efficacy of gravid and under-house CO2 traps for monitoring mosquito species of public health importance within the Houston metroplex area was assessed. Gravid and under-house traps were colocated at 10 sites and monitored weekly between 1 March to 31 May 2007. The most numerous species caught was Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say. Other species of public health importance caught in gravid and under-house traps included Culex restuans Theobald, Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes albopictus Skuse. Adjusting for the week of collection, gravid traps caught significantly more mosquitoes (mean 23.1 per trap) in the study area than under-house traps (mean 3.6 per trap). However, under-house traps caught a greater variety of mosquito species (13) than gravid traps (11). Gravid and under-house traps only caught nine of 15 of the same mosquito species during the study period. In this study area, gravid traps should be used as the primary method of surveillance for mosquito-borne diseases of public health importance during the early part of the season, because of greater catch numbers of mosquitoes that pose a public health risk.

  12. Diet and density dependent competition affect larval performance and oviposition site selection in the mosquito species Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oviposition-site choice is an essential component of the life history of all mosquito species. According to the oviposition-preference offspring-performance (P-P) hypothesis, if optimizing offspring performance and fitness ensures high overall reproductive fitness for a given species, the female should accurately assess details of the heterogeneous environment and lay her eggs preferentially in sites with conditions more suitable to offspring. Methods We empirically tested the P-P hypothesis using the mosquito species Aedes albopictus by artificially manipulating two habitat conditions: diet (measured as mg of food added to a container) and conspecific density (CD; number of pre-existing larvae of the same species). Immature development (larval mortality, development time to pupation and time to emergence) and fitness (measured as wing length) were monitored from first instar through adult emergence using a factorial experimental design over two ascending gradients of diet (2.0, 3.6, 7.2 and 20 mg food/300 ml water) and CD (0, 20, 40 and 80 larvae/300 ml water). Treatments that exerted the most contrasting values of larval performance were recreated in a second experiment consisting of single-female oviposition site selection assay. Results Development time decreased as food concentration increased, except from 7.2 mg to 20.0 mg (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P > 0.1). Development time decreased also as conspecific density increased from zero to 80 larvae (Two-Way CR ANOVA Post-Hoc test, P < 0.5). Combined, these results support the role of density-dependent competition for resources as a limiting factor for mosquito larval performance. Oviposition assays indicated that female mosquitoes select for larval habitats with conspecifics and that larval density was more important than diet in driving selection for oviposition sites. Conclusions This study supports predictions of the P-P hypothesis and provides a mechanistic understanding of the

  13. Species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350 ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered.

  14. Molecular evolution of the substrate utilization strategies and putative virulence factors in mosquito-associated Spiroplasma species.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tean-Hsu; Lo, Wen-Sui; Ku, Chuan; Chen, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2014-03-01

    Comparative genomics provides a powerful tool to characterize the genetic differences among species that may be linked to their phenotypic variations. In the case of mosquito-associated Spiroplasma species, such approach is useful for the investigation of their differentiations in substrate utilization strategies and putative virulence factors. Among the four species that have been assessed for pathogenicity by artificial infection experiments, Spiroplasma culicicola and S. taiwanense were found to be pathogenic, whereas S. diminutum and S. sabaudiense were not. Intriguingly, based on the species phylogeny, the association with mosquito hosts and the gain or loss of pathogenicity in these species appears to have evolved independently. Through comparison of their complete genome sequences, we identified the genes and pathways that are shared by all or specific to one of these four species. Notably, we found that a glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase gene (glpO) is present in S. culicicola and S. taiwanense but not in S. diminutum or S. sabaudiense. Because this gene is involved in the production of reactive oxygen species and has been demonstrated as a major virulence factor in Mycoplasma, this distribution pattern suggests that it may be linked to the observed differences in pathogenicity among these species as well. Moreover, through comparative analysis with other Spiroplasma, Mycoplasma, and Mesoplasma species, we found that the absence of glpO in S. diminutum and S. sabaudiense is best explained by independent losses. Finally, our phylogenetic analyses revealed possible recombination of glpO between distantly related lineages and local rearrangements of adjacent genes.

  15. Larval consumption rates, interspecific predation, and local guild composition of egg-overwintering Agabus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) species in vernal ponds.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anders N; Söderström, Olle

    1988-06-01

    In vernal ponds in the boreal region, egg-over-wintering Agabus species form a guild that feeds mainly on larvae and pupae of aedine mosquitoes. The regular co-existence of very similar Agabus species indicates local communities not structured by interspecific competition. However, the lower number of species in local guilds than in the regional species pool poses a problem of limited membership. We suggest that the species of this guild display habitat differences mainly with respect to water temperature, pond size and prey density. In this view, habitat selection reflects body size and thermal growth response of the species, mainly in connection with larval development. We present field data from two northern Swedish vernal ponds. Based on these data, feeding experiments were performed to test the hypothesis outlined above. At a high prey density, larvae of all instars of the larger species A. erichsoni Gemm. & Har. had a significantly higher consumption rate than those of the smaller species A. opacus Aubé. At a low prey density the differences were smaller, and only the third instar larvae differed significantly. At 2° C, larvae of A. opacus had a significantly higher consumption rate than those of A. congener (Thunberg). At 15° C, no significant difference was observed. In studies of within-guild interspecific predation, always the larger larvae consumed the smaller ones. Field data show that egg hatching is spread out in time, and show interspecific differences. Consequently, the effects of unexpected droughts differ with species.

  16. Larval Habitats Characterization and Species Composition of Anopheles Mosquitoes in Tunisia, with Particular Attention to Anopheles maculipennis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Tabbabi, Ahmed; Boussès, Philippe; Rhim, Adel; Brengues, Cécile; Daaboub, Jabeur; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Fontenille, Didier; Bouratbine, Aïda; Simard, Frédéric; Aoun, Karim

    2015-01-01

    In Tunisia, malaria transmission has been interrupted since 1980. However, the growing number of imported cases and the persistence of putative vectors stress the need for additional studies to assess the risk of malaria resurgence in the country. In this context, our aim was to update entomological data concerning Anopheles mosquitoes in Tunisia. From May to October of 2012, mosquito larval specimens were captured in 60 breeding sites throughout the country and identified at the species level using morphological keys. Environmental parameters of the larval habitats were recorded. Specimens belonging to the An. maculipennis complex were further identified to sibling species by the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)–internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In total, 647 Anopheles larvae were collected from 25 habitats. Four species, including An. labranchiae, An. multicolor, An. sergentii, and An. algeriensis, were morphologically identified. rDNA-ITS2 PCR confirmed that An. labranchiae is the sole member of the An. maculipennis complex in Tunisia. An. labranchiae was collected throughout northern and central Tunisia, and it was highly associated with rural habitat, clear water, and sunlight areas. Larvae of An. multicolor and An. sergentii existed separately or together and were collected in southern Tunisia in similar types of breeding places. PMID:25561567

  17. Kerteszia Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes and bromeliads: A landscape ecology approach regarding two species in the Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Leonardo Suveges Moreira; Rodrigues de Sá, Ivy Luizi; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2016-12-01

    On the ecological scale of an organism, a homogeneous geographical landscape can represent a mosaic of heterogeneous landscapes. The bionomy of Kerteszia mosquitoes can contribute to foundation landscape ecology by virtue of in the role of the configuration and composition of the habitat played in the distribution of mosquito species. Thus, this study aimed: to compare the abundance of Kerteszia in dense tropical rainforest, restinga and rural area, to assess the bioecological characteristics of the main bromeliads hosting Kerteszia, and to associate the bioecological arrangement of the bromeliads with Kerteszia distribution. Field collections were conducted in a monthly schedule from December of 2010 to November 2011. The vegetation of landscapes was characterized on the basis of a digital cartographic database, the manual of the Brazilian vegetation, environmental atlas information, satellite images and visits to the sites. Multivariate generalized linear models were employed using the R-project statistical program. The results were: Anopheles cruzii was the most frequent species in dense tropical rainforest (67.42%), with a positive association (deviance=25.8; P=0.002). Anopheles bellator was more abundant in the Restinga area (78.97%), with a positive association (deviance=10.4, P=0.018). There was a positive aggregation of Restinga with An. bellator (RR=2.42) but a lower level with An. cruzii (RR=0.31). Thus we can conclude that landscape characteristics influence the distribution of Kerteszia mosquitoes. An. bellator has a higher prevalence in Restinga areas, whereas An. cruzii was the most prevalent in the dense tropical rainforest.

  18. Evaluating preservation methods for identifying Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis complex mosquitoes species using near infra-red spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used on fresh and RNAlater® preserved Anopheles gambiae complex to identify sibling species and age. No preservation methods other than RNAlater® have been tested to preserve mosquitoes for species identification using NIRS. However, RNAlater®...

  19. Comparative estimates of density and species diversity in adult mosquito populations landing on a human subject and captured using light and suction traps.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative responses of 21 species of mosquitoes to light traps (LT) and suction traps (ST) and captured using the human landing collection method (HL) varied in accordance with collection technique but data analyses for most species revealed significant interaction between collection method and th...

  20. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

  1. Aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species attracted to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps baited with carbon dioxide and the Traptech mosquito lure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John F; McKnight, Susan; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2012-09-01

    Twelve reported mosquito attractants, alone or in combination, and 3 different types of traps were evaluated under field conditions for their attractiveness to host-seeking and oviposition-seeking female Aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species in Windsor, CT, in 2010 and 2011. This study highlights the effectiveness of combining CO2 with the TrapTech Mosquito Lure in a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) miniature light trap for collection of Ae. j. japonicus and associated woodland mammalian-feeding mosquitoes. The TrapTech Mosquito Lure is a proprietary blend of Bedoukian Research, Inc. It contained 250 mg of R-1-octen-3-ol and 1900 mg of ammonium bicarbonate, which were slowly released from a plastic disperser. On average, 567 Ae. j. japonicus individuals were collected per trap per night in the CDC miniature light traps baited with CO2 plus TrapTech Mosquito Lure. The numbers collected in this trap were 28 times and 100 times greater than the numbers of Ae. j. japonicus collected in the CDC miniature light trap baited only with CO2 and the gravid trap baited with hay infusion, 2 commonly used traps to assess abundance of Ae. j. japonicus. The average catches of other mammalian-biting species, Ae. cinereus, Ae. triseriatus, Ae. trivittatus, Ae. vexans, Anopheles punctipennis, An. quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, and Culex salinarius, were all significantly greater in the CDC miniature light trap baited with CO2 plus TrapTech Mosquito Lure than in traps with CO2 alone, but their average numbers were not as large as were those of Ae. j. japonicus. These data demonstrate that the TrapTech Mosquito Lure used in combination with CO2 in a CDC miniature light trap has potential to be a versatile and simple surveillance method for Ae. j. japonicus and other species.

  2. Mosquito Control

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Mosquito Control About Mosquitoes General Information Life ...

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of four salvia essential oils and individual compounds against two species of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-01-21

    The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), α-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and β-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), β-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), β-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; α-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), β-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 μg/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds β-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and β-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of β-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus.

  4. Diel activity patterns of major species of adult mosquitoes and ULV spraying impacts in St. John's County, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of daily activity patterns in adult mosquitoes can be used to determine the best time to apply adulticides for mosquito control. Many factors influence these activity patterns, including migration, hormonal cycles in the mosquito, hunger, and the need to lay eggs. In this study, FL scien...

  5. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A

  6. Development of a risk database for the establishment of invasive mosquito species under impacts of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni; Sotiropoulos, Andreas; Spanos, Ioannis; Milonas, Panayiotis; Michaelakis, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    Climate models suggest changes in future temperature and precipitation rates, the main climatic parameters that are related to the suitability of a region for the establishment and seasonal abundance of the Invasive Mosquito Species (IMS). In this work the future potentiality of IMS spread and establishment over Greece and Italy is assessed following four steps. In the first step current Spatial Risk Databases for the establishment of IMS over Greece and Italy are developed using the meteorological parameters from the ECA&D project. In the second step changes in the climatic parameters in 2050's are estimated using the NASA GISS GCM ModelE under the IPCC-A1B emissions scenarios. In the third step, the mesoscale meteorological model WRF is used, to simulate the changes in the meteorological fields caused by climate change in a finer grid size using dynamical regional downscaling. Finally, in the fourth step the estimated changes in the meteorological parameters from step three are combined with the observation data from step one in order to estimate the future level of the climatic parameters of interest. The final product is spatial distribution maps presenting the future suitability of a region for the establishment and seasonal abundance of the IMS over Greece and Italy. Acknowledgement: LIFE CONOPS project "Development & demonstration of management plans against - the climate change enhanced - invasive mosquitoes in S. Europe" (LIFE12 ENV/GR/000466).

  7. Difference in mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) and the transmission of Ross River virus between coastline and inland areas in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Mengersen, K; Dale, P; Tong, S

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the distribution of major mosquito species and their roles in the transmission of Ross River virus (RRV) infection for coastline and inland areas in Brisbane, Australia (27 degrees 28' S, 153 degrees 2' E). We obtained data on the monthly counts of RRV cases in Brisbane between November 1998 and December 2001 by statistical local areas from the Queensland Department of Health and the monthly mosquito abundance from the Brisbane City Council. Correlation analysis was used to assess the pairwise relationships between mosquito density and the incidence of RRV disease. This study showed that the mosquito abundance of Aedes vigilax (Skuse), Culex annulirostris (Skuse), and Aedes vittiger (Skuse) were significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRV in the coastline area, whereas Aedes vigilax, Culex annulirostris, and Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse) were significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRV in the inland area. The results of the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis show that both occurrence and incidence of RRV were influenced by interactions between species in both coastal and inland regions. We found that there was an 89% chance for an occurrence of RRV if the abundance of Ae. vigilax was between 64 and 90 in the coastline region. There was an 80% chance for an occurrence of RRV if the density of Cx. annulirostris was between 53 and 74 in the inland area. The results of this study may have applications as a decision support tool in planning disease control of RRV and other mosquito-borne diseases.

  8. A generic weather-driven model to predict mosquito population dynamics applied to species of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes genera of southern France.

    PubMed

    Ezanno, P; Aubry-Kientz, M; Arnoux, S; Cailly, P; L'Ambert, G; Toty, C; Balenghien, T; Tran, A

    2015-06-01

    An accurate understanding and prediction of mosquito population dynamics are needed to identify areas where there is a high risk of mosquito-borne disease spread and persistence. Simulation tools are relevant for supporting decision-makers in the surveillance of vector populations, as models of vector population dynamics provide predictions of the greatest risk periods for vector abundance, which can be particularly helpful in areas with a highly variable environment. We present a generic weather-driven model of mosquito population dynamics, which was applied to one species of each of the genera Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes, located in the same area and thus affected by similar weather conditions. The predicted population dynamics of Anopheles hyrcanus, Culex pipiens, and Aedes caspius were not similar. An. hyrcanus was abundant in late summer. Cx. pipiens was less abundant but throughout the summer. The abundance of both species showed a single large peak with few variations between years. The population dynamics of Ae. caspius showed large intra- and inter-annual variations due to pulsed egg hatching. Predictions of the model were compared to longitudinal data on host-seeking adult females. Data were previously obtained using CDC-light traps baited with carbon dioxide dry ice in 2005 at two sites (Marais du Viguerat and Tour Carbonnière) in a favourable temperate wetland of southern France (Camargue). The observed and predicted periods of maximal abundance for An. hyrcanus and Cx. pipiens tallied very well. Pearson's coefficients for these two species were over 75% for both species. The model also reproduced the major trends in the intra-annual fluctuations of Ae. caspius population dynamics, with peaks occurring in early summer and following the autumn rainfall events. Few individuals of this species were trapped so the comparison of predicted and observed dynamics was not relevant. A global sensitivity analysis of the species-specific models enabled us to

  9. Evaluation of Six Mosquito Traps for Collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Associated Mosquito Species in a Suburban Setting in North Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  10. Evaluation of six mosquito traps for collection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and associated mosquito species in a suburban setting in North Central Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared six adult mosquito traps for effectiveness in collecting Aedes albopictus from suburban backyards with the goal of finding a more suitable surveillance replacement for the CDC light trap. Trap selection included two commercial propane traps, two Aedes-specific traps, one experimental tr...

  11. The invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus: current knowledge and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Gasperi, Giuliano; Chen, Xioaguang; James, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most dynamic events in public health is being mediated by the global spread of the invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus. Its rapid expansion and vectorial capacity for various arboviruses affect an increasingly larger proportion of the world population. Responses to the challenges of controlling this vector are expected to be enhanced by an increased knowledge of its biology, ecology, and vector competence. Details of population genetics and structure will allow following, and possibly predicting, the geographical and temporal dynamics of its expansion, and will inform the practical operations of control programs. Experts are coming together now to describe the history, characterize the present circumstances, and collaborate on future efforts to understand and mitigate this emerging public health threat. PMID:23916878

  12. Nomenclatural Status and Some Additions to the Species Listed in the Publication, New Species of Mosquitoes in the Fauna of the USSR by A. V. Gutsevich and A. M. Dubitskiy (1981) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    account the modern concept of species developed by Ernst Mayr and associates over the past 40 years ( Mayr 1963). It is advisable to consider CCC. p...Mosquito Systematics Vol. 19(l) 1987 99 Mayr , E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 797 pp. Mayr , E. 1969

  13. Looking Backward, Looking Forward: The Long, Torturous Struggle with Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gordon M.

    2016-01-01

    The American anti-mosquito movement grew out of the discovery of the role of mosquitoes in transferring pathogens and public concern about pest and nuisance mosquitoes in the late 1800s. In the 20th century, organized mosquito control in the United States passed through three eras: mechanical, chemical, and integrated mosquito control. Mosquito control in the 21st century faces the challenge of emerging pathogens, invasive mosquito species, and balancing concerns about the environment with effective control strategies. PMID:27775554

  14. Mosquito Immunity against Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector. PMID:25415198

  15. Risky behaviors: effects of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fadzly, Nik; Yusof, Nur Aishah; Dieng, Hamady

    2015-01-01

    Viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. We need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. This research examined prey choices by Toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. The results show that Tx. splendens prefers to consume Ae. aegypti larvae. The larvae exhibited different behavioral responses when Tx. splendens was present which suggest vulnerability in the presence of predators. "Thrashing" and "browsing" activities were greater in Ae. aegypti larvae. Such active and risky movements could cause vulnerability for the Ae. aegypti larvae due to increasing of water disturbance. In contrast, Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis larvae exhibited passive, low-risk behaviors, spending most of the time on the "wall" position near the edges of the container. We postulated that Ae. aegypti has less ability to perceive cues from predation and could not successfully alter its behavior to reduce risk of predation risk compared with Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. Our results suggest that Tx. splendens is a suitable biocontrol agent in controlling dengue hemorrhagic vector, Ae. aegypti.

  16. Evaluation of three traps for sampling Aedes polynesiensis and other mosquito species in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Schmaedick, Mark A; Ball, Tamara S; Burkot, Thomas R; Gurr, Neil E

    2008-06-01

    The efficacy of the recently developed BG-Sentinel mosquito trap baited with BG-Lure (a combination of lactic acid, ammonia, and caproic acid) was evaluated in American Samoa against the omnidirectional Fay-Prince trap and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap, both baited with carbon dioxide. The BG-Sentinel trap captured the greatest number of the important filariasis and dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis at all 3 collection locations; however, its catch rate was not significantly different from that of the Fay-Prince trap at 2 of the 3 trapping locations. The CDC light trap caught very few Ae. polynesiensis. The Fay-Prince trap was more efficient than the other 2 traps for collecting Aedes (Aedimorphus) nocturnus, Aedes (Finlaya) spp., Culex quinquefasciatus, and Culex annulirostris. The efficacy and convenience of the BG-Sentinel suggest further research is warranted to evaluate its potential as a possible efficient and safe alternative to landing catches for sampling Ae. polynesiensis in research and control efforts against filariasis and dengue in the South Pacific.

  17. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA.

  18. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    PubMed

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species.

  19. Evaluation of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species richness using two sampling methods in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Viviane Soares; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Morone, Fernanda; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-04-01

    We compared two types of light traps used for monitoring mosquito abundance in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Além Paraíba - Minas Gerais. Mosquitoes were captured bimonthly using automatic CDC and Shannon traps before the filling of the hydroelectric plant reservoir from December 2008 to December 2009. In total, 1474 specimens from 13 genera were captured. Among the captured specimens, several species known to be vectors of disease-causing agents for humans and/or animals were identified, including Anopheles aquasalis, Aedes albopictus, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and Aedes scapularis. Sampling efficacy between the four capture sites was not found to be significantly different, irrespective of species captured or type of trap used. Poor correlation (r (x, y) = -0.0444) between the number of mosquito species and capture site was observed when not influenced by the type of trap used. Among the installation sites of the CDC and Shannon traps in the areas investigated, CDC traps fixed in livestock shelters obtained an overall higher abundance of species captured.

  20. Mosquitoes of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera, Culicidae) Group: Species Diagnostic and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Khrabrova, Natalia V.; Andreeva, Yulia V.; Sibataev, Anuarbek K.; Alekseeva, Svetlana S.; Esenbekova, Perizat A.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the results of study of Anopheles species in Primorsk and Khabarovsk regions of Russia. Three species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group: An. kleini, An. pullus, and An. lesteri were identified by molecular taxonomic diagnostics for the first time in Russia. Surprisingly, An. sinensis, which earlier was considered the only species of Anopheles in Russian Far East, was not observed. We analyzed nucleotide variation in the 610-bp fragment of the 5′ end of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region. All species possessed a distinctive set of COI sequences. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed for members of the hyrcanus group. The examined Anopheles hyrcanus group members could be divided into two major subgroups: subgroup 1 (An. hyrcanus and An. pullus) and subgroup 2 (An. sinensis, An. kleini, and An. lesteri), which were found to be monophyletic. PMID:26149867

  1. Species Composition and Ecological Aspects of Immature Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Bromeliads in Urban Parks in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ceretti-Junior, Walter; de Oliveira Christe, Rafael; Rizzo, Marco; Strobel, Regina Claudia; de Matos Junior, Marco Otavio; de Mello, Maria Helena Silva Homem; Fernandes, Aristides; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages) in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects. Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically. Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected), followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens) and Cx. (Microculex) imitator (444). The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks. PMID:27047978

  2. New Records of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Bolívar State in South Eastern Venezuela, with 27 New Species for the State and 5 of Them New in the Country

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Jesús; Guzmán, Hernán; Estrada, Yarys; Ramírez, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of studies related to mosquito ecological and biogeographic aspects. A total of 69 mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) was collected in 16 localities sampled in the Gran Sabana Municipality, Canaima National Park, and Venezuela. Twenty-seven mosquito species are recorded for the first time from Bolívar State, Venezuela. Five of them species are reported for the first time in Venezuela: Anopheles malefactor Dyar and Knab (1907); Chagasia bonneae Root (1927); Chagasia ablusa Harbach (2009); Culex anduzei Lane (1944), and Uranotaenia leucoptera Theobald (1907). Their medical importance is commented, and ecological and epidemiological aspects are discussed. A checklist of the mosquito species reported in the Gran Sabana County is given. PMID:25853113

  3. Effect of CO₂ and 1-octen-3-ol attractants for estimating species richness and the abundance of diurnal mosquitoes in the southeastern Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2011-05-01

    Studies have shown that both carbon dioxide (CO₂) and octenol (1-octen-3-ol) are effective attractants for mosquitoes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the attractiveness of 1-octen-3-ol and CO₂ for diurnal mosquitoes in the southeastern Atlantic forest. A Latin square experimental design was employed with four treatments: CDC-light trap (CDC-LT), CDC-LT and 1-octen-3-ol, CDC-LT and CO₂ and CDC-LT with 1-octen-3-ol and CO₂. Results demonstrated that both CDC-CO₂ and CDC-CO₂-1-octen-3-ol captured a greater number of mosquito species and specimens compared to CDC-1-octen-3-ol; CDC-LT was used as the control. Interestingly, Anopheles (Kerteszia) sp. was generally attracted to 1-octen-3-ol, whereas Aedes serratus was the most abundant species in all Latin square collections. This species was recently shown to be competent to transmit the yellow fever virus and may therefore play a role as a disease vector in rural areas of Brazil.

  4. [The mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) of Morocco. Bibliographic review (1916-2001) and inventory of the species].

    PubMed

    Trari, B; Dakki, M; Himmi, O; el Agbani, M A

    2003-11-01

    The history of the Culicidae of Morocco was related from bibliographical data. A synthesis of the almost entire works carried out on these Insects (Diptera) since 1916 allowed to bring out the main stages of research of which they were the subject, while emphasizing the important periods of large malaria epidemics in Morocco. A short list of species is also given.

  5. Individual identification of endangered species using mosquito blood meals: a proof-of-concept study in Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Méndez, María; Ruiz, Santiago; Godoy, José A; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Host identification from mosquito blood meals has been routinely used to identify the feeding preferences of insects in studies on transmission of vector-borne pathogens. Here, we identified for the first time the susceptibility of the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to the attack of a wild mosquito female, the mosquito Anopheles atroparvus. Furthermore, we used 11 microsatellite markers to test for the utility of vertebrate DNA isolated from insect blood meals for individual identification of wildlife. Only the three smallest markers were successfully amplified; however, this genotype did not match with any of the previously genotyped individuals in southern Spain. These results support the use of DNA from mosquito blood meals as a non-invasive source of DNA and a powerful tool on epidemiological and conservation biology studies. However, as may be the case of other non-invasive sampling methods, the utility of this technique is probably limited by the quantity and quality of vertebrate DNA.

  6. Sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance documenting West Nile virus circulation in two Culex mosquito species indicating different transmission characteristics, Djibouti City, Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Spiesberger, Michael; Abbas, Babiker

    2012-08-01

    The Horn of Africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. In order to investigate whether autochthonous WNV transmission occurs in the Djibouti City area, in how far, and which of, the endemic Culex mosquito species are involved in WNV circulation activity,and whether sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance (SSE-NRTS) may increase WNV detection sensitivity, mosquito vector monitoring was conducted from January 2010 to June 2012. Six monitoring locations, including two identified sentinel sites, considered most probable for potential anthroponotic and zoonotic virus circulation activity, have been continuously employed. Among the 20431 mosquitoes collected, 19069 (93.4%) were Cx. quinquefasciatus, and 1345 (6.6%) Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus. WNV lineage 2 circulation activity was detected between December 20th, 2010 and January 7th, 2011. Overall, 19 WNV RNA-positive mosquito pools were detected. Generally, urban environment-specific WNV-RNA circulation took place in Cx. pipiens ssp. torridus, whereas periurban and rural area-linked circulation was detected only in Cx. quinquefasciatus. Serological investigation data from 10 volunteers employed at the dislocated zoonotic WNV transmission sentinel site suggest that six persons (60%) had an acute, or recent, WNV infection. Results show that WNV should be considered endemic for Djibouti and sentinel site-enhanced near-real time surveillance is an elegant and highly effective epidemiological tool. In Djibouti, the endemicity level, public health impact and transmission modes of vector-borne diseases in concordance with locally optimized monitoring and control regimen deserve further investigation.

  7. Two new mosquito species and six new provincial records in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Andrés M; Laurito, Magdalena; Stein, Marina; Ramirez, Patricia; Molina, Gustavo; Lorenzo, Pablo R; Almirón, Walter R

    2010-03-01

    ABSTRACT. The geographical distribution of Aedes pennai, Anopheles galvaoi, Coquillettidia albicosta, Cq. nigricans, Culex usquatissimus, Cx. apicinus, Cx. chidesteri, Cx. coronator s.l., Cx. interfor, Cx. maxi, Cx. pipiens, Cx. saltanensis, Cx. educator, Cx. serratimarge, Cx. theobaldi, Psorophora cyanescens, Ps. cilipes, Ps. cingulata, Ps. pallescens, Uranotaenia lanei, Ur. nataliae, Wyeomyia diabolica, and Wy. melanocephala is extended, including new records for 6 provinces and 2 new records for the country, increasing the number of species in Argentina from 226 to 228.

  8. First report of a North American invasive mosquito species Ochlerotatus atropalpus (Coquillett) in the Netherlands, 2009.

    PubMed

    Scholte, E J; Den Hartog, W; Braks, M; Reusken, C; Dik, M; Hessels, A

    2009-11-12

    In late August and early September 2009, numerous larvae, pupae, and actively flying adult specimens of Ochlerotatus atropalpus were discovered in the Province of Brabant, southern Netherlands, during surveillance activities for Aedes albopictus at two trading companies that import used tires. No Ae. albopictus were found. Both companies mainly import used tires from countries in Europe, but also from North America. Oc. atropalpus is endemic to North America and has so far only been found outside of its endemic range in Europe, namely France and Italy, where it was subsequently eradicated. A preliminary modelling study shows that the weather conditions in the Netherlands are unlikely to prevent establishment of Oc. atropalpus. This species has so far only been shown to serve as a vector for virus transmission under laboratory conditions. Studies on potential human and veterinary health risks, as well as possible control strategies are currently ongoing.

  9. Ultrastructural studies of mosquito ovogenesis.

    PubMed

    Soumaré, M L; Ndiaye, M

    2005-04-01

    The ovogenesis of four mosquito species belonging to the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, are investigated using Electron microscopes. Three ovogenetic phases named previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, postvitellogenesis and mature eggs are described using transmission electron and light microscopes. Egg ornamentations are described with scanning electron microscopy. The controversial nomenclature of the mosquito egg envelopes is discussed.

  10. Discovery of Species-selective and Resistance-breaking Anticholinesterase Insecticides for the Malaria Mosquito.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Paul R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Totrov, Max; Li, Jianyong

    2017-02-06

    Great reductions in malaria mortality have been accomplished in the last 15 years, in part due to the widespread roll-out of insecticide-treated bednets across sub-Saharan Africa. To date, these nets only employ pyrethroids, insecticides that that target the voltage-gated sodium ion channel of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Due to the growing emergence of An. gambiae strains that are resistant to pyrethroids, there is an urgent need to develop new public health insecticides that engage a different target and possess extremely low mammalian toxicity. In this review, we will describe efforts to develop highly species-specific and resistance-breaking inhibitors of An. gambiae acetylcholinesterase (AgAChE). These efforts have been greatly aided by advances in knowledge of the structure of the enzyme, and two major inhibitor design strategies have been explored. Since AgAChE possesses an unpaired Cys residue not present in mammalian AChE, a logical strategy to achieve selective inhibition involves design of compounds that could ligate that Cys. A second strategy involves the design of new molecules to target the catalytic serine of the enzyme. Here the challenge is not only to achieve high inhibition selectivity vs human AChE, but also to demonstrate toxicity to An. gambiae that carry the G119S resistance mutation of AgAChE. The advances made and challenges remaining will be presented. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity.".

  11. Changes in species richness and spatial distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) inferred from museum specimen records and a recent inventory: a case study from Belgium suggests recent expanded distribution of arbovirus and malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Dekoninck, W; Hendrickx, F; Versteirt, V; Coosemans, M; De Clercq, E M; Hendrickx, G; Hance, T; Grootaert, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) distribution data from a recent inventory of native and invading mosquito species in Belgium were compared with historical data from the period 1900-1960 that were retrieved from a revision of the Belgian Culicidae collection at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Both data sets were used to investigate trends in mosquito species richness in several regions in Belgium. The relative change in distribution area of mosquito species was particularly important for species that use waste waters and used tires as larval habitats and species that recently shifted their larval habitat to artificial larval habitats. More importantly, several of these species are known as vectors of arboviruses and Plasmodium sp. and the apparent habitat shift of some of them brought these species in proximity to humans. Similar studies comparing current mosquito richness with former distribution data retrieved from voucher specimens from collections is therefore encouraged because they can generate important information concerning health risk assessment at both regional and national scale.

  12. Abundance and Diversity of Mosquito Species Collected From a Rural Area of Central Mississippi: Implications for West Nile Virus Transmission in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Varnado, Wendy; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    To determine abundance and seasonality of potential West Nile virus (WNV) mosquito vectors in a forested area of central Mississippi, mosquitoes were collected weekly from a wildlife management area located approximately 10 mi from a local urban area known to have numerous human WNV cases. We were particularly interested in the presence or absence of Culex quinquefasciatus, the primary vector of WNV in Mississippi, although other Culex species were assayed. Two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps baited with CO2 were set once a week from 2005 through 2006 in the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area (PRWMA), which consists of 6,925 acres primarily composed of bottomland hardwood forest with wetland areas. Traps were placed midafternoon and picked up the following morning. A total of 199,222 mosquitoes were collected during the 2-year study. No Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected throughout the entire study, although other health department surveys have indicated they are abundant just a few miles away. As for other potential WNV vectors, 1,325 (0.6%) Cx. nigripalpus, 1,804 (0.9%) Cx. restuans, and 6,076 (3.1%) Cx. salinarius were collected in the PRWMA over the 2-year period. These data suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus is not usually found in remote forested environments, but is more associated with human habitation.

  13. The Importance of Interspecific Interactions on the Present Range of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Persistence of Resident Container Species in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fader, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) established in the United States over 30 yr ago and quickly spread throughout the entire eastern half of the country. It has recently spread into western regions and projected climate change scenarios suggest continued expansion to the west and north. Aedes albopictus has had major impacts on, and been impacted by, a diverse array of resident mosquito species. Laying eggs at the edges of small, water-holding containers, hatched larvae develop within these containers feeding on detritus-based resources. Under limited resource conditions, Ae. albopictus has been shown to be a superior competitor to essentially all native and resident species in the United States. Adult males also mate interspecifically with at least one resident species with significant negative impacts on reproductive output for susceptible females. Despite these strong interference effects on sympatric species, competitor outcomes have been highly variable, ranging from outright local exclusion by Ae. albopictus, to apparent exclusion of Ae. albopictus in the presence of the same species. Context-dependent mechanisms that alter the relative strengths of inter- and intraspecific competition, as well as rapid evolution of satyrization-resistant females, may help explain these patterns of variable coexistence. Although there is a large body of research on interspecific interactions of Ae. albopictus in the United States, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the most important species interactions. Addressing these gaps is important in predicting the future distribution of this species and understanding consequences for resident species, including humans, that interact with this highly invasive mosquito.

  14. Abundance, biting behaviour and parous rate of anopheline mosquito species in relation to malaria incidence in gold-mining areas of southern Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J E; Rubio-Palis, Y; Páez, E; Pérez, E; Sánchez, V

    2007-12-01

    A longitudinal entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in five localities of southern Venezuela between January 1999 and April 2000 to determine the abundance, biting behaviour and parity of anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to climate variables and malaria incidence. A total of 3685 female anopheline mosquitoes, representing six species, were collected. The most abundant species were Anopheles marajoara Galvão & Damasceno (60.7%) and Anopheles darlingi Root (35.1%), which together represented 95.8% of the total anophelines collected. Abundance and species distribution varied by locality. Malaria prevalence varied from 12.5 to 21.4 cases per 1000 population. Transmission occurred throughout the year; the annual parasite index (API) for the study period was 813.0 cases per 1000 population, with a range of 71.6-2492 per 1000 population, depending on locality. Plasmodium vivax (Grassi & Feletti) (Coccidia: Plasmodiidae) accounted for 78.6% of cases, Plasmodium falciparum (Welch) for 21.4% and mixed infections (Pv+Pf) for < 0.1%. Anopheles marajoara and An. darlingi were more abundant during the rainy season (April-September). There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05) between mosquito abundance and rainfall. Correlations between malaria incidence by parasite species and mosquito abundance were not significant (P > 0.05). Monthly parous rates were similar for An. marajoara and An. darlingi throughout the year, with two peaks that coincided with the dry-rainy transition period and the period of less rain. Peaks in the incidence of malaria cases were observed 1 month after major peaks in biting rates of parous anophelines. Anopheles darlingi engages in biting activity throughout the night, with two minor peaks at 23.00-00.00 hours and 03.00-04.00 hours. Anopheles marajoara has a different pattern, with a biting peak at 19.00-21.00 hours and 76.6% of biting occurring before midnight. Although both vectors bite indoors and outdoors

  15. Species composition and population dynamics of Aedes mosquitoes, potential vectors of arboviruses, at the container terminal of the autonomous port of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Yao Lucien; Coulibaly, Zanakoungo Ibrahim; Koné, Atiuomounan Blaise; Ekra, Kouadio Daniel; Doannio, Julien Marie-Christian; Dosso, Mirielle; Odéhouri-Koudou, Paul

    2013-01-01

    An entomological survey of Aedes mosquitoes was initiated at the container terminal of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan in 2009 following the occurrence of two outbreaks of yellow fever in less than 10 years and dengue cases reported in 2008 among expatriates returning from Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). It was based on regular monitoring of ovitraps from July 2009 to June 2010. A total of 4,739 adult mosquitoes represented by four species of Aedes (97% of total) and one unexpected species of Culex (3%) were obtained. Aedes aegypti was dominant with 98% of total Aedes (n = 4,594). Its density variation was closely related to the amount of rainfall. The other species of Aedes were collected in the second half of the major rainy season including Ae. albopictus (1.17% of Aedes) and Ae. angustus (0.13%) whose presence was discovered for the first time in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:23567057

  16. General Information about Mosquitoes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are about 200 different species of mosquitoes in the U. S., with varied habitats and behaviors. Bites can transmit diseases such as malaria and West Nile virus to humans, as well as diseases and parasites particularly harmful to dogs and horses.

  17. 16S rRNA Gene-Based Identification of Midgut Bacteria from Field-Caught Anopheles gambiae Sensu Lato and A. funestus Mosquitoes Reveals New Species Related to Known Insect Symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Lindh, Jenny M.; Terenius, Olle; Faye, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Field-collected mosquitoes of the two main malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus, were screened for their midgut bacterial contents. The midgut from each blood-fed mosquito was screened with two different detection pathways, one culture independent and one culture dependent. Bacterial species determination was achieved by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Altogether, 16 species from 14 genera were identified, 8 by each method. Interestingly, several of the bacteria identified are related to bacteria known to be symbionts in other insects. One isolate, Nocardia corynebacterioides, is a relative of the symbiont found in the vector for Chagas' disease that has been proven useful as a paratransgenic bacterium. Another isolate is a novel species within the γ-proteobacteria that could not be phylogenetically placed within any of the known orders in the class but is close to a group of insect symbionts. Bacteria representing three intracellular genera were identified, among them the first identifications of Anaplasma species from mosquitoes and a new mosquito-Spiroplasma association. The isolates will be further investigated for their suitability for a paratransgenic Anopheles mosquito. PMID:16269761

  18. 16S rRNA gene-based identification of midgut bacteria from field-caught Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and A. funestus mosquitoes reveals new species related to known insect symbionts.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Jenny M; Terenius, Olle; Faye, Ingrid

    2005-11-01

    Field-collected mosquitoes of the two main malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus, were screened for their midgut bacterial contents. The midgut from each blood-fed mosquito was screened with two different detection pathways, one culture independent and one culture dependent. Bacterial species determination was achieved by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Altogether, 16 species from 14 genera were identified, 8 by each method. Interestingly, several of the bacteria identified are related to bacteria known to be symbionts in other insects. One isolate, Nocardia corynebacterioides, is a relative of the symbiont found in the vector for Chagas' disease that has been proven useful as a paratransgenic bacterium. Another isolate is a novel species within the gamma-proteobacteria that could not be phylogenetically placed within any of the known orders in the class but is close to a group of insect symbionts. Bacteria representing three intracellular genera were identified, among them the first identifications of Anaplasma species from mosquitoes and a new mosquito-Spiroplasma association. The isolates will be further investigated for their suitability for a paratransgenic Anopheles mosquito.

  19. Behavioral Responses of Catnip (Nepeta cataria) by Two Species of Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles harrisoni, in Thailand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    1999, Zhu et al. 2006). Among these the essential oil from catnip proved to be a safe and promising insect repellent. This oil contains 26 To whom...Different concentrations (1%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) of essential oil from catnip were impreg- nated onto test papers, measuring 12 3 15 cm for...insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–267. Barnard DR. 1999. Repellency of essential oils to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 36:625–629

  20. Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

  1. Measurement, analysis, and depiction of activity in adult mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globalization, open trading practices, and climate change increase the likelihood of introduction of exotic mosquito species. These mosquitoes may harbor disease agents that threaten public and animal health. Successful containment and eradication of exotic mosquito species and (in the case of exo...

  2. Confirmation of Two Sibling Species among Anopheles fluviatilis Mosquitoes in South and Southeastern Iran by Analysis of Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene

    PubMed Central

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anopheles fluviatilis, one of the major malaria vectors in Iran, is assumed to be a complex of sibling species. The aim of this study was to evaluate Cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene alongside 28S-D3 as a diagnostic tool for identification of An. fluviatilis sibling species in Iran. Methods: DNA sample belonging to 24 An. fluviatilis mosquitoes from different geographical areas in south and southeastern Iran were used for amplification of COI gene followed by sequencing. The 474–475 bp COI sequences obtained in this study were aligned with 59 similar sequences of An. fluviatilis and a sequence of Anopheles minimus, as out group, from GenBank database. The distances between group and individual sequences were calculated and phylogenetic tree for obtained sequences was generated by using Kimura two parameter (K2P) model of neighbor-joining method. Results: Phylogenetic analysis using COI gene grouped members of Fars Province (central Iran) in two distinct clades separate from other Iranian members representing Hormozgan, Kerman, and Sistan va Baluchestan Provinces. The mean distance between Iranian and Indian individuals was 1.66%, whereas the value between Fars Province individuals and the group comprising individuals from other areas of Iran was 2.06%. Conclusion: Presence of 2.06% mean distance between individuals from Fars Province and those from other areas of Iran is indicative of at least two sibling species in An. fluviatilis mosquitoes of Iran. This finding confirms earlier results based on RAPD-PCR and 28S-D3 analysis. PMID:23378972

  3. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan: An Arbovirus Attachment Factor Integral to Mosquito Salivary Gland Ducts

    PubMed Central

    Ciano, Kristen A.; Saredy, Jason J.; Bowers, Doria F.

    2014-01-01

    Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito. PMID:25533661

  4. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan: an arbovirus attachment factor integral to mosquito salivary gland ducts.

    PubMed

    Ciano, Kristen A; Saredy, Jason J; Bowers, Doria F

    2014-12-22

    Variants of the prototype Alphavirus, Sindbis (SINV), were used in per os infections of adult female mosquitoes to investigate arbovirus interaction with the salivary gland (SG). Infection of Aedine mosquitoes with AR339, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent variant, resulted in gross pathology in the SG lateral lobes while infection with TR339, a HSPG-independent variant, resulted in minimal SG pathology. HSPG was detected in the internal ducts of the SG lateral lobes by immunolabeling but not in the median lobe, or beyond the triad structure and external ducts. Reports that human lactoferrin interacts with HSPG, suggested an interference with virus attachment to receptors on vertebrate cells. Pre-incubation of Aedes albopictus cultured C7-10 cells with bovine lactoferrin (bLF) followed by adsorption of SINV resulted in earlier and greater intensity of cytopathic response to TR339 compared with AR339. Following pre-treatment of C7-10 cells with bLF, plaques from tissue culture-adapted high-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were observed at 48 h post-infection (p.i.), while plaques from low-titer SINVTaV-GFP-TC were not observed until 120 h p.i. Confocal optics detected this reporter virus at 30 days p.i. in the SG proximal lateral lobe, a region of HSPG-immunolocalization. Altogether these data suggest an association between SINV and HSPG in the host mosquito.

  5. Malaria parasite development in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Beier, J C

    1998-01-01

    Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles transmit malaria parasites to humans. Anopheles mosquito species vary in their vector potential because of environmental conditions and factors affecting their abundance, blood-feeding behavior, survival, and ability to support malaria parasite development. In the complex life cycle of the parasite in female mosquitoes, a process termed sporogony, mosquitoes acquire gametocyte-stage parasites from blood-feeding on an infected host. The parasites carry out fertilization in the midgut, transform to ookinetes, then oocysts, which produce sporozoites. Sporozoites invade the salivary glands and are transmitted when the mosquito feeds on another host. Most individual mosquitoes that ingest gametocytes do not support development to the sporozoite stage. Bottle-necks occur at every stage of the cycle in the mosquito. Powerful new techniques and approaches exist for evaluating malaria parasite development and for identifying mechanisms regulating malaria parasite-vector interactions. This review focuses on those interactions that are important for the development of new approaches for evaluating and blocking transmission in nature.

  6. Host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, U.S.A.: molecular analysis of bloodmeals from 23 species of Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, and Uranotaenia.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Goudarz; Andreadis, Theodore G; Armstrong, Philip M; Diuk-Wasser, Maria

    2008-11-01

    We evaluated the blood-feeding patterns in several mosquito species that may serve as vectors of disease agents in the northeastern United States. Blood-fed mosquitoes were collected from 91 different sites throughout Connecticut over a 6-yr period (June-October 2002-2007), and the host-feeding patterns of 23 mosquito species representing six genera were examined by using a polymerase chain reaction-based assay and sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA. This study was part of a statewide surveillance program and for some of the mosquito species a limited number of specimens were examined [e.g., Aedes communis (De Geer) (1), Anopheles barberi Coquillett (1), Uranotaenia sapphirina (Osten Sacken) (5)]. With the exception of Culex territans Walker that acquired bloodmeals from all four classes of vertebrates--birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals--all species of Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Psorophora, and to a lesser degree, Uranotaenia, were found to feed predominately upon mammalian hosts. Fourteen mammalian species were identified as sources of blood, but the majority of feedings were taken from the white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus. Human-derived bloodmeals were identified from 13 of the 23 mosquito species. Limited avian-derived bloodmeals were detected in Aedes canadensis (Theobald), Aedes cantator (Coquillett), Aedes cinereus Meigen, Aedes triseriatus (Coquillett), Aedes trivittatus (Coquillett), Coquillettidia perturbans (Walker) Cx. territans, Psorophoraferox (von Humboldt), and Ur. sapphirina. American robin, Turdus migratorius, was the most common source of avian blood, followed by a few other mostly Passeriformes birds. We conclude that the white-tailed deer serve as the main vertebrate host for these mammalophilic mosquitoes in this region of the United States. This feeding pattern supports enzootic amplification of arboviruses, including Jamestown Canyon, Cache Valley, and Potosi viruses that perpetuate in

  7. Population Structure and Distribution Patterns of the Sibling Mosquito Species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium (Diptera: Culicidae) Reveal Different Evolutionary Paths

    PubMed Central

    Werblow, Antje; Klimpel, Sven; Bolius, Sarah; Dorresteijn, Adriaan W. C.; Sauer, Jan; Melaun, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays a number of endemic mosquito species are known to possess vector abilities for various diseases, as e.g. the sibling species Culex pipiens and Culex torrentium. Due to their morphological similarity, ecology, distribution and vector abilities, knowledge about these species' population structure is essential. Culicidae from 25 different sampling sites were collected from March till October 2012. All analyses were performed with aligned cox1 sequences with a total length of 658 bp. Population structure as well as distribution patterns of both species were analysed using molecular methods and different statistical tests like distance based redundancy analysis (dbDRA), analysis of molecular variances (AMOVA) or McDonald & Kreitman test and Tajima's D. Within both species, we could show a genetic variability among the cox1 fragment. The construction of haplotype networks revealed one dominating haplotype for Cx. pipiens, widely distributed within Germany and a more homogeneous pattern for Cx. torrentium. The low genetic differences within Cx. pipiens could be a result of an infection with Wolbachia which can induce a sweep through populations by passively taking the also maternally inherited mtDNA through the population, thereby reducing the mitochondrial diversity as an outcome of reproductive incompatibility. Pairwise population genetic differentiation (FST) ranged significantly from moderate to very great between populations of Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. Analyses of molecular variances revealed for both species that the main genetic variability exists within the populations (Cx. pipiens [88.38%]; Cx. torrentium [66.54%]). Based on a distance based redundancy analysis geographical origin explained a small but significant part of the species' genetic variation. Overall, the results confirm that Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium underlie different factors regarding their mitochondrial differentiation, which could be a result of endosymbiosis, dispersal

  8. Hybridization, natural selection, and evolution of reproductive isolation: a 25-years survey of an artificial sympatric area between two mosquito sibling species of the Aedes mariae complex.

    PubMed

    Urbanelli, Sandra; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Bellini, Romeo; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Romoli, Riccardo; Crasta, Graziano; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Natural selection can act against maladaptive hybridization between co-occurring divergent populations leading to evolution of reproductive isolation among them. A critical unanswered question about this process that provides a basis for the theory of speciation by reinforcement, is whether natural selection can cause hybridization rates to evolve to zero. Here, we investigated this issue in two sibling mosquitoes species, Aedes mariae and Aedes zammitii, that show postmating reproductive isolation (F1 males sterile) and partial premating isolation (different height of mating swarms) that could be reinforced by natural selection against hybridization. In 1986, we created an artificial sympatric area between the two species and sampled about 20,000 individuals over the following 25 years. Between 1986 and 2011, the composition of mating swarms and the hybridization rate between the two species were investigated across time in the sympatric area. Our results showed that A. mariae and A. zammitii have not completed reproductive isolation since their first contact in the artificial sympatric area. We have discussed the relative role of factors such as time of contact, gene flow, strength of natural selection, and biological mechanisms causing prezygotic isolation to explain the observed results.

  9. Mosquitoes established in Lhasa city, Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, residents of Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China reported large numbers of mosquitoes and bites from these insects. It is unclear whether this was a new phenomenon, which species were involved, and whether these mosquitoes had established themselves in the local circumstances. Methods The present study was undertaken in six urban sites of Chengguan district Lhasa city, Tibet. Adult mosquitoes were collected by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in August 2009 and August 2012. The trapped adult mosquitoes were initially counted and identified according to morphological criteria, and a proportion of mosquitoes were examined more closely using a multiplex PCR assay. Results 907 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were collected in this study. Among them, 595 were females and 312 were males. There was no significant difference in mosquito density monitored by bed net trap and labor hour method in 2009 and 2012. Of 105 mosquitoes identified by multiplex PCR, 36 were pure mosquitoes (34.29%) while 69 were hybrids (65.71%). The same subspecies of Culex pipiens complex were observed by bed net trap, labor hour method and light trap in 2009 and 2012. Conclusion The local Culex pipiens complex comprises the subspecies Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. pipiens pallens, Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and its hybrids. Mosquitoes in the Cx. pipiens complex, known to be, potentially, vectors of periodic filariasis and encephalitis, are now present from one season to the next, and appear to be established in Lhasa City, TAR. PMID:24060238

  10. Larvicidal activity of Blumea eriantha essential oil and its components against six mosquito species, including Zika virus vectors: the promising potential of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene, carvotanacetone and dodecyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Senthilmurugan, Sengamalai; Vijayan, Periasamy; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Khaled, Jamal M

    2017-04-01

    The effective and environmentally sustainable control of mosquitoes is a challenge of essential importance. This is due to the fact that some invasive mosquitoes, with special reference to the Aedes genus, are particularly difficult to control, due to their high ecological plasticity. Moreover, the indiscriminate overuse of synthetic insecticides resulted in undesirable effects on human health and non-target organisms, as well as resistance development in targeted vectors. Here, the leaf essential oil (EO) extracted from a scarcely studied plant of ethno-medicinal interest, Blumea eriantha (Asteraceae), was tested on the larvae of six mosquitoes, including Zika virus vectors. The B. eriantha EO was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The B. eriantha EO showed high toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of six important mosquito species: Anopheles stephensi (LC50=41.61 μg/ml), Aedes aegypti (LC50=44.82 μg/ml), Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50 =48.92 μg/ml), Anopheles subpictus (LC50=51.21 μg/ml), Ae. albopictus (LC50=56.33 μg/ml) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=61.33 μg/ml). The major components found in B. eriantha EO were (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene (12.8%), carvotanacetone (10.6%), and dodecyl acetate (8.9%). Interestingly, two of the main EO components, (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone, achieved LC50 lower than 10 μg/ml on all tested mosquito species. The acute toxicity of B. eriantha EO and its major constituents on four aquatic predators of mosquito larval instars was limited, with LC50 ranging from 519 to 11.431 μg/ml. Overall, the larvicidal activity of (4E,6Z)-allo-ocimene and carvotanacetone far exceed most of the LC50 calculated in current literature on mosquito botanical larvicides, allowing us to propose both of them as potentially alternatives for developing eco-friendly mosquito control tools.

  11. Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

  12. Zika Virus Vector Competency of Mosquitoes, Gulf Coast, United States

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Charles E.; Roundy, Christopher M.; Azar, Sasha R.; Huang, Jing H.; Yun, Ruimei; Reynolds, Erin; Leal, Grace; Nava, Martin R.; Vela, Jeremy; Stark, Pamela M.; Debboun, Mustapha; Rossi, Shannan; Vasilakis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has recently spread throughout the Americas. Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. We tested Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the US Gulf Coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission. PMID:28005002

  13. Effect of collection method on estimates of adult mosquito density

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We made simultaneous comparison of the number of female mosquitoes captured by suction traps and portable light traps (augmented with CO2) in a Florida swamp with the landing rate of female mosquitoes on a human subject. Depending on the mosquito species, capture rates in light traps ranged between...

  14. Zika Virus Vector Competency of Mosquitoes, Gulf Coast, United States.

    PubMed

    Hart, Charles E; Roundy, Christopher M; Azar, Sasha R; Huang, Jing H; Yun, Ruimei; Reynolds, Erin; Leal, Grace; Nava, Martin R; Vela, Jeremy; Stark, Pamela M; Debboun, Mustapha; Rossi, Shannan; Vasilakis, Nikos; Thangamani, Saravanan; Weaver, Scott C

    2017-03-01

    Zika virus has recently spread throughout the Americas. Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are considered the primary vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and mosquitoes of other species may also be vectors. We tested Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. taeniorhynchus mosquitoes from the US Gulf Coast; both were refractory to infection and incapable of transmission.

  15. The Value of Georeferenced Collection Records for Predicting Patterns of Mosquito Species Richness and Endemism in the Neotropics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    relative density of species and Trinidad-Tobago the highest, followed by Panama and French Guiana . 4. The potential distribution of species was...methods both showed areas of high species richness in French Guiana , Panama, Trinidad-Tobago, and Colombia. Potential hotspots in endemicity included...unsampled areas in Panama, French Guiana , Colombia, Belize, Venezuela, and Brazil. 6. Argentina, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, Cuba, and Peru were the

  16. Thule AB, Greenland, Mosquito Survey and Arbovirus Surveillance, 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-21

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Public Health and Preventive ...July 2012. One species of mosquitoes, Aedes impiger, was collected and more than 3000 were processed for virus testing. Active mosquito breeding...of mosquitoes, Aedes impiger, was collected and more than 3000 were processed for virus testing. Active mosquito breeding sites were located

  17. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Brigitte; Lefebvre, Gaëtan; Muranyi-Kovacs, Camille; Hilaire, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France) following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%), which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas. PMID:28335456

  18. Mosquito Consumption by Insectivorous Bats: Does Size Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

    2013-01-01

    Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito

  19. History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Jonathan C; Kapan, Durrell D

    2013-06-01

    As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

  20. Deep Interisland Genetic Divergence in the Macaronesian Endemic Mosquito Ochlerotatus eatoni (Diptera: Culicidae), Indication of Cryptic Species.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Mahnaz

    2015-09-01

    Ochlerotatus eatoni (Edwards, 1916) is a species endemic to Canary and Madeira Islands that, based on morphology, is considered to be single species. Mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequence data demonstrate that the populations from Tenerife and Madeira Islands are highly differentiated (F(ST) = 0.93). The phylogenetic analysis also separates the two populations into two highly distinct groups. The sharp mitochondrial genetic differentiation between islands is congruent with the published nuclear (allozyme) data. However, mtDNA data did not reveal any significant genetic differentiation within islands. Extreme interisland genetic divergence, but lack of morphological variation, is indicative of the existence of cryptic species. I suggest the elevation of populations to at least incipient species status, designating the populations from Tenerife and Madeira Islands as Oc. eatoni. hewitti and Oc. eatoni. krimbasi, respectively.

  1. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-10

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere.

  2. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  3. MOSQUITOES OF THE CAATINGA: 2. SPECIES FROM PERIODIC SAMPLING OF BROMELIADS AND TREE HOLES IN A DRY BRAZILIAN FOREST.

    PubMed

    Marteis, Letícia Silva; Natal, Delsio; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Corte, Roseli La

    2017-03-28

    The Caatinga is a dry tropical forest, located in the Brazilian semiarid region and rich in phytotelmata. This study investigated the culicid fauna of phytotelmata of the caatinga by sampling for 19 consecutive months aquatic immatures from tree holes and bromeliads. A total of 127L of water was taken from the plants, containing 6,764 immature culicids of 16 species, of which 11 (69%) are undescribed and respond to 90% of the total abundance of the specimens collected. Epiphytic bromeliads harbor a large number of immature Culicidae, although terrestrial bromeliads are the most abundant and widely distributed in the region. The richness of culicid species was similar between terrestrial and epiphytic bromeliads and lower in habitats represented by tree hole phytotelmata. There was no similarity in the composition of culicid species that developed in bromeliads or tree holes. Temperature and humidity were the environmental parameters most strongly associated with the proportion of positive plants. The Caatinga has a great number of endemic species that remain unknown to science and many additional culicid species may await discovery from there.

  4. Mosquito, adult feeding on the skin (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are many different species of mosquito, which can carry some of the world's most common and significant infectious diseases, including West Nile, Malaria, yellow fever, viral encephalitis, and ...

  5. Development of a new Sindbis virus transducing system and its characterization in three Culicine mosquitoes and two Lepidopteran species.

    PubMed

    Foy, B D; Myles, K M; Pierro, D J; Sanchez-Vargas, I; Uhlírová, M; Jindra, M; Beaty, B J; Olson, K E

    2004-02-01

    Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are alphavirus-based tools for expressing genes in insects. Here we describe an ATS (5'dsMRE16ic) based entirely on Sindbis MRE16 virus. GFP expression was used to characterize alimentary tract infections and dissemination in three Culicine and two Lepidopteran species. Following per os infection, 5'dsMRE16ic-EGFP efficiently infected Aedes aegypti and Culex tritaeniorhynchus, but not Culex pipiens pipiens. Ae. aegypti clearly showed accumulation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the posterior midgut and foregut/midgut junction within 2-3 days postinfection. Following parenteral infection of larvae, Bombyx mori had extensive GFP expression in larvae and adults, but Manduca sexta larvae were mostly resistant. 5'dsMRE16ic should be a valuable tool for gene expression in several important insect species that are otherwise difficult to manipulate genetically.

  6. Reception of odors and repellents in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Anandasankar

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes use their sense of smell to find hosts, nectar, and oviposition sites, and to avoid repellents. A small number of mosquito species are adapted to feed on humans and have a major impact on public health by transmitting malaria, dengue, filariasis, etc. The application of odorants for behavioral control has not been fully realized yet due to complexity of the mosquito olfactory system. Recent progress in molecular and computational tools has enabled rigorous investigations of the mosquito olfactory system function and has started to reveal how specific receptors contribute to attractive and aversive behaviors. Here we discuss recent advances in linking odors to receptors and in exploiting this knowledge in finding attractants and repellents for mosquitoes. PMID:26202080

  7. Mosquito Oviposition Behavior and Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Day, Jonathan F

    2016-11-18

    The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation. An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control opportunities directed against specific disease vectors. For example, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is the vector of viruses causing important human diseases including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The preference of this species to oviposit in natural and artificial containers has facilitated the development of Ae. aegypti-specific surveillance and toxic oviposition traps designed to detect and control this important vector species in and around disease foci. A better understanding of the wide diversity of mosquito oviposition behavior will allow the development of new and innovative surveillance and control devices directed against other important mosquito vectors of human and animal disease.

  8. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  9. Mosquito Oviposition Behavior and Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    The burden of gene transfer from one mosquito generation to the next falls on the female and her eggs. The selection of an oviposition site that guarantees egg and larval survival is a critical step in the reproductive process. The dangers associated with ephemeral aquatic habitats, lengthy droughts, freezing winters, and the absence of larval nutrition makes careful oviposition site selection by a female mosquito extremely important. Mosquito species exhibit a remarkable diversity of oviposition behaviors that ensure eggs are deposited into microenvironments conducive for successful larval development and the emergence of the next mosquito generation. An understanding of mosquito oviposition behavior is necessary for the development of surveillance and control opportunities directed against specific disease vectors. For example, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus is the vector of viruses causing important human diseases including yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. The preference of this species to oviposit in natural and artificial containers has facilitated the development of Ae. aegypti-specific surveillance and toxic oviposition traps designed to detect and control this important vector species in and around disease foci. A better understanding of the wide diversity of mosquito oviposition behavior will allow the development of new and innovative surveillance and control devices directed against other important mosquito vectors of human and animal disease. PMID:27869724

  10. Detection of West Nile virus RNA in mosquitoes and identification of mosquito blood meals collected at alligator farms in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Isik; Kramer, Wayne L; Roy, Alma F; Foil, Lane D

    2010-07-01

    Since 2001, alligator farms in the United States have sustained substantial economic losses because of West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Once an initial infection is introduced into captive alligators, WNV can spread among animals by contaminative transmission. Some outbreaks have been linked to feeding on infected meat or the introduction of infected hatchlings, but the initial source of WNV infection has been uncertain in other outbreaks. We conducted a study to identify species composition and presence of WNV in mosquito populations associated with alligator farms in Louisiana. A second objective of this study was to identify the origin of mosquito blood meals collected at commercial alligator farms. Mosquitoes were collected from 2004 to 2006, using Centers for Disease Control light traps, gravid traps, backpack aspirators, and resting boxes. We collected a total of 58,975 mosquitoes representing 24 species. WNV was detected in 41 pools of females from 11 mosquito species: Anopheles crucians, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Coquillettidia perturbans, Culex coronator, Culex erraticus, Culex nigripalpus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Mansonia titillans, Aedes sollicitans, Psorophora columbiae, and Uranotaenia lowii. The blood meal origins of 213 field-collected mosquitoes were identified based on cytochrome B sequence identity. Alligator blood was detected in 21 mosquitoes representing six species of mosquitoes, including Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus. Our results showed that mosquitoes of species that are known to be competent vectors of WNV fed regularly on captive alligators. Therefore, mosquitoes probably are important in the role of transmission of WNV at alligator farms.

  11. Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-27

    African species of stegmyia have been implicated as natural hosts, vectors, and/or reservoirs of 8 viruses , 6 of which cause human illness (Chikingunya...dengue 1 and 2, Duige, Rift Valley Fever, yellow fever and Zika ). Chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever are the most important arboviruses associated...accurately identify specimens of vector species for mosquito survey, virus -isolation studies and epidemiological studies. 3 This paper is part of a revision

  12. A dynamic model of some malaria-transmitting anopheline mosquitoes of the Afrotropical region. II. Validation of species distribution and seasonal variations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The first part of this study aimed to develop a model for Anopheles gambiae s.l. with separate parametrization schemes for Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. The characterizations were constructed based on literature from the past decades. This part of the study is focusing on the model’s ability to separate the mean state of the two species of the An. gambiae complex in Africa. The model is also evaluated with respect to capturing the temporal variability of An. arabiensis in Ethiopia. Before conclusions and guidance based on models can be made, models need to be validated. Methods The model used in this paper is described in part one (Malaria Journal 2013, 12:28). For the validation of the model, a data base of 5,935 points on the presence of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis was constructed. An additional 992 points were collected on the presence An. gambiae s.l.. These data were used to assess if the model could recreate the spatial distribution of the two species. The dataset is made available in the public domain. This is followed by a case study from Madagascar where the model’s ability to recreate the relative fraction of each species is investigated. In the last section the model’s ability to reproduce the temporal variability of An. arabiensis in Ethiopia is tested. The model was compared with data from four papers, and one field survey covering two years. Results Overall, the model has a realistic representation of seasonal and year to year variability in mosquito densities in Ethiopia. The model is also able to describe the distribution of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in sub-Saharan Africa. This implies this model can be used for seasonal and long term predictions of changes in the burden of malaria. Before models can be used to improving human health, or guide which interventions are to be applied where, there is a need to understand the system of interest. Validation is an important part of this process. It is

  13. Molecular differentiation of three closely related members of the mosquito species complex, Anopheles moucheti, by mitochondrial and ribosomal DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kengne, P; Antonio-Nkondjio, C; Awono-Ambene, H P; Simard, F; Awolola, T S; Fontenille, D

    2007-06-01

    Distinction between members of the equatorial Africa malaria vector Anopheles moucheti (Evans) s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) has been based mainly on doubtful morphological features. To determine the level of genetic differentiation between the three morphological forms of this complex, we investigated molecular polymorphism in the gene encoding for mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase b (CytB) and in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2). The three genomic regions revealed sequence differences between the three morphological forms similar in degree to the differences shown previously for members of other anopheline species groups or complexes (genetic distance d = 0.047-0.05 for CytB, 0.084-0.166 for ITS1 and 0.03-0.05 for ITS2). Using sequence variation in the ITS1 region, we set up a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid and reliable identification of each subspecies within the An. moucheti complex. Specimens of An. moucheti s.l. collected in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Uganda and Nigeria were successfully identified, demonstrating the general applicability of this technique.

  14. Mosquito populations dynamics associated with climate variations.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Ceretti-Junior, Walter; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2017-02-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of numerous serious pathogens. Members of the Aedes and Culex genera, which include many important vectors of mosquito-borne diseases, are highly invasive and adapted to man-made environments. They are spread around the world involuntarily by humans and are highly adapted to urbanized environments, where they are exposed to climate-related abundance drivers. We investigated Culicidae fauna in two urban parks in the city of São Paulo to analyze the correlations between climatic variables and the population dynamics of mosquitoes in these urban areas. Mosquitoes were collected monthly over one year, and sampling sufficiency was evaluated after morphological identification of the specimens. The average monthly temperature and accumulated rainfall for the collection month and previous month were used to explain climate-related abundance drivers for the six most abundant species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes fluviatilis, Aedes scapularis, Culex nigripalpus and Culex quinquefasciatus) and then analyzed using generalized linear statistical models and the Akaike Information Criteria corrected for small samples (AICc). The strength of evidence in favor of each model was evaluated using Akaike weights, and the explanatory model power was measured by McFadden's Pseudo-R(2). Associations between climate and mosquito abundance were found in both parks, indicating that predictive models based on climate variables can provide important information on mosquito population dynamics. We also found that this association is species-dependent. Urbanization processes increase the abundance of a few mosquito species that are well adapted to man-made environments and some of which are important vectors of pathogens. Predictive models for abundance based on climate variables may help elucidate the population dynamics of urban mosquitoes and their impact on the risk of disease transmission, allowing better predictive scenarios to be

  15. Wolbachia and cytoplasmic incompatibility in the California Culex pipiens mosquito species complex: parameter estimates and infection dynamics in natural populations.

    PubMed Central

    Rasgon, Jason L; Scott, Thomas W

    2003-01-01

    Before maternally inherited bacterial symbionts like Wolbachia, which cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI; reduced hatch rate) when infected males mate with uninfected females, can be used in a program to control vector-borne diseases it is essential to understand their dynamics of infection in natural arthropod vector populations. Our study had four goals: (1) quantify the number of Wolbachia strains circulating in the California Culex pipiens species complex, (2) investigate Wolbachia infection frequencies and distribution in natural California populations, (3) estimate the parameters that govern Wolbachia spread among Cx. pipiens under laboratory and field conditions, and (4) use these values to estimate equilibrium levels and compare predicted infection prevalence levels to those observed in nature. Strain-specific PCR, wsp gene sequencing, and crossing experiments indicated that a single Wolbachia strain infects Californian Cx. pipiens. Infection frequency was near or at fixation in all populations sampled for 2 years along a >1000-km north-south transect. The combined statewide infection frequency was 99.4%. Incompatible crosses were 100% sterile under laboratory and field conditions. Sterility decreased negligibly with male age in the laboratory. Infection had no significant effect on female fecundity under laboratory or field conditions. Vertical transmission was >99% in the laboratory and approximately 98.6% in the field. Using field data, models predicted that Wolbachia will spread to fixation if infection exceeds an unstable equilibrium point above 1.4%. Our estimates accurately predicted infection frequencies in natural populations. If certain technical hurdles can be overcome, our data indicate that Wolbachia can invade vector populations as part of an applied transgenic strategy for vector-borne disease reduction. PMID:14704183

  16. Mosquito Surveillance Revealed Lagged Effects of Mosquito Abundance on Mosquito-Borne Disease Transmission: A Retrospective Study in Zhejiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song; Ling, Feng; Hou, Juan; Wang, Jinna; Fu, Guiming; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) are still threats to public health in Zhejiang. In this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and MBDs incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of MBDs epidemiology in Zhejiang during 2008–2012. Light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. Correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between MBDs incidence rates and mosquito abundance by month. Selected MBDs consisted of Japanese encephalitis (JE), dengue fever (DF) and malaria. A Poisson regression analysis was performed by using a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach, and the most parsimonious model was selected based on the quasi-likelihood based information criterion (QICu). We identified five mosquito species and the constituent ratio of Culex pipiens pallens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres subalbatus was 66.73%, 21.47%, 6.72%, 2.83% and 2.25%, respectively. The correlation analysis without and with time lag showed that Culex mosquito abundance at a lag of 0 or 1 month was positively correlated with JE incidence during 2008–2012, Ae. albopictus abundance at a lag of 1 month was positively correlated with DF incidence in 2009, and An. sinensis abundance at a lag of 0–2 months was positively correlated with malaria incidence during 2008–2010. The Poisson regression analysis showed each 0.1 rise of monthly mosquito abundance corresponded to a positive increase of MBD cases for the period of 2008–2012. The rise of mosquito abundance with a lag of 0–2 months increased the risk of human MBDs infection in Zhejiang. Our study provides evidence that mosquito monitoring could be a useful early warning tool for the occurrence and transmission of MBDs. PMID:25393834

  17. Mosquito, adult (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This illustration shows an adult southern house mosquito. This mosquito feeds on blood and is the carrier of many diseases, such as encephalitis, West Nile, dengue fever, yellow fever, and others. ( ...

  18. Enhanced vector borne disease surveillance of California Culex mosquito populations reveals spatial and species-specific barriers of infection.

    SciTech Connect

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Curtis, Deanna Joy; Koh, Chung-Yan; Brodsky, Benjamin H; Lane, Todd

    2014-08-01

    terium and c am p y l o bacter bac t er i al spec i e s . W e utilized the s e mic r obial transcri p tomes pre s e nt in g e ogra p hical l y defined Cul e x po p ul a tions to defi n e spatial and m osqui t o specie s -spec i fic ba r r iers of i n fecti o n. T he v i r ome and microbi o me c o mpos i tion id e ntified in e ach mosqui t o p o ol pr o v i ded suf f icient resolut i on to dete r m i ne both the mosq u ito species and the g e o graphic regi o n in Californ i a w h e re t h e mosqui t o po o l orig i n ated. T his d a ta pr o v i des ins i ght in t o the compl e x i t y of microb i al spec i es cir c ulati n g in med i cal l y i mport a nt Culex mosqui t oes a nd t h eir potent i al im p act o n t he tran s missi o n of v ector-b o rne human / veter i na r y p a t hogens in C a liforn i a.

  19. Paratransgenesis: a promising new strategy for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2015-06-24

    The three main mosquito genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, transmit respectively malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Current mosquito control strategies have proved unsuccessful, and there still is a substantial number of morbidity and mortality from these diseases. Genetic control methods have now arisen as promising alternative strategies, based on two approaches: the replacement of a vector population by disease-refractory mosquitoes and the release of mosquitoes carrying a lethal gene to suppress target populations. However, substantial hurdles and limitations need to be overcome if these methods are to be used successfully, the most significant being that a transgenic mosquito strain is required for every target species, making genetically modified mosquito strategies inviable when there are multiple vector mosquitoes in the same area. Genetically modified bacteria capable of colonizing a wide range of mosquito species may be a solution to this problem and another option for the control of these diseases. In the paratransgenic approach, symbiotic bacteria are genetically modified and reintroduced in mosquitoes, where they express effector molecules. For this approach to be used in practice, however, requires a better understanding of mosquito microbiota and that symbiotic bacteria and effector molecules be identified. Paratransgenesis could prove very useful in mosquito species that are inherently difficult to transform or in sibling species complexes. In this approach, a genetic modified bacteria can act by: (a) causing pathogenic effects in the host; (b) interfering with the host's reproduction; (c) reducing the vector's competence; and (d) interfering with oogenesis and embryogenesis. It is a much more flexible and adaptable approach than the use of genetically modified mosquitoes because effector molecules and symbiotic bacteria can be replaced if they do not achieve the desired result. Paratransgenesis may therefore become an important integrated

  20. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  1. Insights into host-finding by Culex mosquitoes: New tools for surveillance?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culex mosquitoes are important vectors of pathogens and parasites causing diseases such as West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis and bancroftian filariasis. Surveillance of these species is based on traps using conventional mosquito attractan...

  2. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: choice of study sites based on geospatial characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is an introduced invasive species in the U.S. responsible for a significant proportion of service requests to local mosquito control programs. This container-utilizing mosquito is refractory to standard mosquito abatement measures in th...

  3. Efficacy of essential oil from Cananga odorata (Lamk.) Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) against three mosquito species Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2015-12-01

    The essential oil of Cananga odorata flowers was evaluated for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities toward three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles dirus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Oviposition deterrence of the oil was evaluated on gravid females using oviposition deterrence bioassay. The results showed that 10 % Ca. odorata exhibited high percent effective repellency against oviposition at 99.4 % to Ae. aegypti, 97.1 % to An. dirus, and 100 % to Cx. quinquefasciatus. Ca. odorata oil was tested for ovicidal activity. Regression equations revealed that the ovicidal rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the essential oil. As the concentration of essential oil increased from 1, 5, and up to 10 % concentration, the ovicidal rate increased accordingly. Larvicidal activity of the oils was used on immature stages (third and fourth instar lavae and pupae). The maximum larval mortality was found with 10 % Ca. odorata against immature stages, and there were LC50 values ranged from 10.4 to 10.5 % (for Ae. aegypti), <1 % (for An. dirus), and <1 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus). Adulticidal properties were evaluated with unfed females. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil had high knockdown rates against the three mosquito species at 96 % (for Ae. aegypti), 98.4 % (for An. dirus), and 100 % (for Cx. quinquefasciatus), with EC50 values of 6.2, 4.7, and 5.4 %, respectively. It gave moderate mortality rates after 24 and 48 h of exposure. Ca. odorata oil was assessed for repellency to females by using the modified K&D module. Ten percent Ca. odorata oil gave the strongest value against Ae. aegypti, An. dirus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with percentage repellency of 66, 92, and 90 %, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of Ca. odorata essential oil to be used as a botanical insecticide against three mosquito species.

  4. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Brittany L; Rasgon, Jason L

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus.

  5. Vector competence of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes for Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Brittany L.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a newly emergent mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused recent large outbreaks in the new world, leading to dramatic increases in serious disease pathology including Guillain-Barre syndrome, newborn microcephaly, and infant brain damage. Although Aedes mosquitoes are thought to be the primary mosquito species driving infection, the virus has been isolated from dozens of mosquito species, including Culex and Anopheles species, and we lack a thorough understanding of which mosquito species to target for vector control. We exposed Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to blood meals supplemented with two Zika virus strains. Mosquito bodies, legs, and saliva were collected five, seven, and 14 days post blood meal and tested for infectious virus by plaque assay. Regardless of titer, virus strain, or timepoint, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were refractory to Zika virus infection. We conclude that Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes likely do not contribute significantly to Zika virus transmission to humans. However, future studies should continue to explore the potential for other novel potential vectors to transmit the virus. PMID:28316896

  6. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. PMID:26556361

  7. The Impact of Wolbachia on Virus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karyn N

    2015-11-04

    Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile and chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity and mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection and transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species and the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally and artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

  8. Laboratory observations on the larvicidal efficacy of three plant species against mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) and lymphatic filariasis in the semi-arid desert.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna; Sherwani, M R K

    2012-05-01

    Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera (Aiton), Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data 24 and 48 hr LC50and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response were determined by log probit regression analysis. Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. procera which revealed that methanol (24 hr LC50: 127.2, 194.8, 361.0) and acetone (229.9, 368.1,193.0 mg l(-1)) extracts were more effective with the three mosquito species, respectively. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. stephensi while aqueous extracts were not effective at all with any of the mosquito species (mortality < 10-30%). Tests carried out with methanol extracts of fresh leaves (24 hr LC50: 89.2, 171.2, 369.7) and flowers (24 hr LC50: 94.7,617.3, 1384.0 mg l-(-1)) of Calotropis showed that preparations from fresh parts were 2-3 times more effective as compared to the stored plant parts. Efficacy was less than 10-30% with both An. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while An. stephensi was still susceptible to extracts from both leaves and flowers even after two years of storage. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for methanol extracts of seeds of T. purpurea and leaves of P. juliflora were 74.9, 63.2 and 47.0 and 96.2,128.1 and 118.8 mg l(-1) for the above three mosquito species, respectively. Experiments carried out up to 500 mg l-(1) with leaves (T. purpurea) and seeds (P. juliflora) extracts show only up to 10-30% mortality indicating that

  9. Physiological bases of mosquito ecology.

    PubMed

    Briegel, Hans

    2003-06-01

    The research carried out during more than 30 years in the author's laboratory is briefly reviewed. Quantitative analyses of basic physiological processes, such as growth and development, digestion and excretion, oogenesis and fecundity, reserve synthesis and resulting flight-potentials of Aedes aegypti were summarized and compared with several other mosquito species, particularly with Anopheles. These studies led to the recognition of distinctly different physiological strategies, for which the term "physiotype" has been coined, providing a basis for understanding the different ecotypes.

  10. [The recurring necessity of mosquito surveillance and research].

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2015-10-01

    Hematophagous arthropods and the diseases associated with them represent a growing threat to human and animal health in Europe. After the eradication of endemic malaria from Europe in the middle of the last century, there has been a resurgence of mosquitoes as significant vectors of disease agents under the influence of continuing globalisation, as exotic species and mosquito-borne pathogens are being introduced with increasing frequency. At present, southern Europe is particularly affected by disease outbreaks and cases, but invasive mosquito species, including efficient vectors, have also emerged in Germany. While there is considerable knowledge on the vector potential of many tropical and subtropical mosquito species, corresponding data on the indigenous mosquito species are scarce. Exceptions are the Anopheles species, which were already vectors of malaria parasites in historic Europe. It must be assumed, however, that many further indigenous species are able to transmit pathogens under certain conditions and will by all means gain vector competence under a scenario of climate warming. Thus, the permanent surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease agents is paramount for the purposes of conducting risk analyses and modelling, in addition to research work addressing the conditions of the spread of vectors and pathogens and of pathogen transmission. Only ample data can facilitate taking appropriate prophylactic action and designing control strategies. International health organizations have realised this and started to promote data collection on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in the EU. At a national levels, authorities are more reluctant, although, similar to other fields of health, it has been shown for mosquito-borne diseases that preventive measures are more cost-saving than disease case management and the coverage of follow-up costs. The present article is intended to illustrate the necessity of the re-intensification of mosquito

  11. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  12. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  13. Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic and geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference and other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, and the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, and in Central and South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, and Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term and long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife and people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

  14. MosqTent: An individual portable protective double-chamber mosquito trap for anthropophilic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lima, José Bento Pereira; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Bastos, Leonardo Soares; Lima, Arthur Weiss da Silva; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti

    2017-03-01

    Here, we describe the development of the MosqTent, an innovative double-chamber mosquito trap in which a human being attracts mosquitoes while is protected from being bitten within the inner chamber of the trap, while mosquitoes are lured to enter an outer chamber where they are trapped. The MosqTent previously collected an average of 3,000 anophelines/man-hour compared to 240 anophelines/man-hour for the human landing catch (HLC), thereby providing high numbers of human host-seeking mosquitoes while protecting the collector from mosquito bites. The MosqTent performed well by collecting a high number of specimens of Anopheles marajoara, a local vector and anthropophilic mosquito species present in high density, but not so well in collecting An. darlingi, an anthropophilic mosquito species considered the main vector in Brazil but is present in low-density conditions in the area. The HLC showed a higher efficiency in collecting An. darlingi in these low-density conditions. The MosqTent is light (<1 kg), portable (comes as a bag with two handles), flexible (can be used with other attractants), adaptable (can be deployed in a variety of environmental settings and weather conditions), and it can be used in the intra-, peri-, and in the extradomicile. Also, the MosqTent collected similar portions of parous females and anthropophilic mosquito species and collects specimens suitable for downstream analysis. Further developments may include testing for other fabric colors, different mesh sizes and dimensions for other hematophagous insects and conditions, additional chemical mosquito attractants, and even the replacement of the human attractant in favor of other attractants. MosqTent modifications that would allow the trap to be applied as a vector control tool with killing action could also be explored.

  15. Mosquito Records from Mexico: The Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Tamaulipas State.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Zavortink, Thomas J; Huerta-Jiménez, Herón; Sánchez-Rámos, Francisco J; Valdés-Perezgasga, Ma Teresa; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Siller-Rodríguez, Quetzaly K; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso

    2015-03-01

    To document the diversity and distribution of mosquito species inhabiting the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, collection trips were conducted to all physiographic regions (Grand Northamerican Plains, Coastal Plain of North Gulf, and Sierra Madre Oriental) and subregions across the state. Additionally, we re-examined mosquito specimens in two Mexican entomological collections: the Collection of Insects and Mites of Medical Importance and the Collection of Arthropods of Medical Importance. In total, 3,931 specimens were collected. These represent the two Culicidae subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae, 10 tribes, 17 genera, 27 subgenera, 80 named species, and 2 undescribed species. Of these, 3 tribes, 6 genera, 7 subgenera, and 20 species are new records for the mosquito fauna of Tamaulipas. Fourteen species recorded in the historical records were not found in collections made for this study. Taxonomic notes, new distribution limits, and comments about the medical importance of some of the species collected are reported.

  16. The Mosquitos of the Philippine Islands. The Distribution of Certain Species, and Their Occurrence in Relation to the Incidence of Certain Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1908-01-01

    DISEASES A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies of The George Washington University in Part Satisfaction of the Requirements for the...Relation to the Incidence of Certain Diseases 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...activity corresponding with the prevalence of certain infec- tious diseases known or suspected to be dependent for their propaga- tion upon the mosquito

  17. Workbook on the Identification of Mosquito Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable public health workers identify larvae of some important North American mosquito species. The morphological features of larvae of the various genera and species are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains illustrated taxonomic keys to the larvae of 11 North American genera and to…

  18. Combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and metabolomic data in support of dry-season survival in the two main species of the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae☆

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, K.; Mouline, K.; Mamai, W.; Foucreau, N.; Dabiré, K.R.; Bouchereau, A.; Simard, F.; Renault, D.

    2015-01-01

    In dry savannahs of West-Africa, the malarial mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto complex annually survive the harsh desiccating conditions of the dry season. However, the physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying how these mosquitoes survive such desiccating conditions are still undefined, and controversial. In this context, we provide the first work examining both proteomic and metabolomic changes in the two molecular forms of A. gambiae s.s (M and S forms) experimentally exposed to the rainy and dry season conditions as they experience in the field. Protein abundances of the mosquitoes were measured using a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) for protein identification. These assays were conducted by Applied Biomics (http://www.appliedbiomics.com, Applied Biomics, Inc. Hayward, CA, USA), and the mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD000294. The metabolomic analysis was conducted using both Acquity UPLC® system (for amino acid identification), and a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry platform (for sugars identification). Metabolomic fingerprintings were assessed in the University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6553 EcoBio (France). A detailed interpretation of the obtained data can be found in Hidalgo et al. (2014) [1] (Journal of Insect Physiology (2014)). PMID:26543889

  19. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Kristina K.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT), release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL), population replacement strategies (PR), and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood. PMID:28009851

  20. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage mosquitoes from landing on you. Tips include removing mosquito habitats such as standing water, minimizing exposed skin, and staying indoors while mosquitoes are most active.

  1. New State Records of Mosquitoes for Colorado.

    PubMed

    Rose, Dominic A; Kondratieff, B C; Weissmann, M J

    2015-06-01

    The 1967 treatment of the Mosquitoes of Colorado by Harmston and Lawson and subsequent publications have recorded 46 culicid species from Colorado. As part of a study to create an updated synopsis of the mosquitoes of Colorado, adult trapping at numerous localities was conducted in Colorado during the summers of 2013 and 2014. This review also included an examination of mosquito specimens in various relevant museum collections. Aedes (Ochlerotatus) niphadopsis and Ae. (Och.) spencerii spencerii were collected during the 2013 and 2014 field seasons. Records for Ae. (Och.) canadensis canadensis, Ae. (Stegomyia) aegypti, and Uranotaenia (Pseudoficalbia) anhydor syntheta were obtained from examination of museum specimens. These species constitute new state records for Colorado, with 51 species now known from the state.

  2. Changes in local mosquito fauna following beaver (Castor canadensis) activity.

    PubMed

    Butts, W L

    1986-09-01

    A marked decrease in anthropophilic temporary water mosquito populations subsequent to impoundment of extensive areas of larval development by beavers is documented. Absence to date of development of other mosquito species in the permanent water thus established is noted and discussed relative to current characteristics of the site.

  3. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  4. Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew; Nimmo, Derric; Neira Oviedo, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Matzen, Kelly; Beech, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches. PMID:23816508

  5. Exotic mosquito threats require strategic surveillance and response planning.

    PubMed

    Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-12-14

    Mosquito-borne diseases caused by endemic pathogens such as Ross River, Barmah Forest and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses are an annual concern in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. More than a dozen mosquito species have been implicated in the transmission of these pathogens, with each mosquito occupying a specialised ecological niche that influences their habitat associations, host feeding preferences and the environmental drivers of their abundance. The NSW Arbovirus Surveillance and Mosquito Monitoring Program provides an early warning system for potential outbreaks of mosquito-borne disease by tracking annual activity of these mosquitoes and their associated pathogens. Although the program will effectively track changes in local mosquito populations that may increase with a changing climate, urbanisation and wetland rehabilitation, it will be less effective with current surveillance methodologies at detecting or monitoring changes in exotic mosquito threats, where different surveillance strategies need to be used. Exotic container-inhabiting mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus pose a threat to NSW because they are nuisance-biting pests and vectors of pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. International movement of humans and their belongings have spread these mosquitoes to many regions of the world. In recent years, these two mosquitoes have been detected by the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources at local airports and seaports. To target the detection of these exotic mosquitoes, new trapping technologies and networks of surveillance locations are required. Additionally, incursions of these mosquitoes into urban areas of the state will require strategic responses to minimise substantial public health and economic burdens to local communities.

  6. Detection, monitoring, and evaluation of spatio-temporal change in mosquito populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA-ARS scientists seek to implement a sampling and global information technology based system that can be used for mosquito detection and trap deployment, to estimate mosquito species composition and distribution in space and time, and for targeting and evaluation of mosquito controls. Knowledge ...

  7. Morphometric Wing Characters as a Tool for Mosquito Identification

    PubMed Central

    Christe, Rafael de Oliveira; Multini, Laura Cristina; Vidal, Paloma Oliveira; Wilk-da-Silva, Ramon; de Carvalho, Gabriela Cristina; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of important infectious diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and endangering approximately 3 billion people around the world. As such, precise identification of mosquito species is crucial for an understanding of epidemiological patterns of disease transmission. Currently, the most common method of mosquito identification relies on morphological taxonomic keys, which do not always distinguish cryptic species. However, wing geometric morphometrics is a promising tool for the identification of vector mosquitoes, sibling and cryptic species included. This study therefore sought to accurately identify mosquito species from the three most epidemiologically important mosquito genera using wing morphometrics. Twelve mosquito species from three epidemiologically important genera (Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) were collected and identified by taxonomic keys. Next, the right wing of each adult female mosquito was removed and photographed, and the coordinates of eighteen digitized landmarks at the intersections of wing veins were collected. The allometric influence was assessed, and canonical variate analysis and thin-plate splines were used for species identification. Cross-validated reclassification tests were performed for each individual, and a Neighbor Joining tree was constructed to illustrate species segregation patterns. The analyses were carried out and the graphs plotted with TpsUtil 1.29, TpsRelw 1.39, MorphoJ 1.02 and Past 2.17c. Canonical variate analysis for Aedes, Anopheles and Culex genera showed three clear clusters in morphospace, correctly distinguishing the three mosquito genera, and pairwise cross-validated reclassification resulted in at least 99% accuracy; subgenera were also identified correctly with a mean accuracy of 96%, and in 88 of the 132 possible comparisons, species were identified with 100% accuracy after the data was subjected to reclassification. Our results showed that Aedes, Culex

  8. Predator-prey interactions and community structure: chironomids, mosquitoes and copepods in Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae).

    PubMed

    Naeem, Shahid

    1988-11-01

    Evidence from both field observations and experimental work indicates that predation by larvae of a midge, Pentaneura n. sp. (Chironomidae), causes the low densities of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) found in the water filled bracts of Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae), microhabitats typically colonized by mosquitoes. This predation affects 2 species of mosquitoes, Wyeomyia pseudopecten, a resident species, and Trichoprosopon digitatum, a non-resident species. Predation keeps resident mosquito densities low while completely excluding the nonresident mosquito from the habitat. Both these effects of predation depend on the presence of an abundant alternative prey, an undescribed species of harpacticoid copepod found in the bracts. These copepod prey sustain chironomids when resident mosquito densities are low, permiting predator densities to remain high enough to exclude the non-resident mosquito. I discuss the evolutionary and ecological implications of predation structuring communities.

  9. Hyperparasitism of mosquitoes by water mite larvae.

    PubMed

    Werblow, Antje; Martin, Peter; Dörge, Dorian D; Koch, Lisa K; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Melaun, Christian; Klimpel, Sven

    2015-07-01

    Hyperparasitism of ectoparasitic water mite larvae on mosquitoes is still a neglected relationship and was investigated only in a few studies. We analysed 2313 female mosquitoes from six different sampling localities with regard to their degree of parasitism with water mite larvae. In total, we found 38 mosquito individuals parasitized by 93 water mite larvae, ranging from 1 to 12 larvae per mosquito. Water mite larvae detected are members of the two species Parathyas cf. barbigera (n = 92) and Arrenurus cf. globator (n = 1). Out of the analysed mosquitoes, individuals out of the species Aedes vexans, Anopheles claviger, Ochlerotatus communis, the Ochlerotatus cantans/annulipes group, Ochlerotatus cataphylla and Ochlerotatus sticticus were tested to be parasitized by water mite larvae. The highest prevalence was found within the species Oc. cataphylla (28.6 %) and Oc. cantans/annulipes (21.7 %). No water mite larvae were found, e.g. on individuals of Aedes cinereus, Coquillettidia richiardii, the Culex pipiens/torrentium group, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus dorsalis or Ochlerotatus punctor. All of the attachment sites were located between the neck and abdomen with the ventral thorax site being the most frequent one.

  10. An evaluation of the effectiveness of a commercial mechanical trap to reduce abundance of adult nuisance mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael J; Gow, Jennifer L; Evelyn, Michelle J; McMahon, T J Scott; Howay, Tim J; Campbell, Harlan; Blancard, Jennifer; Thielman, Aynsley

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we explore the potential of a commercially available mechanical mosquito control device, the Liberty Plus Mosquito Magnet (hereafter referred to as Mosquito Magnet), to reduce the abundance of adult nuisance mosquito populations in public recreational areas. Mosquitoes were trapped on 2 replicate sites close to a campground at Brae Island Regional Park near Fort Langley, British Columbia, Canada. Each site comprised a treatment (Mosquito Magnets used) and control subsection (Mosquito Magnets not used). Mosquito numbers were assessed before and after the treatment period in both subsections at each site with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) black light traps. Although nearly 200,000 mosquitoes from 14 different species were collected over 366 trap-nights from May 31 to July 31, 2008, the majority of those identified were Aedes sticticus (68%) and Ae. vexans (22%)-2 of the most notorious nuisance mosquito species in British Columbia. The number of mosquitoes captured by CDC black light traps increased overall during the study period due to natural seasonal variation. Nevertheless, a significant treatment effect (P = 0.0389) was associated with an average decrease of about 32% in the average number of adult mosquitoes collected per day. These results strongly suggest that Mosquito Magnets can reduce the abundance of nuisance mosquitoes, potentially reducing the biting pressure on the public, and providing another tool in mosquito control operations.

  11. Climatic and landscape correlates for potential West Nile virus mosquito vectors in the Seattle region.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Heidi L; Day, Heather L; Reineke, Robert; Stevens, Nathan; Withey, John C; Marzluff, John M; Meschke, J Scott

    2007-06-01

    Climatic and landscape patterns have been associated with both relative mosquito abundance and transmission of mosquito-borne illnesses in many parts of the world, especially warm and tropical climes. To determine if temperature, precipitation, or degree of urbanization were similarly important in the number of potential mosquito vectors for West Nile virus in the moderately temperate climate of western Washington, mosquitoes were collected using CDC carbon-dioxide/light traps set throughout the Seattle region during the summers of 2003 and 2004. The type and abundance of recovered species were compared to ecological correlates. Temperature and mosquito abundance were positively correlated, while precipitation was not strongly correlated with numbers of mosquitoes. Potential WNV mosquito vectors were most abundant in urban and suburban sites, including sites near communal roosts of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Exurban sites had the greatest vector species diversity, and Culex pipiens was the most abundant species throughout the region.

  12. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus: II. Gauging the efficacy of traditional integrated pest control measures against urban container mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is an introduced invasive species in the U.S. responsible for a significant proportion of service requests to local mosquito control programs. This container-utilizing mosquito is refractory to standard mosquito abatement measures in th...

  13. Natural and engineered mosquito immunity.

    PubMed

    Alphey, Luke

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper in BMC Microbiology shows how suppression of mosquito innate immunity against a virus that the mosquito can normally tolerate increases mosquito mortality. This is just one of several approaches that may soon bring genetics-based mosquito control methods from the laboratory into the field.

  14. Virus-derived DNA drives mosquito vector tolerance to arboviral infection

    PubMed Central

    Goic, Bertsy; Stapleford, Kenneth A.; Frangeul, Lionel; Doucet, Aurélien J.; Gausson, Valérie; Blanc, Hervé; Schemmel-Jofre, Nidia; Cristofari, Gael; Lambrechts, Louis; Vignuzzi, Marco; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes develop long-lasting viral infections without substantial deleterious effects, despite high viral loads. This makes mosquitoes efficient vectors for emerging viral diseases with enormous burden on public health. How mosquitoes resist and/or tolerate these viruses is poorly understood. Here we show that two species of Aedes mosquitoes infected with two arboviruses from distinct families (dengue or chikungunya) generate a viral-derived DNA (vDNA) that is essential for mosquito survival and viral tolerance. Inhibition of vDNA formation leads to extreme susceptibility to viral infections, reduction of viral small RNAs due to an impaired immune response, and loss of viral tolerance. Our results highlight an essential role of vDNA in viral tolerance that allows mosquito survival and thus may be important for arbovirus dissemination and transmission. Elucidating the mechanisms of mosquito tolerance to arbovirus infection paves the way to conceptualize new antivectorial strategies to selectively eliminate arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. PMID:27580708

  15. Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

    2008-12-01

    For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa.

  16. A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Mosquito Sys tematics VOL. 8(2) 1976 205 A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite oflMosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) John F. Rein& Department of...aegypt; (Linnaeus) by Hochman and Reinert (1974). The ventromedian cervical sclerite has a frag- mented appearance in a number of species of the...Dyar and Knab and dupreei (Coquillett)). Seventy-four species in 19 subgenera of Aedes examined possessed a ven- tromedian cervical sclerite. These

  17. Comparison of three residential mosquito traps against riceland mosquitoes in southeast Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Allen, R A; Lewis, C N; Meisch, M V; Dame, D A

    2009-03-01

    Field trials were conducted at 3 locations in Arkansas County, AR, to compare the effectiveness of 3 residential mosquito traps, the Stinger Mosquito Vacuum, the Mosquito Magnet Defender, and the Mosquito Deleto 2500 Active System, against riceland mosquitoes, specifically Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Psorophora columbiae. Both the Stinger Mosquito Vacuum and the Mosquito Deleto captured significantly more An. quadrimaculatus and total mosquitoes than did the Mosquito Magnet Defender. The Mosquito Deleto captured significantly more Ps. columbiae than did either of the other 2 traps.

  18. Composition and Genetic Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Islands and Mainland Shores of Kenya's Lakes Victoria and Baringo.

    PubMed

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Villinger, Jandouwe; Omondi, David; Salifu, Daisy; Onchuru, Thomas Ogao; Njoroge, Laban; Muigai, Anne W T; Masiga, Daniel K

    2016-11-01

    The Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria regions of Kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. However, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. To estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the corresponding sequence variation at cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) gene regions. A total of 63 species (including five subspecies) were collected from both study areas, 47 of which have previously been implicated as disease vectors. Fourteen species were found only on island sites, which are rarely included in mosquito diversity surveys. We collected more mosquitoes, yet with lower species composition, at Lake Baringo (40,229 mosquitoes, 32 species) than at Lake Victoria (22,393 mosquitoes, 54 species). Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene sequences revealed Culex perexiguus and Cx tenagius that could not be distinguished morphologically. Most Culex species clustered into a heterogeneous clade with closely related sequences, while Culex pipiens clustered into two distinct COI and ITS2 clades. These data suggest limitations in current morphological identification keys. This is the first DNA barcode report of Kenyan mosquitoes. To improve mosquito species identification, morphological identifications should be supported by their molecular data, while diversity surveys should target both adults and immatures. The diversity of native mosquito disease vectors identified in this study impacts disease transmission risks to humans and livestock.

  19. Eastern equine encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and their role as bridge vectors.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2010-12-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving Culiseta melanura mosquitoes and avian hosts. Other mosquito species that feed opportunistically on mammals have been incriminated as bridge vectors to humans and horses. To evaluate the capacity of these mosquitoes to acquire, replicate, and potentially transmit EEEV, we estimated the infection prevalence and virus titers in mosquitoes collected in Connecticut, USA, by cell culture, plaque titration, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Cs. melanura mosquitoes were the predominant source of EEEV (83 [68%] of 122 virus isolations) and the only species to support consistently high virus titers required for efficient transmission. Our findings suggest that Cs. melanura mosquitoes are primary enzootic and epidemic vectors of EEEV in this region, which may explain the relative paucity of human cases. This study emphasizes the need for evaluating virus titers from field-collected mosquitoes to help assess their role as vectors.

  20. Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moosa-Kazemi, SH; Vatandoost, H; Nikookar, H; Fathian, M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquito-borne diseases are a major public health threat in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the fauna of culicinae mosquitoes for future mosquito control programs. Methods: Three genera and eleven species of the subfamily Culicinae (Diptera: Culicidae) were collected by dipping technique and identified in Chabahar County, Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran, during January, February, and March 2007. Results: The collected species included: Aedes vexans (new occurrence record for the province), Culex arbieeni, Cx. bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. deserticola, Cx. hortensis, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. pseudovishnui, Cx. pusillus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Culiseta longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caballus, Oc. caspius, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. Conclusion: Our observations indicate that, in South of Iran hot and wet climatic conditions support the persistence of culicinae mosquitoes. As our study, regular monitoring of culicinae mosquitoes in this area could be the most useful for mosquito control and mosquito-borne disease prevention. PMID:22808369

  1. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired primarily from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with Ge. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  2. High efficiency germ-line transformation of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Neil F; Clayton, John R; Fraser, Malcolm J; Kafatos, Fotis C; Collins, Frank H

    2006-01-01

    The ability to manipulate the mosquito genome through germ-line transformation provides us with a powerful tool for investigating gene structure and function. It is also a valuable method for the development of novel approaches to combating the spread of mosquito-vectored diseases. To date, germ-line transformation has been demonstrated in several mosquito species. Transgenes are introduced into pre-blastocyst mosquito embryos using microinjection techniques that take a few hours, and progeny are screened for the presence of a marker gene. The microinjection protocol presented here can be applied to most mosquitoes and contains several improvements over other published methods that increase the survival of injected embryos and, therefore, the number of transformants. Transgenic lines can be established in approximately 1 month using this technique.

  3. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  4. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control.

  5. Effects of landscape anthropization on mosquito community composition and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape transformation has an important effect on vector-borne pathogen transmission. However, the effects of urbanization on mosquito communities are still only poorly known. Here, we evaluate how land-use characteristics are related to the abundance and community composition of mosquitoes in an area with endemic circulation of numerous mosquito-borne pathogens. We collected 340 829 female mosquitoes belonging to 13 species at 45 localities spatially grouped in 15 trios formed by 1 urban, 1 rural and 1 natural area. Mosquito abundance and species richness were greater in natural and rural areas than in urban areas. Environmental factors including land use, vegetation and hydrological characteristics were related to mosquito abundance and community composition. Given the differing competences of each species in pathogen transmission, these results provide valuable information on the transmission potential of mosquito-borne pathogens that will be of great use in public and animal health management by allowing, for instance, the identification of the priority areas for pathogen surveillance and vector control. PMID:27373794

  6. Novel acetylcholinesterase target site for malaria mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2006-12-20

    Current anticholinesterase pesticides were developed during World War II and are toxic to mammals because they target a catalytic serine residue of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) in insects and in mammals. A sequence analysis of AChEs from 73 species and a three-dimensional model of a malaria-carrying mosquito (Anopheles gambiae) AChE (AgAChE) reported here show that C286 and R339 of AgAChE are conserved at the opening of the active site of AChEs in 17 invertebrate and four insect species, respectively. Both residues are absent in the active site of AChEs of human, monkey, dog, cat, cattle, rabbit, rat, and mouse. The 17 invertebrates include house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, German cockroach, Florida lancelet, rice leaf beetle, African bollworm, beet armyworm, codling moth, diamondback moth, domestic silkworm, honey bee, oat or wheat aphid, the greenbug, melon or cotton aphid, green peach aphid, and English grain aphid. The four insects are house mosquito, Japanese encephalitis mosquito, African malaria mosquito, and German cockroach. The discovery of the two invertebrate-specific residues enables the development of effective and safer pesticides that target the residues present only in mosquito AChEs rather than the ubiquitous serine residue, thus potentially offering an effective control of mosquito-borne malaria. Anti-AgAChE pesticides can be designed to interact with R339 and subsequently covalently bond to C286. Such pesticides would be toxic to mosquitoes but not to mammals.

  7. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    , including exploration of the approach with additional medically important mosquito species. The novelty and importance of this approach is an ability to safely achieve auto-dissemination at levels of intensity that may not be possible with an auto-dissemination approach that is based on indigenous females. Specifically, artificially-reared males can be released and sustained at any density required, so that the potential for impact is limited only by the practical logistics of mosquito rearing and release, rather than natural population densities and the self-limiting impact of an intervention upon them. PMID:25590626

  8. A taxonomic checklist of the mosquitoes of Iowa.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, Brendan M; Rowley, Wayne A; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2014-06-01

    The last published report of the mosquito species composition present in the state of Iowa was published in 1969 and included 43 species in 8 genera. Since that time, reassessment of specimens in the Iowa State Insect Collection and annual mosquito surveillance efforts have yielded 12 new species records, bringing the total to 55 species in 8 genera. In addition to providing an updated taxonomic checklist for the state of Iowa, abundance information is provided for each species using specimen counts from New Jersey light trapping events that span 45 years.

  9. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens to thousands flying males. Yet little information is known about mosquito swarming mechanism. Discovering chemical cues involved in mosquito biology leads to better adaptation of disease control interventions. In this study, we aimed ...

  10. Mosquito-Host Interactions during and after an Outbreak of Equine Viral Encephalitis in Eastern Panama

    PubMed Central

    Navia-Gine, Wayra G.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito blood meals provide information about the feeding habits and host preference of potential arthropod-borne disease vectors. Although mosquito-borne diseases are ubiquitous in the Neotropics, few studies in this region have assessed patterns of mosquito-host interactions, especially during actual disease outbreaks. Based on collections made during and after an outbreak of equine viral encephalitis, we identified the source of 338 blood meals from 10 species of mosquitoes from Aruza Abajo, a location in Darien province in eastern Panama. A PCR based method targeting three distinct mitochondrial targets and subsequent DNA sequencing was used in an effort to delineate vector-host relationships. At Aruza Abajo, large domesticated mammals dominated the assemblage of mosquito blood meals while wild bird and mammal species represented only a small portion of the blood meal pool. Most mosquito species fed on a variety of hosts; foraging index analysis indicates that eight of nine mosquito species utilize hosts at similar proportions while a stochastic model suggests dietary overlap among species was greater than would be expected by chance. The results from our null-model analysis of mosquito diet overlap are consistent with the hypothesis that in landscapes where large domestic animals dominate the local biomass, many mosquito species show little host specificity, and feed upon hosts in proportion to their biomass, which may have implications for the role of livestocking patterns in vector-borne disease ecology. PMID:24339965

  11. Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M.; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera

  12. Mosquito biodiversity patterns around urban environments in South-central okinawa island, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Imanishi, Nozomi; Higa, Yukiko; Chaves, Luis Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Okinawa is the largest, most urbanized, and densely populated island in the Ryukyus Archipelago, where mosquito species diversity has been thoroughly studied. However, the south-central Okinawa mosquito fauna has been relatively poorly studied. Here, we present results from a mosquito faunal survey in urban environments of Nishihara city, south-central Okinawa. Mosquitoes were sampled biweekly, from April 2007 to March 2008, at 3 different environments: a forest preserve, an animal farm, and a water reservoir. We employed 4 mosquito collection methods: 1) oviposition traps; 2) light traps; 3) sweep nets; and 4) larval surveys of tree holes, leaf axils, and artificial water containers. We collected a total of 568 adults and 10,270 larvae belonging to 6 genera and 13 species, including 6 species of medical importance: Aedes albopictus, Armigeres subalbatus, Anopheles Hyrcanus group, Culex bitaeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Mosquito species composition was similar to data from previous studies in Okinawa Island. The flattening of the species accumulation curve suggests that our diversity sampling was exhaustive with light and oviposition traps, as well as the coincidence between the species richness we found in the field and estimates from the Chao2 index, a theoretical estimator of species richness based on species abundance. This study highlights the importance of combining several sampling techniques to properly characterize regional mosquito fauna and to monitor changes in the presence of mosquito species.

  13. Radiation biology of mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle EH; Parker, Andrew G; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators. PMID:19917076

  14. National Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Survey in The Netherlands 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Ibañez-Justicia, A; Stroo, A; Dik, M; Beeuwkes, J; Scholte, E J

    2015-03-01

    From 2010 onwards, a nationwide mosquito monitoring scheme has been conducted in The Netherlands with the aim of gaining crucial information about mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition, geographical distributions, biodiversity, and habitat preferences. The results of this study are based on 778 randomly sampled mosquito locations. These are divided into three main habitat types: urban, rural-agricultural, and natural areas. Twenty-seven mosquito species were found: 26 indigenous and 1 exotic, Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901). The preliminary results are presented here, with details of their species distribution and seasonality. Monitoring the temporal and spatial distribution of mosquitoes is an essential step in the risk analysis of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  15. Essential Facts About Mosquito Control and Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jerome

    2016-11-01

    The threat to persons living in the southern United States from Zika virus (ZIKV) is both significant and ongoing. Although there are several modes of transmission of ZIKV to humans, mosquito transmission is the primary avenue by which persons become infected. Only 2 mosquito species are likely able to transmit ZIKV to humans in the United States, and information about their biology and control is important to physicians and public health officials. This article discusses ZIKV mosquito vector ecology and control, with emphasis on source reduction and personal protection.

  16. Brackish water mosquito problem of Vypeen Island, Cochin, Kerala.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, T; Arunachalam, N; Reddy, C M; Sabesan, S; Panicker, K N

    1996-03-01

    A preliminary study has shown that the marshy terrain and brackish water bodies associated with mangrove forests contributed profuse breeding of mosquitos in Vypeen island, causing a severe menace to the island population. A total of 14 species belonging to four genera viz, Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres and Culex was recorded from different habitats. Culex sitiens was found to be the predominant mosquito in all the perennial breeding habitats. The extent of different habitats in the production of mosquitos, and its possible abatement, using environmental and/or biocontrol methods are discussed.

  17. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 7--an overview.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R

    2008-12-01

    Parts 1 to 6 of this series on the mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India dealt with the mosquito species recorded in the mangroves of Bhitarkanika, Sundarbans, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Coringa, Chorao and Vikhroli, and Kundapur and Kannur. This concluding part provides an overview of the distribution of the mosquito species in different mangrove forests, including the mangroves of Muthupet in Tamilnadu and the mangroves of Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Kambhat in Gujarat, species collected as larvae, species in relation to the salinity of the larval habitats, species landing on humans for feeding in the mangroves, and the impact of habitat degradation on species diversity.

  18. Vector competence of New Zealand mosquitoes for selected arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Laura D; Chin, Pam; Cane, Rachel P; Kauffman, Elizabeth B; Mackereth, Graham

    2011-07-01

    New Zealand (NZ) historically has been free of arboviral activity with the exception of Whataroa virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), which is established in bird populations and is transmitted by local mosquitoes. This naive situation is threatened by global warming, invasive mosquitoes, and tourism. To determine the threat of selected medically important arboviruses to NZ, vector competence assays were conducted using field collected endemic and introduced mosquito species. Four alphaviruses (Togaviridae): Barmah Forest virus, Chikungunya virus, Ross River virus, and Sindbis virus, and five flaviviruses (Flaviviridae): Dengue virus 2, Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Yellow fever virus were evaluated. Results indicate some NZ mosquito species are highly competent vectors of selected arboviruses, particularly alphaviruses, and may pose a threat were one of these arboviruses introduced at a time when the vector was prevalent and the climatic conditions favorable for virus transmission.

  19. Mosquito surveillance for prevention and control of emerging mosquito-borne diseases in Portugal - 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Osório, Hugo C; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J

    2014-11-12

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program-REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)-has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes-collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2-and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs.

  20. Mosquitoes, models, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Lifson, A R

    1996-05-04

    In the last 10 years dengue has spread markedly through Latin America and the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil). The mosquito Aedes aegypti has taken advantage of increased urbanization and crowding to transmit the dengue virus. The mosquito infests tires, cans, and water jars near dwellings. The female mosquito practices multiple, interrupted feeding. Thus, mosquito infesting and feeding practices facilitate dengue transmission in crowded conditions. Factors contributing to the spread of dengue include numbers of infected and susceptible human hosts, strain of dengue virus, size of mosquito population, feeding habits, time from infection to ability to transmit virus for both vector and host, likelihood of virus transmission from human to mosquito to human, and temperature (which affects vector distribution, size, feeding habits, and extrinsic incubation period). Public health models may use simulation models to help them plan or evaluate the potential impact of different intervention strategies and/or of environmental changes (e.g., global warming). Other factors contributing to the dengue epidemic are international travel, urbanization, population growth, crowding, poverty, a weakened public health infrastructure, and limited support for sustained disease control programs. Molecular epidemiology by nucleic acid sequence analysis is another sophisticated technique used to study infectious diseases. It showed that dengue type 3 isolated from Panama and Nicaragua in 1994 was identical to that responsible for the major dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Sri Lanka and India in the 1980s. Public health officials must remember three priorities relevant to dengue and other emerging infections: the need to strengthen surveillance efforts, dedicated and sustained involvement in prevention and control needs at the local level, and a strong

  1. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Captured in the Iquitos Area of Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    1991 at three sylvan sites near tl ing arboviruses have been reported: Mayaro , quitos, Department of Loreto, Peru. Situatu on Oropouche, Guama... virus isolation was begun in 1988. within Iquitos. This report deals specifically with the capture Mosquito Collections. In total, eight different...Lima for virus isolation. Mos- groups of mosquitoes not identifiable to the spe- quitoes were identified to species using several cies level because of

  2. The isolation of spiroplasmas from mosquitoes in Macon County, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A A; Johnson, W E; Stevens, C; Tang, A Y

    1987-06-01

    During the summer months of 1985, 1,298 adult mosquitoes comprising 21 species and 7 genera were collected in Macon County, Alabama. Mosquitoes were collected from four sections of the county with CO2-baited light traps. Spiroplasma cultures were isolated from two pools of 24 and 25 Aedes fulvus pallens, one pool of 22 Anopheles punctipennis and one pool of 7 Culex nigripalpus. Electron microscopic studies of the isolates revealed helical, wall-less cells.

  3. The mosquito Anopheles (Cellia) oreios sp. n., formerly species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti complex, and a critical review of its biology and relation to disease.

    PubMed

    Bangs, M J; Taai, K; Howard, T M; Cook, S; Harbach, R E

    2015-03-01

    Species 6 of the Australasian Anopheles farauti sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae) is described and formally named Anopheles oreios Bangs & Harbach, sp. n. Adult, pupal and fourth-instar larval specimens collected in the Baliem Valley, Papua Province, Indonesia, are characterized and compared with those of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles irenicus and Anopheles torresiensis (formerly informally denoted as species 1, 2, 7 and 3, respectively). The variable wings of adult females, the male genitalia, the pupa and the fourth-instar larva of An. oreios are illustrated and DNA sequence data are included for regions coding for sections of the mitochondrial COI and COII genes. The biology of An. oreios and its relation to malaria transmission are discussed in detail and contrasted with the biology and disease relations of some members of the An. farauti and Anopheles punctulatus sibling species complexes.

  4. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  5. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna in an area endemic for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Sebesta, O; Halouzka, J; Hubálek, Z; Juricová, Z; Rudolf, I; Sikutová, S; Svobodová, P; Reiter, P

    2010-06-01

    Mosquito collections with CDC light traps using dry ice and pigeon-baited traps were carried out in south Moravia (Czech Republic) from April to October in 2007 and 2008 at two study sites. In 2007, 11 two-day captures were carried out in two-week intervals, and 1,490 female mosquitoes of nine species were caught. In 2008, 15 two-day trappings of mosquitoes were carried out: 6,778 females of 22 species of mosquitoes were trapped. The results showed marked differences in abundance and species composition of mosquitoes between both study sites and between the trapping methods. In the floodplain forest ecosystem of the Soutok study area, Aedes vexans predominated. The species composition in the Nesyt study site was more varied and the most common species was Culex pipiens. At the latter study site, Anopheles hyrcanus (var. pseudopictus) and Uranotaenia unguiculata, mosquito species with largely southern Eurasian distribution, were repeatedly demonstrated. The largest capture of mosquitoes was in traps with CO2 placed at a height 1 m above the ground. The capture of mosquitoes in the pigeon-baited traps as well as in the traps with CO2 placed in the canopy of trees was markedly lower in both study sites, with the predominant species being Culex pipiens.

  6. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Northwestern Brazilian Amazon: Padauari River.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, R S G; Hutchings, R W; Menezes, I S; Motta, M de A; Sallum, M A M

    2016-11-01

    The mosquito fauna (Culicidae) from remote northern areas of the State of Amazonas were sampled using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Shannon, Malaise, and Suspended traps, together with net sweeping and immature collections. One hundred and seven collections were performed in five localities along the Padauari River, State of Amazonas, Brazil, during June 2010. The 20,557 mosquitoes collected are distributed in 17 genera, representing 117 different species, of which four are new distributional records for the State of Amazonas. Furthermore, there are 10 morphospecies that may represent undescribed new taxa, eight of which are also new records for the State of Amazonas. The genus Culex had the highest number of species and the largest number of individuals. Aedes and Psorophora both represented 10% of the total sample and had the second highest number of species and individuals. The most abundant species was Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos Sallum, Hutchings & Ferreira, followed by Aedes (Ochlerotatus) fulvus (Wiedemann), Culex (Melanoconion) vaxus Dyar, Culex (Melanoconion) portesi Senevet & Abonnenc, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) amazonica Cerqueira, Culex (Culex) mollis Dyar & Knab, Psorophora (Janthinosoma) albigenu (Peryassú), and Culex (Melanoconion) theobaldi Lutz. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed and are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region. The results represent the most diverse standardized inventory of mosquitoes along the Padauari River, with the identification of 127 species-level taxa distributed in five localities, within two municipalities (Barcelos and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro).

  7. Predation by odonates depresses mosquito abundance in water-filled tree holes in Panama.

    PubMed

    Fincke, Ola M; Yanoviak, Stephen P; Hanschu, Richard D

    1997-10-01

    In the lowland moist forest of Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, larvae of four common species of odonates, a mosquito, and a tadpole are the major predators in water-filled tree holes. Mosquito larvae are their most common prey. Holes colonized naturally by predators and prey had lower densities of mosquitoes if odonates were present than if they were absent. Using artificial tree holes placed in the field, we tested the effects of odonates on their mosquito prey while controlling for the quantity and species of predator, hole volume, and nutrient input. In large and small holes with low nutrient input, odonates depressed the number of mosquitoes present and the number that survived to pupation. Increasing nutrient input (and consequently, mosquito abundance) to abnormally high levels dampened the effect of predation when odonates were relatively small. However, the predators grew faster with higher nutrients, and large larvae in all three genera reduced the number of mosquitoes surviving to pupation, even though the abundance of mosquito larvae remained high. Size-selective predation by the odonates is a likely explanation for this result; large mosquito larvae were less abundant in the predator treatment than in the controls. Because species assemblages were similar between natural and artificial tree holes, our results suggest that odonates are keystone species in tree holes on BCI, where they are the most common large predators.

  8. [Applications of bacterial pathogens to the mosquito control].

    PubMed

    Lu, K H; Hou, R F

    1990-07-01

    Both Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. isrealensis (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus are common bacteria found in a variety of soil and aquatic habitats. Some strains of them can produce a protein crystal, called parasporal body (or crystal) beside the spore in the cell during sporulation, and it is toxic if eaten by mosquito larvae. As the parasporal bodies are ingested into a mosquito digestive tract, they will be digested and activated by certain enzymes in alkaline digestive juice. The activated toxins can destroy midgut epithelium and other tissues, and then the mosquitoes will be intoxicated and killed. There are some factors affecting efficiency of the toxins produced by these two mosquitocidal bacteria. First, the toxicity of the toxins will decrease as larval age and density increase. Second, difference in mosquito species will demonstrate a different tolerance to both toxins. However, larvae of Anopheles are more tolerant to Bti than those of Aedes and Culex; whereas larvae of Aedes are more tolerant to B. sphaericus than Culex and Anopheles. Environmental factors are as important as the mosquito hosts in influencing the efficiency of the toxins. For examples, raising temperature under suitable ranges may increase the toxicity of the toxins. The UV light of sunlight could inhibit activity of the toxins and therefore decrease their efficiency. Quality and depth of the water are also important environmental factors affecting toxicity of the toxins to the mosquito larvae. The precipitation of the crystal and organic materials absorbing the toxins decreases their toxicity to the mosquito larvae as well.

  9. EPA-Registered Repellents for Mosquitoes Transmitting Emerging Viral Disease.

    PubMed

    Patel, Radha V; Shaeer, Kristy M; Patel, Pooja; Garmaza, Aleksey; Wiangkham, Kornwalee; Franks, Rachel B; Pane, Olivia; Carris, Nicholas W

    2016-12-01

    In many parts of the United States, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. However, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. The Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the United States and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including West Nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and Zika virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommend N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) as a first-line mosquito repellent, but for patients refusing to use DEET or other conventional repellents, guidance is limited to any EPA-registered product. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify which EPA-registered personal mosquito repellent provides the best protection from A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We abstracted data from 62 published reports of EPA-registered mosquito repellents. The conventional repellent picaridin has the strongest data to support its use as a second-line agent, while IR3535 and oil of lemon eucalyptus are reasonably effective natural products. Citronella, catnip, and 2-undecanone offer limited protection or have limited data. These results can be used by pharmacists and other health care professionals to advise patients on the selection of an EPA-registered mosquito repellent. Regardless of the repellent chosen, it is vital for patients to follow all instructions/precautions in the product labeling to ensure safe and effective use.

  10. Mosquitoes of field and forest: the scale of habitat segregation in a diverse mosquito assemblage.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, M H; Griffin, R H; Janairo, M S; Hopperstad, K A

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of arthropod vectors across a landscape is important in determining the risk for vector-borne disease. This has been well explored for ticks, but not for mosquitoes, despite their importance in the transmission of a variety of pathogens. This study examined the importance of habitat, habitat edges, and the scale at which mosquito abundance and diversity vary in a rural landscape by trapping along transects from grassland areas into forest patches. Significant patterns of vector diversity and distinct mosquito assemblages across habitats were found. The scale of individual species' responses to habitat edges was often dramatic, with several species rarely straying even 10 m from the edge. The present results suggest blood-seeking mosquito species are faithful to certain habitats, which has consequences for patterns of vector diversity and risk for pathogen transmission. This implies that analysts of risk for pathogen transmission and foci of control, and developers of land management strategies should assess habitat at a finer scale than previously considered.

  11. Reduction of mosquito biting-pressure: spatial repellents or mosquito traps? A field comparison of seven commercially available products in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The personal protection capability of seven commercially available mosquito control devices (MCD) is compared under field conditions in Israel. Trials were performed in a high biting-pressure area inhabited by large populations of mosquito and biting midge species and using human volunteers for lan...

  12. New records of mosquitoes from northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Dantur Juri, María J; Stein, Marina; Rossi, Gustavo C; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Zaidenberg, Mario; Sallum, María A Mureb

    2012-06-01

    Eleven mosquito species, namely Aedes hastatus, Ae. fulvus, Coquillettidia albicosta, Cq. juxtamansonia, Culex aliciae, Cx. delpontei, Cx. oedipus, Cx. pedroi, Mansonia flaveola, Uranotaenia leucoptera, and Wyeomyia oblita, are recorded for the first time from northwestern Argentina. In addition, 3 species, Cx. brethesi, Limatus durhami, and Ur. nataliae, are reported for the first time from Salta Province. These records extend the geographical distribution of these 3 species to Salta Province. This study also extends the geographical distributions of Cq. nigricans, Cx. chidesteri, and Ma. humeralis to Jujuy Province and of Ae. meprai, Ae. milleri, Ae. oligopistus, Cx. brethesi, Cx. fernandezi, and Cx. tatoi to Tucumán Province.

  13. Yellow fever vaccination centers: concurrent vaccinations and updates on mosquito biology.

    PubMed

    Arya, Subhash C; Agarwal, Nirmala

    2012-09-01

    Mandatory visits to immunization centers that offer pre-travel Yellow fever vaccine to prospective travelers would be useful for briefing the basics of the biology of the mosquito responsible for Yellow fever spread. Pre- travel knowledge on the day-time rather the nocturnal biting habit of the mosquitoes of Aedes species would prevent from bites of the mosquitoes responsible for the spread of viruses causing Yellow fever, dengue or Chikungunya infection.

  14. Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003–2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011–2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency

  15. Midgut Microbial Community of Culex quinquefasciatus Mosquito Populations from India

    PubMed Central

    Chandel, Kshitij; Mendki, Murlidhar J.; Parikh, Rasesh Y.; Kulkarni, Girish; Tikar, Sachin N.; Sukumaran, Devanathan; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, Brahma D.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Veer, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus is a ubiquitous species that serves as a major vector for west nile virus and lymphatic filariasis. Ingestion of bloodmeal by females triggers a series of physiological processes in the midgut and also exposes them to infection by these pathogens. The bacteria normally harbored in the midgut are known to influence physiology and can also alter the response to various pathogens. The midgut bacteria in female Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected over a large geographical area from India was studied. Examination of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons from culturable microflora revealed the presence of 83 bacterial species belonging to 31 bacterial genera. All of these species belong to three phyla i.e. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Phylum Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum (37 species), followed by Firmicutes (33 species) and Actinobacteria (13 species). Phylum Proteobacteria, was dominated by members of γ-proteobacteria class. The genus Staphylococcus was the largest genus represented by 11 species whereas Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and recovered from all the field stations except Leh. Highest bacterial prevalence was observed from Bhuj (22 species) followed by Nagrota (18 species), Masimpur (18 species) and Hathigarh (16 species). Whereas, least species were observed from Leh (8 species). It has been observed that individual mosquito harbor extremely diverse gut bacteria and have very small overlap bacterial taxa in their gut. This variation in midgut microbiota may be one of the factors responsible for variation in disease transmission rates or vector competence within mosquito population. The present data strongly encourage further investigations to verify the potential role of the detected bacteria in mosquito for the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on midgut microbiota of wild Cx. quinquefasciatus from over a

  16. UV light and urban pollution: bad cocktail for mosquitoes?

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Chandor-Proust, Alexia; Faucon, Frédéric; Stalinski, Renaud; Akhouayri, Idir; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Régent-Kloeckner, Myriam; Raveton, Muriel; Reynaud, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito breeding sites consist of water pools, which can either be large open areas or highly covered ponds with vegetation, thus with different light exposures combined with the presence in water of xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated by urban pollution. UV light and PAHs are abiotic factors known to both affect the mosquito insecticide resistance status. Nonetheless, their potential combined effects on the mosquito physiology have never been investigated. The present article aims at describing the effects of UV exposure alongside water contamination with two major PAH pollutants (fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) on a laboratory population of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. To evaluate the effects of PAH exposure and low energetic UV (UV-A) irradiation on mosquitoes, different parameters were measured including: (1) The PAH localization and its impact on cell mortality by fluorescent microscopy; (2) The detoxification capacities (cytochrome P450, glutathione-S-transferase, esterase); (3) The responses to oxidative stress (Reactive Oxygen Species-ROS) and (4) The tolerance of mosquito larvae to a bioinsecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-Bti) and to five chemical insecticides (DDT, imidacloprid, permethrin, propoxur and temephos). Contrasting effects regarding mosquito cell mortality, detoxification and oxidative stress were observed as being dependent on the pollutant considered, despite the fact that the two PAHs belong to the same family. Moreover, UV is able to modify pollutant effects on mosquitoes, including tolerance to three insecticides (imidacloprid, propoxur and temephos), cell damage and response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our results suggest that UV and pollution, individually or in combination, are abiotic parameters that can affect the physiology and insecticide tolerance of mosquitoes; but the complexity of their direct effect and of their interaction will require further

  17. Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni; Jeffries, Claire L.; Walker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases and vector control is still the main form of prevention. The limitations of traditional insecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In this review, we outline non-insecticide based strategies that have been implemented or are currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies. PMID:27706105

  18. Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Jeffries, Claire L; Walker, Thomas

    2016-10-03

    Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases andvectorcontrolisstillthemainformofprevention. Thelimitationsoftraditionalinsecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods. Biocontrol strategies aim to be sustainable and target a range of different mosquito species to reduce the current reliance on insecticide-based mosquito control. In thisreview, weoutline non-insecticide basedstrategiesthat havebeenimplemented orare currently being tested. We also highlight the use of mosquito behavioural knowledge that can be exploited for control strategies.

  19. Biological Control Strategies for Mosquito Vectors of Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents. Two significant advancements are the discovery of cytoplasmic incompatibility induced by Wolbachia bacteria, which has enhanced replacement programs, and the introduction of dominant lethal genes into local mosquito populations through the release of genetically modified mosquitoes. As various arboviruses continue to be significant public health threats, biological control strategies have evolved to be more diverse and become critical tools to reduce the disease burden of arboviruses. PMID:28208639

  20. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Trongtokit, Yuwadee; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Komalamisra, Narumon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2005-04-01

    The mosquito repellent activity of 38 essential oils from plants at three concentrations was screened against the mosquito Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions using human subjects. On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of oil was applied per 30 cm2 of exposed skin. When the tested oils were applied at a 10% or 50% concentration, none of them prevented mosquito bites for as long as 2 h, but the undiluted oils of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Pogostemon cablin (patchuli), Syzygium aromaticum (clove) and Zanthoxylum limonella (Thai name: makaen) were the most effective and provided 2 h of complete repellency. From these initial results, three concentrations (10%, 50% and undiluted) of citronella, patchouli, clove and makaen were selected for repellency tests against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus. As expected, the undiluted oil showed the highest protection in each case. Clove oil gave the longest duration of 100% repellency (2-4 h) against all three species of mosquito.

  1. Control methods against invasive Aedes mosquitoes in Europe: a review.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Caputo, Beniamino; Chandre, Fabrice; Drago, Andrea; della Torre, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2015-11-01

    Five species of invasive Aedes mosquitoes have recently become established in Europe: Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti, Ae. japonicus japonicus, Ae. koreicus and Ae. atropalpus. These mosquitoes are a serious nuisance for people and are also competent vectors for several exotic pathogens such as dengue and chikungunya viruses. As they are a growing public health concern, methods to control these mosquitoes need to be implemented to reduce their biting and their potential for disease transmission. There is a crucial need to evaluate methods as part of an integrated invasive mosquito species control strategy in different European countries, taking into account local Aedes infestations and European regulations. This review presents the control methods available or in development against invasive Aedes mosquitoes, with a particular focus on those that can be implemented in Europe. These control methods are divided into five categories: environmental (source reduction), mechanical (trapping), biological (e.g. copepods, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Wolbachia), chemical (insect growth regulators, pyrethroids) and genetic (sterile insect technique and genetically modified mosquitoes). We discuss the effectiveness, ecological impact, sustainability and stage of development of each control method.

  2. Current and potential impacts of mosquitoes and the pathogens they vector in the Pacific region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPointe, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit are ubiquitous throughout most of the temperate and tropical regions of the world. The natural and pre-European distribution and diversity of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases throughout much of the Pacific region, however, depicts a depauperate and relatively benign fauna reinforcing the dream of “paradise regained”. In the central and South Pacific few mosquito species were able to colonize the remotest islands and atolls. Native mosquitoes are limited to a few far-ranging species and island endemics are typically restricted to the genera of Aedes and Culex. Only lymphatic filariasis appears to have been present as an endemic mosquito-borne disease before European contact. In nearby Australia, however, some 242 species of mosquitoes are known to occur and more than 70 arboviruses have been identified (Mackenzie 1999). In this regard Australia is more similar to the rest of the tropic and subtropical world than the smaller islands of Oceania. In our ever-shrinking world of global commerce, military activity and travel, the nature of mosquito-borne disease in the Pacific was bound to change. This paper is a brief summary of introduced mosquitoes in the Pacific and their potential impacts on human and wildlife health.

  3. Effectiveness of mosquito magnet in preserved area on the coastal Atlantic rainforest: implication for entomological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Chaves, L S M; Laporta, G Z; Sallum, M A M

    2014-09-01

    A variety of traps are used for sampling, surveillance, and monitoring of mosquito vector species associated with parasite and pathogen transmission. Here, we assessed the performance of the Mosquito Magnet Independence trap with Lurex3 (MMI), by comparing its effectiveness with those of a Centers forDisease Control and Prevention light trap (CDC-LT) and CDC with CO2 and Lurex3 (CDC-A) in a dense tropical rainforest. Multivariate generalized linear models revealed significant differences among the traps regarding mosquito composition and abundance (deviance = 768; P = 0.016). Variance analyses indicated that the MMI captured significantly more mosquitoes compared with CDC-LT (P < 0.01) and CDC-A (P < 0.03). The abundance values did not significantly differ between the CDC-LT and CDC-A traps (P = 0.7). Mosquito species richness was higher from the MMI than from the CDC-LT and CDC-A traps. Furthermore, medically important mosquito species captured by the three traps showed high association with MMI. These results suggest the potential to use the MMI in studies aiming to obtain entomological surveillance information about medically important mosquitoes that occur in tropical rainforest areas. The MMI could also be used in faunal studies focusing on increasing knowledge about mosquito diversity. Considering the present positive results, the effectiveness of the MMI should additionally be evaluated in other Brazilian natural ecosystems. Further studies are also needed to address demographic data from the mosquito population sampled by the MMI.

  4. Effects of combination of leaf resources on competition in container mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, M H; Zarrabi, A A; Lounibos, L P

    2012-08-01

    Resource diversity is critical to fitness in many insect species, and may determine the coexistence of competitive species and the function of ecosystems. Plant material provides the nutritional base for numerous aquatic systems, yet the consequences of diversity of plant material have not been studied in aquatic container systems important for the production of mosquitoes. To address how diversity in leaf detritus affects container-inhabiting mosquitoes, we examined how leaf species affect competition between two container inhabiting mosquito larvae, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, that co-occur in many parts of the world. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species changes the outcome of intra- and interspecific competition between these mosquito species, and that combinations of leaf species affect competition in a manner not predictable based upon the response to each leaf species alone (i.e. the response to leaf combinations is non-additive). We find support for our first hypothesis that leaf species can affect competition, evidence that, in general, leaf combination alters competitive interactions, and no support that leaf combination impacts interspecific competition differently than intraspecific competition. We conclude that combinations of leaves increase mosquito production non-additively such that combinations of leaves act synergistically, in general, and result in higher total yield of adult mosquitoes in most cases, although certain leaf combinations for A. albopictus are antagonistic. We also conclude that leaf diversity does not have a different effect on interspecific competition between A. aegypti and A. albopictus, relative to intraspecific competition for each mosquito.

  5. Genomes of microsporidia in mosquitoes: status and preliminary findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The status and preliminary findings for full genome sequencing of three species of microsporidia with mosquitoes as type hosts will be presented. Vavraia culicis, the type species of the genus Vavraia, was originally described from Culex pipiens. Type material was not available and therefore Vavra...

  6. Contributions to the Mosquito Fauna of Southeast Asia. XIV. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia I - The Scutellaris Group of Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-01-01

    BIOLOGY . The immature stages have been found mainly in tree holes, bamboo stumps, coconut shells and artificial containers. Some species have also been...hair 6-C usually much stouter than 7-C and at least 3/4 of 7-C to about as long as 7-C. BIOLOGY . The immature stages of albopictus have been found... BIOLOGY . The larvae of downsi have been found mainly in taro leaf axils and in tree holes; once in cut bamboo and once in banana axil in Okinawa. The

  7. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed.

  8. Mosquitoes of Middle America.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-30

    survey of mosquitoes in Costa Rica, 197 1. Walsh , Robert D., Aedes aegypti Eradication Program, Public Health Service.—Collections in St. Croix...At least a start has been made in nearly every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes , Anopheles, Culex. Deinocerites, Haemago~us...fauna in the area covered by the project. At least a start has been made in nearl y every major group of medical importance in Middle America: Aedes

  9. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  10. Mosquito Surveillance for Prevention and Control of Emerging Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Portugal — 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Hugo C.; Zé-Zé, Líbia; Amaro, Fátima; Alves, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito surveillance in Europe is essential for early detection of invasive species with public health importance and prevention and control of emerging pathogens. In Portugal, a vector surveillance national program—REVIVE (REde de VIgilância de VEctores)—has been operating since 2008 under the custody of Portuguese Ministry of Health. The REVIVE is responsible for the nationwide surveillance of hematophagous arthropods. Surveillance for West Nile virus (WNV) and other flaviviruses in adult mosquitoes is continuously performed. Adult mosquitoes—collected mainly with Centre for Disease Control light traps baited with CO2—and larvae were systematically collected from a wide range of habitats in 20 subregions (NUTS III). Around 500,000 mosquitoes were trapped in more than 3,000 trap nights and 3,500 positive larvae surveys, in which 24 species were recorded. The viral activity detected in mosquito populations in these years has been limited to insect specific flaviviruses (ISFs) non-pathogenic to humans. Rather than emergency response, REVIVE allows timely detection of changes in abundance and species diversity providing valuable knowledge to health authorities, which may take control measures of vector populations reducing its impact on public health. This work aims to present the REVIVE operation and to expose data regarding mosquito species composition and detected ISFs. PMID:25396768

  11. Mosquito fauna and arbovirus surveillance in a coastal Mississippi community after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Foppa, Ivo M; Evans, Christopher L; Wozniak, Arthur; Wills, William

    2007-06-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused massive destruction and flooding along the Gulf Coast in August 2005. We collected mosquitoes and tested them for arboviral infection in a severely hurricane-damaged community to determine species composition and to assess the risk of a mosquito-borne epidemic disease in that community about 6 wk after the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. Light-trap collections yielded 8,215 mosquitoes representing 19 species, while limited gravid-trap collections were not productive. The most abundant mosquito species was Culex nigripalpus, which constituted 73.6% of all specimens. No arboviruses were detected in any of the mosquitoes collected in this survey, which did not support the assertion that human risk for arboviral infection was increased in the coastal community 6 wk after the hurricane.

  12. Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Laura V.; Smith, Todd G.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species. PMID:26466534

  13. Comparative analysis of gut microbiota of mosquito communities in central Illinois

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Ramirez, Jose L.; Rooney, Alejandro P.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The composition and structure of microbial communities that inhabit the mosquito midguts are poorly understood despite their well-documented potential to impede pathogen transmission. Methodology/Principal findings We used MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize the bacterial communities of field-collected populations of 12 mosquito species. After quality filtering and rarefaction, the remaining sequences were assigned to 181 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Approximately 58% of these OTUs occurred in at least two mosquito species but only three OTUs: Gluconobacter (OTU 1), Propionibacterium (OTU 9), and Staphylococcus (OTU 31) occurred in all 12 mosquito species. Individuals of different mosquito species shared similar gut microbiota and it was common for individuals of the same species from the same study site and collection date to harbor different gut microbiota. On average, the microbiota of Aedes albopictus was the least diverse and significantly less even compared to Anopheles crucians, An. quadrimaculatus, Ae. triseriatus, Ae. vexans, Ae. japonicus, Culex restuans, and Culiseta inornata. The microbial community of Cx. pipiens and Ae. albopictus differed significantly from all other mosquitoes species and was primarily driven by the dominance of Wolbachia. Conclusion and significance These findings expand the range of mosquito species whose gut microbiota has been characterized and sets the foundation for further studies to determine the influence of these microbiota on vector susceptibility to pathogens. PMID:28245239

  14. Potential for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Florida to transmit rift valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated 8 species of mosquitoes collected in Florida to determine which of these should be targeted for control should Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) be detected in North America. Female mosquitoes that had fed on adult hamsters inoculated with RVFV were incubated for 7-21 d at 26°C, allowed to...

  15. Innate preference or opportunism: mosquitoes feeding on birds of prey at the Southeastern Raptor Center.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Bingham, Andrea M; Porterfield, Christopher; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-06-01

    The amplification of mosquito-borne pathogens is driven by patterns of host use by vectors. While each mosquito species is innately adapted to feed upon a particular group of hosts, this "preference" is difficult to assess in field-based studies, because factors such as host defenses and spatial and temporal overlap of mosquitoes and hosts affect which host animals actually get bitten. Here we examined patterns of host use by mosquitoes feeding on caged raptors at a rehabilitation and education center for birds of prey in Alabama, U.S.A. PCR-based techniques were used to determine the host species fed upon. Of 19 raptor species at the facility, seven were found to be fed upon by mosquitoes. Feeding indices and linear regression indicated that no species or family of raptor were significantly preferred over another (R(2)=0.46). Relative abundance adjusted for bird size explained a statistically significant amount of the variation in relative host use (R(2)=0.71), suggesting that bird size is an important component of host selection by mosquitoes. These findings support the hypothesis that traits of host animals drive patterns of host use by mosquitoes in nature, an interaction that leads to amplification of mosquito-borne viruses.

  16. Field evaluation of boric acid and fipronil based bait stations against adult mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of boric acid (1%) and fipronil (0.1%) bait stations in reducing the number of laboratory-reared female Aedes aegypti and Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus mosquitoes released in outdoor screened cages was evaluated. Both toxicants reduced landing rates of the two mosquito species on a ...

  17. Malpighian Tubules as Novel Targets for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Piermarini, Peter M.; Esquivel, Carlos J.; Denton, Jerod S.

    2017-01-01

    The Malpighian tubules and hindgut are the renal excretory tissues of mosquitoes; they are essential to maintaining hemolymph water and solute homeostasis. Moreover, they make important contributions to detoxifying metabolic wastes and xenobiotics in the hemolymph. We have focused on elucidating the molecular mechanisms of Malpighian tubule function in adult female mosquitoes and developing chemical tools as prototypes for next-generation mosquitocides that would act via a novel mechanism of action (i.e., renal failure). To date, we have targeted inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels expressed in the Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Inhibition of these channels with small molecules inhibits transepithelial K+ and fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, leading to a disruption of hemolymph K+ and fluid homeostasis in adult female mosquitoes. In addition, we have used next-generation sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of Malpighian tubules in the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, before and after blood meals, to reveal new molecular targets for potentially disrupting Malpighian tubule function. Within 24 h after a blood meal, the Malpighian tubules enhance the mRNA expression of genes encoding mechanisms involved with the detoxification of metabolic wastes produced during blood digestion (e.g., heme, NH3, reactive oxygen species). The development of chemical tools targeting these molecular mechanisms in Malpighian tubules may offer a promising avenue for the development of mosquitocides that are highly-selective against hematophagous females, which are the only life stage that transmits pathogens. PMID:28125032

  18. Crustacean biodiversity as an important factor for mosquito larval control.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Duquesne, Sabine; Liess, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Newly established ponds, which are highly dynamic systems with changing levels of biological interactions among species, are common larval mosquito habitats. We investigated the impact of crustacean abundance and taxa diversity on mosquito oviposition and larval development. The effects of the biological larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) on mosquito larvae were monitored according to fluctuations in crustacean communities. Populations of the mosquito Culex pipiens colonized artificial ponds that contained crustacean communities at different time points of colonization by crustaceans: 1) 'no colonization' (no crustaceans), 2) 'simultaneous colonization' by crustaceans and mosquitoes, and 3) 'head-start colonization' by crustaceans (preceding colonization by mosquitoes). All types of ponds were treated with three concentrations of Bti (10, 100, or 1,000 µg/liter). Colonization of all ponds by Cx. pipiens (in terms of oviposition, larval abundance, and larval development) decreased significantly with increasing diversity of crustacean taxa. The total abundance of crustaceans had a minor effect on colonization by Cx. pipiens. The presence of crustaceans increased the sensitivity of Cx. pipiens larvae to Bti treatment by a factor of 10 and delayed the time of recolonization. This effect of Bti was relevant in the short term. In the long term, the presence of Cx. pipiens was determined by crustacean biodiversity.

  19. Transmission potential of Rickettsia felis infection by Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Bechah, Yassina; Socolovschi, Cristina; Audoly, Gilles; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Faye, Ousmane; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of recent reports have implicated Rickettsia felis as a human pathogen, paralleling the increasing detection of R. felis in arthropod hosts across the globe, primarily in fleas. Here Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the primary malarial vectors in sub-Saharan Africa, were fed with either blood meal infected with R. felis or infected cellular media administered in membrane feeding systems. In addition, a group of mosquitoes was fed on R. felis-infected BALB/c mice. The acquisition and persistence of R. felis in mosquitoes was demonstrated by quantitative PCR detection of the bacteria up to day 15 postinfection. R. felis was detected in mosquito feces up to day 14. Furthermore, R. felis was visualized by immunofluorescence in salivary glands, in and around the gut, and in the ovaries, although no vertical transmission was observed. R. felis was also found in the cotton used for sucrose feeding after the mosquitoes were fed infected blood. Natural bites from R. felis-infected An. gambiae were able to cause transient rickettsemias in mice, indicating that this mosquito species has the potential to be a vector of R. felis infection. This is particularly important given the recent report of high prevalence of R. felis infection in patients with “fever of unknown origin” in malaria-endemic areas. PMID:26056256

  20. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  1. A Multi-detection Assay for Malaria Transmitting Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoosook; Weakley, Allison M.; Nieman, Catelyn C.; Malvick, Julia; Lanzaro, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes the major malaria transmitting mosquitoes in Africa. Because these species are of such medical importance, several traits are typically characterized using molecular assays to aid in epidemiological studies. These traits include species identification, insecticide resistance, parasite infection status, and host preference. Since populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex are morphologically indistinguishable, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is traditionally used to identify species. Once the species is known, several downstream assays are routinely performed to elucidate further characteristics. For instance, mutations known as KDR in a para gene confer resistance against DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or Plasmodium parasite DNA detection PCR assays are used to detect parasites present in mosquito tissues. Lastly, a combination of PCR and restriction enzyme digests can be used to elucidate host preference (e.g., human vs. animal blood) by screening the mosquito bloodmeal for host-specific DNA. We have developed a multi-detection assay (MDA) that combines all of the aforementioned assays into a single multiplex reaction genotyping 33SNPs for 96 or 384 samples at a time. Because the MDA includes multiple markers for species, Plasmodium detection, and host blood identification, the likelihood of generating false positives or negatives is greatly reduced from previous assays that include only one marker per trait. This robust and simple assay can detect these key mosquito traits cost-effectively and in a fraction of the time of existing assays. PMID:25867057

  2. [Assemblages of bloodsucking mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe].

    PubMed

    Belevich, O É; Iurchenko, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    The population structure of bloodsucking mosquito larvae in temporary and constant water bodies of the northern Kulunda steppe was investigated. The seasonal dynamics of the population density, the number of species in different types of reservoirs, and average density of each species are given. The productivity of water reservoirs in relation to mosquitoes of the family Culicidae is analyzed. The basic factors affecting the distribution of larvae of dominant species between different water bodies were revealed. The degree of correlation between the structure of bloodsucking mosquito larva assemblages and the type of the reservoir was established.

  3. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus.

    PubMed Central

    Sardelis, M. R.; Turell, M. J.; Dohm, D. J.; O'Guinn, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory vector. As WNV extends its range, exposure of additional mosquito species may alter its epidemiology. PMID:11747732

  4. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-02

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts.

  5. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: Not a Royal Air Force de Havilland DH-98, but an Air Force de Havilland F-8 Mosquito. A pair of these Canadian built, U. S. Army Air Force procured aircraft were flown at Langley. The Americans used these aircraft as photo-reconnaissance and meteorological aircraft.

  6. De Havilland F-8 Mosquito

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    De Havilland F-8 Mosquito: This de Havilland F-8 Mosquito was flown at Langley by NACA pilot Bill Gray during longitudinal stability and control studies of the aircraft. This fast twin engine design was noteworthy for its wooden construction and its versatility.

  7. Genetic Control Of Malaria Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    McLean, Kyle Jarrod; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2016-03-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of genetically modifying mosquito vectors to impair their ability to transmit the malaria parasite have been known for well over a decade. However, means to spread resistance or population control genes into wild mosquito populations remains an unsolved challenge. Two recent reports give hope that CRISPR technology may allow such challenge to be overcome.

  8. Genetic Control Of Malaria Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Kyle Jarrod; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Experiments demonstrating the feasibility of genetically modifying mosquito vectors to impair their ability to transmit the malaria parasite have been known for well over a decade. However, means to spread resistance or population control genes into wild mosquito populations remains an unsolved challenge. Two recent reports give hope that CRISPR technology may allow such challenge to be overcome. PMID:26809567

  9. Filarial Worms Reduce Plasmodium Infectivity in Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Aliota, Matthew T.; Chen, Cheng-Chen; Dagoro, Henry; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness). Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis) but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections

  10. Mosquito production in stormwater treatment devices in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jonathan A; Riggs-Nagy, Jamie M; Fritz, Curtis L; Shindelbower, Mitch; Castro, Peter A; Kramer, Vicki L; Metzger, Marco E

    2008-03-01

    In response to increasing evidence of mosquito production in structural stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs), a collaborative project was developed to document the occurrence, species composition, and seasonal abundance of mosquitoes from selected urban and highway BMPs in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California. Structural and environmental factors associated with mosquito production in highway BMPs were identified and analyzed. Ten species of mosquitoes were collected from 47 BMPs, including Culex tarsalis, Culiseta incidens, Cs. inornata, and 7 species of Aedes. In and around South Lake Tahoe, immatures were most abundant in urban BMPs during the warmer summer and fall months, whereas natural water sources in the surrounding area harbored mosquitoes more often during the colder months of early spring. In BMPs installed along Lake Tahoe's perimeter highways, mosquitoes were observed in 11% of site visits conducted during a single season. Larval presence in highway BMPs was positively associated with water temperature and negatively associated with precipitation, sand, and unspecified organic matter. The significance of mosquito production in BMPs of the Tahoe Basin and the potential for increased transmission of mosquito-borne disease are discussed.

  11. Abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes in urban rivers proximate to their larval habitats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minghai; Huang, Minsheng; Leng, Peien

    2016-11-01

    Whether ecological restoration of polluted urban rivers would provide suitable breeding habitats for some mosquitoes was not clear yet. It was therefore important to determine how altered river conditions influence mosquito ecology. Monthly data on water quality and larval density were obtained to determine the effects of river systems on the distribution and abundance of immature mosquitoes in two coastal cities in Eastern China. In total, 5 species within two genera of mosquitoes were collected and identified in habitat with vegetation from three positive rivers. Culex pipiens pallens was the most abundant and widely distributed species. A new species (Culex fuscanus) was reported in certain districts. Physico-chemical parameters of river water were important, but not the only, set of influences on immature mosquito breeding. Aquatic vegetation could increase the likelihood of mosquito breeding while artificial aeration might prevent the approach of mosquitoes. Slow-moving water might be a new potential marginal habitat type for some Culex and Aedes albopictus. Variation of river system with ecological restoration might influence the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes.

  12. Field evaluation of four widely used mosquito traps in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To monitor adult mosquitoes several trapping devices are available. These are differently constructed and use various mechanisms for mosquito attraction, thus resulting in different trapping sensitivities and efficacies for the various species. Mosquito monitoring and surveillance programs in Europe use various types of mosquito traps, but only a few comparisons have been conducted so far. This study compared the performance of four commercial trapping devices, which are commonly used in Europe. Methods Four different traps, Biogents Sentinel trap (BG trap), Heavy Duty Encephalitis Vector Survey trap (EVS trap), Centres for Disease Control miniature light trap (CDC trap) and Mosquito Magnet Patriot Mosquito trap (MM trap) were compared in a 4 × 4 latin square study. In the years 2012 and 2013, more than seventy 24-hour trap comparisons were conducted at ten different locations in northern and southern Germany, representing urban, forest and floodplain biotopes. Results Per 24-hour trapping period, the BG trap caught the widest range of mosquito species, the highest number of individuals of the genus Culex as well as the highest number of individuals of the species Ochlerotatus cantans, Aedes cinereus/geminus, Oc. communis and Culex pipiens/torrentium. The CDC trap revealed best performance for Aedes vexans, whereas the MM trap was most efficient for mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles and the species Oc. geniculatus. The EVS trap did not catch more individuals of any genus or species compared to the other three trapping devices. The BG trap caught the highest number of individuals per trapping period in urban environments as well as in wet forest, while the CDC trap caught the highest number of individuals in the floodplain biotopes. Additionally, the BG trap was most efficient for the number of mosquito species in urban locations. Conclusion The BG trap showed a significantly better or similar performance compared to the CDC, EVS or MM trap with

  13. Effect of anti-mosquito midgut antibodies on development of malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax and fecundity in vector mosquito Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chugh, Manoj; Adak, T; Sehrawat, Neelam; Gakhar, S K

    2011-04-01

    The effect of anti-mosquito-midgut antibodies on the development of the malaria parasite, P. vivax was studied by feeding the vector mosquito, An. culicifacies with infected blood supplemented with serum from immunized rabbits. In order to get antisera, rabbits were immunized with midgut proteins of three siblings species of Anopheles culicifacies, reported to exhibit differential vectorial capacity. The mosquitoes that ingested anti-midgut antibodies along with infectious parasites had significantly fewer oocysts compared to the control group of mosquitoes. The immunized rabbits generated high titer of antibodies. Their cross reactivity amongst various tissues of the same species and with other sibling species was also determined. Immunogenic polypeptides expressed in the midgut of glucose or blood fed An. culicifacies sibling species were identified by Western blotting. One immunogenic polypeptide of 62 kDa was exclusively present in the midgut of species A. Similarly, three polypeptides of 97, 94 and 58 kDa and one polypeptide of 23 kDa were present exclusively in species B and C respectively. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed the localization of these antigens on baso-lateral membrane and microvilli. The effects of anti-mosquito midgut antibodies on fecundity, longevity, mortality and engorgement of mosquitoes were studied. Fecundity was also reduced significantly. These observations open an avenue for research toward the development of a vector-based malaria parasite transmission-blocking vaccine.

  14. Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A.; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spatio-temporal patterns of the 2011 ZIKV amplification in southeastern Senegal. Methodology/Findings Mosquitoes were collected monthly from April to December 2011 except during July. Each evening from 18∶00 to 21∶00 hrs landing collections were performed by teams of 3 persons working simultaneously in forest (canopy and ground), savannah, agriculture, village (indoor and outdoor) and barren land cover sites. Mosquitoes were tested for virus infection by virus isolation and RT-PCR. ZIKV was detected in 31 of the 1,700 mosquito pools (11,247 mosquitoes) tested: Ae. furcifer (5), Ae. luteocephalus (5), Ae. africanus (5), Ae. vittatus (3), Ae. taylori, Ae. dalzieli, Ae. hirsutus and Ae. metallicus (2 each) and Ae. aegypti, Ae. unilinaetus, Ma. uniformis, Cx. perfuscus and An. coustani (1 pool each) collected in June (3), September (10), October (11), November (6) and December (1). ZIKV was detected from mosquitoes collected in all land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. The virus was detected in only one of the ten villages investigated. Conclusions/Significance This ZIKV amplification was widespread in the Kédougou area, involved several mosquito species as probable vectors, and encompassed all investigated land cover classes except indoor locations within villages. Aedes furcifer males and Aedes vittatus were found infected within a village, thus these species are probably involved in the transmission of Zika virus to humans in this environment. PMID

  15. [Mosquitos of peri and extradomiciliary environments in the southern region of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teodoro, U; Guilherme, A L; Lozovei, A L; La Salvia Filho, V; Sampaio, A A; Spinosa, R P; Ferreira, M E; Barbosa, O C; de Lima, E M

    1994-04-01

    Mosquitoes were collected on Sonho Real farm, Querência do Norte county, Paraná State, Brazil, using human bait and Falcão traps between June 1989 and May 1990. The fauna composition, monthly density, hours of major density, human attraction and presence of mosquitoes in domestic animal shelters were investigated. 5,923 mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Aedomyia, Anopheles, Coquillettidea, Culex, Mansonia, Psorophora, Sabethes and Uranotaenia were collected. 33 species of mosquitoes were identified and among them Aedes scapularis, Anopheles albitarsis, Aedomyia squamipennis, Coquillettidea lynchi, Mansonia titillans e Coquillettidea venezuelensis were predominant. All these species were captured mainly on human bait, except Aedomyia squamipennis that was captured in domestic animal shelters. With regard to all the mosquitoes captured (5,923), their major period of activity was between 18 and 19 hours and April was the month of greatest density.

  16. An overview of mosquitoes and emerging arboviral infections in the Zagreb area, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Klobucar, Ana; Benic, Nikola; Krajcar, Darko; Kosanovic-Licina, Mirjana Lana; Tesic, Vanja; Merdic, Enrih; Vrucina, Ivana; Savic, Vladimir; Barbic, Ljubo; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vilibic-Cavlek, Tatjana

    2016-12-30

    Mosquito control in the Zagreb area has been conducted for many years, whereas the fauna has only been investigated in the last 20 years. So far 30 mosquito species have been detected in the city area. Culex pipiens form molestus is the dominant mosquito species in indoor breeding sites. In forested areas and areas exposed to flooding, the active period is early spring and the dominant species are Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans, Ochlerotatus geniculatus and Aedes vexans. The eudominant mosquito species found in the artificial breeding sites are Culex pipiens and the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Invasive Ae. albopictus, present in the Zagreb area since 2004, has expanded to a larger area of the city during the last three years. The recent emergence of the human West Nile virus and Usutu virus neuroinvasive disease in Zagreb and its surroundings highlighted the role of mosquitoes as vectors of emerging arboviruses. The paper focuses on mosquito species and arboviral infections detected in humans and animals in the Zagreb area, Croatia.

  17. Preference of female mosquitoes for natural and artificial resting sites.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Eubanks, Micky D; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    At a wetland study site in Tuskegee National Forest, AL, resting female mosquitoes were collected from natural and artificial resting sites to identify species-specific resting sites and to evaluate various artificial resting sites for their utility in collecting resting mosquitoes. Natural resting sites included small tree cavities, large tree cavities, and understory vegetation. Artificial resting sites included resting boxes, fiber pots, and plastic trash cans. We collected 12,888 female mosquitoes, representing 23 species in 8 genera, during the 6-month study. Each mosquito species demonstrated a preference for a particular type of resting site. Resting Aedes vexans females were collected almost exclusively from understory vegetation, while the great majority of Anopheles quadrimaculatus females were aspirated from large tree cavities. Culex erraticus and Cx. peccator females preferred trash cans over other available resting sites. Females of Cx. territans, although collected most commonly in large tree cavities, were also collected frequently from understory vegetation and trash cans. A multiple regression of resting-site parameters (excluding vegetation), including volume, surface area, and opening size, indicated that 50% and 20% of the variability associated with An. quadrimaculatus and Cx. territans collections, respectively, could be explained by opening size. Inner surface area and volume accounted for 33% and 12% of variation in Cx. erraticus and Cx. peccator collections, respectively. Thus, female mosquitoes generally preferred larger resting sites over smaller resting sites. Similarly shaped artificial resting sites (fiber pots and trash cans) yielded comparable numbers of females per unit of volume (for those species that preferred artificial resting sites), indicating that shape of the resting site is an important factor in resting-site preference. In addition, trash cans proved to be a valuable novel tool for collecting resting female mosquitoes.

  18. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease.

  19. Malaria Mosquitoes Host-Locate and Feed upon Caterpillars

    PubMed Central

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts. PMID:25372720

  20. Malaria mosquitoes host-locate and feed upon caterpillars.

    PubMed

    George, Justin; Blanford, Simon; Thomas, Matthew B; Baker, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    Adult female mosquitoes need blood to develop their eggs and both sexes use nectar and honeydew as carbohydrate resources for flight, survival and to enhance reproduction. However, there are also a few reports in the literature of mosquitoes feeding on haemolymph of soft-bodied insects such as caterpillars. The frequency and significance of this entomophagous behavior is not well understood, but is thought to be a vestige of ancestral feeding behavior or an opportunistic behavior that has evolved over time. In our current paper we investigated the extent to which the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, is attracted to, and can successfully feed on, larvae of two common moth species, Manduca sexta and Heliothis subflexa. Using y-tube olfactometer assays we found that female An. stephensi readily flew upwind to and landed on the caterpillars of both moth species. The nature of the volatile cues used in host location remains unclear but respirometer studies suggest a possible role of CO2. Laboratory cage assays further showed that the female mosquitoes were able to actively feed on moth larvae and gain sufficient nutritional benefit to influence survival. The extent to which such an opportunistic behavior occurs in the field has yet to be explored but our results suggest that this haemolymph feeding behavior could play a role in malaria mosquito life history and could provide a novel mechanism for horizontal transmission of pathogens and other micro-organisms between hosts.

  1. Bacterial communities associated with culex mosquito larvae and two emergent aquatic plants of bioremediation importance.

    PubMed

    Duguma, Dagne; Rugman-Jones, Paul; Kaufman, Michael G; Hall, Michael W; Neufeld, Josh D; Stouthamer, Richard; Walton, William E

    2013-01-01

    Microbes are important for mosquito nutrition, growth, reproduction and control. In this study, we examined bacterial communities associated with larval mosquitoes and their habitats. Specifically, we characterized bacterial communities associated with late larval instars of the western encephalitis mosquito (Culextarsalis), the submerged portions of two emergent macrophytes (California bulrush, Schoenoplectuscalifornicus and alkali bulrush, Schoenoplectusmaritimus), and the associated water columns to investigate potential differential use of resources by mosquitoes in different wetland habitats. Using next-generation sequence data from 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, the alpha diversity of mosquito gut microbial communities did not differ between pond mesocosms containing distinct monotypic plants. Proteobacteria, dominated by the genus Thorsellia (Enterobacteriaceae), was the most abundant phylum recovered from C. tarsalis larvae. Approximately 49% of bacterial OTUs found in larval mosquitoes were identical to OTUs recovered from the water column and submerged portions of the two bulrushes. Plant and water samples were similar to one another, both being dominated by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla. Overall, the bacterial communities within C. tarsalis larvae were conserved and did not change across sampling dates and between two distinct plant habitats. Although Thorsellia spp. dominated mosquito gut communities, overlap of mosquito gut, plant and water-column OTUs likely reveal the effects of larval feeding. Future research will investigate the role of the key indicator groups of bacteria across the different developmental stages of this mosquito species.

  2. Tires as larval habitats for mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in southern Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    McMahon, T J Scott; Galloway, Terry D; Anderson, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, a survey at waste management grounds and tire dealerships was conducted to determine the species composition of mosquitoes in tires in southern Manitoba, Canada. Over 25% of the 1,142 tires sampled contained a total of 32,474 mosquito larvae and pupae. Culex restuans made up at least 95% of the larvae collected for each month of the summer. Culiseta inornata and Culex tarsalis reached their greatest numbers in July and August, respectively, though they were never abundant. Ochlerotatus triseriatus was also found but never reached more than 1% of the total larvae collected in any given month. Mosquito prevalence was more than three times greater in August (36.1%) than in June (11.7%). Orientation affected prevalence of mosquitoes in tires: 31.4% of vertical tires (tires standing on their treads) contained mosquitoes, whereas mosquitoes were found in only 18.9% of horizontal tires (tires parallel to the ground). Tires in the eastern region of Manitoba contained mosquitoes more often (61.7%), irrespective of date, than Winnipeg (25.9%), the central region (29.1%), or the western region (19.8%). Mosquito prevalence was similar across three size categories of tires, car tires (18.8%), truck tires (19.8%), and semi-trailer tires (26.7%), though tractor tires (47.8%) contained significantly more mosquitoes than tires in the other categories.

  3. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert R.; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R. W.; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey. PMID:26064534

  4. Intricate predatory decisions by a mosquito-specialist spider from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert R; Li, Daiqin; Woon, Jeremy R W; Hashim, Rosli; Cross, Fiona R

    2014-10-01

    Paracyrba wanlessi is a southeast Asian jumping spider (Salticidae) that lives in the hollow internodes of fallen bamboo and preys on the larvae, pupae and adults of mosquitoes. In contrast to Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid that is also known for actively targeting mosquitoes as preferred prey, there was no evidence of P. wanlessi choosing mosquitoes on the basis of species, sex or diet. However, our findings show that P. wanlessi chooses mosquitoes significantly more often than a variety of other prey types, regardless of whether the prey are in or away from water, and regardless of whether the mosquitoes are adults or juveniles. Moreover, a preference for mosquito larvae, pupae and adults is expressed regardless of whether test spiders are maintained on a diet of terrestrial or aquatic prey and regardless of whether the diet includes or excludes mosquitoes. Congruence of an environmental factor (in water versus away from water) with prey type (aquatic versus terrestrial mosquitoes) appeared to be important and yet, even when the prey were in the incongruent environment, P. wanlessi continued to choose mosquitoes more often than other prey.

  5. Mosquitoes: A Resource Book for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmor, Mary S.; And Others

    This booklet was written for anyone interested in growing mosquitoes and experimenting with them. There are three major sections: (1) rationale for studying mosquitoes, (2) raising mosquitoes, and (3) some scientific findings. The first section describes basic information about mosquitoes. The second section includes information about materials,…

  6. European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Olivier; Savini, Giovanni; Papa, Anna; Figuerola, Jordi; Groschup, Martin H.; Kampen, Helge; Medlock, Jolyon; Vaux, Alexander; Wilson, Anthony J.; Werner, Doreen; Jöst, Hanna; Goffredo, Maria; Capelli, Gioia; Federici, Valentina; Tonolla, Mauro; Patocchi, Nicola; Flacio, Eleonora; Portmann, Jasmine; Rossi-Pedruzzi, Anya; Mourelatos, Spiros; Ruiz, Santiago; Vázquez, Ana; Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander; Johnson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV), primarily an avian virus, which has caused multiple outbreaks associated with human and equine mortality. Endemic outbreaks of West Nile fever have been reported in Italy, Greece, France, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Spain, with further spread expected. Most outbreaks in Western Europe have been due to infection with WNV Lineage 1. In Eastern Europe WNV Lineage 2 has been responsible for human and bird mortality, particularly in Greece, which has experienced extensive outbreaks over three consecutive years. Italy has experienced co-circulation with both virus lineages. The ability to manage this threat in a cost-effective way is dependent on early detection. Targeted surveillance for pathogens within mosquito populations offers the ability to detect viruses prior to their emergence in livestock, equine species or human populations. In addition, it can establish a baseline of mosquito-borne virus activity and allow monitoring of change to this over time. Early detection offers the opportunity to raise disease awareness, initiate vector control and preventative vaccination, now available for horses, and encourage personal protection against mosquito bites. This would have major benefits through financial savings and reduction in equid morbidity/mortality. However, effective surveillance that predicts virus outbreaks is challenged by a range of factors including limited resources, variation in mosquito capture rates (too few or too many), difficulties in mosquito identification, often reliant on specialist entomologists, and the sensitive, rapid detection of viruses in mosquito pools. Surveillance for WNV and other arboviruses within mosquito populations varies between European countries in the extent and focus of the surveillance. This study reviews the current status of

  7. Laboratory and field testing of bednet traps for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stoops, Craig A; Gionar, Yoyo R; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Andris, Heri; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Barbara, Kathryn A; Munif, Amrul

    2010-06-01

    Surveillance of medically important mosquitoes is critical to determine the risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. The purpose of this research was to test self-supporting, exposure-free bednet traps to survey mosquitoes. In the laboratory we tested human-baited and unbaited CDC light trap/cot bednet (CDCBN) combinations against three types of traps: the Mbita Trap (MIBITA), a Tent Trap (TENT), and a modified Townes style Malaise trap (TSM). In the laboratory, 16 runs comparing MBITA, TSM, and TENT to the CDCBN were conducted for a total of 48 runs of the experiment using 13,600 mosquitoes. The TENT trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The CDCBN collected significantly more than the MBITA and there was no difference between the TSM and the CDCBN. Two field trials were conducted in Cibuntu, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. The first test compared human-baited and unbaited CDCBN, TENT, and TSM traps during six nights over two consecutive weeks per month from January, 2007 to September, 2007 for a total of 54 trapnights. A total of 8,474 mosquitoes representing 33 species were collected using the six trapping methods. The TENT-baited trap collected significantly more mosquitoes than both the CDCBN and the TSM. The second field trial was a comparison of the baited and unbaited TENT and CDCBN traps and Human Landing Collections (HLCs). The trial was carried out from January, 2008 to May, 2008 for a total of 30 trap nights. A total of 11,923 mosquitoes were collected representing 24 species. Human Landing Collections captured significantly more mosquitoes than either the TENT or the CDCBN. The baited and unbaited TENT collected significantly more mosquitoes than the CDCBN. The TENT trap was found to be an effective, light-weight substitute for the CDC light-trap, bednet combination in the field and should be considered for use in surveys of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, arboviruses, and filariasis.

  8. British Container Breeding Mosquitoes: The Impact of Urbanisation and Climate Change on Community Composition and Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Townroe, Susannah; Callaghan, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of artificial container habitats in urban areas has benefitted urban adaptable mosquito species globally. In areas where mosquitoes transmit viruses and parasites, it can promote vector population productivity and fuel mosquito-borne disease outbreaks. In Britain, storage of water in garden water butts is increasing, potentially expanding mosquito larval habitats and influencing population dynamics and mosquito-human contact. Here we show that the community composition, abundance and phenology of mosquitoes breeding in experimental water butt containers were influenced by urbanisation. Mosquitoes in urban containers were less species-rich but present in significantly higher densities (100.4±21.3) per container than those in rural containers (77.7±15.1). Urban containers were dominated by Culex pipiens (a potential vector of West Nile Virus [WNV]) and appear to be increasingly exploited by Anopheles plumbeus (a human-biting potential WNV and malaria vector). Culex phenology was influenced by urban land use type, with peaks in larval abundances occurring earlier in urban than rural containers. Among other factors, this was associated with an urban heat island effect which raised urban air and water temperatures by 0.9°C and 1.2°C respectively. Further increases in domestic water storage, particularly in urban areas, in combination with climate changes will likely alter mosquito population dynamics in the UK. PMID:24759617

  9. Challenges in microbial control of invasive mosquitoes and lessons learned

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public health agencies are concerned with the establishment and spread of invasive mosquitoes in the U.S. and their involvement in the transmission of pathogens to man and animals. Some established species include but are not limited to Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, A. japonicus, and Culex bahamens...

  10. Spectral sensitivity of the nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nocturnal mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus,as a vector of West Nile virus is the target of many surveillance and control efforts. Surveillance of this species primarily consists of light traps baited with a variety of chemical lures. While much research has focused on optimization of the olfa...

  11. Acoustic control of mosquito larvae in artificial drinking water containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustic larvicide devices are part of an emerging technology that provides a non-chemical and non-biological means to reduce larval populations of key medically important mosquito species such as Aedes aegypti in containers or catchments of water. These devices could benefit integrated vector manag...

  12. Detection of Sindbis and Inkoo Virus RNA in Genetically Typed Mosquito Larvae Sampled in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Tingström, Olov; Wesula Lwande, Olivia; Näslund, Jonas; Spyckerelle, Iris; Engdahl, Cecilia; Von Schoenberg, Pontus; Ahlm, Clas; Evander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Mosquito-borne viruses have a widespread distribution across the globe and are known to pose serious threats to human and animal health. The maintenance and dissemination of these viruses in nature are driven through horizontal and vertical transmission. In the temperate climate of northern Sweden, there is a dearth of knowledge on whether mosquito-borne viruses that occur are transmitted transovarially. To gain a better understanding of mosquito-borne virus circulation and maintenance, mosquito larvae were sampled in northern Sweden during the first and second year after a large outbreak of Ockelbo disease in 2013 caused by Sindbis virus (SINV). Materials and Methods: A total of 3123 larvae were sampled during the summers of 2014 and 2015 at multiple sites in northern Sweden. The larvae were homogenized and screened for viruses using RT-PCR and sequencing. Species identification of selected larvae was performed by genetic barcoding targeting the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. Results and Discussion: SINV RNA was detected in mosquito larvae of three different species, Ochlerotatus (Oc.) communis, Oc. punctor, and Oc. diantaeus. Inkoo virus (INKV) RNA was detected in Oc. communis larvae. This finding suggested that these mosquitoes could support transovarial transmission of SINV and INKV. Detection of virus in mosquito larva may serve as an early warning for emerging arboviral diseases and add information to epidemiological investigations before, during, and after outbreaks. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the relevance of genetic barcoding as an attractive and effective method for mosquito larva typing. However, further mosquito transmission studies are needed to ascertain the possible role of different mosquito species and developmental stages in the transmission cycle of arboviruses. PMID:27159120

  13. Nationwide inventory of mosquito biodiversity (Diptera: Culicidae) in Belgium, Europe.

    PubMed

    Versteirt, V; Boyer, S; Damiens, D; De Clercq, E M; Dekoninck, W; Ducheyne, E; Grootaert, P; Garros, C; Hance, T; Hendrickx, G; Coosemans, M; Van Bortel, W

    2013-04-01

    To advance our restricted knowledge on mosquito biodiversity and distribution in Belgium, a national inventory started in 2007 (MODIRISK) based on a random selection of 936 collection points in three main environmental types: urban, rural and natural areas. Additionally, 64 sites were selected because of the risk of importing a vector or pathogen in these sites. Each site was sampled once between May and October 2007 and once in 2008 using Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. Diversity in pre-defined habitat types was calculated using three indices. The association between species and environmental types was assessed using a correspondence analysis. Twenty-three mosquito species belonging to traditionally recognized genera were found, including 21 indigenous and two exotic species. Highest species diversity (Simpson 0.765) and species richness (20 species) was observed in natural areas, although urban sites scored also well (Simpson 0.476, 16 species). Four clusters could be distinguished based on the correspondence analysis. The first one is related to human modified landscapes (such as urban, rural and industrial sites). A second is composed of species not associated with a specific habitat type, including the now widely distributed Anopheles plumbeus. A third group includes species commonly found in restored natural or bird migration areas, and a fourth cluster is composed of forest species. Outcomes of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed sampling scheme and support the choice of the trap type. Obtained results of this first country-wide inventory of the Culicidae in Belgium may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  14. Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wilke, André Barreto Bruno; Gomes, Almério de Castro; Natal, Delsio; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

    2009-10-01

    The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific promoter into immature females. Advantages of these approaches over other biological and chemical control strategies include: highly species-specific, environmentally safety, low production cost, and high efficacy. The use of this genetic modification technique will constitute an important tool for integrated vector management.

  15. RNA Interference for Mosquito and Mosquito-Borne Disease Control

    PubMed Central

    Airs, Paul M.; Bartholomay, Lyric C.

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology. Existing and burgeoning strategies for insecticide delivery could be adapted to function as RNAi trigger delivery systems and thereby expedite transformation of RNAi from the lab to the field for mosquito control. Taken together, development of RNAi-based vector and pathogen management techniques & strategies are within reach. That said, tools for successful RNAi design, studies exploring RNAi in the context of vector control, and studies demonstrating field efficacy of RNAi trigger delivery have yet to be honed and/or developed for mosquito control. PMID:28067782

  16. RNA Interference for Mosquito and Mosquito-Borne Disease Control.

    PubMed

    Airs, Paul M; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2017-01-05

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool to silence endogenous mosquito and mosquito-borne pathogen genes in vivo. As the number of studies utilizing RNAi in basic research grows, so too does the arsenal of physiological targets that can be developed into products that interrupt mosquito life cycles and behaviors and, thereby, relieve the burden of mosquitoes on human health and well-being. As this technology becomes more viable for use in beneficial and pest insect management in agricultural settings, it is exciting to consider its role in public health entomology. Existing and burgeoning strategies for insecticide delivery could be adapted to function as RNAi trigger delivery systems and thereby expedite transformation of RNAi from the lab to the field for mosquito control. Taken together, development of RNAi-based vector and pathogen management techniques & strategies are within reach. That said, tools for successful RNAi design, studies exploring RNAi in the context of vector control, and studies demonstrating field efficacy of RNAi trigger delivery have yet to be honed and/or developed for mosquito control.

  17. Mosquito fauna and perspectives for integrated control of urban vector-mosquito populations in Southern Benin (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Lingenfelser, Andre; Rydzanicz, Katarzyna; Kaiser, Achim; Becker, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at an integrated vector management (IVM) concept of implementing biological control agents against vector mosquito larvae as a cost-effective and scalable control strategy. In the first step, the mosquito species composition fauna of southern Benin was studied using standard entomological procedures in natural and man-made habitats. Altogether, 24 species belonging to 6 genera of mosquitoes Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, Uranotaenia, Ficalbia were recorded. Five species, Cx. thalassius, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. perfuscus, Cx. pocilipes and Fi. mediolineata are described the first time for Benin. The local mosquito species showed high susceptibility to a Bacillus sphaericus formulation (VectoLex(R) WDG ) in a standardized field test. A dosage of 1 g/m(2) was effective to achieve 100 percent mortality rate for Cx. quinquefasciatus late instar larvae in a sewage habitat, with a residual effect of up to 7 days. After more than 1 year of baseline data collection, operational larviciding with B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus was commenced in 2006 in selected areas. Microbial insecticides products for larval control show great potential within IVM programmes and may augment control efforts against adult insects, such as the use of insecticide-treated bed nets or indoor wall spraying in many parts of Africa.

  18. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an insecticide that kills mosquitoes and other insects. - Do not wash bed nets or expose them ... for extra protection. Use only an EPA-registered insect repellent Consider bringing insect repellent with you. Always ...

  19. Mosquito bite-caused eosinophilic dermatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Mason, K V; Evans, A G

    1991-06-15

    Eight cats had lesions on the nasal bridge, ears, and footpads, with histologic and hematologic features of a recently described seasonal form of eosinophilic granuloma complex. Four cats were examined in detail, and it was established that 2 of the 4 reacted to mosquito extract on intradermal skin testing read at 20 minutes. Neither of the 2 cats tested had deposits of immunoglobulins in lesional or perilesional skin. Lesions on all 4 cats resolved when kept at home behind insect screening, but flared up if the screening was removed. Mosquitoes that were observed to be biting and causing lesions were collected and identified. Other species of laboratory-reared mosquitoes were allowed to bite nonlesional skin of 1 affected cat, causing pruritus, erythematous crusting, and ulcerative lesions at the bite site, which was characterized histologically as eosinophilic dermatitis.

  20. Resource Limitation, Controphic Ostracod Density and Larval Mosquito Development

    PubMed Central

    Rowbottom, Raylea; Carver, Scott; Barmuta, Leon A.; Weinstein, Philip; Foo, Dahlia; Allen, Geoff R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic environments can be restricted with the amount of available food resources especially with changes to both abiotic and biotic conditions. Mosquito larvae, in particular, are sensitive to changes in food resources. Resource limitation through inter-, and intra-specific competition among mosquitoes are known to affect both their development and survival. However, much less is understood about the effects of non-culicid controphic competitors (species that share the same trophic level). To address this knowledge gap, we investigated and compared mosquito larval development, survival and adult size in two experiments, one with different densities of non-culicid controphic conditions and the other with altered resource conditions. We used Aedes camptorhynchus, a salt marsh breeding mosquito and a prominent vector for Ross River virus in Australia. Aedes camptorhynchus usually has few competitors due to its halo-tolerance and distribution in salt marshes. However, sympatric ostracod micro-crustaceans often co-occur within these salt marshes and can be found in dense populations, with field evidence suggesting exploitative competition for resources. Our experiments demonstrate resource limiting conditions caused significant increases in mosquito developmental times, decreased adult survival and decreased adult size. Overall, non-culicid exploitation experiments showed little effect on larval development and survival, but similar effects on adult size. We suggest that the alterations of adult traits owing to non-culicid controphic competition has potential to extend to vector-borne disease transmission. PMID:26558896

  1. Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prakash Raj; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer. PMID:23554562

  2. Mosquito community structure in phytotelmata from a South American temperate wetland.

    PubMed

    Albicócco, Andrea Paola; Carbajo, Aníbal Eduardo; Vezzani, Darío

    2011-12-01

    Phytotelmata, or plant-held waters, are considered to be good model systems for the study of community ecology. The fauna of these natural container habitats, particularly the mosquitoes, have been extensively investigated in tropical regions, but there is little known about them in temperate South America. We assessed the structure of immature mosquito communities in leaf axils, tree holes, and bamboo stumps from a temperate wetland of Argentina. A total of 4,330 immature mosquitoes were collected among the 2,606 phytotelmata inspected. Leaf axils of eight plant species and tree holes were larval habitats for nine mosquito species belonging to the genus Culex, Wyeomyia, Isostomyia, and Toxorhynchites. The mosquito communities showed richness ranging from one to four species. Marked differences were detected in the plant specificity for the species collected. Some of them were exclusively found in one plant species (Isostomyia paranensis in Scirpus giganteus), whereas others were collected in up to five plant species but belonging to the same phytotelm class, the leaf axils. Those from tree holes are well-known dwellers of artificial containers and ground water habitats, such as Culex pipiens. Our results support the idea of low mosquito richness in phytotelmata from temperate regions in comparison with tropical areas, but the observed specificity patterns echo the findings of tropical forests.

  3. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Bingham, Andrea M; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2015-09-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November-April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1-5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida.

  4. Ecology of Culiseta Melanura and Other Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Walton County, FL, During Winter Period 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Bingham, Andrea M.; Hunt, Brenda; Morse, Gary; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Winter ecology of putative vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) in northern Florida was investigated at field locations with evidence of historic EEEV winter transmission. Light traps and resting shelters were used to sample the mosquito community in the vicinity of eight sentinel flocks throughout the winter period (November–April) of 2013 and 2014 in Walton County, FL. Overall mosquito activity was relatively low, although mosquitoes were captured during each week of the study period. Mosquito activity was linked to morning temperature, and females were captured when ambient morning temperatures were quite low (1–5°C). Anopheles crucians Wiedemann, Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex territans Walker, and Culiseta melanura (Coquillett) were the most commonly collected mosquito species (of 20 total species). Analysis of blood-engorged mosquitoes revealed a number of mosquito species feeding upon chickens, other birds, amphibians, and domestic and wild mammals. Cs. melanura fed primarily upon chickens and songbirds (Passeriformes), suggesting that this mosquito species is the likely winter vector of EEEV to sentinel chickens in northern Florida. Both resident and nonresident songbird species were fed upon, constituting 63.9 and 36.1% of total songbird meals, respectively. Our results suggest important roles for Cs. melanura and songbird hosts for the winter transmission of EEEV in northern Florida. PMID:26336227

  5. Analysis of post-blood meal flight distances in mosquitoes utilizing zoo animal blood meals.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jacob A; DiMenna, Mark A; Hanelt, Ben; Hofkin, Bruce V

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the post-blood meal flight distance of four mosquito species in a unique environment using blood meal analysis. Mosquitoes were trapped at the Rio Grande Zoo in Albuquerque, NM, and the blood source of blood-engorged mosquitoes was identified. The distance from the enclosure of the animal serving as a blood source to the trap site was then determined. We found that mosquitoes captured at the zoo flew no more than 170 m with an average distance of 106.7 m after taking a blood meal. This is the first study in which the flight distance of wild mosquitoes has been assessed using blood meal analysis and the first in which zoo animals have served as the exclusive source of blood meals.

  6. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hongfei; Degaetano, Arthur T.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  7. Climate-based models for West Nile Culex mosquito vectors in the Northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hongfei; DeGaetano, Arthur T; Harrington, Laura C

    2011-05-01

    Climate-based models simulating Culex mosquito population abundance in the Northeastern US were developed. Two West Nile vector species, Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were included in model simulations. The model was optimized by a parameter-space search within biological bounds. Mosquito population dynamics were driven by major environmental factors including temperature, rainfall, evaporation rate and photoperiod. The results show a strong correlation between the timing of early population increases (as early warning of West Nile virus risk) and decreases in late summer. Simulated abundance was highly correlated with actual mosquito capture in New Jersey light traps and validated with field data. This climate-based model simulates the population dynamics of both the adult and immature mosquito life stage of Culex arbovirus vectors in the Northeastern US. It is expected to have direct and practical application for mosquito control and West Nile prevention programs.

  8. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  9. The Temporal Spectrum of Adult Mosquito Population Fluctuations: Conceptual and Modeling Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  10. The temporal spectrum of adult mosquito population fluctuations: conceptual and modeling implications.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  11. Heritability of Attractiveness to Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Grandon, G. Mandela; Gezan, Salvador A.; Armour, John A. L.; Pickett, John A.; Logan, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Female mosquitoes display preferences for certain individuals over others, which is determined by differences in volatile chemicals produced by the human body and detected by mosquitoes. Body odour can be controlled genetically but the existence of a genetic basis for differential attraction to insects has never been formally demonstrated. This study investigated heritability of attractiveness to mosquitoes by evaluating the response of Aedes aegypti (=Stegomyia aegypti) mosquitoes to odours from the hands of identical and non-identical twins in a dual-choice assay. Volatiles from individuals in an identical twin pair showed a high correlation in attractiveness to mosquitoes, while non-identical twin pairs showed a significantly lower correlation. Overall, there was a strong narrow-sense heritability of 0.62 (SE 0.124) for relative attraction and 0.67 (0.354) for flight activity based on the average of ten measurements. The results demonstrate an underlying genetic component detectable by mosquitoes through olfaction. Understanding the genetic basis for attractiveness could create a more informed approach to repellent development. PMID:25901606

  12. Sexual chemoecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae): Current knowledge and implications for vector control programs.

    PubMed

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males. We reviewed the current knowledge on mosquito sexual chemical ecology and other key cues affecting courtship and mating behavior. The information available on the aggregation and sex pheromones in mosquito males is rather limited. To the best of our knowledge, the components of the aggregation pheromone stimulating swarming mechanisms have been fully characterized only for Aedes aegypti, while evidence for aggregation pheromones in other mosquito species remains elusive. Further research on this issue is needed, as well as to dissect the relative importance of visual (with special reference to swarming landmarks), vibrational, olfactory and tactile cues perceived during swarming and mate. On the other hand, more knowledge is available for cuticular hydrocarbons, which modulate mating behavior in several species of economic importance. These compounds, coupled with volatile aggregation components, have potential interest for the development of monitoring and trapping systems. In addition, the analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons are essential for discrimination between closely related mosquito species and/or populations.

  13. Comparative genomic analysis of Drosophila melanogaster and vector mosquito developmental genes.

    PubMed

    Behura, Susanta K; Haugen, Morgan; Flannery, Ellen; Sarro, Joseph; Tessier, Charles R; Severson, David W; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Genome sequencing projects have presented the opportunity for analysis of developmental genes in three vector mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae. A comparative genomic analysis of developmental genes in Drosophila melanogaster and these three important vectors of human disease was performed in this investigation. While the study was comprehensive, special emphasis centered on genes that 1) are components of developmental signaling pathways, 2) regulate fundamental developmental processes, 3) are critical for the development of tissues of vector importance, 4) function in developmental processes known to have diverged within insects, and 5) encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate developmental transcripts in Drosophila. While most fruit fly developmental genes are conserved in the three vector mosquito species, several genes known to be critical for Drosophila development were not identified in one or more mosquito genomes. In other cases, mosquito lineage-specific gene gains with respect to D. melanogaster were noted. Sequence analyses also revealed that numerous repetitive sequences are a common structural feature of Drosophila and mosquito developmental genes. Finally, analysis of predicted miRNA binding sites in fruit fly and mosquito developmental genes suggests that the repertoire of developmental genes targeted by miRNAs is species-specific. The results of this study provide insight into the evolution of developmental genes and processes in dipterans and other arthropods, serve as a resource for those pursuing analysis of mosquito development, and will promote the design and refinement of functional analysis experiments.

  14. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  15. Impact of rapid urbanization on mosquitoes and their disease transmission potential in Accra and Tema, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Chinery, W A

    1995-06-01

    The total of 75 mosquito species recorded in Accra have declined to 28 species. Contributing factors to this decline and the reduction in prevalence of malaria and bancroftian filariasis in Accra presently include extensive water pollution and a fairly high daily mosquito mortality due to several factors including loss of natural adult resting places, use of mosquito repellents and the probable increase of Anopheles arabiensis population. Presently low yellow fever incidence is due inter alia to loss of its feral vectors and reduced intradomiciliary breeding of Aedes aegypti (L) although more common species like A. gambiae s.l., A. aegypti and C. p. quinquefasciatus could between them transmit many other arboviruses. However because of ready availability of human blood, spill-over of viruses from reservoir hosts to man will be rare. Ipso factor, malaria is the most common mosquito-borne disease with centripetal distribution of prevalence.

  16. Effects of wind on the behaviour and distribution of mosquitoes and blackflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Service, M. W.

    1980-12-01

    Flight activity of haematophagous insects can be greatly reduced by wind, but species inhabiting woods and other sheltered sites will be less affected than those living in more exposed areas. If flight is suppressed this may lead to reductions in blood-feeding and oviposition and thus a reduction in their reproductive capacity. Although wind usually inhibits flight it appears that newly emerged adults of some mosquito species are specially adapted to take-off and flight in windy weather, thus promoting dispersal and colonization of new areas. Dispersal of simuliids and mosquitoes can be very important in control programmes as they can create problems of recolonization. Because air turbulence and convection are usually greatest during the day, simuliids and day-flying mosquitoes are more likely to be swept into the upper air and carried long distances than mosquito species that are active at night.

  17. The endangered Illidge's ant blue butterfly (Acrodipsas illidgei) from an intertidal habitat managed for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Breitfuss, M J; Dale, P E R

    2004-03-01

    Acrodipsas illidgei is an endangered butterfly inhabiting mangrove forests in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Concern over the effects of mosquito control activities prompted a broad-scale survey for the species at Coomera Island, in southeastern Queensland. The butterfly was recorded on the edge of an old-growth mangrove forest in close proximity to mosquito control runnels. Other forms of mosquito control at Coomera Island are unlikely to impact on the species because of the mode of action of larvicides used and the fact larvae occur within ant colonies formed in hollow stems and branches of mangrove trees. Further studies are required to more fully understand the relationships between mosquito control activities and the population dynamics of endangered species such as A. illidgei.

  18. Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.

    PubMed

    DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that

  19. Mosquito defense strategies against viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to non-pathogenic levels. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues. PMID:26626596

  20. 16S rRNA gene sequences from bacteria associated with adult Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; de Oliveira, Caroline Dantas; Pinheiro, Waleria Dasso; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; James, Anthony Amade; Marinotti, Osvaldo

    2008-01-01

    The microbial flora associated with Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), a major Neotropical malaria vector, was investigated for the development of a paratransgenesis-based approach to control malaria transmission in Brazil. Female mosquitoes were collected using human land catches and captured insects provided a bloodmeal. The controlled blood feeding resulted in increased detection of mosquito bacterial population because it was possible to retrieve bacterial DNA from all blood-fed mosquitoes. The 16S sequences of bacteria recovered, include some closely related to those found in other vector mosquitoes, including Aeromonas, Pantoea and Pseudomonas species.

  1. Weak larval competition between the invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) and three resident container-inhabiting mosquitoes in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Hardstone, Melissa C; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2012-03-01

    The spread of exotic mosquito species into new environments can introduce shifts in mosquito populations and potentially alter public health risks to mosquito-borne diseases. The successful establishment of exotic species may occur due to their competitive advantage over other cohabitating species. We hypothesized that the recently introduced exotic mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) would be a more effective competitor than Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett) and Aedes triseriatus (Say), and an equal competitor to Culex pipiens (L.) based on larval abundance data within tire habitats. Impacts of competition were measured using the larval developmental rate and survival of larvae, adult mortality, wing length, and sex ratio. We found that intraspecific competition acted strongest against Ae. japonicus versus the other three resident mosquito species by delaying larval development and increasing adult mortality. Interspecific competition was generally weak and significant main effects were only detected for species and density. Overall, our results show that larval competition between Ae. japonicus and the three resident species was weak when present, indicating that other ecological or behavioral factors may be influencing the invasion success for Ae. japonicus in North America.

  2. Mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) and seasonal activity in Makka Al Mukarramah Region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alahmed, A M; Al Kuriji, M A; Kheir, S M; Alahmedi, S A; Al Hatabbi, M J; Al Gashmari, M A M

    2009-12-01

    From March 2004 to February 2006, a mosquito survey was conducted in Makka Al Mukarrama Region, in the western part of Saudi Arabia, and 19 species which belong to 4 genera, were collected: Aedes (2 species), Anopheles (8 species), Culex (8 species) and Culiseta (1 species). The mosquitoes were Aedes caspius, Ae. aegypti, Anopheles d'thali, An. gambiae, An. multicolor, An. rhodesiensis, An. sergenti, An. stephensi, An. subpictus, An. turkhudi, Culex arbieeni, Cx. laticinctus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sinaiticus, Cx. tigripes, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. univittatus and Culiseta longiareolata. Cx. arbieeni was reported for the first time in Saudi Arabia from Al Taif District. The physical properties of water of mosquito's larval breeding sites showed the total dissolved salts (TDS) varied between 70-15552 ppm, pH ranged between 5.4-11.2 and water temperature varied between 15 degrees C in winter to 40.7 degrees C in summer. There was no correlation between these physical properties and the distribution of mosquito larvae. Light traps collected 1858 mosquitoes, and adult Culex were the most prevalent as 1658 (89.24%) were collected, followed by 121 (6.51%) Aedes, 68 (3.66%) Anopheles and 11 (0.59%) Culiseta. The effects of temperature and rainfall on seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in the study area are discussed.

  3. Avian Plasmodium infection in field-collected mosquitoes during 2012-2013 in Tarlac, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Huang; Aure, Wilfredo E; Cruz, Estrella Irlandez; Malbas, Fedelino F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lu, Liang-Chen; Kim, Kyeong Soon; Tsuda, Yoshio; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2015-12-01

    Global warming threatens to increase the spread and prevalence of mosquito-transmitted diseases. Certain pathogens may be carried by migratory birds and transmitted to local mosquito populations. Mosquitoes were collected in the northern Philippines during bird migration seasons to detect avian malaria parasites as well as for the identification of potential vector species and the estimation of infections among local mosquito populations. We used the nested PCR to detect the avian malaria species. Culex vishnui (47.6%) was the most abundant species collected and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (13.8%) was the second most abundant. Avian Plasmodium parasites were found in eight mosquito species, for which the infection rates were between 0.5% and 6.2%. The six Plasmodium genetic lineages found in this study included P. juxtanucleare -GALLUS02, Tacy7 (Donana04), CXBIT01, Plasmodium species LIN2 New Zealand, and two unclassified lineages. The potential mosquito vectors for avian Plasmodium parasites in the Philippines were Cq. crassipes, Cx. fuscocephala, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. sitiens, Cx. vishnui, and Ma. Uniformis; two major genetic lineages, P. juxtanucleare and Tacy7, were identified.

  4. Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EaAs1, Isolated from the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Hughes, Grant L; Koundal, Vikas; Rasgon, Jason L; Mwangi, Michael M

    2016-03-10

    We sequenced the genome of a strain of the Gram-negative bacterial species Elizabethkingia anophelis, which is an important component of the Anopheles mosquito microbiome. This genome sequence will add to the list of resources used to examine host-microbe interactions in mosquitoes.

  5. Quantifying the impact of mosquitoes on quality of life and enjoyment yard and porch activities in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Jersey, like many mid-Atlantic and southeastern states, has a persistent problem with the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus). This species and other mosquitoes reduce residents’ quality of life through discomfort and possible risk of disease transmission. To guide a comprehensive area-wide ...

  6. Genome Sequence of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strain EaAs1, Isolated from the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Hughes, Grant L.; Koundal, Vikas; Mwangi, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the genome of a strain of the Gram-negative bacterial species Elizabethkingia anophelis, which is an important component of the Anopheles mosquito microbiome. This genome sequence will add to the list of resources used to examine host-microbe interactions in mosquitoes. PMID:26966196

  7. Landscape Effects on the Presence, Abundance and Diversity of Mosquitoes in Mediterranean Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Roiz, David; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramon; Figuerola, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Environment determines the distribution of mosquito-borne diseases in that it influences the vector-host-pathogen transmission cycle, including vector distribution, abundance and diversity. In this study, we analyse the relationship between environmental variables estimated by remote sensing and the spatial distribution (presence, abundance and diversity) of seven mosquito species vectors of West Nile and other pathogens (Usutu, avian malaria and dirofilariasis) in the Doñana Natural Park, Spain. Traps were distributed over an area of 54,984 ha divided into six ecological units: marshland, sand dunes, scrubland, ricefields, crops and fishponds. We collected mosquitoes once a month from up to 112 locations using BG-Sentinel traps baited with BG-lure and CO2 during March-November 2010. Hydroperiod, NDVI and Inundation surface were estimated at several resolution scales (100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 metres) from corrected and normalized Landsat Images. We sampled 972,346 female mosquitoes, the most abundant species being Culex theileri, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culex modestus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus detritus. Our results suggest that: (1) hydroperiod, inundation surface and NDVI are strongly related to the spatial distribution of mosquitoes; (2) the spatial scales used to measure these variables affected quantification of these relationships, the larger scale being more informative; (3) these relationships are species-specific; (4) hydroperiod is negatively related to mosquito presence and richness; (5) Culex abundance is positively related to hydroperiod; (6) NDVI is positively related to mosquito diversity, presence and abundance, except in the case of the two salt marsh species (Oc. caspius and Oc. detritus); and (7) inundation surfaces positively condition the abundance and richness of most species except the salt marsh mosquitoes. Remote sensing data provided reliable information for monitoring mosquito populations

  8. Indoor Application of Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) in Combination with Mosquito Nets for Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Zachary P.; Oxborough, Richard M.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Kirby, Matthew J.; Rowland, Mark W.; Irish, Seth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. Methods Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. Results In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05). Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. Conclusions Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor use of ATSB has the

  9. Mosquito records from a hot and dry climatic area experiencing frequent outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis, Bellary district, Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, P C; Jamgaonkar, A V

    2008-03-01

    Mosquito species occurring in Bellary district, Karnataka, India were surveyed for Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile virus (WNV) from 2001 to 2003. A total of 37 mosquito species in 6 genera were recovered from larval and adult habitats. Aedes, Anopheles and Culex were represented by 11 species each, Mansonia by 2 species, and Armigeres and Lutzia by a single species. A total of 68,506 mosquitoes belonging to 20 species were collected at dusk. Most (74.6%) were Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and occurred in 2 peaks of abundance in February (304 per man hour density [PMHD]) and October (465 PMHD). The mosquito fauna of Bellary district is not diverse, possibly because of the hot and dry climatic conditions in the area.

  10. Integrating the public in mosquito management: active education by community peers can lead to significant reduction in peridomestic container mosquito habitats.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  11. Integrating the Public in Mosquito Management: Active Education by Community Peers Can Lead to Significant Reduction in Peridomestic Container Mosquito Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kristen; Hamilton, George; Crepeau, Taryn; Healy, Sean; Unlu, Isik; Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito species that utilize peridomestic containers for immature development are commonly aggressive human biters, and because they often reach high abundance, create significant nuisance. One of these species, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, is an important vector of emerging infectious diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, and Zika fevers. Integrated mosquito management (IMM) of Ae. albopictus is particularly difficult because it requires access to private yards in urban and suburban residences. It has become apparent that in the event of a public health concern due to this species, homeowners will have to be active participants in the control process by reducing mosquito habitats in their properties, an activity known as source reduction. However, limited attempts at quantifying the effect of source reduction by homeowners have had mixed results. Of note, many mosquito control programs in the US have some form of education outreach, however the primary approach is often passive focusing on the distribution of education materials as flyers. In 2010, we evaluated the use of active community peer education in a source reduction program, using AmeriCorps volunteers. The volunteers were mobilized over a 4-week period, in two areas with approximately 1,000 residences each in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth counties in New Jersey, USA. The volunteers were first provided training on peridomestic mosquitoes and on basic approaches to reducing the number of container habitats for mosquito larvae in backyards. Within the two treatment areas the volunteers successfully engaged 758 separate homes. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction in container habitats in the sites where the volunteers actively engaged the community compared to untreated control areas in both counties. Our results suggest that active education using community peer educators can be an effective means of source reduction, and a critical tool in the arsenal

  12. Heterogeneity of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Control Community Size, Research Productivity, and Arboviral Diseases Across the United States.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Gabriel L

    2016-05-01

    Multiple factors lead to extensive variation in mosquito and mosquito-borne virus control programs throughout the United States. This variation is related to differences in budgets, number of personnel, operational activities targeting nuisance or vector species, integration of Geographical Information Systems, and the degree of research and development to improve management interventions through collaboration with academic institutions. To highlight this heterogeneity, the current study evaluates associations among the size of a mosquito control community, the research productivity, and the mosquito-borne virus human disease burden among states within the continental United States. I used the attendance at state mosquito and vector control meetings as a proxy for the size of the mosquito control community in each state. To judge research productivity, I used all peer-reviewed publications on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses using data originating in each state over a 5- and 20-yr period. Total neuroinvasive human disease cases caused by mosquito-borne viruses were aggregated for each state. These data were compared directly and after adjusting for differences in human population size for each state. Results revealed that mean meeting attendance was positively correlated with the number of publications in each state, but not after correcting for the size of the population in each state. Additionally, human disease cases were positively correlated with the number of publications in each state. Finally, mean meeting attendance and human disease cases were only marginally positively associated, and no correlation existed after correcting for human population size. These analyses indicated that the mosquito control community size, research productivity, and mosquito-borne viral human disease burden varied greatly among states. The mechanisms resulting in this variation were discussed and the consequences of this variation are important given the constantly

  13. Do vegetated rooftops attract more mosquitoes? Monitoring disease vector abundance on urban green roofs.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gwendolyn K L; Jim, C Y

    2016-12-15

    Green roof, an increasingly common constituent of urban green infrastructure, can provide multiple ecosystem services and mitigate climate-change and urban-heat-island challenges. Its adoption has been beset by a longstanding preconception of attracting urban pests like mosquitoes. As more cities may become vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging mosquito-borne infectious diseases, the knowledge gap needs to be filled. This study gauges the habitat preference of vector mosquitoes for extensive green roofs vis-à-vis positive and negative control sites in an urban setting. Seven sites in a university campus were selected to represent three experimental treatments: green roofs (GR), ground-level blue-green spaces as positive controls (PC), and bare roofs as negative controls (NC). Mosquito-trapping devices were deployed for a year from March 2015 to 2016. Human-biting mosquito species known to transmit infectious diseases in the region were identified and recorded as target species. Generalized linear models evaluated the effects of site type, season, and weather on vector-mosquito abundance. Our model revealed site type as a significant predictor of vector mosquito abundance, with considerably more vector mosquitoes captured in PC than in GR and NC. Vector abundance was higher in NC than in GR, attributed to the occasional presence of water pools in depressions of roofing membrane after rainfall. Our data also demonstrated seasonal differences in abundance. Weather variables were evaluated to assess human-vector contact risks under different weather conditions. Culex quinquefasciatus, a competent vector of diseases including lymphatic filariasis and West Nile fever, could be the most adaptable species. Our analysis demonstrates that green roofs are not particularly preferred by local vector mosquitoes compared to bare roofs and other urban spaces in a humid subtropical setting. The findings call for a better understanding of vector ecology in diverse urban landscapes

  14. A review of spinosad as a natural product for larval mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Mark B; Mavrotas, Costas; Jousseaume, Christian; Lysandrou, Michael; Thompson, Gary D; Jany, William; Ritchie, Scott A

    2010-03-01

    The effectiveness of spinosad for larval mosquito control is summarized based on available published literature and some heretofore unpublished studies. Spinosad is highly active against larvae of all mosquito species tested thus far. It is effective at similar dosages for all larval mosquito instars, with peak cumulative mortality occurring at 72 h posttreatment. More studies are needed to fully define spinosad's ovicidal properties and its impact on the pupal stage. High levels of organic matter and full sunlight are both factors that can negatively impact spinosad efficacy and longevity and should be considered when making use rate and retreatment decisions. Studies clearly show that spinosad technical active ingredient and current crop formulations are suboptimal for larval mosquito control and underrepresent spinosad's true activity. A series of spinosad formulations specialized for larval mosquito control will be sold commercially. Prior to its launch and widespread use, there is a need for additional baseline studies to clarify the natural geographic variation in susceptibility of field mosquito populations. Spinosad represents a new and effective natural product for the integrated management of larval mosquitoes. It possesses a unique mode of action not shared by any other insecticide and is shown to be minimally disruptive to most nontarget species tested thus far at its proposed field use rates.

  15. A web-based relational database for monitoring and analyzing mosquito population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sucaet, Yves; Van Hemert, John; Tucker, Brad; Bartholomay, Lyric

    2008-07-01

    Mosquito population dynamics have been monitored on an annual basis in the state of Iowa since 1969. The primary goal of this project was to integrate light trap data from these efforts into a centralized back-end database and interactive website that is available through the internet at http://iowa-mosquito.ent.iastate.edu. For comparative purposes, all data were categorized according to the week of the year and normalized according to the number of traps running. Users can readily view current, weekly mosquito abundance compared with data from previous years. Additional interactive capabilities facilitate analyses of the data based on mosquito species, distribution, or a time frame of interest. All data can be viewed in graphical and tabular format and can be downloaded to a comma separated value (CSV) file for import into a spreadsheet or more specialized statistical software package. Having this long-term dataset in a centralized database/website is useful for informing mosquito and mosquito-borne disease control and for exploring the ecology of the species represented therein. In addition to mosquito population dynamics, this database is available as a standardized platform that could be modified and applied to a multitude of projects that involve repeated collection of observational data. The development and implementation of this tool provides capacity for the user to mine data from standard spreadsheets into a relational database and then view and query the data in an interactive website.

  16. Fauna and Larval Habitats of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel-Nezamiha, Farahnaz; Vatandoost, Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Bavani, Mulood Mohammadi; Dabiri, Farrokh; Entezar-Mahdi, Rasool; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province. Methods: Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province. Results: Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province. Conclusion: Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:26114130

  17. Controlling Mosquitoes at the Larval Stage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Larvicides target larvae in the breeding habitat before they can mature into adult mosquitoes and disperse. Larvicide treatment of breeding habitats help reduce the adult mosquito population in nearby areas.

  18. Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163019.html Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus Hope is to eventually make the bugs ... say they have created mosquitoes resistant to the dengue virus, which might eventually help control the spread ...

  19. An annotated list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jerome; Varnado, Wendy C; Harrison, Bruce A

    2010-06-01

    There has been no previous systematic statewide study of mosquitoes in Mississippi. This survey, resulting in the collection of over 400,000 specimens, was conducted by the authors from 2003 to 2007 throughout much of the state using CO2-baited CDC light traps and larval dipping. In addition, a health department contract mosquito surveillance technician collected several thousand specimens from the state from 2001 to 2003. Lastly, specimens housed at the Mississippi State University Entomological Museum, obtained from previous surveys, were included as vouchers for species occurring in the state. The collection records and literature show 60 species as occurring or having occurred in Mississippi. Voucher specimens representing 57 of the 60 species discussed are deposited in the Mississippi Entomological Museum or in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Washington, D.C.

  20. Contribution to the Biodiversity Assessment of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-de-Freitas, Vinícios; França, Rodrigo Massabki; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola

    2016-12-23

    The mosquito fauna of a coastal area of Santa Catarina state, Brazil (Baixada do Maciambu), was assessed, and possible mosquito larval habitats were mapped. Five new species records for the state are presented, two of which also are new genera records. From the 24 recognized species present in the area, 28% were from the subfamily Anophelinae and 72% from the Culicinae. The community structure throughout a year, the relevance of the new findings, and the medical importance of some species are discussed.

  1. Mosquito repellency of the seeds of celery (Apium graveolens L.).

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Rattanachanpichai, E; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Riyong, D; Pitasawat, B

    2004-06-01

    When the mosquito repellencies of four fractions of Apium graveolens seeds (one hexane, two dichloromethane and one methanolic) were investigated in the laboratory, all four were found to offer human volunteers some protection against female, adult Aedes aegypti. The hexane fraction, however, was found to exhibit the highest repellency in the laboratory, with median effective doses (ED50) and ED95 of 0.41 and 2.93 mg/cm2 skin, respectively. Only this fraction, which was also found to provide protection against mosquito bites for 3.5 h when applied, in the laboratory, at a concentration of 250 mg/ml, was then investigated for its repellency in the field and its stability. In storage, it was found to retain its repellency for at least 2 months, although significant reductions in its repellency were observed (in terms of shortened complete-protection times) after 3 months, whatever the temperature of storage (-20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, or room temperature). When applied to the skin of volunteers under field conditions, the hexane fraction showed strong repellent activity against a wide range of mosquito species belonging to various genera (Ae. gardnerii, Ae. lineatopennis, Armigeres subalbatus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui group, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Mansonia uniformis). It appeared not to cause dermal irritation or any other adverse effect, either during 6 months of use or in the following 3 months of follow-up. Mosquito repellents based on extracts of Ap. graveolens seeds could be developed commercially, as an effective personal-protection measure against mosquito bites and the diseases caused by mosquito-borne pathogens.

  2. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions.

    PubMed

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Homer, Martin; Robert, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the 'harmonic convergence' phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male-female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male-male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry.

  3. Quantitative analysis of harmonic convergence in mosquito auditory interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aldersley, Andrew; Champneys, Alan; Robert, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the hearing and behaviour of mosquitoes in the context of inter-individual acoustic interactions. The acoustic interactions of tethered live pairs of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, from same and opposite sex mosquitoes of the species, are recorded on independent and unique audio channels, together with the response of tethered individual mosquitoes to playbacks of pre-recorded flight tones of lone or paired individuals. A time-dependent representation of each mosquito's non-stationary wing beat frequency signature is constructed, based on Hilbert spectral analysis. A range of algorithmic tools is developed to automatically analyse these data, and used to perform a robust quantitative identification of the ‘harmonic convergence’ phenomenon. The results suggest that harmonic convergence is an active phenomenon, which does not occur by chance. It occurs for live pairs, as well as for lone individuals responding to playback recordings, whether from the same or opposite sex. Male–female behaviour is dominated by frequency convergence at a wider range of harmonic combinations than previously reported, and requires participation from both partners in the duet. New evidence is found to show that male–male interactions are more varied than strict frequency avoidance. Rather, they can be divided into two groups: convergent pairs, typified by tightly bound wing beat frequencies, and divergent pairs, that remain widely spaced in the frequency domain. Overall, the results reveal that mosquito acoustic interaction is a delicate and intricate time-dependent active process that involves both individuals, takes place at many different frequencies, and which merits further enquiry. PMID:27053654

  4. Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

    2013-02-01

    Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species.

  5. Mosquito Host Selection Varies Seasonally with Host Availability and Mosquito Density

    PubMed Central

    Thiemann, Tara C.; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Host selection by vector mosquitoes is a critical component of virus proliferation, particularly for viruses such as West Nile (WNV) that are transmitted enzootically to a variety of avian hosts, and tangentially to dead-end hosts such as humans. Culex tarsalis is a principal vector of WNV in rural areas of western North America. Based on previous work, Cx. tarsalis utilizes a variety of avian and mammalian hosts and tends to feed more frequently on mammals in the late summer than during the rest of the year. To further explore this and other temporal changes in host selection, bloodfed females were collected at a rural farmstead and heron nesting site in Northern California from May 2008 through May 2009, and bloodmeal hosts identified using either a microsphere-based array or by sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Host composition during summer was dominated by four species of nesting Ardeidae. In addition, the site was populated with various passerine species as well as domestic farm animals and humans. When present, Cx. tarsalis fed predominantly (>80%) upon the ardeids, with Black-crowned Night-Herons, a highly competent WNV host, the most prevalent summer host. As the ardeids fledged and left the area and mosquito abundance increased in late summer, Cx. tarsalis feeding shifted to include more mammals, primarily cattle, and a high diversity of avian species. In the winter, Yellow-billed Magpies and House Sparrows were the predominant hosts, and Yellow-billed Magpies and American Robins were fed upon more frequently than expected given their relative abundance. These data demonstrated that host selection was likely based both on host availability and differences in utilization, that the shift of bloodfeeding to include more mammalian hosts was likely the result of both host availability and increased mosquito abundance, and that WNV-competent hosts were fed upon by Cx. tarsalis throughout the year. PMID:22206038

  6. Mosquito studies on the Isla de la Juventud, Cuba, at the beginning of rain period.

    PubMed

    Ryba, J; Fuentes, O; Danielová, V; Fernández, A

    1984-01-01

    A total of 8418 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected in 11 localities of the Isla de la Juventud. The most abundant species was Aedes taeniorhynchus (92% of specimens collected). The species Wyeomyia vanduzeei and Mansonia nigricans were encountered on the island for the first time.

  7. Higher Mosquito Production in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: Understanding Ecological Drivers and Mosquito-Borne Disease Risk in Temperate Cities

    PubMed Central

    LaDeau, Shannon L.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods. PMID:23583963

  8. Higher mosquito production in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore and Washington, DC: understanding ecological drivers and mosquito-borne disease risk in temperate cities.

    PubMed

    LaDeau, Shannon L; Leisnham, Paul T; Biehler, Dawn; Bodner, Danielle

    2013-04-12

    Mosquito-vectored pathogens are responsible for devastating human diseases and are (re)emerging in many urban environments. Effective mosquito control in urban landscapes relies on improved understanding of the complex interactions between the ecological and social factors that define where mosquito populations can grow. We compared the density of mosquito habitat and pupae production across economically varying neighborhoods in two temperate U.S. cities (Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC). Seven species of mosquito larvae were recorded. The invasive Aedes albopictus was the only species found in all neighborhoods. Culex pipiens, a primary vector of West Nile virus (WNV), was most abundant in Baltimore, which also had more tire habitats. Both Culex and Aedes pupae were more likely to be sampled in neighborhoods categorized as being below median income level in each city and Aedes pupae density was also greater in container habitats found in these lower income neighborhoods. We infer that lower income residents may experience greater exposure to potential disease vectors and Baltimore residents specifically, were at greater risk of exposure to the predominant WNV vector. However, we also found that resident-reported mosquito nuisance was not correlated with our measured risk index, indicating a potentially important mismatch between motivation needed to engage participation in control efforts and the relative importance of control among neighborhoods.

  9. Update on the American Mosquito Control Association

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Mosquito Control Association in a non-profit scientific organization dedicated to promoting the highest standard in professional mosquito control. It is comprised of more than 1300 members representing students, scientists, regulators, industry, mosquito control employees and many other...

  10. Alphavirus transducing system: tools for visualizing infection in mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron; Mossel, Eric; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Foy, Brian; Olson, Ken

    2010-11-24

    Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are important tools for expressing genes of interest (GOI) during infection. ATSs are derived from cDNA clones of mosquito-borne RNA viruses (genus Alphavirus; family Togaviridae). The Alphavirus genus contains about 30 different mosquito-borne virus species. Alphaviruses are enveloped viruses and contain single-stranded RNA genomes (~11.7 Kb). Alphaviruses transcribe a subgenomic mRNA that encodes the structural proteins of the virus required for encapsidation of the genome and maturation of the virus. Alphaviruses are usually highly lytic in vertebrate cells, but persistently infect susceptible mosquito cells with minimal cytopathology. These attributes make them excellent tools for gene expression in mosquito vectors. The most common ATSs in use are derived from Sindbis virus (SINV). The broad species tropism of SINV allows for infection of insect, avian, and mammalian cells8. However, ATSs have been derived from other alphaviruses as well. Foreign gene expression is made possible by the insertion of an additional viral subgenomic RNA initiation site or promoter. ATSs in which an exogenous gene sequence is positioned 5' to the viral structural genes is used for stable protein expression in insects. ATSs, in which a gene sequence is positioned 3' to the structural genes, is used to trigger RNAi and silence expression of that gene in the insect. ATSs have proven to be valuable tools for understanding vector-pathogen interactions, molecular details of viral replication and maintenance infectious cycles. In particular, the expression of fluorescent and bioluminescent reporters has been instrumental tracking the viral infection in the vector and virus transmission. Additionally, the vector immune response has been described using two strains of SINV engineered to express GFP(2,9). Here, we present a method for the production of SINV containing a fluorescent reporter (GFP) from the cDNA infectious clone. Infectious, full

  11. Artificial natural selection: can supplemental feeding domesticate mosquitoes and control mosquito-borne diseases?

    PubMed

    Egeth, Marc; Kurzban, Robert

    2012-08-29

    A new method is proposed for controlling mosquito-borne diseases. In particular, instead of trying to kill mosquitoes, we suggest provisioning them with food from artificial feeders. Because mosquito populations are frequently limited by ecological factors other than blood meals, such as the availability of egg-laying sites, feeding mosquitoes would not necessarily increase the total number of mosquitoes, but could reduce the number of human-drawn mosquito meals. Like mosquito traps, feeders could divert biting mosquitoes away from people by means of lures, but, after diversion, prevent subsequent human bites by satiating the mosquitoes instead of killing them. Mosquito feeders might reduce the problem of the evolution of resistance to control: in an ecology with mosquito feeders, which provide safe and abundant calories for adult female mosquitoes, there could be selection for preferring (rather than avoiding) feeders, which could eventually lead to a population of feeder-preferring mosquitoes. Artificial feeders also offer the chance to introduce novel elements into the mosquito diet, such as anti- malarial or other anti-parasitic agents. Feeders might directly reduce human bites and harnesses the power of natural selection by selectively favoring feeder-preferring (rather than trap-resistant) mosquitoes.

  12. Effects of Organic Amendments on Microbiota Associated with the Culex nigripalpus Mosquito Vector of the Saint Louis Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael W.; Smartt, Chelsea T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pollution from nutrients in aquatic habitats has been linked to increases in disease vectors, including mosquitoes and other pestiferous insects. One possibility is that changes in mosquito microbiomes are impacted by nutrient enrichments and that these changes affect various traits, including larval development, susceptibility to larval control agents, and susceptibility of the adult mosquitoes to pathogens. We tested this hypothesis using field mesocosms supplemented with low- and high-organic-nutrient regimens and then sampled microbial communities associated with the naturally colonizing Culex nigripalpus mosquito vector. By high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences, we found no significant differences in overall microbial communities associated with sampled mosquitoes, despite detecting discernible differences in environmental variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient amendments. Nevertheless, indicator species analysis revealed that members of the Clostridiales were significantly associated with mosquitoes that originated from high-nutrient enrichments. In contrast, members of the Burkholderiales were associated with mosquitoes from the low-nutrient enrichment. High bacterial variability associated with the life stages of the C. nigripalpus was largely unaffected by levels of nutrient enrichments that impacted larval microbial resources, including bacteria, ciliates, and flagellates in the larval environments. IMPORTANCE Mosquito microbiota provide important physiological and ecological attributes to mosquitoes, including an impact on their susceptibility to pathogens, fitness, and sensitivity to mosquito control agents. Culex nigripalpus mosquito populations transmit various pathogens, including the Saint Louis and West Nile viruses, and proliferate in nutrient-rich environments, such as in wastewater treatment wetlands. Our study examined whether increases in nutrients within larval mosquito developmental habitats impact

  13. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-01-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild. PMID:26887786

  14. Laser induced mortality of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Leahy, David J.; Norton, Bryan J.; Johanson, Threeric; Mullen, Emma R.; Marvit, Maclen; Makagon, Arty

    2016-02-01

    Small, flying insects continue to pose great risks to both human health and agricultural production throughout the world, so there remains a compelling need to develop new vector and pest control approaches. Here, we examined the use of short (<25 ms) laser pulses to kill or disable anesthetized female Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, which were chosen as a representative species. The mortality of mosquitoes exposed to laser pulses of various wavelength, power, pulse duration, and spot size combinations was assessed 24 hours after exposure. For otherwise comparable conditions, green and far-infrared wavelengths were found to be more effective than near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. Pulses with larger laser spot sizes required lower lethal energy densities, or fluence, but more pulse energy than for smaller spot sizes with greater fluence. Pulse duration had to be reduced by several orders of magnitude to significantly lower the lethal pulse energy or fluence required. These results identified the most promising candidates for the lethal laser component in a system being designed to identify, track, and shoot down flying insects in the wild.

  15. Active auditory mechanics in mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Göpfert, M. C.; Robert, D.

    2001-01-01

    In humans and other vertebrates, hearing is improved by active contractile properties of hair cells. Comparable active auditory mechanics is now demonstrated in insects. In mosquitoes, Johnston's organ transduces sound-induced vibrations of the antennal flagellum. A non-muscular 'motor' activity enhances the sensitivity and tuning of the flagellar mechanical response in physiologically intact animals. This motor is capable of driving the flagellum autonomously, amplifying sound-induced vibrations at specific frequencies and intensities. Motor-related electrical activity of Johnston's organ strongly suggests that mosquito hearing is improved by mechanoreceptor motility. PMID:11270428

  16. Genes and odors underlying the recent evolution of mosquito preference for humans

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Carolyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito species that specialize in biting humans are few but dangerous. They include the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii, as well as the cosmopolitan dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. These mosquitoes have evolved a remarkable innate preference for human odor that helps them find and bite us. Here I review what is known about this important evolutionary adaptation from its historical documentation to its chemical and molecular basis. PMID:26766234

  17. Fauna and Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes in Neka County, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Ataei, Abolfazl; Anjamrooz, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ecological studies on mosquitoes are very important in vector control programs. There are a few studies about the ecology of mosquitoes in northern Iran. This study was carried out to detect fauna and larval habitat characteristics of mosquitoes. Methods: This study aimed to determine fauna and the ecology of mosquitoes in Neka County, Mazandaran Province, northern Iran from April to December, 2009. The larval collection was conducted using standard dipper, and the characteristics of larval habitat were investigated based on degree of transparency of water, type of water (stagnant or running), plant vegetation, sunny or shady, temperature and altitude of the natural or artificial breeding places. Results: The mosquito larvae were collected from 72 habitats and identified using systematic keys. Nine species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles claviger (0.31%), An. maculipennis (0.54%), An. plumbeus (10.28%), An. superpictus (0.01%), Culiseta annulata (1.07%), Cs. longiareolata (8.91%), Culex mimeticus (0.03%), Cx. pipiens (63.99%), and Ochlerotatus geniculatus (14.85%). The range of temperature in the larval habitats was 19.6–22.5 °C. Significant difference was observed in the rate of temperature among the species in the larval habitats (P< 0.05). A checklist of mosquitoes including seven genera and 32 species has been provided for Mazandaran Province. Conclusion: The most dominant species were Cx. pipiens. They were collected from the larval habitats like Border Rivers, ponds, rain water pools, discarded tires and tree holes. Culiseta annulata was included to the checklist of mosquitoes in Mazandaran Province. PMID:26623437

  18. Laboratory evaluation of predation on mosquito larvae by Australian mangrove fish.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Lachlan

    2014-06-01

    A series of laboratory experiments compared predation rates of three native eastern Australian mangrove fish species (Psuedomugil signifer, Hyseleotris galii, Pseudogobius sp.) and the exotic Gambusia holbrooki on 2nd and 4th instar Aedes vigilax larvae, in order to determine their potential as mosquito control agents in mangrove forests. All four species preyed on significant numbers of both 2nd and 4th instar larvae. All showed a similar pattern of larval consumption, gorging on larvae in the first hour of each experiment, before reducing to a relatively constant background feeding rate. Gambusia holbrooki showed the highest larval consumption rates, but is unsuitable as a mosquito control agent due to it being an exotic pest species in Australia. Of the three native species, P. signifer showed the greatest potential as a mosquito control agent, having consumption rates comparable to G. holbrooki, and was the only species that did not show a significant reduction in larval consumption in the night experiments.

  19. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: Part 1--Bhitarkanika, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K

    2005-06-01

    In this first paper of a series on mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India, details of mosquito species recorded in Bhitarkanika, Orissa, are presented. Forty-three species of mosquitoes belonging to 21 subgenera and 13 genera, Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Ficalbia, Heizmannia, Lutzia, Mansonia, Ochlerotatus, Toxorhynchites, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina, were recorded. Predominant larval habitat was the tree holes, from which 15 species were taken. Adults were mostly found resting in crab holes, tree holes, and hoof prints in the forest area and on walls in the guesthouse area. About 14 species were caught in light traps, while 19 species landed on humans for feeding. Ae. franciscoi and Oc. feegradei are 2 new country records for India. Ae. cancricomes and Cx. perplexus, known only from Andaman Islands of India, are new records for mainland India.

  20. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants.

  1. Composition and Genetic Diversity of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on Islands and Mainland Shores of Kenya’s Lakes Victoria and Baringo

    PubMed Central

    Ajamma, Yvonne Ukamaka; Villinger, Jandouwe; Omondi, David; Salifu, Daisy; Onchuru, Thomas Ogao; Njoroge, Laban; Muigai, Anne W. T.; Masiga, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    The Lake Baringo and Lake Victoria regions of Kenya are associated with high seroprevalence of mosquito-transmitted arboviruses. However, molecular identification of potential mosquito vector species, including morphologically identified ones, remains scarce. To estimate the diversity, abundance, and distribution of mosquito vectors on the mainland shores and adjacent inhabited islands in these regions, we collected and morphologically identified adult and immature mosquitoes and obtained the corresponding sequence variation at cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) gene regions. A total of 63 species (including five subspecies) were collected from both study areas, 47 of which have previously been implicated as disease vectors. Fourteen species were found only on island sites, which are rarely included in mosquito diversity surveys. We collected more mosquitoes, yet with lower species composition, at Lake Baringo (40,229 mosquitoes, 32 species) than at Lake Victoria (22,393 mosquitoes, 54 species). Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene sequences revealed Culex perexiguus and Cx. tenagius that could not be distinguished morphologically. Most Culex species clustered into a heterogeneous clade with closely related sequences, while Culex pipiens clustered into two distinct COI and ITS2 clades. These data suggest limitations in current morphological identification keys. This is the first DNA barcode report of Kenyan mosquitoes. To improve mosquito species identification, morphological identifications should be supported by their molecular data, while diversity surveys should target both adults and immatures. The diversity of native mosquito disease vectors identified in this study impacts disease transmission risks to humans and livestock. PMID:27402888

  2. Late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Burkett, Douglas A.; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, Hee-Il; Lee, Jong-Soo; Shin, E-Hyun; Wirtz, Robert A.; Cho, Hae-Wol; Claborn, David M.; Coleman, Russel E.; Kim, Wan Y; Klein, Terry A.

    2002-01-01

    Field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 September 2000 in a malarious area near Paekyeon-ri (Tongil-Chon ) and Camp Greaves in Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap during hours when temperatures exceeded 15℃. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test was compared using a block design. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected, such that, the Mosquito MagnetTM with octenol > Shannon trap > ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Miniature Black Light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) ≥ New Jersey Trap > ABC light trap with light only. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans (Meigen), Anopheles lesteri Baisas and Hu, An. sinensis Weidemann, An. sineroides Yamada, An. yatsushiroensis Miyazaki, Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett L., Cx. orientalis Edwards and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. Host-seeking activity for most common species showed a similar bimodal pattern. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance current vector and disease surveillance efforts especially for the primary vector of Japanese encephalitis, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:11949213

  3. Mosquitoes associated with ditch-plugged and control tidal salt marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Leisnham, Paul T; Sandoval-Mohapatra, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two ('experimental') marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4-5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest

  4. Host range and specificity of an Argentinean isolate of the aquatic fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii (Oomycetes: Saprolegniales), a pathogen of mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    López Lastra, C C; Scorsetti, A C; Marti, G A; García, J J

    2004-10-01

    An isolate from Argentina of the fungal mosquito pathogen Leptolegnia chapmanii (ARSEF 5499), was tested against 12 species of mosquito larvae and on species of non-target aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. The mosquito species tested were Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sp., Culex apicinus, Cx. castroi, Cx. dolosus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. renatoi, Isostomyia paranensis, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Oc. crinifer, Psorophora cyanescens, and P. ferox. Mosquito larvae of 10 species were susceptible, with mortality rates from 10-100%. Two mosquito species Cx. renatoi and I. paranensis were not infected by Leptolegnia. None of the non-target fauna treated was infected by L. chapmanii with exception of members of the Family Chironomidae which were susceptible at low infection rates.

  5. Temporal and spatial habitat preferences and biotic interactions between mosquito larvae and antagonistic crustaceans in the field.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Liess, Matthias; Duquesne, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    Investigations on natural antagonists of mosquito larvae found that micro-crustaceans (e.g., Cladocera) control mosquito populations under experimental conditions. However, their relevance for mosquito control under field situations remains widely unclear because important information about habitat preferences and time of occurrence of crustaceans and mosquito larvae are still missing. In order to fill this knowledge gap, a field study was undertaken in different wetland areas of Saxony, Germany, in different habitats (i.e., grassland, forest, and reed-covered wetlands). We found negative interactions between larvae of Ae. vexans and predatory Cyclopoida (Crustacean: Copepoda), which both were dominant during the first two weeks of hydroperiod, at ponds located at grassland habitats. Larvae of Cx. pipiens were spatially associated with competing Cladocera, but they colonized ponds more rapidly. Populations of Cladocera established from the third week of hydroperiod and prevented Cx. pipiens colonization thereafter. Ostracoda were highly abundant during the whole hydroperiod, but their presence was restricted to habitats of reed-covered wetland at one geographical area. Mosquito larvae hardly occurred at those ponds. In general, we found that ponds at the reed-covered wetlands provided better conditions for the initial development of crustaceans and hence, mosquito larval colonization was strongly inhibited. Grassland habitat, in contrast, favored early development of mosquito larvae. This study showed that micro-crustaceans are relevant for mosquito management but their impact on mosquito larvae varies between species and depends on environmental conditions.

  6. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management.

  7. Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Pecor, James E; Porter, Charles H; Mitchell, Luke Brett; Garzón-Moreno, Andrés; Foley, Desmond H; Pecor, David Brooks; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years. PMID:24473809

  8. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (<0.1%). The relative abundance of these species increased from May until the beginning of July and then decreased, disappearing at the beginning of October. The diel host-seeking patterns and oviposition site-seeking patterns were species specific and were differentially affected by the ecological variables recorded at the day and hour of mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens.

  9. Effect of Leaf Type and Pesticide Exposure on Abundance of Bacterial Taxa in Mosquito Larval Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Orindi, Benedict O.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Lentic freshwater systems including those inhabited by aquatic stages of mosquitoes derive most of their carbon inputs from terrestrial organic matter mainly leaf litter. The leaf litter is colonized by microbial communities that provide the resource base for mosquito larvae. While the microbial biomass associated with different leaf species in container aquatic habitats is well documented, the taxonomic composition of these microbes and their response to common environmental stressors is poorly understood. We used indoor aquatic microcosms to determine the abundances of major taxonomic groups of bacteria in leaf litters from seven plant species and their responses to low concentrations of four pesticides with different modes of action on the target organisms; permethrin, malathion, atrazine and glyphosate. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species support different quantities of major taxonomic groups of bacteria and that exposure to pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations alters bacterial abundance and community structure in mosquito larval habitats. We found support for both hypotheses suggesting that leaf litter identity and chemical contamination may alter the quality and quantity of mosquito food base (microbial communities) in larval habitats. The effect of pesticides on microbial communities varied significantly among leaf types, suggesting that the impact of pesticides on natural microbial communities may be highly complex and difficult to predict. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the potential for detritus composition within mosquito larval habitats and exposure to pesticides to influence the quality of mosquito larval habitats. PMID:23940789

  10. Differential attraction of malaria mosquitoes to volatile blends produced by human skin bacteria.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Niels O; Andriessen, Rob; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bukovinszkiné Kiss, Gabriella; Schulz, Stefan; Takken, Willem; van Loon, Joop J A; Schraa, Gosse; Smallegange, Renate C

    2010-12-30

    The malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is mainly guided by human odour components to find its blood host. Skin bacteria play an important role in the production of human body odour and when grown in vitro, skin bacteria produce volatiles that are attractive to A. gambiae. The role of single skin bacterial species in the production of volatiles that mediate the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes has remained largely unknown and is the subject of the present study. Headspace samples were taken to identify volatiles that mediate this behaviour. These volatiles could be used as mosquito attractants or repellents. Five commonly occurring species of skin bacteria were tested in an olfactometer for the production of volatiles that attract A. gambiae. Odour blends produced by some bacterial species were more attractive than blends produced by other species. In contrast to odours from the other bacterial species tested, odours produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not attractive to A. gambiae. Headspace analysis of bacterial volatiles in combination with behavioural assays led to the identification of six compounds that elicited a behavioural effect in A. gambiae. Our results provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for a role of selected bacterial species, common on the human skin, in determining the attractiveness of humans to malaria mosquitoes. This information will be used in the further development of a blend of semiochemicals for the manipulation of mosquito behaviour.

  11. Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Ritchie, Scott A.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Zborowski, Paul; Cortis, Giles; Dandridge, Scott; Hall, Roy A.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2010-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem, with dengue viruses causing millions of infections annually, while emerging arboviruses, such as West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses have dramatically expanded their geographical ranges. Surveillance of arboviruses provides vital data regarding their prevalence and distribution that may be utilized for biosecurity measures and the implementation of disease control strategies. However, current surveillance methods that involve detection of virus in mosquito populations or sero-conversion in vertebrate hosts are laborious, expensive, and logistically problematic. We report a unique arbovirus surveillance system to detect arboviruses that exploits the process whereby mosquitoes expectorate virus in their saliva during sugar feeding. In this system, infected mosquitoes captured by CO2-baited updraft box traps are allowed to feed on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards within the trap. The cards are then analyzed for expectorated virus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In field trials, this system detected the presence of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses in multiple traps deployed at two locations in Australia. Viral RNA was preserved for at least seven days on the cards, allowing for long-term placement of traps and continuous collection of data documenting virus presence in mosquito populations. Furthermore no mosquito handling or processing was required and cards were conveniently shipped to the laboratory overnight. The simplicity and efficacy of this approach has the potential to transform current approaches to vector-borne disease surveillance by streamlining the monitoring of pathogens in vector populations. PMID:20534559

  12. Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald A

    2008-07-01

    Discarded vehicle tires are a common habitat for a variety of container mosquito species. I reviewed the literature from the last 50 yr on mosquitoes collected within tires in the eastern United States with four objectives: to examine the historical and contemporary issues of tires as a habitat for mosquitoes, to identify tire-inhabiting species, to summarize findings from studies that focused on biotic and abiotic characteristics of tires, and to offer future directions to aid our understanding of tire-inhabiting mosquitoes. Thirty-two species have been documented, including seven invasives, with the most frequently encountered being Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus, Ae. atropalpus, Culex restuans, Cx. pipiens, Cx. territans, Anopheles punctipennis, and Toxorhynchites rutilus. The proclivity of these species to occupy small containers is one possible explanation for their occurrence in tires. The native species Ae. triseriatus was abundant and the most often collected, particularly in central and northern regions, whereas the invasive Ae. albopictus was most abundant in the south. One half of the studies investigating aspects of the tire environment compared mosquito populations between sunlit and shaded tires, with the general finding that this factor alone led to dramatic differences in larval species composition and abundance patterns. Less frequently investigated factors, e.g., tire orientation, detritus, and proximity to humans, also were found to affect patterns of occupancy by mosquitoes. For the future, I suggest more surveys are needed in understudied areas, as well as quantitative experiments to determine habitat associations and community dynamics in tires, which are especially necessary to assist in understanding invasions. Discarded tires are important for studies of vector dynamics, because of their abundance near human populations and because they expand the habitat range of mosquitoes that vector pathogens.

  13. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Godoy, Raquel S M; Fernandes, Kenner M; Martins, Gustavo F

    2015-10-30

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes.

  14. Midgut Microbiota of the Malaria Mosquito Vector Anopheles gambiae and Interactions with Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boissière, Anne; Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Bachar, Dipankar; Abate, Luc; Marie, Alexandra; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Shahbazkia, Hamid R.; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H.; Levashina, Elena A.; Christen, Richard; Morlais, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes to Plasmodium infections relies on complex interactions between the insect vector and the malaria parasite. A number of studies have shown that the mosquito innate immune responses play an important role in controlling the malaria infection and that the strength of parasite clearance is under genetic control, but little is known about the influence of environmental factors on the transmission success. We present here evidence that the composition of the vector gut microbiota is one of the major components that determine the outcome of mosquito infections. A. gambiae mosquitoes collected in natural breeding sites from Cameroon were experimentally challenged with a wild P. falciparum isolate, and their gut bacterial content was submitted for pyrosequencing analysis. The meta-taxogenomic approach revealed a broader richness of the midgut bacterial flora than previously described. Unexpectedly, the majority of bacterial species were found in only a small proportion of mosquitoes, and only 20 genera were shared by 80% of individuals. We show that observed differences in gut bacterial flora of adult mosquitoes is a result of breeding in distinct sites, suggesting that the native aquatic source where larvae were grown determines the composition of the midgut microbiota. Importantly, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the mosquito midgut correlates significantly with the Plasmodium infection status. This striking relationship highlights the role of natural gut environment in parasite transmission. Deciphering microbe-pathogen interactions offers new perspectives to control disease transmission. PMID:22693451

  15. Midgut of the non-hematophagous mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Diptera, Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Raquel S. M.; Fernandes, Kenner M.; Martins, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    In most mosquito species, the females require a blood-feeding for complete egg development. However, in Toxorhynchites mosquitoes, the eggs develop without blood-feeding, and both females and males exclusively feed on sugary diets. The midgut is a well-understood organ in blood-feeding mosquitoes, but little is known about it in non-blood-feeding ones. In the present study, the detailed morphology of the midgut of Toxorhynchites theobaldi were investigated using histochemical and ultrastructural methods. The midgut of female and male T. theobaldi adults consists of a long, slender anterior midgut (AMG), and a short, dilated posterior midgut (PMG). The AMG is subdivided into AMG1 (short, with folds) and AMG2 (long, without folds). Nerve branches and enteroendocrine cells are present in AMG and PMG, respectively. Compared with the PMG of blood-feeding female mosquitoes, the PMG of T. theobaldi is smaller; however, in both mosquitoes, PMG seems be the main region of food digestion and absorption, and protein secretion. The epithelial folds present in the AMG of T. theobaldi have not been reported in other mosquitoes; however, the midgut muscle organization and endocrine control of the digestion process are conserved in both T. theobaldi and blood-feeding mosquitoes. PMID:26514271

  16. Analysis of the metabolome of Anopheles gambiae mosquito after exposure to Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Hoxmeier, J. Charles; Thompson, Brice D.; Broeckling, Corey D.; Small, Pamela; Foy, Brian D.; Prenni, Jessica; Dobos, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans causes Buruli Ulcer, a neglected tropical disease. Mosquito vectors are suspected to participate in the transmission and environmental maintenance of the bacterium. However, mechanisms and consequences of mosquito contamination by M. ulcerans are not well understood. We evaluated the metabolome of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito to profile the metabolic changes associated with bacterial colonization. Contamination of mosquitoes with live M. ulcerans bacilli results in disruptions to lipid metabolic pathways of the mosquito, specifically the utilization of glycerolipid molecules, an affect that was not observed in mosquitoes exposed to dead M. ulcerans. These results are consistent with aberrations of lipid metabolism described in other mycobacterial infections, implying global host-pathogen interactions shared across diverse saprophytic and pathogenic mycobacterial species. This study implicates features of the bacterium, such as the putative M. ulcerans encoded phospholipase enzyme, which promote virulence, survival, and active adaptation in concert with mosquito development, and provides significant groundwork for enhanced studies of the vector-pathogen interactions using metabolomics profiling. Lastly, metabolic and survival data suggest an interaction which is unlikely to contribute to transmission of M. ulcerans by A. gambiae and more likely to contribute to persistence of M. ulcerans in waters cohabitated by both organisms. PMID:25784490

  17. Artificial Selection for Different Host Preferences in Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Li, Chun-Xiao; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-09-01

    Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences in host preferences between mosquitoes selected to prefer pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations.

  18. Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Hassan, AbdulWasiu Oladele; Oladejo, Sunday Olukayode; Olaoye, Ismail; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Adewole, Taiwo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. Methods All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. Results A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other habitats encountered, while there were no significant differences in the contribution of gutters/run-offs, septic tanks/ drums, ground pools/open drains and discarded containers to the breeding of mosquitoes (P>0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. Conclusion The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis. PMID:23998005

  19. Gene vector and transposable element behavior in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    O'Brochta, David A; Sethuraman, Nagaraja; Wilson, Raymond; Hice, Robert H; Pinkerton, Alexandra C; Levesque, Cynthia S; Bideshi, Dennis K; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Coates, Craig J; James, Anthony A; Lehane, Michael J; Atkinson, Peter W

    2003-11-01

    The development of efficient germ-line transformation technologies for mosquitoes has increased the ability of entomologists to find, isolate and analyze genes. The utility of the currently available systems will be determined by a number of factors including the behavior of the gene vectors during the initial integration event and their behavior after chromosomal integration. Post-integration behavior will determine whether the transposable elements being employed currently as primary gene vectors will be useful as gene-tagging and enhancer-trapping agents. The post-integration behavior of existing insect vectors has not been extensively examined. Mos1 is useful as a primary germ-line transformation vector in insects but is inefficiently remobilized in Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti. Hermes transforms D. melanogaster efficiently and can be remobilized in this species. This element is also useful for creating transgenic A. aegypti, but its mode of integration in mosquitoes results in the insertion of flanking plasmid DNA. Hermes can be remobilized in the soma of A. aegypti and transposes using a common cut-and-paste mechanism; however, the element does not remobilize in the germ line. piggyBac can be used to create transgenic mosquitoes and occasionally integrates using a mechanism other than a simple cut-and-paste mechanism. Preliminary data suggest that remobilization is infrequent. Minos also functions in mosquitoes and, like the other gene vectors, appears to remobilize inefficiently following integration. These results have implications for future gene vector development efforts and applications.

  20. RNA interference, arthropod-borne viruses, and mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Travanty, Emily A; Keene, Kimberly M; Franz, Alexander W E; Beaty, Barry J; Blair, Carol D; Olson, Ken E

    2004-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) probably functions as an antiviral mechanism in most eukaryotic organisms. Variations in the activity of this antiviral pathway in mosquitoes could explain, in part, why some mosquitoes are competent vectors of medically important, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and others are not. There are three lines of evidence that show the RNAi pathway exists in Aedes species that transmit arboviruses. The first is that recombinant Sindbis viruses expressing a RNA fragment from a genetically unrelated dengue-2 virus (DENV-2) interfere with DENV-2 replication in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by a mechanism similar to virus-induced gene silencing described in plants. The second is that transfection of C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells with either double-stranded RNA or synthetic small interfering RNAs derived from an arbovirus genome interferes with replication of the homologous virus. The third is that a hairpin DENV-2-specific RNA transcribed from a plasmid can generate virus-resistant C6/36 cells. We hypothesize that genetically modified mosquitoes can be generated that transcribe a flavivirus-specific dsRNA, triggering the RNAi response soon after ingestion of a blood meal. This could induce the RNAi pathway in the midgut prior to establishment of virus infection and profoundly change vector competence. Towards this goal, we are developing transgenic A. aegypti lines that are refractory to DENV by exploiting the RNAi pathway.

  1. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 μL, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 μL; 42.5%, 18% with 400 μL; and 19%, 23% with 1000 μL). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 μL), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti.

  2. Environmental management of mosquito-borne viruses in Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gettman, Alan; Becker, Elisabeth; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEEV) are both primarily bird viruses, which can be transmitted by several mosquito species. Differences in larval habitats, flight, and biting patterns of the primary vector species result in substantial differences in epidemiology, with WNV more common, primarily occurring in urban areas, and EEEV relatively rare, typically occurring near swamp habitats. The complex transmission ecology of these viruses complicates prediction of disease outbreaks. The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management (DEM) and Department of Health (DoH) provide prevention assistance to towns and maintain a mosquito surveillance program to identify potential disease risk. Responses to potential outbreaks follow a protocol based on surveillance results, assessment of human risk, and technical consultation.

  3. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  4. Systematics of Aedes Mosquito Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-25

    viruses , six of which cause human illness (Chikungunya, dengue 1 and 2, Dugbe, Rift Valley Fever, yellow fever and Zika ). Chikungunya, dengue and...superficial and inadequate to accurately identify specimens that are critically needed for mosquito surveys, virus isolation and epidemiological

  5. Towards mosquito sterile insect technique programmes: exploring genetic, molecular, mechanical and behavioural methods of sex separation in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Gilles, Jeremie R L; Schetelig, Marc F; Scolari, Francesca; Marec, František; Capurro, Margareth L; Franz, Gerald; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2014-04-01

    When considering a mosquito release programme, one of the first issues to be addressed is how to eliminate/separate the females. The greatest number of options might eventually be available for those who can use transgenic mosquitoes, but the inherent characteristics of the target species may also provide possibilities for interim measures until more efficient methods can be developed. Differences in intrinsic size, in behaviour and in development rate between females and males are often available and useful for sexing. Efficient species-specific systems for eliminating females at the embryo stage have been developed, but most have since been discarded due to lack of use. Ideal systems specifically kill female embryos using some treatment that can be manipulated during production. Such killing systems are far more efficient than using intrinsic sexual differences, but they systems require selectable genetic markers and sex-linkage created by rare random chromosomal rearrangements. While intrinsic sexual differences should not be considered as long-term candidates for the development of robust and efficient sexing approaches, in the absence of these, the accessibility and integration of less efficient systems can provide a stop-gap measure that allows rapid start up with a minimum of investment. The International Atomic Energy Agency is funding over a 5 year period (2013-2018) a new Coordinated Research Project on "Exploring Genetic, Molecular, Mechanical and Behavioural Methods of Sex Separation in Mosquitoes" to network researchers and to address the critical need of genetic sexing strains for the implementation of the sterile insect technique (using radiation-sterilised or transgenic male mosquitoes) and for insect incompatibility technique programmes against disease-transmitting mosquitoes.

  6. Changes in distribution and abundance of mosquito populations in an ecological research tract over a 35-year period.

    PubMed

    Butts, William L

    2004-09-01

    Marked changes in species and numbers of mosquitoes have occurred over a 35-year period. Changes relate to alteration of available larval development sites by beaver (Castor canadensis), variation in winter and spring precipitation, and differences in feeding behaviors.

  7. Diving beetles (Dytiscidae) as predators of mosquito larvae (Culicidae) in field experiments and in laboratory tests of prey preference.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, E; Landin, J; Jackson, M; Svensson, C

    2003-06-01

    Field experiments were performed in artificial ponds to evaluate how the density of predatory diving beetles (Dytiscidae) would affect the population levels of mosquito larvae (Culicidae). Mosquitoes colonizing the ponds were predominantly species of the genus Culex. In 2000, most of the dytiscids colonizing the ponds were small (Hydroporus spp.), and these predators had no impact on the size of larval mosquito populations, not even in ponds with added dytiscids. In 2001, larger beetles (Ilybius, Rhantus, and Agabus spp.) were more common, and there were significantly fewer mosquito larvae in ponds with the highest numbers of dytiscids. There was a negative correlation between numbers of diving beetles in the ponds and the mean body length of mosquito larvae. In neither year could dytiscid densities be maintained above a certain level owing to emigration. In laboratory tests, there were marked differences between three common dytiscid species in regard to preferences for Daphnia and Culex species as prey: Colymbetes paykulli Erichson chose mosquito larvae more often, whereas both Ilybius ater (De Geer) and I. fuliginosus (Fabricius) preferred Daphnia spp. All of the tested dytiscids consumed large numbers of prey. Since some dytiscid species can efficiently decrease populations of mosquito larvae, they are probably important in the natural control of these dipterans.

  8. The Mosquito Fauna of Rota Island, Mariana Islands (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-24

    borne diseases have been dengue fever , a rather benign type of filariasis, Japanese 13 encephalitis, and malaria. Only dengue fever has been reported...recorded outbreaks of dengue fever in Micronesia and 3 cases were reported from Kota in 1935 (Sogen 1941). An epidemic of dengue fever occurred on the...a total of 7 species of mosquitoes. Three were new collections records for Rota, and 1 of those is an important.vector of dengue fever elsewhere in

  9. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  10. Variations in the mosquito larvicidal activities of toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Zaritsky, Arieh; Wirth, Margaret C; Manasherob, Robert; Khasdan, Vadim; Cahan, Rivka; Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2008-09-01

    Comparing activities of purified toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis against larvae of seven mosquito species (vectors of tropical diseases) that belong to three genera, gleaned from the literature, disclosed highly significant variations in the levels of LC(50) as well as in the hierarchy of susceptibilities. Similar toxicity comparisons were performed between nine transgenic Gram-negative species, four of which are cyanobacterial, expressing various combinations of cry genes, cyt1Aa and p20, against larvae of four mosquito species as potential agents for biological control. Reasons for inconsistencies are listed and discussed. Standard conditions for toxin isolation and presentation to larvae are sought. A set of lyophilized powders prepared identically from six Escherichia coli clones expressing combinations of four genes displayed toxicities against larvae of three mosquito species, with levels that differed between them but with identical hierarchy.

  11. “Looking over the Backyard Fence”: Householders and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Samir; Lamichhane, Ram Sharan; Clark, Kim; Beatty, Shelley; Fatouros, Maria; Neville, Peter; Oosthuizen, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within public open spaces. In Australia’s developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which “backyard” mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems, and in assessing what residents “think and do” about mosquito control within their home environment. (2) Methods: The study was conducted in the Town of Bassendean, a metropolitan Local Government Area of Perth, Western Australia, in close proximity to two natural, productive mosquito breeding sites, namely Ashfield Flats and Bindaring Park. A total of 150 householders were randomly surveyed during the summer of 2015–2016, to gauge residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP (knowledge, attitudes, and practices) Survey) in regards to mosquitoes, their breeding and ecology, and avoidance or minimization strategies. The survey comprised nine questions covering residents’ knowledge (3 questions), attitudes (3 questions), and practices (3 questions), as well as additional questions regarding the basic demographics of the resident. Larvae were collected from backyard containers and reared to adults for species identification. A series of Encephalitis Vector Surveillance carbon dioxide (EVS CO2) traps were also deployed, to assess adult

  12. Avian Plasmodium lineages found in spot surveys of mosquitoes from 2007 to 2010 at Sakata wetland, Japan: do dominant lineages persist for multiple years?

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Tsuda, Y

    2012-11-01

    The ecology and geographical distribution of disease vectors are major determinants of spatial and temporal variations in the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens. However, there are limited studies on the ecology of vectors that contribute to the natural transmission of most vector-borne pathogens. Avian Plasmodium parasites are multihost mosquito-borne pathogens transmitted by multiple mosquito species, which might regulate the diversity and persistence of these parasites. From 2007 to 2010, we conducted entomological surveys at Sakata wetland in central Japan, to investigate temporal variation in mosquito occurrence and prevalence of avian Plasmodium lineages in the mosquito populations. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used to detect Plasmodium parasites and identify the blood sources of mosquitoes. Culex inatomii and C. pipiens pallens represented 60.0% and 34.8% of 11 mosquito species collected, respectively. Our results showed that the two dominant mosquito species most likely serve as principal vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites during June, which coincides with the breeding season of bird species nesting in the wetland reed beds. Fourteen animal species were identified as blood sources of mosquitoes, with the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) being the commonest blood source. Although there was significant temporal variation in the occurrence of mosquitoes and prevalence of Plasmodium lineages in the mosquitoes, the dominant Plasmodium lineages shared by the two dominant mosquito species were consistently found at the same time during transmission seasons. Because vector competence cannot be confirmed solely by PCR approaches, experimental demonstration is required to provide definitive evidence of transmission suggested in this study.

  13. The identification of culicine mosquitoes in the Shadegan wetland in southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    Navidpour, S; Vazirianzadeh, B; Harbach, R; Jahanifard, E; Moravvej, S A

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the culicine mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae: Culicinae) of the Shadegan wetland in southern Khouzestan Province of Iran, sampling was carried out using hand catch, total catch, and New Jersy light traps, from October 2008 to March 2009. A total of 2664 culicine mosquitoes were captured. Three genera and five species were identified, including Culex pipiens L., Cx. tritaeniorhynchus Giles, Cx. sinaiticus Kirkpatrik, Cx. modestus Ficalbi, Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas and a Culiseta species. All of these species, reported for the first time, were from the Shadegan wetland and Khouzestan Province, and some are medically important.

  14. Distribution of mosquitoes in relation to urban landscape characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, R M; Zalazar, L P

    2010-04-01

    The current global increase in prevalence of vector borne diseases, as well as an expansion of tropical infections to more temperate zones, justifies further studies on vector populations. Urban areas may favour viral transmission to humans through close contacts between the vectors and the vertebrate hosts, and also affecting mosquito populations by offering larval habitat, refuges and adequate microclimates to survive the winter. This work analyses the spatial distribution of potential vector mosquitoes in relation to landscape characteristics in an urban environment in a temperate climate region. Mosquitoes were trapped monthly from October 2005 to March 2006 in 25 sites within Córdoba city and suburbs with miniature light traps+CO2. Nine species were collected, and the most abundant were Culex quinquefasciatus (37.1%), C. apicinus (26.6%) and Aedes aegypti (13.9%). Species that may be involved in SLEv transmission were recorded throughout the sampling. C. quinquefasciatus was detected in 92% of the sites; however, only two sites showed consistently larger collections. The site of highest C. quinquefasciatus abundance was located within an area of high Saint Louis Encefalitis virus prevalence and risk of infection, further supporting this species involvement as a vector. Significant correlations were detected between land cover characteristics and abundance of C. apicinus, C. interfor and C. maxi that were consistent with previous knowledge about their larval habitat and domestic preferences, which may be useful for targeting vector control operations.

  15. Evaluation of repellent activities of Cymbopogon essential oils against mosquito vectors of Malaria, Filariasis and Dengue Fever in India.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, B K; Shahi, A K; Kaul, B L

    1998-08-01

    Essential oils of four species and two hybrid varieties of Cymbopogon grasses were evaluated for their repellent properties against the major vector mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinque-fasciatus and Aedes aegypti, both in laboratory and field. The magnitude of repellency in the Cymbopogon essential oils was found to be of moderate to high order. All grass species protected completely from mosquito bites for 4 hrs, whereas C. nardus provided protection for as much as 8-10 hrs overnight.

  16. The human immune system's response to carcinogenic and other infectious agents transmitted by mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Olle; Ward, Martin

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that mosquitoes [Diptera: Culicidae] may play more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated. Research links 33 infectious agents to cancer, 27 of which have a presence in mosquitoes, and that, in addition, mosquito saliva downregulates the immune system. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on the immune system and cancer-causing infectious agents, particularly those present in mosquitoes, with a view to establishing whether such infectious agents can, in the long run, defeat the immune system or be defeated by it. Many of the viruses, bacteria and parasites recognised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic and suspected by others as being involved in cancer have evolved numerous complex ways of avoiding, suppressing or altering the immune system's responses. These features, coupled with the multiplicity and variety of serious infectious agents carried by some species of mosquitoes and the adverse effects on the immune system of mosquito saliva, suggest that post-mosquito bite the immune system is likely to be overwhelmed. In such a situation, immunisation strategies offer little chance of cancer prevention, unless a single or limited number of critical infectious agents can be isolated from the 'mosquito' cocktail. If that proves to be impossible cancer prevention will, therefore, if the hypothesis proves to be correct, rest on the twin strategies of environmentally controlling the mosquito population and humans avoiding being bitten. The latter strategy will involve determining the factors that demark those being bitten from those that are not.

  17. Impact of environment on mosquito response to pyrethroid insecticides: facts, evidences and prospects.

    PubMed

    Nkya, Theresia Estomih; Akhouayri, Idir; Kisinza, William; David, Jean-Philippe

    2013-04-01

    By transmitting major human diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis, mosquito species represent a serious threat worldwide in terms of public health, and pose a significant economic burden for the African continent and developing tropical regions. Most vector control programmes aiming at controlling life-threatening mosquitoes rely on the use of chemical insecticides, mainly belonging to the pyrethroid class. However, resistance of mosquito populations to pyrethroids is increasing at a dramatic rate, threatening the efficacy of control programmes throughout insecticide-treated areas, where mosquito-borne diseases are still prevalent. In the absence of new insecticides and efficient alternative vector control methods, resistance management strategies are therefore critical, but these require a deep understanding of adaptive mechanisms underlying resistance. Although insecticide resistance mechanisms are intensively studied in mosquitoes, such adaptation is often considered as the unique result of the selection pressure caused by insecticides used for vector control. Indeed, additional environmental parameters, such as insecticides/pesticides usage in agriculture, the presence of anthropogenic or natural xenobiotics, and biotic interactions between vectors and other organisms, may affect both the overall mosquito responses to pyrethroids and the selection of resistance mechanisms. In this context, the present work aims at updating current knowledge on pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes and compiling available data, often from different research fields, on the impact of the environment on mosquito response to pyrethroids. Key environmental factors, such as the presence of urban or agricultural pollutants and biotic interactions between mosquitoes and their microbiome are discussed, and research perspectives to fill in knowledge gaps are suggested.

  18. Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Ruktanonchai, N W; Lounibos, L P; Smith, D L; Allan, S A

    2015-09-01

    In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful.

  19. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  20. Mosquito vector diversity across habitats in central Thailand endemic for dengue and other arthropod-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito diversity and the relative abundance of vectors as a function of habitat change is limited. We characterize mosquito communities across habitats with differing levels of anthropogenic ecological disturbance in central Thailand. During the 2008 rainy season, adult mosquito collections from 24 sites, representing 6 habitat types ranging from forest to urban, yielded 62,126 intact female mosquitoes (83,325 total mosquitoes) that were assigned to 109 taxa. Female mosquito abundance was highest in rice fields and lowest in forests. Diversity indices and rarefied species richness estimates indicate the mosquito fauna was more diverse in rural and less diverse in rice field habitats, while extrapolated estimates of true richness (Chao1 and ACE) indicated higher diversity in the forest and fragmented forest habitats and lower diversity in the urban. Culex sp. (Vishnui subgroup) was the most common taxon found overall and the most frequent in fragmented forest, rice field, rural, and suburban habitats. The distributions of species of medical importance differed significantly across habitat types and were always lowest in the intact, forest habitat. The relative abundance of key vector species, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, was negatively correlated with diversity, suggesting that direct species interactions and/or habitat-mediated factors differentially affecting invasive disease vectors may be important mechanisms linking biodiversity loss to human health. Our results are an

  1. Modeling habitat and environmental factors affecting mosquito abundance in Chesapeake, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellows, Alan Scott

    The models I present in this dissertation were designed to enable mosquito control agencies in the mid-Atlantic region that oversee large jurisdictions to rapidly track the spatial and temporal distributions of mosquito species, especially those species known to be vectors of eastern equine encephalitis and West Nile virus. I was able to keep these models streamlined, user-friendly, and not cost-prohibitive using empirically based digital data to analyze mosquito-abundance patterns in real landscapes. This research is presented in three major chapters: (II) a series of semi-static habitat suitability indices (HSI) grounded on well-documented associations between mosquito abundance and environmental variables, (III) a dynamic model for predicting both spatial and temporal mosquito abundance based on a topographic soil moisture index and recent weather patterns, and (IV) a set of protocols laid out to aid mosquito control agencies for the use of these models. The HSIs (Chapter II) were based on relationships of mosquitoes to digital surrogates of soil moisture and vegetation characteristics. These models grouped mosquitoes species derived from similarities in habitat requirements, life-cycle type, and vector competence. Quantification of relationships was determined using multiple linear regression models. As in Chapter II, relationships between mosquito abundance and environmental factors in Chapter III were quantified using regression models. However, because this model was, in part, a function of changes in weather patterns, it enables the prediction of both 'where' and 'when' mosquito outbreaks are likely to occur. This model is distinctive among similar studies in the literature because of my use of NOAA's NEXRAD Doppler radar (3-hr precipitation accumulation data) to quantify the spatial and temporal distributions in precipitation accumulation. \\ Chapter IV is unique among the chapters in this dissertation because in lieu of presenting new research, it

  2. Field evaluation of commercial repellent formulations against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Waterson, D G E; Beebe, N W; Cooper, R D

    2005-12-01

    Field trials comparing commercially available repellent formulations containing picaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylate acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester) and deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia, were conducted. Three repellents were compared: Autan Repel containing 9.3% picaridin, RID containing 10% deet, and Bushman Ultra containing 80% deet in a gel. The predominant mosquito species collected were Culex annulirostris Skuse (63.2%), Ochlerotatus normanensis (Taylor) (19.6%), and Anopheles meraukensis Venhuis (8.6%). Autan Repel provided >95% protection against all mosquitoes for 2 h, RID for 7 h, and Bushman for >8 h. Against Cx. annulirostris, Autan Repel provided >95% protection for 5 h, RID for 7 h, and Bushman for >8 h. The study showed that both deet formulations provided significantly better protection against mosquitoes than picaridin (Autan Repel). All 3 repellents provided good protection against Cx. annulirostris, an important vector of arboviruses in Australia.

  3. Commercial mosquito trap and gravid trap oviposition media evaluation, Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Burkett, Douglas A; Kelly, Rosmarie; Porter, Charles H; Wirtz, Robert A

    2004-09-01

    Field trials evaluating the effectiveness of selected gravid trap oviposition media and commercially available mosquito traps were conducted in southern Fulton County (Atlanta), GA, from June 9 to June 18 and June 24 to July 4, 2002, respectively. Total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the tests were compared using a Latin square design. For the gravid trap infusion media, significant differences were found for total number of mosquitoes collected where sod > or = hay > or = hay side-by-side diluted hay > dilute hay side-by-side hay > or = oak > diluted hay. Only Aedes albopictus (oak), Culex quinquefasciatus (sod and both concentrated hay infusions), and Culex restuans (sod) were captured in significantly greater numbers using a particular infusion. Significant differences for the total number of mosquitoes collected were also observed in the commercial mosquito traps such that the gravid trap > ultra violet up-draft > or = Mosquito Magnet Pro > or = omnidirectional Fay-Prince trap with CO2 > up-draft CDC-style with CO2 > or = CDC-style with CO2. Significant differences in numbers collected among traps were noted for several species, including Aedes vexans, Aedes albopictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, and Culex salinarius. Results from these field trap and infusion evaluations can enhance current surveillance efforts, especially for the primary vectors of West Nile virus and other arboviruses.

  4. A mosquito 2-Cys peroxiredoxin protects against nitrosative and oxidative stresses associated with malaria parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Tina M.L.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes induces nitrosative and oxidative stresses that limit parasite development, but also damage mosquito tissues in proximity to the response. Based on these observations, we proposed that cellular defenses in the mosquito may be induced to minimize self-damage. Specifically, we hypothesized that peroxiredoxins (Prxs), enzymes known to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), protect mosquito cells. We identified an Anopheles stephensi 2-Cys Prx ortholog of Drosophila melanogaster Prx-4783, which protects fly cells against oxidative stresses. To assess function, AsPrx-4783 was overexpressed in D. melanogaster (S2) and in A. stephensi (MSQ43) cells and silenced in MSQ43 cells with RNA interference before treatment with various ROS and RNOS. Our data revealed that AsPrx-4783 and DmPrx-4783 differ in host cell protection and that AsPrx-4783 protects A. stephensi cells against stresses that are relevant to malaria parasite infection in vivo, namely nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide, nitroxyl, and peroxynitrite. Further, AsPrx-4783 expression is induced in the mosquito midgut by parasite infection at times associated with peak nitrosative and oxidative stresses. Hence, whereas the NO-mediated defense response is toxic to both host and parasite, AsPrx-4783 may shift the balance in favor of the mosquito. PMID:16540402

  5. Learning in mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti): Habituation to a visual danger signal.

    PubMed

    Baglan, Hugo; Lazzari, Claudio; Guerrieri, Fernando

    2017-01-07

    In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus. We first aimed at confirming habituation of the escape response in mosquito larvae (4th instar). Then, we determined whether a mnesic trace was established. Larvae were individually stimulated with a visual danger stimulus inducing the escape response. We set up a protocol for testing larvae individually, allowing the control of different parameters that are crucial for the study of cognitive abilities. After 15 trials, the escape response of mosquitoes was significantly lower. A disturbance stimulus presented after the 15th trial, induced the escape response and reversed habituation. Retention was confirmed up to 1h after the last habituation trial. This original bioassay can be adapted for studying the physiology of learning and memory in mosquito larvae, for analysing the effects of chemicals in the water, the characterisation of the cognitive abilities related to the life history of different mosquito species across preimaginal stages.

  6. A mosquito 2-Cys peroxiredoxin protects against nitrosative and oxidative stresses associated with malaria parasite infection.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Tina M L; Luckhart, Shirley

    2006-03-15

    Malaria parasite infection in anopheline mosquitoes induces nitrosative and oxidative stresses that limit parasite development, but also damage mosquito tissues in proximity to the response. Based on these observations, we proposed that cellular defenses in the mosquito may be induced to minimize self-damage. Specifically, we hypothesized that peroxiredoxins (Prxs), enzymes known to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), protect mosquito cells. We identified an Anopheles stephensi 2-Cys Prx ortholog of Drosophila melanogaster Prx-4783, which protects fly cells against oxidative stresses. To assess function, AsPrx-4783 was overexpressed in D. melanogaster S2 and in A. stephensi (MSQ43) cells and silenced in MSQ43 cells with RNA interference before treatment with various ROS and RNOS. Our data revealed that AsPrx-4783 and DmPrx-4783 differ in host cell protection and that AsPrx-4783 protects A. stephensi cells against stresses that are relevant to malaria parasite infection in vivo, namely nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide, nitroxyl, and peroxynitrite. Further, AsPrx-4783 expression is induced in the mosquito midgut by parasite infection at times associated with peak nitrosative and oxidative stresses. Hence, whereas the NO-mediated defense response is toxic to both host and parasite, AsPrx-4783 may shift the balance in favor of the mosquito.

  7. Blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The foraging behavior of blood-sucking arthropods is the defining biological event shaping the transmission cycle of vector-borne parasites. It is also a phenomenon that pertains to the realm of community ecology, since blood-feeding patterns of vectors can occur across a community of vertebrate hosts. Although great advances in knowledge of the genetic basis for blood-feeding choices have been reported for selected vector species, little is known about the role of community composition of vertebrate hosts in determining such patterns. Methods & Results Here, we present an analysis of feeding patterns of vectors across a variety of locations, looking at foraging patterns of communities of mosquitoes, across communities of hosts primarily comprised of mammals and birds. Using null models of species co-occurrence, which do not require ancillary information about host abundance, we found that blood-feeding patterns were aggregated in studies from multiple sites, but random in studies from a single site. This combination of results supports the idea that mosquito species in a community may rely primarily on host availability in a given landscape, and that contacts with specific hosts will be influenced more by the presence/absence of hosts than by innate mosquito choices. This observation stresses the importance of blood-feeding plasticity as a key trait explaining the emergence of many zoonotic mosquito transmitted diseases. Discussion From an epidemiological perspective our observations support the idea that phenomena promoting synchronization of vectors and hosts can promote the emergence of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, as suggested by observations on the linkages between deforestation and the emergence of several human diseases. PMID:20205866

  8. Effect of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme with reference to biocontrol strategies.

    PubMed

    Asimeng, E J; Mutinga, M J

    1993-03-01

    A study was carried out at Mwea Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kenya, to assess the impact of rice husbandry on mosquito breeding and identify indigenous biocontrol agents with potential for controlling mosquito breeding in the scheme. The study established a close relationship between the schedule of the farming practices (particularly the flooding phase) and mosquito breeding. Two groups of agents, entomopathogenic bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis) and larvivorous fish, were identified. Laboratory evaluation of the agents produced encouraging results. The bacterial isolates showed broad-spectrum larvicidal potency against Anopheles, Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae and 2 of the fish species, Tilapia zilli and Oreochromis niloticus, demonstrated a strong predation for a mosquito larval diet. To facilitate their use in effective biocontrol strategies, the agents would require further evaluation under field conditions.

  9. Constitutive differences between natural and artificial container mosquito habitats: vector communities, resources, microorganisms, and habitat parameters.

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Allgood, D; Kneitel, J M; Kuehn, K A

    2012-05-01

    Aquatic containers, including tree holes and vehicle tires, harbor a diverse assemblage of mosquitoes capable of vectoring important diseases. Many studies have examined containers as a mosquito breeding site, although no data exist that have simultaneously compared mosquito communities between tree holes and tires, and few have quantified differences in environmental factors or food resources that may be important for explaining population or community differences. At two times (early and late summer 2009) we sampled two tire and two tree hole sites in south-central Mississippi, and for each container we enumerated mosquito larvae and measured several environmental parameters (canopy cover, water volume, and detritus), and biomass and productivity of fungi and bacteria, and species richness and abundance of protozoans. Tree holes held less water but were more shaded compared with tires; however, after correcting for volume differences, tree holes contained more detritus and were higher in some microorganism measures (protozoan richness, bacterial productivity in the water column). Based on community dissimilarity analysis of mosquitoes, strong differences existed between container types and sampling period; Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) were dominant in tires, whereas Ae. triseriatus (Say) and Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett) were dominant in tree holes. This study also reports the use of tires by the invasive mosquito Cx. coronator (Dyar and Knab). Tree holes supported a higher density of larvae but fewer species than tires, though there was variation across time. Our work illustrates that detrital inputs and some microorganisms differ in fundamental ways between tires and tree holes, and because of compositional differences in mosquito communities, these small aquatic habitats cannot be considered to be homogeneous mosquito habitats.

  10. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Cory W.; Comrie, Andrew C.

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model ( P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

  11. Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model.

    PubMed

    Morin, Cory W; Comrie, Andrew C

    2010-09-01

    Climate can strongly influence the population dynamics of disease vectors and is consequently a key component of disease ecology. Future climate change and variability may alter the location and seasonality of many disease vectors, possibly increasing the risk of disease transmission to humans. The mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatus is a concern across the southern United States because of its role as a West Nile virus vector and its affinity for urban environments. Using established relationships between atmospheric variables (temperature and precipitation) and mosquito development, we have created the Dynamic Mosquito Simulation Model (DyMSiM) to simulate Cx. quinquefasciatus population dynamics. The model is driven with climate data and validated against mosquito count data from Pasco County, Florida and Coachella Valley, California. Using 1-week and 2-week filters, mosquito trap data are reproduced well by the model (P < 0.0001). Dry environments in southern California produce different mosquito population trends than moist locations in Florida. Florida and California mosquito populations are generally temperature-limited in winter. In California, locations are water-limited through much of the year. Using future climate projection data generated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research CCSM3 general circulation model, we applied temperature and precipitation offsets to the climate data at each location to evaluate mosquito population sensitivity to possible future climate conditions. We found that temperature and precipitation shifts act interdependently to cause remarkable changes in modeled mosquito population dynamics. Impacts include a summer population decline from drying in California due to loss of immature mosquito habitats, and in Florida a decrease in late-season mosquito populations due to drier late summer conditions.

  12. Features of the genomes of microsporidia in mosquitoes:status and preliminary findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The status and preliminary findings for full genome sequencing of two distantly related species of microsporidia with mosquitoes as type hosts will be presented. Vavraia culicis, the type species of the genus Vavraia, was originally described from Culex pipiens. Type material was not available and...

  13. Potential for Psorophora columbiae and Psorophora ciliata mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Rift Valley fever virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to pose a threat to much of the world. Unlike many arboviruses, numerous mosquito species have been associated with RVFV in nature, and many species have been demonstrated as competent vectors in the laboratory. In this study, we evaluated two field-collect...

  14. Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: Part 3--Andaman and Nicobar Islands, including an update on the mosquito fauna of the islands.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT. Fifty-three mosquito species belonging to 20 subgenera and 18 genera--Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, Downsiomyia, Finlaya, Heizmannia, Kenknightia, Lorrainea, Lutzia, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, Rhinoskusea, Stegomyia, Toxorhynchites, Tripteroides, Uranotaenia, and Verrallina--were recorded in the mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, in collections made during May and June 2001. Larvae of 43 species were collected from different mangrove habitats. Together with collections made in nonmangrove areas, 83 species in 22 subgenera and 20 genera in total were recorded of which 33 species are new records for the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Rhinoskusea wardi, Fl. flavipennis, and Ve. consonensis are 3 new country records for India. Collections included topotype specimens of St. seampi. Together with species known from earlier records, the mosquito fauna of Andaman and Nicobar Islands is updated to 107 species in 23 subgenera and 24 genera.

  15. Entomofaunal diversity of tree hole mosquitoes in Western and Eastern Ghats hill ranges of Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Senthamarai Selvan, P; Jebanesan, A; Reetha, D

    2016-07-01

    The distribution and abundance of various mosquito vectors is important in the determination of disease prevalence in disease endemic areas. The aim of the present study was to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of tree hole mosquito species in Tamilnadu, India. In addition to this, the impact of weather-conditions on tree hole mosquito population were evaluated between June, 2014 and May, 2015. Six hills ranges viz., Anaimalai hills, Kodaikanal hills, Sitheri hills, Kolli hills, Yercaud hills, and Megamalai were selected, the immatures collected from tree holes by the help of suction tube. Collections were made at dusk and dawn at randomly selected 15 different tree species. The collected samples were stored and morphologically identified to species level in the laboratory. Mosquito diversity was calculated by Simpson's and Shannon-Weiner diversity indicies with spatial and temporal aspects. Over 2642 mosquitoes comprising the primary vectors of dengue, chickungunya, malaria, filariasis were identified. Other species collected from the fifteen sites in each hill during the study included Christophersiomyia annularis, Christophersiomyia thomsoni, Downsiomyia albolateralis, Downsiomyia nivea and Toxorhynchites splendens, etc. Study revealed high species diversity and relative density associated with different study sites. Based on the Shannon diversity index high number of species was recorded with Aedes pseudoalbopicta (0.0829) followed by Ae. aegypti (0.0805) and least species was recorded as Anopheles elegans (0.0059). The distribution of the primary vectors of DF along the high occurrence was evident with most study sites representing proportions of this vector population. This showed the high risk level associated with the livestock movement in amplification and circulation of the virus during the outbreaks. The findings of this study, therefore, demonstrated the potential vulnerability of nomadic communities to

  16. Tire-breeding mosquitoes of public health importance along an urbanisation gradient in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Alejandra; Cardo, María Victoria; Vezzani, Darío

    2011-09-01

    Used vehicle tires are a source of mosquito vectors and a means of their introduction and expansion. With the aim of assessing the effects of urbanisation on the main mosquito vectors in temperate Argentina, the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. were studied in used tires from highly urbanised cities to low-urbanised small towns in Buenos Aires. Immatures of both species accounted for 96% of the 9,722 individuals collected; the total individuals collected represented seven species. The percentage of water-filled tires containing mosquitoes [container index (CI)] was 33% and the percentage of infested sites [site index (SI)] was 65.2%. These indexes decreased significantly from low to high urbanisation levels for both mosquito species. The relative abundance (RA) of Ae. aegypti immatures was slightly higher toward large cities, but showed no difference for Cx. pipiens. The CI of shaded tires was significantly higher than the CI of exposed tires for both mosquito species. There was no difference in RA values between shaded and sunlit tires. The CI and the SI were highest during the summer across the urbanisation levels, except for Cx. pipiens, which continued to increase during the autumn in small towns. Results related to urbanisation gradient, sunlit exposure and seasonality are discussed.

  17. Is the extract from the plant catmint (Nepeta cataria) repellent to mosquitoes in Australia?

    PubMed

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2007-09-01

    The repellency of Nepeta cataria (catmint or catnip) was tested against Aedes aegypti, Ae. vigilax, Culex annulirostris, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and compared with a blend of natural plant extracts and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) on human skin. The catmint and natural plant extract blend did not provide the same level of protection from biting mosquitoes as deet. There were significant differences in the level of protection provided by catmint to the 4 species of mosquito, with mean protection times ranging from 0 min for Ae. aegypti up to 240 +/- 60 min for Cx. quinquefasciatus. Significant differences in the mean landing rates of the 4 mosquito species on untreated forearms highlighted the difficulties in comparing laboratory tests of repellents between species.

  18. A Mosquito Survey of the Twin-Island Caribbean Nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, 2010.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Hamish; Evanson, Jessica; Revan, Floyd; Lee, Elise; Krecek, Rosina C; Smith, Joshua

    2015-12-01

    Adult mosquito surveys of Saint Kitts and Nevis (SKN) were performed in the dry season (March 16-23, 2010) in Saint Kitts, and the rainy season (October 18-25, 2010) in SKN. Biogents (BG) Sentinel Traps were set with CO₂and BG Lure in urban, rural, mangrove, and dry forest habitats. Mosquitoes were identified to species, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on potential vector species for dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV). The most abundant species during both seasons in St. Kitts were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, and Aedes aegypti. There were 3 new records for Saint Kitts: Aedes tortilis, Anopheles albimanus, and Culex nigripalpus. Traps were also set in Nevis. No mosquito pool tested positive for DENV, CHIKV, or WNV.

  19. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant–insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector–plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito–plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  20. The impact of transgenic mosquitoes on dengue virulence to humans and mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Medlock, Jan; Luz, Paula M; Struchiner, Claudio J; Galvani, Alison P

    2009-10-01

    Dengue is a major public health concern in the tropics and subtropics. Innovative transgenic strategies to render Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary vector of dengue, incompetent for dengue transmission are under development. We modeled the evolutionary impact of different transgenic mosquito strategies on dengue-induced mortality, that is, dengue virulence, to both humans and mosquitoes. This model incorporates various evolutionary trade-offs in dengue virus epidemiological traits, for example, a trade-off between dengue transmission rate and its virulence to humans. Our results indicate that strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting impose selection on dengue virulence in humans. This selection can be for either higher or lower virulence, depending on the interaction between the effect of the transgene and the trade-offs in epidemiological traits, highlighting the need for detailed quantitative data to understand more fully the impact of mosquito transgenesis on dengue virulence. Dengue virulence in mosquitoes can be selected on by transgenic strategies of blocking transmission, decreased mosquito biting, increased mosquito background mortality, and increased mosquito infection-induced mortality. Our results suggest that dengue control strategies that raise mosquito background mortality or mosquito infection-induced mortality pose less risk of causing increased virulence to humans than strategies that block transmission or reduce mosquito biting.

  1. An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Hansford, K M; Versteirt, V; Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F

    2015-12-01

    Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

  2. [Landscape and zonal distribution of bloodsucking mosquitoes and horse flies (Diptera: Culicidae, Tabanidae) in the northeastern Russian Plain].

    PubMed

    Pestov, S V; Paniukova, E V

    2013-01-01

    The data on the distribution of 34 species of bloodsucking mosquitoes and on 42 horsefly species of the fauna of the northeastern Russian Plain are given. The analysis of the landscape and zonal changes in species diversity and their abundance was performed. Species diversity of these families increased northwards. Two borders of the fauna's depletion were discovered: at the border between the middle and northern taiga subzones (mosquitoes and horseflies) and at the border between the northernmost taiga subzone and the forest-tundra zone (horseflies only). The northern and southern boundaries of species ranges in the region are identified.

  3. Spatio-temporal Modeling of Mosquito Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Y.; Dufourd, C.

    2011-11-01

    We consider a quasilinear parabolic system to model mosquito displacement. In order to use efficiently vector control tools, like insecticides, and mechanical control, it is necessary to provide density estimates of mosquito populations, taking into account the environment and entomological knowledges. After a brief introduction to mosquito dispersal modeling, we present some theoretical results. Then, considering a compartmental approach, we get a quasilinear system of PDEs. Using the time splitting approach and appropriate numerical methods for each operator, we construct a reliable numerical scheme. Considering vector control scenarii, we show that the environment can have a strong influence on mosquito distribution and in the efficiency of vector control tools.

  4. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G.J.; Samson, Robert A.; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  5. Ecological studies on the mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, C. J.; Chen, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    These studies were conducted in China (Province of Taiwan) to assess the populations of known and potential mosquito vectors of Japanese encephalitis in a typical endemic area, and to evaluate a variety of sampling techniques, some of which were new. Culex annulus was found to be the predominant vector species in the study area during the epidemic season; C. tritaeniorhynchus was never abundant, and C. fuscocephalus was rare. C. annulus and C. tritaeniorhynchus were active throughout the year, although populations were at a low level during the cool season. The results show that attention must be given to C. annulus as a possible vector where it is present in JE foci. The collection of mosquitos during the early evening hours from buffalo bait tethered outdoors was found to be the most efficient and sensitive means of monitoring vector populations throughout the year. During the JE epidemic season remarkable results were obtained with a vacuum sweep-net. PMID:4367779

  6. Draft Genome Sequences of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strains R26T and Ag1 from the Midgut of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kukutla, Phanidhar; Lindberg, Bo G; Pei, Dong; Rayl, Melanie; Yu, Wanqin; Steritz, Matthew; Faye, Ingrid; Xu, Jiannong

    2013-12-05

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is a species in the family Flavobacteriaceae. It is a dominant resident in the mosquito gut and also a human pathogen. We present the draft genome sequences of two strains of E. anophelis, R26(T) and Ag1, which were isolated from the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Elizabethkingia anophelis Strains R26T and Ag1 from the Midgut of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Kukutla, Phanidhar; Lindberg, Bo G.; Pei, Dong; Rayl, Melanie; Yu, Wanqin; Steritz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is a species in the family Flavobacteriaceae. It is a dominant resident in the mosquito gut and also a human pathogen. We present the draft genome sequences of two strains of E. anophelis, R26T and Ag1, which were isolated from the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. PMID:24309745

  8. Mosquito fauna of wilderness islands within the National Key Deer Refuge and the Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge, Monroe County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Leal, Andrea L; Hribar, Lawrence J

    2010-06-01

    Dry ice-baited light traps, counts of mosquitoes biting and landing on technicians, and larval surveillance were used to determine mosquito species abundance on Annette Key, Little Knockem-down Key, Little Pine Key, Raccoon Key, and the Water Keys, all of which are located offshore, within the National Key Deer Refuge and Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge in Monroe County, FL. Due to the close proximity of these wilderness islands to the inhabited islands of the Florida Keys, it is important to understand the abundance and composition of the mosquitoes and the effects they may have on populations on inhabited islands. Thirty different species were collected during 2004-2008. Aedes taeniorhynchus, the black salt-marsh mosquito, was the most abundant mosquito species collected at all locations. Other mosquitoes collected in large numbers at all locations were Anopheles atropos, Culex bahamensis, Cx. nigripalpus, and Deinocerites cancer. Because these wilderness islands are difficult to traverse due to vegetative growth, the placement of mosquito traps close to the perimeter of the islands may influence assessment of the abundance and diversity of mosquito species collected on each island.

  9. Specific detection of the floodwater mosquitoes Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans DNA in predatory diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Vinnersten, Thomas Z Persson; Halvarsson, Peter; Lundström, Jan O

    2015-08-01

    Floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are associated with periodically flooded wet meadows, marshes, and swamps in floodplains of major rivers worldwide, and their larvae are abundant in the shallow parts of flooded areas. The nuisance caused by the blood-seeking adult female mosquitoes motivates mosquito control. Larviciding with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is considered the most environmentally safe method. However, some concern has been raised whether aquatic predatory insects could be indirectly affected by this reduction in a potential vital prey. Top predators in the temporary wetlands in the River Dalälven floodplains are diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), and Aedes sticticus and Ae. vexans are the target species for mosquito control. For detailed studies on this aquatic predator-prey system, we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for detection of mosquito DNA in the guts of medium-sized diving beetles. Primers were designed for amplifying short mitochondrial DNA fragments of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans, respectively. Primer specificity was confirmed and half-life detectability of Ae. sticticus DNA in diving beetle guts was derived from a feeding and digestion experiment. The Ae. sticticus DNA within diving beetle guts was detected up to 12 h postfeeding, and half-life detectability was estimated to 5.6 h. In addition, field caught diving beetles were screened for Ae. sticticus and Ae. vexans DNA and in 14% of the diving beetles one or both mosquito species were detected, showing that these mosquito species are utilized as food by the diving beetles.

  10. Seasonal activity, vector relationships and genetic analysis of mosquito-borne Stratford virus

    PubMed Central

    Toi, Cheryl S.; Webb, Cameron E.; Haniotis, John; Clancy, John; Doggett, Stephen L.

    2017-01-01

    There are many gaps to be filled in our understanding of mosquito-borne viruses, their relationships with vectors and reservoir hosts, and the environmental drivers of seasonal activity. Stratford virus (STRV) belongs to the genus Flavivirus and has been isolated from mosquitoes and infected humans in Australia but little is known of its vector and reservoir host associations. A total of 43 isolates of STRV from mosquitoes collected in New South Wales between 1995 and 2013 was examined to determine the genetic diversity between virus isolates and their relationship with mosquito species. The virus was isolated from six mosquito species; Aedes aculeatus, Aedes alternans, Aedes notoscriptus, Aedes procax, Aedes vigilax, and Anopheles annulipes. While there were distinct differences in temporal and spatial activity of STRV, with peaks of activity in 2006, 2010 and 2013, a sequence homology of 95.9%–98.4% was found between isolates and the 1961 STRV prototype with 96.2%–100% identified among isolates. Temporal differences but no apparent nucleotide divergence by mosquito species or geographic location was evident. The result suggests the virus is geographically widespread in NSW (albeit only from coastal regions) and increased local STRV activity is likely to be driven by reservoir host factors and local environmental conditions influencing vector abundance. While STRV may not currently be associated with major outbreaks of human disease, with the potential for urbanisation and climate change to increase mosquito-borne disease risks, and the possibility of genomic changes which could produce pathogenic strains, understanding the drivers of STRV activity may assist the development of strategic response to public health risks posed by zoonotic flaviviruses in Australia. PMID:28253306

  11. Adulticidal & larvicidal efficacy of three neonicotinoids against insecticide susceptible & resistant mosquito strains

    PubMed Central

    Uragayala, Sreehari; Verma, Vaishali; Natarajan, Elamathi; Velamuri, Poonam Sharma; Kamaraju, Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Due to ever growing insecticide resistance in mosquitoes to commonly used insecticides in many parts of the globe, there is always a need for introduction of new insecticides for the control of resistant vector mosquitoes. In this study, larvicidal and adulticidal efficacies of three neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam) were tested against resistant and susceptible populations of Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Laboratory-reared mosquito species were used. Insecticide susceptibility tests were done using standard WHO procedures and using diagnostic dosages of insecticide test papers and larvicides. Adulticidal efficacy of candidate insecticides was assessed using topical application method and larval bioassays were conducted using standard WHO procedure. Results: The results of topical application on 3-5 day old female mosquitoes indicated that resistant strain of An. stephensi registered lower LC50 values than the susceptible strain. Among the three insecticides tested, thiacloprid was found more effective than the other two insecticides. Culex quinquefasciatus registered lowest LC50 for imidacloprid than the other two mosquito species tested. In larval bioassays, the LC50 values registered for imidacloprid were in the order of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito species tested showed more susceptibility to the three neonicotinoids tested, and the possibility of using neonicotinoids for the control of resistant mosquitoes

  12. Population Dynamics of Blood-Fed Female Mosquitoes and Comparative Efficacy of Resting Boxes in Collecting them from the Northwestern Part of Riverside County, California

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Tejbir S; Williams, Gregory W; Haynes, Bryan W; Dhillon, Major S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testing of blood-fed mosquitoes plays an integral role in arbovirus surveillance and in understanding its interaction mechanisms between host, vector and reservoir. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of two different traps (gravid and resting boxes) for collection of blood-fed mosquitoes in the northwestern part of Riverside County. Materials and Methods: Three trapping sites were selected in the Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District of Riverside County, California. At each site resting boxes and gravid traps were set; and mosquitoes were collected on a weekly basis between July-December 2009. Mosquitoes were transported over blue ice, identified up to species level on chill table, and classified as male, female and blood-fed females. Results: During this study period, 3953 mosquitoes (826 blood-fed females) belonging to three different genera and eight species were collected; resting boxes collecting maximum number (seven) of mosquito species. Overall as well as individually in each trap kind, the most abundant mosquito species collected was Cx. quinquefasciatus. The proportion of blood-fed females of the Culex species collected in resting boxes was 28.8 times more, while of blood-fed females of Cx. quinquefasciatus was 32.2 times more than the proportion collected from gravid traps. Conclusions: Overall, the proportion of blood-fed female mosquitoes collected for each species trapped was highest in resting boxes. Additionally, resting boxes showed the advantage of extremely low running and maintenance cost; generation of no hazardous waste; quick turnaround time in terms of mosquito collection per man-hour spent; and they were less prone to vandalism or thefts. PMID:23599612

  13. Anthropogenic ecological change and impacts on mosquito breeding and control strategies in salt-marshes, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan; Warchot, Allan; Whelan, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Darwin, in the tropical north of Australia, is subject to high numbers of mosquitoes and several mosquito-borne diseases. Many of Darwin's residential areas were built in close proximity to tidally influenced swamps, where long-term storm-water run-off from nearby residences into these swamps has led to anthropogenic induced ecological change. When natural wet-dry cycles were disrupted, bare mud-flats and mangroves were transformed into perennial fresh to brackish-water reed swamps. Reed swamps provided year-round breeding habitat for many mosquito species, such that mosquito abundance was less predictable and seasonally dependent, but constant and often occurring in plague proportions. Drainage channels were constructed throughout the wetlands to reduce pooled water during dry-season months. This study assesses the impact of drainage interventions on vegetation and mosquito ecology in three salt-marshes in the Darwin area. Findings revealed a universal decline in dry-season mosquito abundance in each wetland system. However, some mosquito species increased in abundance during wet-season months. Due to the high expense and potentially detrimental environmental impacts of ecosystem and non-target species disturbance, large-scale modifications such as these are sparingly undertaken. However, our results indicate that some large scale environmental modification can assist the process of wetland restoration, as appears to be the case for these salt marsh systems. Drainage in all three systems has been restored to closer to their original salt-marsh ecosystems, while reducing mosquito abundances, thereby potentially lowering the risk of vector-borne disease transmission and mosquito pest biting problems.

  14. The entomopathogenic potential of Aspergillus spp. in mosquitoes vectors of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, A M; da Costa, G L; Barcellos, M Z; de Oliveira, R L; de Oliveira, P C

    2001-01-01

    Eleven strains of the most frequent Aspergillus species found in a survey of Brazilian mosquitoes collected in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were used for bioassays in second-stage larvae of Aedes fluviatilis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Aspergillus ochraceus, A. kanagawaensis and one strain of A. sulphureus were most effective, causing mortality in at least 80% of the larvae of the two mosquito species tested. Variations in entomopathogenic capacity were observed in the experiments with strains of A. sulphureus, A. flavus and A. ochraceus.

  15. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-01-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

  16. Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (αi ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The αi values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey.

  17. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster

    PubMed Central

    Culler, Lauren E.; Ayres, Matthew P.; Virginia, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator–prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2–1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased