Science.gov

Sample records for aegle marmelos unripe

  1. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. Methods The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. Conclusion The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:19930633

  2. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shahedur; Parvin, Rashida

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used in herbalism. They form the easily available source for healthcare purposes in rural and tribal areas. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on an important medicinal plant Aegle marmelos. Extensive experimental and clinical studies prove that Aegle marmelos possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties, which help it to play role in prevention and treatment of many disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to review its therapeutic properties to give an overview of its status to scientist both modern and ancient. This review also encompasses on the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

  3. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Balakumar, S; Rajan, S; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions on the clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi like Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. Methods The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of various extracts and fractions of the leaves of Aegle marmelos were measured using method of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results Aegle marmelos leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicidal activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophytic fungi. The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200µg/mL) against dermatophytic fungi studied. Conclusions Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis. PMID:23569781

  4. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 b Aegle marmelos and its constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegle marmelos (bael) is a popular tree in India and other Southeast Asian countries. The fruit is usually consumed as dried, fresh or juice and is reported to have a high nutritional value and many perceived health benefits. Despite of the edible nature and therapeutic properties of A. marmelos, no...

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  6. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Diwakar, Sandhya; Watal, Geeta

    2006-10-11

    Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120-250 mg/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250 mg/kg was found to be most effective dose and it decreases blood glucose level (BGL) by 35.1% in normal healthy rats after 6h of administration. The same dose also showed a marked reduction in BGL of 41.2% in sub and 33.2% in mild diabetic rats in glucose tolerance test (GTT) after 2 h. Treatment of severely (FBG >250 mg/dl) diabetic rats for 14 days with a dose of 250 mg/kg reduces the fasting blood glucose by 60.84% and urine sugar by 75% than their pretreatment levels. It brought about fall in level of total cholesterol (TC) by 25.49% with increase of 33.43% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease of 53.97 and 45.77% in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG), respectively. These results clearly indicate that aqueous seed extract of Aegle marmelos possess antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects in diabetic rats.

  7. Microwave assisted synthesis and optimization of Aegle marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide): release kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Setia, A; Kumar, R

    2014-04-01

    Microwave assisted grafting of poly(acrylamide) on to Aegle marmelos gum was carried out employing 3-factor 3-level full factorial design. Microwave power, microwave exposure time and concentration of gum were selected as independent variable and grafting efficiency was taken as dependent variable. A. marmelos-g-poly(acrylamide) was characterized by FTIR, DSC, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Microwave power, microwave exposure time had synergistic effect on grafting efficiency where as concentration of the gum did not contributed much to grafting efficiency. Batch having microwave power - 80%, microwave exposure time -120 s and concentration of A. marmelos gum - 2% was selected as the optimized formulation. Comparative release behaviour of diclofenac sodium from the matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum and A. marmelos-g-polyacrylamide was evaluated. The results of kinetic studies revealed that the graft copolymer matrix, marketed tablets and polymer matrix tablets of A. marmelos gum released the drug by zero order kinetics and with n value greater than 1, indicating that the mechanism for release as super case II transport i.e. dominated by the erosion and swelling of the polymer.

  8. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  9. Evaluation of protective effect of Aegle marmelos Corr. in an animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lalremruta, Vanphawng; Prasanna, Gurunath S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome for potential therapeutic benefit. Materials and Methods: Age/weight-matched female Wistar albino rats were grouped into five groups. (Group I- V) (n = 8). Group I served as naïve control and II served as stress control. Except for group I animals, other group animals were subjected to forced swimming every day for 15 minutes to induce a state of chronic fatigue and simultaneously treated with ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos (EEAM) 150 and 250 mg/kg b.w. and Imipramine (20 mg.kg b.w.), respectively. Duration of immobility, anxiety level and locomotor activity were assessed on day 1, 7, 14 and 21 followed by biochemical estimation of oxidative biomarkers at the end of the study. Results: Treatment with EEAM (150 and 250 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in a statistically significant and dose dependent reduction (P <0.001) in the duration of immobility, reduction in anxiety and increase in locomotor activity. Dose dependent and significant reduction in LPO level and increase in CAT and SOD was observed in extract treated animals. Conclusion: The results are suggestive of potential protective effect of A. marmelos against experimentally induced CFS. PMID:22701245

  10. Quantification and comparison of extraction methods for alkaloids in Aegle marmelos leaves by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Karmase, Aniket; Prasanna, K; Rasabattula, Sruti; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-07-01

    The leaves of Aegle marmelos are reported to contain multi-bioactive classes of compounds including coumarins, furanocoumarins and alkaloids. HPLC analysis of the crude extract was challenging due to low concentrations of the compounds in the leaves. Five compounds visible in the HPLC chromatogram were separated and identified by HPLC and further elaborated for quantification as marker compounds of A. marmelos leaves using a C18 column with detection at 275 nm. A gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water was used. The developed HPLC method showed good linearity (r2 > 0.994), high precision (RSD<5%), and good recovery (99.27-99.98%) of the compounds. The lowest detection limit was 5 ng and the method was found to be robust. All the validation parameters were within the permissible limits. Therefore, the developed method is accurate and reliable for the quality control of A. marmelos. This is the first report of extensive quantitative HPLC analysis of marker compounds in A. marmelos leaves and method validation.

  11. Sulfation of Aegle marmelos gum: synthesis, physico-chemical and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Manish; Rana, Vikas; Kumar, Vineet; Singh, Ram S; Kennedy, John F; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2013-02-15

    The present investigation was aimed at optimizing the conditions for preparing sulfated derivative of gum obtained from partially ripe fruits of Aegle marmelos. Elemental analysis, FTIR-ATR and NMR studies confirmed successful sulfation. The ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to pyridine exerted maximum influence on the degree of substitution followed by reaction temperature and reaction time. The sulfated derivative showed higher swelling in both acidic and alkaline pH as compared to unmodified gum. It also possessed higher negative zeta potential, higher viscosity, work of shear, firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity as compared to both unmodified gum as well as sodium alginate. Sulfated derivative was superior to unmodified gum and sodium alginate in terms of antimicrobial and anticoagulant activity. The sulfated sample appears to be a potential substitute over the unmodified gum sample and sodium alginate for modulating physicochemical properties of food and drug release dosage forms.

  12. In Vivo Healing Potential of Aegle marmelos in Excision, Incision, and Dead Space Wound Models

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Purohit, V.; Agarwal, M.; Singh, A.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The study incorporates the wound healing potential of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract (AME) on excision, incision, and dead space wound models in rats. AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally once daily for variable days depending on the type of wound ulcer study. AME was studied for its wound breaking strength (incision wound), rate of contraction, period of epithelization and histology of skin (excision model), and granulation tissue free radicals, antioxidants, acute inflammatory marker, and connective tissue markers and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). Complete wound contraction and epithelization were observed at the 20th day after treatment with AME as compared to the 24th day in control rats. Mean epithelization period and scar area were decreased while wound breaking strength was increased with AME compared with control. Granulation tissue showed increased levels of collagen determinants (33.7 to 64.4%, P < 0.001) and antioxidants (13.0 to 38.8%, P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), whereas markers of oxidative stress (55.0 to 55.6%, P < 0.001) and myeloperoxidase (21.3%, P < 0.001) were decreased in AME treated group. A. marmelos seems to promote wound healing by enhancing connective tissue formation and antioxidants status with decrease in free radicals and myeloperoxidase having tissue damaging effects. PMID:24737990

  13. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    PubMed Central

    Baitule, Mohan M.; Gawande, A. P.; Kumar, Umesh; Sahatpure, S. K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Baitule, Mansi M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to study the estrus induction, ovulation, and conception rate of delayed puberty in buffaloes heifers by feeding a herbal plants Aegle marmelos (bael/bili/bhel leaf) and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf). Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 buffalo heifers with delayed puberty were selected for the present study and divided randomly in four equal groups (n=6). Before experiment, all animals were dewormed with albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight to prevent them from the stress of parasitism. In the present experiment, four group taken and Group I (n=6) treated with A. marmelos, Group II (n=6) treated with M. koenigii, Group III (n=6) treated with mixture of A. marmelos and M. koenigii and fed for 9 days. Group IV (n=6) considered as control and fed with concentrate only. The blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 0 (before treatment), 4, 9 (during treatment), on the day of estrus and day 8 after the onset of estrus. The 10 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of all the experimental animals for estimation of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone (P4). The estrus response, ovulation, conception rate along with serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone level were determined by the standard protocol. Results: From Group III 4 heifers, from Group II 3 heifers, and from Group I and IV (Control) 2 heifers each, exhibited the estrus. The estrus response was recorded as 33.33%, 50.00%, 75.00%, and 33.33% in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. In treatment Group III, serum calcium found significantly more (p<0.05) on day 8 post-estrus as compared to other groups at a similar interval. Inorganic phosphorus and progesterone show no significant difference between groups. The ovulation and conception rates are comparatively better in Group III (75%) buffalo heifers than other groups. Conclusion: Herbal supplementation of A. marmelos and M. koenigii in combination, as well as M. koenigii

  14. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using bael leaves (Aegle marmelos).

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, S; Mohanty, Ashok; Sudha, T Nag; Upadhyay, A K; Konar, J; Sircar, J K; Madhukar, A; Gupta, K K

    2010-01-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II) on bael leaves (Aegle marmelos) was investigated for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution using different doses of adsorbent, initial pH, and contact time. The maximum Pb loading capacity of the bael leaves was 104 mg g(-1) at 50 mg L(-1) initial Pb(II) concentration at pH 5.1. SEM and FT-IR studies indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) occurs inside the wall of the hollow tubes present in the bael leaves and carboxylic acid, thioester and sulphonamide groups are involved in the process. The sorption process was best described by pseudo second order kinetics. Among Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, the latter had a better fit with the experimental data. The activation energy E(a) confirmed that the nature of adsorption was physisorption. Bael leaves can selectively remove Pb(II) in the presence of other metal ions. This was demonstrated by removing Pb from the effluent of exhausted batteries.

  15. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Mani, Vellingiri Manon; Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-09-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

  16. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:26539047

  17. Semisynthetic Studies Identify Mitochondria Poisons from Botanical Dietary Supplements – Geranyloxycoumarins from Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Mahdi, Fakhri; Du, Lin; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation and subsequent structure elucidation of a Bael tree Aegle marmelos lipid extract yielded two unstable acylated geranyloxycoumarin mixtures (1–2), six geranyloxycoumarins (3–8), (+)-9′-isovaleroxylariciresinol (9), and dehydromarmeline (10). In a T47D cell-based reporter assay, 1 and 2 potently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 0.18 and 1.10 μg mL−1, respectively). Insufficient material and chemical instability prevented full delineation of the fatty acyl side chain olefin substitution patterns in 1 and 2. Therefore, five fatty acyl geranyloxycoumarin ester derivatives (11–15) were prepared from marmin (3) and commercial fatty acyl chlorides by semisynthesis. The unsaturated C-6′ linoleic acid ester derivative 14 that was structurally most similar to 1 and 2, inhibited HIF-1 activation with comparable potency (IC50 0.92 μM). The octanoyl (11) and undecanoyl (12) ester derivatives also suppressed HIF-1 activation (IC50 values 3.1 and 0.87 μM, respectively). Mechanistic studies revealed that these geranyloxycoumarin derivatives disrupt mitochondrial respiration, primarily at complex I. Thus, these compounds may inhibit HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondria-mediated hypoxic signaling. One surprising observation was that, while less potent, the purported cancer chemopreventive agent auraptene (8) was found to act as a mitochondrial poison that disrupts HIF-1 signaling in tumors. PMID:23434131

  18. Pharmacognostic standardisation and antiproliferative activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa leaves in various human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Rajbir; Singh, J.; Saxena, A. K.; Suri, Nitasha; Ishar, M. P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic management of cancer is a great clinical challenge and alternative medicines are being extensively explored to have integrated approach to cure cancer. Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) is known for its hypoglycaemic, radioprotective, antidiarrhoeal and many other pharmacological activities. The present study is designed to carryout pharmacognostic standardisation and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of the leaf extracts Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) and the chromatographic fractions of the most active extract. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol extracts of the shade dried leaves were prepared by soxhelation and antiproliferative activity was assessed using human cancer cell lines of lung (A-549), colon (CoLo-05), ovary (IGR-OV-1), prostrate (PC3), leukaemia (THP-1) and breast (MCF-7) cancer. Bioactivity-derived fractionation was carried out for most active extract by column chromatography. The phytochemical studies indicated alkaloids, anthraquinones, terpenoids in the alcohol, chloroform extracts and tannins, terpenoids, reducing sugars in the petroleum ether and hexane extracts. Ethanol extract showed maximum inhibition in colon and breast carcinoma cell lines at a dose of 100 μg/ml. Column chromatography of the ethanol extract yielded five fractions. Out of this, fractions 2, 4 and 5 showed significant inhibition in leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5, 86.2 and >100 μg/ml for fractions 2, 4 and 5, respectively. High-performance thin layer chromatography of the fraction 2 revealed imperatorin as one of the major phytoconstituents. Among the different extracts investigated, ethanol extract exhibited significant antiproliferative activity and its fraction 2 containing furanocoumarin imperatorin showed antiproliferative activity against leukaemia cell line with IC50 of 12.5 μg/ml. PMID:24591736

  19. Identification and Characterization of a Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Quinolone Alkaloid Biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa*

    PubMed Central

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S.; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

  20. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy of nickel nanoparticles phytofabricated from aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos Correa.

    PubMed

    Angajala, Gangadhara; Ramya, R; Subashini, R

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there is a tremendous growth in the interdisciplinary world of nanotechnology across the globe and emergence of its potential applications remains as a big revolution to the industry. Fusion of green nanotechnology and medicine represents one of the major breakthroughs of modern science with the aim of developing nanomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of various diseases and overall improving health for the beneficial of mankind. In the present study phytofabrication of nickel nanoparticles (nickel NPs) was carried out by using indigenous Aegle marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agents. Nickel NPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM, AFM and TGA studies. Phytosynthesis of nickel NPs was monitored both at room temperature (25°C) and at 60°C for 5h. The green synthesis of triangular shape nickel NPs phytofabricated from A. marmelos Correa aqueous leaf extracts having face centered cubic structure showing an average particle size of 80-100nm which is in consistent with the particle size calculated by XRD Scherer equation. We further explored and compared nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa with crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa for its in-vitro anti-inflammatory and mosquito larvicidal efficacy against three blood feeding parasites. The results obtained clearly gives an idea that nickel NPs of A. marmelos Correa (NiNPs of AmC) possess an enhanced anti-inflammatory and larvicidal activity when compared to crude leaf extracts of A. marmelos Correa.

  1. Antibacterial activity of Aegle marmelos against leaf, bark and fruit extracts

    PubMed Central

    Poonkothai, M.; Saravanan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts from the leaves, bark and fruit of A. marmelos was studied using disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus (Gram Positive), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A and Salmonella paratyphi B (Gram Negative). Results suggest that the methanolic extract has significant antibacterial activity against tested bacteria. The present study justifies the claimed uses of A. marmelos in the traditional system of medicine to treat various infectious diseases. PMID:22557272

  2. In vitro glucose uptake activity of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini by activation of Glut-4, PI3 kinase and PPARgamma in L6 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Anandharajan, R; Jaiganesh, S; Shankernarayanan, N P; Viswakarma, R A; Balakrishnan, A

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of methanolic extracts of Aegles marmelos and Syzygium cumini on a battery of targets glucose transporter (Glut-4), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3 kinase) involved in glucose transport. A. marmelos and S. cumini are anti-diabetic medicinal plants being used in Indian traditional medicine. Different solvent extracts extracted sequentially were analysed for glucose uptake activity at each step and methanol extracts were found to be significantly active at 100ng/ml dose comparable with insulin and rosiglitazone. Elevation of Glut-4, PPARgamma and PI3 kinase by A. marmelos and S. cumini in association with glucose transport supported the up-regulation of glucose uptake. The inhibitory effect of cycloheximide on A. marmelos- and S. cumini-mediated glucose uptake suggested that new protein synthesis is required for the elevated glucose transport. Current observation concludes that methanolic extracts of A. marmelos and S. cumini activate glucose transport in a PI3 kinase-dependent fashion.

  3. Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in fasting blood glucose level and improve plasma insulin level as compared to the diabetic control group. Also it significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of hexokinase. UFG treatment decreased liver MDA and increased the level of SOD, GPx and CAT. UFG treatment of lipids it’s increased the level of cholesterol

  4. Essential oil of Aegle marmelos as a safe plant-based antimicrobial against postharvest microbial infestations and aflatoxin contamination of food commodities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Dubey, Nawal K; Gupta, Rajesh

    2009-08-01

    The essential oil of Aegle marmelos L. Correa (Rutaceae) showed strong fungitoxicity against some storage fungi-causing contamination of foodstuffs. The oil also showed efficacy as aflatoxin suppressor at 500 microL/L as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B(1) production by the toxigenic strains (Navjot 4NSt and Saktiman 3NSt) of Aspergillus flavus Link. Keeping in view the side effects of synthetic fungicides, A. marmelos oil may be recommended as an antimicrobial of plant origin to enhance the shelf life of stored food commodities by controlling the fungal growth as well as aflatoxin secretion. This is the 1st report on aflatoxin B(1) inhibitory nature of this oil. A. marmelos oil may be recommended as a novel plant-based antimicrobial in food protection over synthetic preservatives, most of which are reported to incite environmental problems because of their nonbiodegradable nature and side effects on mammals. The LD(50) of Aegle oil was found to be 23659.93 mg/kg body weight in mice (Mus musculus L.) when administered for acute oral toxicity showing nonmammalian toxicity of the oil. GC-MS analysis of the oil found DL-Limonene to be major component.

  5. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Kaith, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%). PMID:27034896

  6. Simultaneous determination of aegeline and six coumarins from different parts of the plant Aegle marmelos using UHPLC-PDA-MS and chiral separation of aegeline using HPLC-ToF-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fast UHPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of one alkaloid, aegeline, and six coumarins namely: umbelliferone; scopoletin; marmesinin; 8-hydroxypsoralen angelicin and marmelosin from leaf, fruit, root and bark of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa (Rutaceae). The method was validate...

  7. Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

  8. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. impedes onset of Insulin resistance syndrome in rats provided with drinking fructose from weaning to adulthood stages of development: A mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Rajani; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preeti; Sharma, Shveta; Kumar, Rajesh; Mathur, Sandeep

    2016-12-17

    To explore the effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (AM) on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism and insulin downstream signalling in rats provided with drinking fructose (15%) from weaning to adulthood. Wistar albino rats (4week) were randomly divided into Normal Control (NC), Fructose Control (FC) and treatment (AMT) groups and provided over 8 weeks, chow + water, chow + fructose (15%) and chow + fructose (15%) + AM (500 mg/kg/d, p.o.), respectively. Significantly (p<0.05) raised levels of Fasting Blood Glucose, lipid, visceral weight, plasma insulin and leptin, glycogen, gluconeogenesis enzyme levels but decreased glycolytic enzyme activity was recorded in FC as compared to NC. Raised levels of glucose transporter (GLUT 2) protein but decreased activity of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/AkT) and Janus Kinase -Signal Transducer And Activator of Transcription-3 (JAK-STAT3) in hepatic tissue, indicate a state of insulin and leptin resistance in FC. AMT recorded significant (p<0.05) lowering of physical, and glycemic parameters, reinforcement of hepatic glycolytic over gluconeogenic pathway and upregulated PI3K/AkT and JAK-STAT3 pathways, as compared to FC. For the first time, the mechanism underlying development of Insulin Resistance Syndrome (IRS) is delineated here, along with the potential of Aegle marmelos in impeding the same.

  9. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling

    PubMed Central

    Nithya Deva Krupa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

  10. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  11. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  12. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Time Varying Toxic Plumes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-12

    package, which we are calling EAGLE, in the sections below. The package contains the tabulated AEGL data for chlorine (CL2) and ammonia (NH3) at...200C. The molecular weight for chlorine (CL2) is MW = 70.9 and for ammonia (NH3), MW = 17.03. Figure 1 just below reproduces the chlorine table...below shows the same information as Table 1, but for ammonia . The toxicity levels are 50 or 60 times lower than for chlorine, but the behavior with

  13. Guidelines and Criteria for the Search Strategy, Evaluation, Selection, and Documentation of Key Data and Supporting Data Used for the Derivation of AEGL Values

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is Section 2.3 of the Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Chemicals. It discusses methodologies used to search for and select data for development of AEGL values.

  14. Comparison of pancreatic lipase inhibitory isoflavonoids from unripe and ripe fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yang Hee; Kim, Seon Beom; Liu, Qing; Do, Seon-Gil; Hwang, Bang Yeon

    2017-01-01

    The composition and content of the active constituents and their biological activity vary according to diverse factors including their maturation stages. A previous study showed that the fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata inhibited pancreatic lipase activity, a key enzyme in fat absorption. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of unripe and ripe fruits of C. tricuspidata. Unripe fruits of C. tricuspidata have a higher content of total phenolic and flavonoids and exhibited stronger pancreatic lipase inhibition compared to ripe fruits. HPLC analysis revealed the different chemical compositions of the unripe and ripe fruits. Further fractionation resulted in the isolation of 30 compounds including two new isoflavonoids. Analysis of the chemical constituents of the unripe and ripe fruits revealed that a 2,2-dimethylpyran ring, a cyclized prenyl, was the predominant side chain in the unripe fruits, whereas it was a linear prenyl group in the ripe fruits. In addition, a new isoflavonoid (19) from the unripe fruits showed the most potent inhibition on pancreatic lipase. Taken together, the maturation stage is an important factor for maximum efficacy and that unripe fruits of C. tricuspidata are a good source of new bioactive constituents for the regulation of obesity PMID:28253267

  15. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health.

  16. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  17. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened.

    PubMed

    Soley, Fernando G; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras (Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  18. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  19. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  20. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous - aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times. PMID:23921545

  1. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-02

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text].

  2. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    PubMed Central

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  3. A natural flavonoid present in unripe plantain banana pulp (Musa sapientum L. var. paradisiaca) protects the gastric mucosa from aspirin-induced erosions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D A; Fields, W N; Shaw, G P

    1999-06-01

    The active anti-ulcerogenic ingredient was extracted from unripe plantain banana by solvent fractionation and identified by chromatography, spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography as the flavonoid leucocyanidin. Dried unripe plantain banana powder, the extracted leucocyanidin and a purified synthetic leucocyanidin demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect against aspirin-induced erosions.

  4. Profiles and α-amylase inhibition activity of proanthocyanidins in unripe Manilkara zapota (chiku).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Tingting; Song, Lixia; Huang, Dejian

    2012-03-28

    Proanthocyanidins in unripe Manilkara zapota (chiku) were isolated using solvent extraction followed by Sephadex LH-20 fractionation with a yield of 0.9%. HPLC analysis using a diol column revealed well-resolved oligomers ranging from dimer to hexamer. The majority of the proanthocyanidins are composed of higher-degree oligomers appearing as one large peak in the chromatogram. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins using LC/MS showed that (epi)gallocatechins were the dominant extension unit in the proanthocyanidins. In agreement with this result, thiolysis treatment of the proanthocyanidins using mercaptoacetic acid produced thioether derivatives of (epi)gallocatechins as the major product and (epi)gallocatechin gallate derivatives as the minor product. The mean of the degree of polymerization was estimated to be 9.0. From MALDI-TOF MS, B-type gallocatechin oligomers up to decamer could be detected. The unripe chiku proanthocyanidins are thus good starting material for preparation of (epi)gallocatechin derivatives. The proanthocyanidins was shown to inhibit α-amylase with an IC(50) value of 4.2 ± 0.2 μg/mL and inhibit α-glucosidase with an IC(50) of 16.6 ± 0.3 μg/mL.

  5. Chemical composition and nutritional value of unripe banana flour (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão).

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Tadini, Carmen Cecília; Tribess, Tatiana Beatris; Zuleta, Angela; Binaghi, Julieta; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Bertolini, Andréa C; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Lajolo, Franco M

    2011-09-01

    Banana flour obtained from unripe banana (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão) under specific drying conditions was evaluated regarding its chemical composition and nutritional value. Results are expressed in dry weight (dw). The unripe banana flour (UBF) presented a high amount of total dietary fiber (DF) (56.24 g/100 g), which consisted of resistant starch (RS) (48.99 g/100 g), fructans (0.05 g/100 g) and DF without RS or fructans (7.2 g/100 g). The contents of available starch (AS) (27.78 g/100 g) and soluble sugars (1.81 g/100 g) were low. The main phytosterols found were campesterol (4.1 mg/100 g), stigmasterol (2.5 mg/100 g) and β-sitosterol (6.2 mg/100 g). The total polyphenol content was 50.65 mg GAE/100 g. Antioxidant activity, by the FRAP and ORAC methods, was moderated, being 358.67 and 261.00 μmol of Trolox equivalent/100 g, respectively. The content of Zn, Ca and Fe and mineral dialyzability were low. The procedure used to obtain UBF resulted in the recovery of undamaged starch granules and in a low-energy product (597 kJ/100 g).

  6. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P < 0.05) of blood glucose; RLW; RKW; RPW; serum and hepatic AST, ALT, and ALP; serum total and conjugated bilirubin; and serum lipase activities compared with nondiabetic while these parameters were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the rats fed unripe plantain. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the amylase levels of the diabetic rats compared with the nondiabetic, but there was nonsignificant increase (P > 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Conclusion Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications. PMID:25838921

  7. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  8. Colonic Fermentation of Unavailable Carbohydrates from Unripe Banana and its Influence over Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Sardá, Fabiana A H; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Carpinelli, Ângelo R; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the colonic fermentation of unavailable carbohydrates from unripe banana (mass - UBM - and starch - UBS) over parameters related to glucose and insulin response in rats. Wistar male rats were fed either a control diet, a UBM diet (5 % resistant starch - RS) or a UBS diet (10 % RS) for 28 days. In vivo (oral glucose tolerance test) and in vitro (cecum fecal fermentation, pancreatic islet insulin secretion) analyses were performed. The consumption of UBM and UBS diets by Wistar rats for 28 days improved insulin/glucose ratio. Also, pancreatic islets isolated from the test groups presented significant lower insulin secretion compared to the control group, when the same in vitro glucose stimulation was done. Total short chain fatty acids produced were higher in both experimental groups in relation to the control group. These findings suggest that UBM and UBS diets promote colonic fermentation and can influence glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in rats.

  9. Hieronymain I, a new cysteine peptidase isolated from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Bruno, Mariela A; Pardo, Marcelo F; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2003-02-01

    A new peptidase, named hieronymain I, was purified to homogeneity from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae) by acetone fractionation followed by cation exchange chromatography (FPLC) on CM-Sepharose FF. Homogeneity of the enzyme was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF), isoelectric focusing, and SDS-PAGE. Hieronymain is a basic peptidase (pI > 9.3) and its molecular mass was 24,066 Da. Maximum proteolytic activity on casein (>90% of maximum activity) was achieved at pH 8.5-9.5. The enzyme was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid and activated by the addition of cysteine; these results strongly suggest that the isolated protease should be included within the cysteine group. The N-terminal sequence of hieronymain (ALPESIDWRAKGAVTEVKRQDG) was compared with 25 plant cysteine proteases that showed more than 50% of identity.

  10. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Chen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Peng, Chien-Fang; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-12-15

    The fruits of Persea americana (Avocado) are nowadays used as healthy fruits in the world. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction has led to the isolation of five new fatty alcohol derivatives, avocadenols A-D (1-4) and avocadoin (5) from the unripe pulp of P. americana, along with 12 known compounds (6-17). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolates, avocadenol A (1), avocadenol B (2), (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane (6), and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (7) showed antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(V)in vitro, with MIC values of 24.0, 33.8, 24.9, and 35.7 μg/ml, respectively.

  11. Physico-chemical, sensory, and microbiological assessments of wheat-based biscuit improved with beniseed and unripe plantain

    PubMed Central

    Agu, Helen Obioma; Okoli, Ndidiamaka Azuka

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of cereal foods such as biscuit has become very popular globally. Partial replacement of wheat flour with beniseed and unripe plantain flours rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals will increase nutrient, diversify utilization of beniseed and unripe plantain, and increase biscuit variety. Wheat composite biscuit was produced from wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain flours. The composite flour was mixed in the proportion of 100:0:0, 80:10:10, 70:20:10, 60:30:10, and 50:40:10% of wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain, respectively. The physical, sensory, chemical, and microbial properties of the biscuits were determined. The physical properties ranged from 6.80 g to 8.30 g for weight, spread ratio 6.93–7.38, and break strength 500–690 g. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in taste, crispness, flavor and texture of the biscuits while significant differences (P < 0.05) existed in color and overall acceptability. The proximate composition of the biscuits ranged from 1.84% to 2.55% for moisture, protein 8.03–9.26%, fat 30.07–35.81%, ash 2.94–3.68%, crude fiber 0.47–0.80%, carbohydrate 48.74–55.96%, and energy 526.53–554.21 kcal/100 g. The microbial count of the best biscuit after 20 days of storage was 4.0 × 103 cfu/g for bacteria and mould contained 5.0 × 104 cfu/g. This study forms a basis for new product development for the biscuit food industry. PMID:25473504

  12. Aptitude of Saccharomyces yeasts to ferment unripe grapes harvested during cluster thinning for reducing alcohol content of wine.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Barbara; Nadai, Chiara; Vendramini, Chiara; Fernandes Lemos Junior, Wilson Josè; Carlot, Milena; Skelin, Andrea; Giacomini, Alessio; Corich, Viviana

    2016-11-07

    Among the viticultural techniques developed to obtain wine with reduced alcohol content, the use of unripe grapes with low sugar and high malic acid concentration, harvested at cluster thinning, was recently explored. So far, no studies have evaluated the fermentation performances of Saccharomyces in unripe grape musts, in terms of fermentation ability and reducing malic acid contents, to improve the quality of this low-alcohol beverage. In this work, we evaluated 24 S. cerevisiae strains isolated from Italian and Croatian vineyards with different fermentation aptitudes. Moreover, four S. paradoxus were considered, as previous works demonstrated that strains belonging to this species were able to degrade high malic acid amounts in standard musts. The industrial strain S. cerevisiae 71B was added as reference. Sugar and malic acid contents were modified in synthetic musts in order to understand the effect of their concentrations on alcoholic fermentation and malic acid degradation. S. cerevisiae fermentation performances improved when glucose concentration decreased and malic acid level increased. The conditions that simulate unripe grape must, i.e. low glucose and high malic acid content were found to enhance S. cerevisiae ability to degrade malic acid. On the contrary, S. paradoxus strains were able to degrade high amounts of malic acid only in conditions that resemble ripe grape must, i.e. high glucose and low malic acid concentration. In fermentation trials when low glucose concentrations were used, at high malic acid levels S. cerevisiae strains produced higher glycerol than at low malic acid condition. Malic acid degradation ability, tested on the best performing S. cerevisiae strains, was enhanced in fermentation trials when unripe grape must was used.

  13. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  14. Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel suppresses migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinase expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yesl; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM) is used to promote prostate health and has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. However, the effects and mechanisms of RCM on prostate cancer metastasis remain unclear. PC-3 and DU 145 cells were treated with ethanol or water extract of unripe or ripe RCM and examined for cell invasion, migration, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity and expression. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt activities were examined. Unripe RCM extracts exerted significant inhibitory effects on cell migration, invasion, and MMPs activities. A significant reduction in MMPs activities by unripe RCM ethanol extract treatment (UE) was associated with reduction of MMPs expression and induction of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) expression. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt activity was diminished by UE treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that UE decreased metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells by reducing MMPs expression through the suppression of PI3K/Akt phosphorylation, thereby decreasing MMP activity and enhancing TIMPs expression.

  15. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Purification of balansain I, an endopeptidase from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Canals, F; Avilés, F X; Natalucci, C L; Caffini, N O

    2000-09-01

    A new plant endopeptidase was obtained from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae). Crude extracts were partially purified by ethanol fractionation. This preparation (redissolved ethanol precipitate, REP) showed maximum activity at pH 8.8-9.2, was very stable even at high ionic strength values (no appreciable decrease in proteolytic activity could be detected after 24 h in 1 M sodium chloride solution at 37 degrees C), and exhibited high thermal stability (inactivation required heating for 60 min at 75 degrees C). Anion exchange chromatography allowed the isolation of a fraction purified to mass spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and IEF homogeneity, named balansain I, with pI = 5.45 and molecular mass = 23192 (mass spectrometry). The purification factor is low (2.9-fold), but the yield is high (48.3%), a common occurrence in plant organs with high proteolytic activity, where proteases represent the bulk of protein content of crude extracts. Balansain I exhibits a similar but narrower pH profile than that obtained for REP, with a maximum pH value approximately 9.0 and was inhibited by E-64 and other cysteine peptidases inhibitors but not affected by inhibitors of the other catalytic types of peptidases. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters was strongly preferred by the enzyme. The N-terminal sequence of balansain I showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  17. Effects of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on blood fluidity.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of blood fluidity may lead to improvements in skin problems resulting from unsmooth circulation or blood stagnation. Since a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits may be a useful ingredient in skin-whitening cosmetics, the present study was designed to examine the effect of CH-ext on blood fluidity. CH-ext concentration-dependently inhibited in vitro collagen-induced rabbit platelet aggregation and in vitro polybrene-induced rat erythrocyte aggregation. The CH-ext showed in vitro fibrinolysis activity in fibrin plate assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext using antiplatelet activity, inhibitory activity of erythrocyte aggregation, and fibrinolysis activity revealed that these activities of CH-ext were attributable to naringenin-7-glycoside (prunin). Successive oral administration of CH-ext to rats inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decrease of blood platelets and fibrinogen, and LPS-induced increase of fibrin degradation products (FDP) in LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) model rats. Effects of CH-ext on blood fluidity were analyzed by a micro channel array flow analyzer (MC-FAN). Preventive oral administration of CH-ext to rats showed dose-dependent reduction of the passage time of whole blood flow of the DIC model rats in comparison with that of the vehicle control rats. These results imply that CH-ext may have effects which improve effects on blood fluidity.

  18. Effects of particle size distribution on some physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Savlak, Nazlı; Türker, Burcu; Yeşilkanat, Nazlıcan

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of particle size distribution on physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour for the first time. A pure triploid (AAA group) of Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish (°Brix;0.2, pH;4.73, titratable acidity; 0.56g/100g malic acid, total solids; 27.42%) which was supplied from Gazipaşa, Antalya, Turkey from October 2014 to October 2015 was used. Size fractions of <212, 212-315, 316-500 and 501-700μm were characterized for their physical, functional and antioxidant properties. Particle size significantly effected color, water absorbtion index and wettability. L(∗) value decreased, a(∗) and b(∗) values decreased by increasing particle size (r(2)=-0.94, r(2)=0.72, r(2)=0.73 respectively). Particles under 212μm had the lowest rate of wettability (83.40s). A negative correlation between particle size and wettability (r(2)=-0.75) and positive correlation between particle size and water absorption index (r(2)=0.94) was observed.

  19. 7 CFR 301.76-2 - Regulated articles for Asian citrus psyllid and citrus greening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and plant parts (including leaves), except fruit, of: Aegle marmelos, Aeglopsis chevalieri, Afraegle... asiatica, Triphasia trifolia, Vepris (=Toddalia) lanceolata, and Zanthoxylum fagara. (b) Propagative seed..., the movement of propagative seed of these species from an area quarantined for citrus greening...

  20. In vivo interaction between ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and the pulp of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Sv, Nwafor; Co, Esimone; Ca, Amadi; Cs, Nworu

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of quinolone antibiotics is seriously impaired by polyvalent cations due to the formation of unabsorbable complexes. M. paradisiaca Linn. (Musaceae), an important staple food in most parts of the world, has been demonstrated to contain many polyvalent cations. The aim of the work was to study the influence of concurrent administration of M. paradisiaca and ciprofloxacin HCI on the pharmacokinetic profiles of ciprofloxacin. The study was carried out in two phases in five healthy male rabbits. Phase one involved oral administration of ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg) to rabbits, withdrawing blood from the marginal ear vein at 1, 2, 4, and 24 h intervals and checking the serum ciprofloxacin concentration. After a one-week drug "wash-out" period, the second phase started with concurrent oral administration of M. paradisiaca (800 mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg). Blood was again withdrawn and analyzed for serum ciprofloxacin content. Antimicrobial activity of the serum was also assessed and expressed as reciprocal serum inhibitory titer. Co-administration of both agents resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum concentration of ciprofloxacin at all the time interval except at the 24th hour. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were also decreased: area under the curve (81.53%), peak serum concentration (94.37%), elimination rate constant (42.35%); while increase in half-life (81.08%) and clearance rate (69.64%) were noted. Antimicrobial study showed that the antimicrobial potency against E. coli was also decreased by such concurrent administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters and antimicrobial activities of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased when it was given concurrently with pulp of unripe plantain. Complex formation between the drug and the polyvalent cations present in plantain, leading to decrease in absorption and hence bioavailability, may be responsible for the observed antagonistic interactions.

  1. Isolation and structure elucidation of tetrameric procyanidins from unripe apples (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shohei; Oda, Chihiro; Masuda, Susumu; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2012-11-01

    Procyanidins are plant secondary metabolites widely consumed and known to have various physiological functions, but their bioavailability and mechanism of action are still unclear especially for larger oligomers. One of the reasons is scarce information about the detailed structure of oligomeric procyanidins. As for apple, structures of procyanidin components larger than trimers are scarcely known. In this study, 11 tetrameric procyanidins including two known compounds were isolated from unripe apples (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) and identified by NMR spectroscopic analysis and phloroglucinol degradation. As a result, the detailed structural diversity of tetrameric procyanidins in apple was established.

  2. Isolation, purification and structural characterization of an acetylated heteroglycan from the unripe fruits of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Subhas; Das, Debsankar; Roy, Sadhan K; Islam, Syed S

    2012-06-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from the hot water extract of the unripe fruits of Manilkara zapota L. was found to consist of 3-O-acyl-L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, 3-O-acetyl-D-methyl galacturonate in a molar proportion of nearly 1:1:1. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total hydrolysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation followed by GLC-MS, and NMR experiments. On the basis of the above experiments it is concluded that the following repeating unit is present in the polysaccharide.

  3. Bioactive comparison of main components from unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu and identification of the effective component.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    Dried and unripe fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, known as "Fu-pen-zi" in Chinese, has been used as a food and tonic in China for a long time. In order to analyze its effective ingredients, polysaccharides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were extracted from the unripe fruits and their contents were determined. The in vitro antioxidant, anticomplementary and anticancer activities against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells of the four major constituents were investigated. Results showed that total flavonoids exhibited an obvious antioxidant activity, which was very close to ascorbic acid. The anticomplementary and anticancer activities of flavonoids were also the best among the four chemical compositions. Therefore, extraction process optimization of flavonoids was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.8 °C, ethanol concentration 30.67%, extraction time 2.66 h, and a liquid/solid ratio of 19.54 : 1. In addition, total flavonoids were subsequently separated by column chromatography and the major flavonoid was identified as tiliroside. Further experimental data revealed that tiliroside treatment could suppress the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells.

  4. Composition of the essential oil of leaves, galls, and ripe and unripe fruits of Jordanian Pistacia palaestina Boiss.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Bader, Ammar; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Katbeh-Bader, Ahmad; Morelli, Ivano

    2004-02-11

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Pistacia terebinthus L. var. palaestina (Boiss.) Engl.) is a medicinal and foodstuff plant. The ripe fruits are used largely in the Middle East as a component of the so-called Zaatar, a mix of aromatic and food plants. Results of GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oils of leaves, galls produced by Baizongia pistaciae (L.), and ripe and unripe fruits of Pistacia palaestinaBoiss. collected in Jordan are reported. Both qualitative and quantitative differences between different parts of the plant were observed. The oil was rich in monoterpenes, and the main constituents were alpha-pinene (63.1%) and myrcene (13.3%) in the leaves and alpha-pinene (49.4%), sabinene (22.8%), and limonene (8.1%) in the galls. (E)-Ocimene (33.8-41.3%), sabinene (20.3-24.1%), and (Z)-ocimene (3.8-13.0%) were the main ones in both unripe and ripe fruits. Sesquiterpenes have been detected in small quantities in leaves and fruits and in trace amounts in galls.

  5. The salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghyeob; Hong, Jong-Chan; Jeon, Woong Bae; Chung, Young-Soo; Sung, Soonkee; Choi, Doil; Joung, Young Hee; Oh, Boung-Jun

    2009-10-01

    The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. Here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance (LAR) by salicylic acid (SA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (JA) does not. The SA-mediated LAR in the unripe fruit inhibited the fungal appressoria, resulting in protection against fungal infection. Microarray analysis revealed that 177 of 7,900 cDNA clones showed more than fourfold transcriptional accumulation in SA-treated unripe fruit. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that most of the SA-responsive genes (SRGs) were regulated by SA, but not by JA or ethylene-releasing ethephon. Furthermore, most of the SRGs were preferentially expressed in the ripe fruit. These results suggest that the SA-mediated transcriptional regulation of SRGs has a critical role in the resistance of ripe pepper fruit to fungal infection.

  6. Down regulation of cerebellar serotonergic receptors in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats: Effect of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelose.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Pretty Mary; Paul, Jes; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-29

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebellar damage caused by diabetes, leading to deterioration in glucose homeostasis causing metabolic disorders. The present study was carried out to find the effects of Aegle marmelose leaf extract and insulin alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the cerebellar 5-HT through 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype, gene expression studies on the status of antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) and immunohistochemical studies in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT and 5-HT(2A) receptor binding parameters, B(max) and K(d), showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the cerebellum of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of SOD, GPx, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT in cerebellum showed a significant down regulation (p<0.001) in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treated alone and in combination with insulin, A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the B(max), K(d) of 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and the gene expression of SOD, GPx, 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT in cerebellum to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Also, the Rotarod test confirms the motor dysfunction and recovery by treatment. These data suggest the antioxidant and neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and A. marmelose through the up regulation of 5-HT through 5-HT(2A) receptor in diabetic rats. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated alone and in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalizing diabetic related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration affecting the motor ability of an individual by serotonergic receptors through 5-HT(2A) function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.

  7. Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Yasmin; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2016-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence. PMID:27729866

  8. Nitrogen-doped carbon dots originating from unripe peach for fluorescent bioimaging and electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports the robust hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-CDs) using the unripe fruit of Prunus persica (peach) as the carbon precursor and aqueous ammonia as the nitrogen source. The optical properties of synthesized N-CDs were characterized by ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized N-CDs were emitted blue light when excitated with a portable UV lamp. The materials with the optical properties were characterized further by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mean size of the N-CDs was approximately 8nm, as calculated from the HRTEM image. The d-spacing of N-CDs, calculated using Bragg law, was approximately 0.21nm, which was consistent with the interlayer distance calculated from the HRTEM image. FT-IR spectroscopy and XPS revealed the presence of the phytoconstituents functionalities of peach fruit over the N-CDs surface and a high level of nitrogen doping on carbon dots (CDs) was confirmed by XPS studies. These results suggest that the unripe fruit extract of peach is an ideal candidate for the preparation of N-CDs. The resulting N-CDs showed excellent optical properties in water. The synthesized N-CDs exhibited a high fluorescence quantum yield and low cytotoxicity, and can be used as fluorescence imaging probes. In addition, the N-CDs were catalytically activite towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The N-CDs exhibited good catalytic activity in an alkaline medium (0.1M KOH) with a remarkable ORR of approximately 0.72V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and O2 reduction follows mainly a 2 electron pathway by being reduced to hydrogen peroxide. The 2-electron reduction pathway is used in industry for H2O2 production.

  9. Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Yasmin; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2016-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  10. Efficient synthesis of highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots for cell imaging using unripe fruit extract of Prunus mume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-10-01

    Highly fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (N-CDs) were synthesized using the extract of unripe Prunus mume (P. mume) fruit by a simple one step hydrothermal-carbonization method. The N-CDs were synthesized at different pH ranges, 2.3, 5, 7, and 9. The pH of the P. mume extract was adjusted using an aqueous ammonia solution (25%). The optical properties of N-CDs were examined by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 emitted high fluorescence intensity compared to other obtained N-CDs. The N-CDs synthesized at pH 9 was further characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform-infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HR-TEM showed that the average size of the synthesized N-CDs was approximately 9 nm and the interlayer distance was 0.21 nm, which was validated by XRD. The graphitic nature of the synthesized N-CDs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. XPS and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the doping of the nitrogen moiety over the synthesized CDs. The synthesized nitrogen doped CDs (N-CDs) were low toxicity and were used as a staining probe for fluorescence cell imaging.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. "Dashehari") unravels ripening associated genes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-09-02

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety "Dashehari" This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in "Dashehari" mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the "Dashehari" variety.

  12. Antiallergic activity of unripe Citrus hassaku fruits extract and its flavanone glycosides on chemical substance-induced dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of a 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from unripe Citrus hassaku fruits collected in July exhibited a potent dose-dependent inhibition of IgE (immunoglobulin E)-mediated triphasic cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)], 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] and 8 days [very late phase response (vLPR)] after dinitrofluorobenzene challenge in mice. Naringin, a major flavanone glycoside component of CH-ext, showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition against IPR, LPR and vLPR. Neohesperidin, another major glycoside component of CH-ext, showed an inhibition against vLPR. The effect of CH-ext on type IV allergic reaction was examined by determining inhibitory activity against ear swelling in mice by using the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) model. Oral administration (p.o.) of CH-ext and subcutaneous administration (s.c.) of prednisolone inhibited ear swelling during the induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CH-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) against PC-CD in mice were more potent than those of CH-ext alone and prednisolone alone, without enhancing the adverse effects. Other combinations of prednisolone (s.c.) and flavanone glycoside (p.o.) components of CH-ext, i.e. naringin and neohesperidin, exerted similar synergistic effects.

  13. Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products.

  14. Ammonium secretion during Colletotrichum coccodes infection modulates salicylic and jasmonic acid pathways of ripe and unripe tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2012-01-01

    The postharvest pathogens Colletotrichum coccodes remains quiescent after infection of unripe fruit. However, during fruit ripening, the pathogen assumes a necrotrophic life style, rapidly colonizing the tissue. C. coccodes secretes ammonium during germination and colonization of host tissue that induces host programmed cell death. We further examined the role of ammonia in the infection process by analyzing transcriptome expression from infected and ammonia-treated fruit tissue compared with healthy tissue. The analysis revealed 82 and 237 common upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of select transcripts in normal and transgenic NADPH oxidase antisense plants revealed that their expression was NADPH oxidase dependent. Common-upregulated genes showed overrepresentation of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent genes as well as genes related to biotic stress. The downregulated genes showed overrepresentation of jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent genes. Indeed, direct application of SA to the fruit enhanced C. coccodes necrotrophic colonization, whereas the application of JA delayed colonization. Importantly, green fruit and red fruit displayed similar gene expression patterns although only red fruit is susceptible to colonization. Thus, it is likely that the resistance of green fruit to C. coccodes colonization is due to additional factors.

  15. Alterations in hippocampal serotonergic and INSR function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats exposed to stress: neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelose.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Pretty Mary; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Mathew, Jobin; Malat, Anitha; Joy, Shilpa; Paulose, C S

    2010-09-25

    Diabetes and stress stimulate hippocampal 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and release. The present study was carried out to find the effects of insulin, Aegle marmelose alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the hippocampal 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype, gene expression studies on 5-HT(2A), 5-HTT, INSR, immunohistochemical studies and elevated plus maze in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT content showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) and a significant increase (p < 0.001) in 5-HIAA in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. 5-HT receptor binding parameters B(max) and Kd showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) whereas 5-HT(2A) receptor binding parameters Bmax showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Kd in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of 5-HT(2A), 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus showed a significant down regulation (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the 5-HT content, B(max), Kd of 5-HT, 5-HT(2A) and gene expression of 5-HT(2A), 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT(2A) and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Behavioural studies using elevated plus maze showed that serotonin through its transporter significantly increased (p < 0.001) anxiety-related traits in diabetic rats which were corrected by combination therapy. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalising diabetic related stress and anxiety through hippocampal serotonergic function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes.

  16. Alterations in hippocampal serotonergic and INSR function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats exposed to stress: neuroprotective role of pyridoxine and Aegle marmelose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes and stress stimulate hippocampal 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and release. The present study was carried out to find the effects of insulin, Aegle marmelose alone and in combination with pyridoxine on the hippocampal 5-HT, 5-HT2A receptor subtype, gene expression studies on 5-HT2A, 5-HTT, INSR, immunohistochemical studies and elevated plus maze in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. 5-HT content showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) and a significant increase (p < 0.001) in 5-HIAA in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. 5-HT receptor binding parameters Bmax and Kd showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) whereas 5-HT2A receptor binding parameters Bmax showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001) with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Kd in hippocampus of diabetic rats compared to control. Gene expression studies of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus showed a significant down regulation (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats compared to control. Pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose to diabetic rats reversed the 5-HT content, Bmax , Kd of 5-HT, 5-HT2A and gene expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HTT and INSR in hippocampus to near control. The gene expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HTT were confirmed by immunohistochemical studies. Behavioural studies using elevated plus maze showed that serotonin through its transporter significantly increased (p < 0.001) anxiety-related traits in diabetic rats which were corrected by combination therapy. Our results suggest that pyridoxine treated in combination with insulin and A. marmelose has a role in the regulation of insulin synthesis and release, normalising diabetic related stress and anxiety through hippocampal serotonergic function. This has clinical significance in the management of diabetes. PMID:20868513

  17. Oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities of indigenous plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2009-11-01

    Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The leaf acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees, and Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels were tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal, and repellent activities against Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of effective oviposition repellency of 92.60 , 93.04, 95.20, 88.26, 92.80, 94.01, 95.77, 96.93, and 92.54 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency of 47.14, 58.00, 56.52, 64.93, 71.09, 66.42, 50.62, 57.62, and 65.73 at 31.25 ppm in acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus, respectively. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus at 500 ppm were -0.86, -0.87, -0.90, -0.78, -0.87, -0.86, -0.91, -0.94, and -0.86 respectively. The OAI values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 24 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100% with ethyl acetate extract of Aegle marmelos, methanol extracts Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus were exerted at 1,000 ppm. The maximum repellent activity was observed at 500 ppm in methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and ethyl acetate extract of Cocculus hirsutus, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 90 to 120 min with the different extracts tested. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos, Andrographis lineata, and Cocculus hirsutus have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly

  18. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. “Dashehari”) unravels ripening associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K.; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2016-01-01

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety “Dashehari” This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in “Dashehari” mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the “Dashehari” variety. PMID:27586495

  19. The anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of kaempferol glycosides from unripe soybean leaves in high-fat-diet mice.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yanqing; Zhang, Liping; Igarashi, Kiharu; Yu, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of kaempferol glycoside (KG) fractions which were composed of four kaempferol glycosides and purified from unripe Jindai-soybean (Edamame) leaves in C57BL/6J mice. High fat-fed mice treated with 0.15% dietary KG for 92 days had reduced body weight, adipose tissue and TG levels compared to the high fat-fed control group. KG-treatment also decreased fasting blood glucose, serum HbA1c (hemoglobin A(1c)) levels and improved insulin resistance. Gene expression analysis of the liver showed that KG decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1c) expression. These results suggest that KG reduced the accumulation of adipose tissue, improving hyperlipidemia as well as diabetes in obese mice by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c. Thus, KG may have an anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potential.

  20. Antiobesity Effects of Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel and Its Constituents: An In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dool-Ri; Kim, Yujin; Choi, Eun-jin; Hunmi-Lee; Jung, Myung-A; Bae, Donghyuck; Jo, Ara; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Sunoh

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objective of the present study was to perform a bioguided fractionation of unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel (uRC) and evaluate the lipid accumulation system involvement in its antiobesity activity as well as study the uRC mechanism of action. Results. After the fractionation, the BuOH fraction of uRC (uRCB) was the most active fraction, suppressing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, after an oral administration for 8 weeks in HFD-induced obese mice, uRCB (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) produced a significant decrease in body weight, food efficiency ratio, adipose tissue weight and LDL-cholesterol, serum glucose, TC, and TG levels. Similarly, uRCB significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA levels of PPARγ in the adipose tissue in vivo. Next, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ellagic acid, erycibelline, 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol, m-hydroxyphenylglycine, and 4-hydroxycoumarin isolated from uRCB. Without affecting cell viability, five bioactive compounds decreased the lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells and the mRNA expression levels of key adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Conclusion. These results suggest that uRC and its five bioactive compounds may be a useful therapeutic agent for body weight control by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:26904142

  1. Influence of pressure cooking on antioxidant activity of wild (Ensete superbum) and commercial banana (Musa paradisiaca var. Monthan) unripe fruit and flower.

    PubMed

    Sasipriya, Gopalakrishnan; Maria, Cherian Lintu; Siddhuraju, Perumal

    2014-10-01

    Banana is a highly nutritious fruit crop consumed by many people's worldwide while endangered species are consumed by limited peoples and their health benefits are not explored. The unripe fruits and flowers of wild and commercial banana are consumed by peoples after cooking only. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of pressure cooking on antioxidant activity of wild and commercial banana species. The raw and processed samples were extracted with 70 % acetone. Except wild flower, thermal processing enhanced the content of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, hydroxyl and peroxidation activity than raw. Wild species presented higher phenolics, tannins, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP activity than commercial ones. Except few samples, wild species and commercial species exhibit similar activity in superoxide, hydroxyl and peroxidation activity. FRAP (r (2)  = 0.922; 0.977) and hydroxyl (r (2)  = 0.773; 0.744) activities were dependent on phenolics and tannin content whereas tannins may be responsible for DPPH scavenging activity (r (2)  = 0.745). Thermal processing enhanced the antioxidant activity might be due to the release of bound phenolics from cell wall and oxidation and polymerisation of compounds present in it. This wild species may be an alternative to commercial ones and will be valuable to consumers for protecting from chronic diseases.

  2. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect.

  3. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  4. Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical

    PubMed Central

    Salunkhe, V. R.; Bhise, S B

    2009-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500μg/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

  5. Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

    2009-04-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500μg/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas.

  6. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  7. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus.

  8. Lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and high fat and fructose diet induced obese C57/BL6J mice.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Munisankar; Pandikumar, Perumal; Saravanan, Subramaniam; Toppo, Erenius; Pazhanivel, Natesan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-10-05

    Aegle marmelos Correa., (Rutaceae) is a medium sized tree distributed in South East Asia and used traditionally for the management of obestiy and diabetes. In this study the lipolytic and antiadipogenic effects of (3,3-dimethylallyl) halfordinol (Hfn) isolated from leaves of A. marmelos have been investigated. Intracellular lipid accumulation was measured by oil red O staining and glycerol secretion. The expression of genes related to adipocyte differentiation was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Hfn decreased intracellular triglyceride accumulation and increased glycerol release in a dose dependent manner (5-20 μg/ml) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In high fat diet fed C57/BL 6J mice, treatment with Hfn for four weeks reduced plasma glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels and showed a significant reduction in total adipose tissue mass by 37.85% and visceral adipose tissue mass by 62.99% at 50mg/kg b.w. concentration. RT-PCR analyses indicated that Hfn decreased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (CEBPα) and increased the expression of sterol regulatory enzyme binding protein (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), Adiponectin and Glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) compared to the high fat diet group. These results suggested that Hfn decreased adipocyte differentiation and stimulated lipolysis of adipocytes. This study justifies the folklore medicinal uses and claims about the therapeutic values of this plant for the management of insulin resistance and obesity.

  9. Cloning and Structure-Function Analyses of Quinolone- and Acridone-producing Novel Type III Polyketide Synthases from Citrus microcarpa*

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56–60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the “single product” by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-Å resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 Å3) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 Å3), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 Å3) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

  10. Geese Are Swans and Swans Are Geese or Selecting Unripe Fruits Instead of Ripe Fruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Procedural evaluations of limits of functions provide invariably better understanding of the limits than the approximations using a calculator. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that better understanding can be promoted if mathematical understanding precedes the impulse to use calculators. The note clarifies the stages when the…

  11. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  12. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area.

  13. Studies on effects of indigenous plant extracts on filarial vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles.

    PubMed

    Elango, G; Rahuman, A Abdul; Kamaraj, C; Zahir, A Abduz; Bagavan, A

    2010-06-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of leaf ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb (Rutaceae), Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees. (Acanthaceae), Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels (Menispermaceae), Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) and Tagetes erecta L. (Compositae) on ovicidal and oviposition-deterrent activities against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The percentage of egg hatching in methanol extracts of Andrographis lineata, Cocculus hirsutus and T. erecta were 16, 12 and 16 exerted at 500 ppm, respectively. The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was 97.77 at 500 ppm and the lowest repellency was 42.06 at 31.25 ppm in methanol and acetone extracts of Andrographis lineata and Andrographis paniculata, respectively. The oviposition activity index values revealed that the solvent plant extracts have deterrent effect, and they caused a remarkable negative response resulting in oviposition of very few eggs. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus.

  14. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  15. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments.

  16. Botanicals to Control Soft Rot Bacteria of Potato

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Ali, M. E.; Mian, I. H.; Akanda, A. M.; Abd Hamid, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  17. Rapid densitometric method for simultaneous analysis of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol in herbal raw materials using HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Dhalwal, Kamlesh; Shinde, Vaibhav M; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Namdeo, Ajay G

    2007-08-01

    The term 'phenolics' refers to a vast array of biologically active compounds ubiquitous in plants, many of which have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years. Umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol are widely occurring phenolic compounds of plant origin, for which many biological activities against chronic diseases have been reported. A simple HPTLC method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol. These three compounds were quantified in the dried fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos and in the fruit of Trachyspermum ammi and Foeniculam vulgare. The technique enables rapid and sensitive simultaneous analysis in different samples. The method was validated for precision, repeatability, and accuracy in accordance with ICH guidelines. The accuracy of the method was checked by a recovery study conducted at three different levels and the average percentage recovery was found to be 98.88% for umbelliferone, 100.104% for psoralen, and 99.33% for eugenol. The proposed HPTLC method for the simultaneous quantification of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol was found to be simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and accurate. It can be used for routine quality control of herbal raw materials as well as formulations containing any or all of these compounds.

  18. Effect of umbelliferone on tail tendon collagen and haemostatic function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Balakrishnan; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Viswanathan

    2007-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus is known to affect collagen in various tissues. Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin), a natural antioxidant and benzopyrone, is found in golden apple (Aegle marmelos Correa) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium). Plant-derived phenolic coumarins have been shown to act as dietary antioxidants. In this study, we have investigated the influence of umbelliferone on collagen content and its effects on the tail tendon in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male albino Wistar rats (180-200 g) were made diabetic by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg). Normal and diabetic rats were treated with umbelliferone for 45 days. Diabetic rats had increased glucose and decreased insulin levels. Tail tendons of diabetic rats had increased total collagen, glycation and fluorescence, and decreased levels of neutral, acid and pepsin-soluble collagens. We have studied the effect of umbelliferone on haemostatic function because umbelliferone is also a coumarin derivative like the anticoagulant, warfarin. Diabetic rats had a significant decrease in prothrombin, clotting and bleeding time, and treatment with umbelliferone made these parameters almost normal. Our results show that umbelliferone controls glycaemia and has a beneficial effect on collagen content and its properties, i.e. collagen related parameters, in the tail tendon, which indicates recovery from the risk (recovery of animals from the risk of complications) of collagen-mediated diabetic polyneuropathy and diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda.

  20. Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of β-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of β-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of β-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of β-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and γ-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

  1. Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. – a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

  2. Gluten-free spaghetti made with chickpea, unripe plantain, and maize flours: functional and chemical properties and starch digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten containing pasta has a primary role in human nutrition and is a traditional food that it is easy to store, cook and handle. The worldwide increased in genetically susceptible individuals to gluten and related cereal proteins, demand the development of gluten-free food products. The use of dif...

  3. Development and validation of standard area diagrams as assessment aids for estimating the severity of citrus canker on unripe oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is an important disease of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, and can cause severe disease on the fruit. The severity of citrus canker of fruit must often be estimated visually. The objective of this research was to construct and validate s...

  4. Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?

    PubMed

    Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2013-03-01

    Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ≤ 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ≤ 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ≥ 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves.

  5. THE EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTY FACTOR PLACEMENT IN A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE) FOR ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS (AEGL).

    EPA Science Inventory

    PBPK models may be used in risk assessment to reduce uncertainties associated with dosimetry; however, other considerations may still lead to incorporation of uncertainty factors (UF). We investigated the consequences of incorporating UFs at three different steps in the modeling...

  6. Extruded/injection-molded composites containing unripe plantain flour, ethylene vinyl-alcohol and glycerol: Evaluation of color, mechanical property and biodegradability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded/injection-molded composites were produced from plantain flour blended with ethylene vinyl-alcohol (EVA) and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy showed composites had a smooth surface and excellent compatibility between plantain flour, EVA and glycerol. The impact of increased plantain fl...

  7. Biochemical analysis of reactive oxygen species production and antioxidative responses in unripe avocado (Persea americana Mill var Hass) fruits in response to wounding.

    PubMed

    Castro-Mercado, E; Martinez-Diaz, Y; Roman-Tehandon, N; Garcia-Pineda, E

    2009-03-01

    We analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and of detoxifying enzymes and enzymes of the ascorbate (ASC) acid cycle in avocado fruit (Pesea Americana Mill cv Hass) in response to wounding. The levels of superoxide anion (O(2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH.) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased at 15 min and 2 and 15 h post-wounding. Peroxidase (POD) activity had increased to high levels 24 h after wounding; in contrast, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels hat decreased significantly at 24 h post-treatment. Basic POD was the major POD form induced, and the levels of at least three apoplastic POD isozymes -increased following wounding. Using specific inhibitors, we characterized one MnSOD and two CuZnSOD isozymes. CuZnSOD activities decreased notably 12 h after treatment. The activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase increased dramatically following the wounding treatment, possibly as a means to compensate for the redox changes due to ROS production.

  8. Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

    2013-11-01

    Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal

  9. "The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge": the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors' offspring.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-03-25

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified "cause-effect" paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of "Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual's susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce.The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the "second" and "third" generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed.Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense.

  10. “The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge”: the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors’ offspring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified “cause-effect” paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of “Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases” (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual’s susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce. The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the “second” and “third” generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed. Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense. PMID:24661388

  11. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  12. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE

  13. 75 FR 14153 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... chloride; monoethanolamine; nerve agent VX; nitric oxide; oleum; propargyl alcohol; propionaldehyde; red... chloride. DATES: A meeting of the NAC/AEGL Committee will be held from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. on April 13,...

  14. Development of acute exposure guideline levels for airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Bakshi, Kulbir; Garrett, Roger; Falke, Ernest; Rusch, George; Gaylor, David

    2004-04-01

    Hazardous substances can be released into the atmosphere due to industrial and transportation accidents, fires, tornadoes, earthquakes, and terrorists, thereby exposing workers and the nearby public to potential adverse health effects. Various enforceable guidelines have been set by regulatory agencies for worker and ambient air quality. However, these exposure levels generally are not applicable to rare lifetime acute exposures, which possibly could occur at high concentrations. Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) provide estimates of concentrations for airborne exposures for an array of short durations that possibly could cause mild (AEGL-1), severe, irreversible, potentially disabling adverse health effects (AEGL-2), or life threatening effects (AEGL-3). These levels can be useful for emergency responders and planners in reducing or eliminating potential risks to the public. Procedures and methodologies for deriving AEGLs are reviewed in this paper that have been developed in the United States, with direct input from international representatives of OECD member-countries, by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guidelines for Hazardous Substances and reviewed by the National Research Council. Techniques are discussed for the extrapolation of effects across different exposure durations. AEGLs provide a viable approach for assisting in the prevention, planning, and response to acute airborne exposures to toxic agents.

  15. Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment

    DOEpatents

    Ostler, Farrell Lynn

    2016-07-19

    Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.

  16. Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Heidi M

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m(3)). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m(3)) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

  17. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  18. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....) Elements Degrees Maturity Immature Unripe Mature Ripe Mellow. Leaf structure Tight Close Firm Open Body Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep....

  19. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....) Elements Degrees Maturity Immature Unripe Mature Ripe Mellow. Leaf structure Tight Close Firm Open Body Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep....

  20. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....) Elements Degrees Maturity Immature Unripe Mature Ripe Mellow. Leaf structure Tight Close Firm Open Body Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep....

  1. Fentanyl Synthetic Methodology: A Comparative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    dried juice from the unripe seed pod of the opium poppy (papaver somniferum) is an extremely effective analgesic. Over the centuries, it was discovered...that by carefully drying the juice from the unripe seed pod a useful preparation was produced that could be chewed directly or added to food. However...structural features of morphine emerged, as did the relationships between morphine and other alkaloids such as thebaine and codeine . After an arduous

  2. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  3. Quantification of Hydrogen Cyanide Generated at Low Temperature O-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS) Dispersal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-10

    Guidelines ( MEGs ). This study quantified airborne HCN levels generated in both the field, at live CS training events at Ft. Jackson, SC, and in the...quantifiable even at 100 ºC, much lower than previously hypothesized, but well below the OEL and MEGs . Findings may assist in standardizing DoD... MEGs )(39), the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs)(40), the National Institute for Occupational Safety

  4. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  5. Identification of an endocytosis motif in an intracellular loop of Wntless protein, essential for its recycling and the control of Wnt protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Gasnereau, Isabelle; Herr, Patrick; Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Basler, Konrad; Gleeson, Paul A

    2011-12-16

    The secretion of Wnt signaling proteins is dependent upon the transmembrane sorting receptor, Wntless (Wls), which recycles between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. Loss of Wls results in impairment of Wnt secretion and defects in development and homeostasis in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the mouse. The sorting signals for the internalization and trafficking of Wls have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that Wls internalization requires clathrin and dynamin I, components of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Moreover, we have identified a conserved YXXϕ endocytosis motif in the third intracellular loop of the multipass membrane protein Wls. Mutation of the tyrosine-based motif YEGL to AEGL (Y425A) resulted in the accumulation of human mutant Wls on the cell surface of transfected HeLa cells. The cell surface accumulation of Wls(AEGL) was rescued by the insertion of a classical YXXϕ motif in the cytoplasmic tail. Significantly, a Drosophila Wls(AEGL) mutant displayed a wing notch phenotype, with reduced Wnt secretion and signaling. These findings demonstrate that YXXϕ endocytosis motifs can occur in the intracellular loops of multipass membrane proteins and, moreover, provide direct evidence that the trafficking of Wls is required for efficient secretion of Wnt signaling proteins.

  6. Identification of an Endocytosis Motif in an Intracellular Loop of Wntless Protein, Essential for Its Recycling and the Control of Wnt Protein Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Gasnereau, Isabelle; Herr, Patrick; Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Basler, Konrad; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The secretion of Wnt signaling proteins is dependent upon the transmembrane sorting receptor, Wntless (Wls), which recycles between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. Loss of Wls results in impairment of Wnt secretion and defects in development and homeostasis in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the mouse. The sorting signals for the internalization and trafficking of Wls have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that Wls internalization requires clathrin and dynamin I, components of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Moreover, we have identified a conserved YXXφ endocytosis motif in the third intracellular loop of the multipass membrane protein Wls. Mutation of the tyrosine-based motif YEGL to AEGL (Y425A) resulted in the accumulation of human mutant Wls on the cell surface of transfected HeLa cells. The cell surface accumulation of WlsAEGL was rescued by the insertion of a classical YXXφ motif in the cytoplasmic tail. Significantly, a Drosophila WlsAEGL mutant displayed a wing notch phenotype, with reduced Wnt secretion and signaling. These findings demonstrate that YXXφ endocytosis motifs can occur in the intracellular loops of multipass membrane proteins and, moreover, provide direct evidence that the trafficking of Wls is required for efficient secretion of Wnt signaling proteins. PMID:22027831

  7. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  8. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae): An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Vangueria madagascariensis (VM), consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r = 0.88) with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research. PMID:24812627

  9. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya. The food-grade product is obtained by repeated filtration of the crude latex or an aqueous solution of latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1122 - Rule 16.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... which is under 20 percent greenish or green but which contains 20 percent or more of scorched tobacco... unripe tobacco in the C, or B groups which is under 20 percent greenish or green but which contains...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1122 - Rule 16.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... which is under 20 percent greenish or green but which contains 20 percent or more of scorched tobacco... unripe tobacco in the C, or B groups which is under 20 percent greenish or green but which contains...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya. The food-grade product is... an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid or dry...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  16. Evaluating the performance of sampling plans to detect hypoglycin A in ackee fruit shipments imported into the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is a toxic amino acid that is naturally produced in unripe ackee fruit. In 1973 the FDA placed a worldwide import alert on ackee fruit, which banned the product from entering the U.S. The FDA has considered establishing a regulatory limit for HGA and lifting the ban, which will re...

  17. Identification of botanical biomarkers in Argentinean Diplotaxis honeys: flavonoids and glucosinolates.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Tourn, Elian; Gallez, Lilliana M; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2010-12-22

    To select and establish floral biomarkers of the botanical origin of Diplotaxis tenuifolia honeys, the flavonoids and glucosinolates present in bee-deposited nectar collected from hive combs (unripe honey) and mature honey from the same hives fron which the unripe honey samples were collected were analyzed by LC-UV-PAD-ESI-MS(n). Glycosidic conjugates of the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected and characterized in unripe honey. D. tenuifolia mature honeys contained the aglycones kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin. The differences between the phenolic profiles of mature honey and freshly deposited honey could be due to hydrolytic enzymatic activities. Aliphatic and indole glucososinolates were analyzed in unripe and mature honeys, this being the first report of the detection and characterization of glucosinolates as honey constituents. Moreover, these honey samples contained different amounts of propolis-derived flavonoid aglycones (1765-3171 μg/100 g) and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (29-1514 μg/100 g). Propolis flavonoids were already present in the freshly deposited nectar, showing that the incorporation of these compounds to honey occurs at the early steps of honey production. The flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin and the glucosinolates detected in the samples could be used as complementary biomarkers for the determination of the floral origin of Argentinean Diplotaxis honeys.

  18. Influence of phenols mass fraction in olive (Olea europaea L.) paste on volatile compounds in Buža cultivar virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Germek, Valerija Majetić; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-06-26

    The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits).

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of Rubus coreanus Miquel through inhibition of NF-κB and MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Cho, Soo-Muk; Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Yuri; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lim, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rubus Coreanus Miquel (RCM), used as a traditional Korean medicine, reduces chronic inflammatory diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we examine the anti-inflammatory effects of RCM and their possible mechanisms using RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Unripe RCM ethanol extract (UE), unripe RCM water extract (UH), ripe RCM ethanol extract (RE), and ripe RCM water extract (RH) were prepared. Inflammatory response was induced with LPS treatment, and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO and PGE2 productions were assessed. To determine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RCM, we measured NF-κB and MAPK activities. RESULTS UE and UH treatment significantly reduced NF-κB activation and JNK and p38 phosphorylation and reduced transcriptional activities decreased iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expressions, and NO and PGE2 productions. RE and RH treatments reduced IL-1β and IL-6 expressions through suppressions of JNK and p38 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS In this study, we showed that RCM had anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of pro-inflammatory mediator expressions. Especially, unripe RCM showed strong anti-inflammatory effects through suppression of NF-κB and MAPK activation. These findings suggest that unripe RCM might be used as a potential functional material to reduce chronic inflammatory responses. PMID:25324928

  20. Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oboh, G; Rocha, J B T

    2008-06-01

    One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

  1. Discrepancy among acute guideline levels for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Mattias; Palmen, Nicole; Johanson, Gunnar

    2010-12-15

    Acute guidance values are tools for public health risk assessment and management during planning, preparedness and response related to sudden airborne release of hazardous chemicals. The two most frequently used values, i.e. Acute Exposure Guidance Levels (AEGL) and Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG), were compared in qualitative and quantitative terms. There was no significant difference between the general level of AEGL and ERPG values, suggesting the two systems are equally precautious. However, the guidance values diverged by a factor of 3 or more for almost 40% of the substances, including many of high production volume. These deviations could be explained by differences in selection of critical effect or critical study and in a few cases differences in interpretation of the same critical study. Diverging guidance values may hamper proper risk communication and risk management. Key factors for broad international acceptance of harmonized values include transparency of the decision process, agreement on definition of toxicological tiers, and a target population including sensitive groups of the general population. In addition, development of purely health based values is encouraged. Risk management issues, such as land use and emergency response planning should be treated separately, as these rely on national legislation and considerations.

  2. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  3. New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits.

    PubMed

    Fayek, Nesrin M; Monem, Azza R Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y; Meselhy, Meselhy R

    2013-04-01

    β-amyrin-3-(3'-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities.

  4. Examination of Acute Sensitivity to Morphine and Morphine Self-Administration Following Physical and Environmental Stressors in Fischer-344 and Lewis Female Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-16

    which is obtained from the milky droppings from the unripe seed capsules ofthe poppy plant, papaver somniferum. Once obtained, this juice is dried and...consumption. Specifically, Lewis rats have a greater preference for etonitazene (George, 1991a; Suzuki, George, & Meisch, 1992), morphine, and codeine ...consume more etonitazene, cocaine, alcohol, morphine, codeine , and sedatives than do F-344 rats in studies involving liquid and food-laced diets using

  5. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Roberta Nunes; Kahl, Vivian Francilia Silva; Sarmento, Merielen da Silva; Nunes, Marisa Fernanda Silva; Porto, Carem Rejane Maglione; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Silva, Juliana Da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron. PMID:27007905

  6. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Steffan, Shawn A; Lee, Jana C; Singleton, Merritt E; Vilaire, Auriel; Walsh, Doug B; Lavine, Laura S; Patten, Kim

    2013-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the United States. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies were conducted to assess whether cranberries may serve as hosts for D. suzukii. In the first study, the suitability of ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were assayed by examining adult oviposition and larval development in no-choice trials. In the second study, wounded and unwounded fruit were examined as potential hosts in choice and no-choice trials. Our first study showed that ripe, unripe, and over-ripe cranberries were unsuitable hosts (few eggs were laid, with no surviving puparia). In the wounded and unwounded berry study, no larvae survived to adulthood among unwounded berries. Within wounded fruit, D. suzukii readily fed and developed into adults. Together, these results suggest that unwounded cranberries--whether ripe, unripe, or over-ripe--are unsuitable as hosts for D. suzukii. Wounded rotting cranberries, however, can serve as hosts. Across the landscape, cranberry marshes with rotting fruit may contribute to D. suzukii source-sink dynamics.

  7. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers’ plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by post-harvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening. PMID:26539204

  8. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    PubMed

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey.

  9. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities.

  10. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends.

  11. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers' plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by post-harvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening.

  12. Variation in antioxidant attributes at three ripening stages of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit from different geographical regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Gull, Javaria; Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Naseer, Rehana; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ashrafuzzaman, M

    2012-03-14

    The present investigation was carried out to appraise the levels of total phenols and vitamin C as well as antioxidant potential at three different ripening stages (un-ripe, semi-ripe and fully-ripe) of guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit collected from three different geographical regions of Pakistan (Islamabad, Faisalabad and Bhakkar). The antioxidant potential of guava fruit extracts was assessed by means of different in-vitro antioxidant assays, namely inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system, reducing power and radical scavenging capability. Overall, fruit at the un-ripe stage (G1) exhibited the highest levels of TPC, TFC, reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and fully-ripe (G3) stages. On the other hand, vitamin C content increased as the fruit maturity progressed, with highest value seen at the fully-ripe stage (G3) followed by the semi-ripe (G2) and un-ripe stage (G1). The concentration of vitamin C in fruits varied as: Faisalabad (136.4-247.9 mg 100 g⁻¹), Islamabad (89.7-149.7 mg 100 g⁻¹) and Bhakkar (73.1-129.5 mg 100 g⁻¹). The results showed that different stages of maturation and geographical locations had profound effects on the antioxidant activity and vitamin C contents of guava fruit.

  13. Reproductive phenology of 233 species from four herbaceous–shrubby communities in the Gran Sabana Plateau of Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Nelson; Briceño, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Herbaceous–shrubby communities in the Gran Sabana (Great Savanna) Plateau of Venezuela grow under non-zonal conditions. We speculated that this would produce specific patterns of reproductive phenology within these different soil–climate–vegetation associations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the reproductive phenology patterns of four herbaceous–shrubby communities are determined by climate, plant life-forms and soil properties. Methodology The reproductive phenology of 233 plant species of the Gran Sabana Plateau of the Venezuelan Guayana Highlands was studied taking into account their life-forms (i.e. trees, shrubs, climbers, annual herbs, perennial herbs, epiphytes and parasites/hemiparasites) in four herbaceous–shrubby communities: (i) shrubland, (ii) secondary bush, (iii) savanna and (iv) broad-leaved meadow. Patterns of flowering, and occurrence of unripe fruit and ripe fruit were studied at two levels of intensity for 24 months within a 5-year span. Two phenological records for each month of the year and between two and four replicates for each community type were made. Randomly selected 2–3 ha plots were used. General phenological patterns were established using <25% of the plants of each species in each plot to give the total duration of each phenological phase. High-intensity phenological patterns were established using >25% of individuals in each plot to establish times of high abundance of flowers, and presence of unripe fruit and/or ripe fruit on individual plants. This generated phenological peaks for each species. Principal results Non-seasonality of general flowering and unripe fruiting in each of the four communities was related to non-seasonal flowering and unripe fruiting patterns in the plant life-forms studied and to low variation in precipitation throughout the year. Flowering activity in the shrubland and broad-leaved meadow peaked twice. The bush community had only one flowering peak while the

  14. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content.

  15. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  16. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry.

  17. Pharmacokinetic of 5 components after oral administration of Fructus Forsythiae by HPLC-MS/MS and the effects of harvest time and administration times.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Wei; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; He, Jun; Liu, Jiao; Ma, Lin; Gao, Xiu-mei; Chang, Yan-xu

    2015-07-01

    The unripe Fructus Forsythiae (Qingqiao) and ripe Fructus Forsythiae (Laoqiao) are two types of the clinical forms of commercial fructus of Forsythia suspensa(Thunb.) Vahl. There is limited information available for differences in pharmacokinetic properties of active components between unripe and ripe Fructus Forsythiae in vivo. A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 9 typical components in rat plasma. The separation of nine analytes was performed on an Eclipse plus C18 (4.6mm×100mm, 1.8μm) column with the mobile phases consisted of a mixture of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Method validation indicated that the developed method was rapid, specific and sensitive. It was found that the AUC(0-24h) of 5 ingredients (forsythoside A, rutin, phillyrin, isorhamnetin and quercetin) in rats after single orally administrated unripe Fructus Forsythiae also had significant differences compared with those after single dose oral administration of ripe Fructus Forsythiae extract. The systemic exposure of 5 ingredients after multiple oral administration of Fructus Forsythiae extract had significantly increased than those after single oral administration. The results indicated that harvest time is not only effects the contents but the bioavailability of active components of Fructus Forsythiae, which suggests that the rate and extent of drug metabolism were altered when the clinical forms of commercial Fructus Forsythiae with different harvest time. The administration times could influence the bioavailability of active components of Fructus Forsythiae.

  18. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Azmat; Khan, Rahat Ali; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (negative control). Group III (BBE200) and Group IV (BBE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200) and Group VI (BPE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dose-dependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV) and BPE 400 (Group VI) treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  19. Changes in Nutrient Composition, Antioxidant Properties, and Enzymes Activities of Snake Tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Adebowale, Adeyemi Philips; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe

    2016-01-01

    Snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) has been cultivated and used as a replacement for Lycopersicum esculentum in many Asian and African diets. Matured T. cucumerina fruits were harvested at different ripening stages and separated into coats and pulps for analyses to determine their suitability for use in culinary. They were analyzed for the nutritional composition and antioxidant potential using different biochemical assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] and antioxidative enzymes activities. The nutritional composition revealed that T. cucumerina contains over 80% water and is very rich in fiber, thus it can serve as a good natural laxative. The lycopene and β-carotene contents were especially high in the ripe pulp with values of 21.62±1.22 and 3.96±0.14 mg/100 g, respectively. The ascorbic acid content was highest in the pulp of unripe fruit with a value of 56.58±1.08 mg/100 g and significantly (P<0.05) decreased as ripening progressed. The antioxidant potential of the fruits for the 3 assays showed that unripe pulp> ripe coat> ripe pulp> unripe coat. There were decreases in the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities, with the exception of catalase, as ripening progressed in the fruits. These decreased activities may lead to the softening of the fruit during ripening. Harnessing the antioxidative potential of T. cucumerina in culinary through consumption of the coats and pulps will alleviate food insecurity and help maintain good health among many dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. PMID:27390724

  20. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  1. Intravaginal prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening and induction of labour. A comparison of gel and tablets.

    PubMed

    Davey, D A; Dommisse, J; MacNab, M

    1980-09-27

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) 4,5 mg in the form of either 0,5 mg oral tablets or tylose gel, was inserted intravaginally to induce labour in 11 pairs of patients with an unripe cervix. Labour commenced spontaneously in 68% of the patients and there was no difference in efficacy or complications between the tablets and the gel. PGE2 in tylose gel was originally introduced as the optimal preparation, but is not readily available. PGE2 oral tablets, inserted vaginally, although not ideal, are available and are as effective. The use of intravaginal PGE2 for induction of labour is a significant advance in obstetric practice.

  2. Properties of a milk clotting protease isolated from fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez.

    PubMed

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Caffini, N O; Natalucci, C L

    2001-05-01

    Unripe fruit extracts of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae), whose principal endopeptidase is balansain I (isolated for anion exchange chromatography: pI = 5.45, molecular weight = 23192), exhibit a pH profile with a maximum activity around pH 9.0 and are inhibited only by cysteine peptidases inhibitors. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters were strongly preferred by the enzyme. Enzymatic hydrolysis of milk and soy proteins yield characteristic patterns at pH 9.0. The N-terminal sequence showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  3. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%).

  4. New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits

    PubMed Central

    Fayek, Nesrin M.; Monem, Azza R. Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y.; Meselhy, Meselhy R.

    2013-01-01

    β-amyrin-3-(3’-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

  5. Hector Berlioz and other famous artists with opium abuse.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Paul L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of opium on the creativity and productivity of a famous composer of classical music, an essayist, and poets including Hector Berlioz, Thomas De Quincy, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, and Jean Cocteau, is described. Opium is a narcotic drug prepared from the juice of the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy. It contains alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, and papaverine. Medically it is used to relieve pain and produce sleep. It is used as an intoxicant. Alcohol and opium were commonly relied on in the 19th century, especially by artists, to stimulate creativity and relieve stress. These artists described the effect of opium on their creativity and productivity.

  6. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  7. Detecting of Fruit Ripeness in the Orchard, Packing House and Retail Store of the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, S.; Buratti, S.; Mannino, S.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose based on MOS type chemical sensors has been used to detect fruit ripeness. Different varieties of fruit classified in three different classes as unripe, ripe and overripe, were analysed. Starting from 10 sensors it was found that only one (W5S) is relevant to discriminate among fruit on the basis of their ripeness. The discrimination ability of the sensor array was studied separately for each fruit variety, as well as for the whole set. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to classify fruits in an objective and simple way.

  8. Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on the Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Uche-Nwachi, Edward O; McEwen, Carol

    2009-10-15

    It has been reported that the water extract of the whole unripe fruit of Momordica charantia can significantly reduce blood glucose levels. However the safety of its use during pregnancy has not been fully investigated. The aim of this investigation is to determine the safety of this extract during pregnancy. The water extract of the unripe fruit was given to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats on days 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of gestation. The litter size was determined for each group and the litters were examined for gross malformations. The gross and histological examinations of various organs of the litters were also carried out. Results show that 8.65% of the litters from experimental animals were malformed as against 1.62% of control. It also showed that 31.2% of all the malformed litters had multiple congenital malformations. It also showed that the experimental rats had nine resorption sites while control had none. This demonstrates that the water extract of Momordica charantia is teratogenic in Sprague Dawley rats and should be used with caution in man.

  9. UDP-glucose:solasodine glucosyltransferase from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) leaves: partial purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, C; Kalinowska, M; Wojciechowski, Z A

    1997-01-01

    Uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose-dependent glucosyltransferase which catalyzes the glycosylation of solasodine i.e. UDP-glucose:solasodine glucosyltransferase, is present in leaves, roots, unripe fruits and unripe seeds of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). The glucosylation product is chromatographically identical with authentic solasodine 3 beta-D-monoglucoside, a putative intermediate in the biosynthesis of solasodine-based glycoalkaloids characteristic of the eggplant. The enzyme was purified about 50-fold from crude cytosol fraction of eggplant leaves by ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100. The native enzyme has a molecular mass of approx. 55 kDa and pH optimum of 8.5. Divalent metal ions are not required for its activity but the presence of free-SH groups is essential. Besides solasodine (Km = 0.04 microM), the enzyme effectively glucosylates tomatidine, another steroidal alkaloid of the spirosolane type, but it is virtually inactive towards the solanidane-type steroidal alkaloids such as solanidine or demissidine. The enzyme is specific for UDP-glucose (Km = 2.1 microM) since unlabelled ADP-, GDP-, CDP- or TDP-glucose could not effectively compete with UDP-[14C]glucose used as the sugar donor for solasodine glucosylation. Moreover, no synthesis of labelled solasodine galactoside was observed when UDP-[14C]glucose was replaced with UDP-[14C]galactose.

  10. Medicinal Properties of the Jamaican Pepper Plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2014-01-01

    The Caribbean tropical tree, Pimenta dioica has been used for a variety of human endeavors, such as in perfumery industry, food spice, as a natural pesticide, and in folk medicine. Discovered in Jamaica during the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the dried unripe berries of P. dioica also known as Allspice can be found in all continents with unique names in over 50 languages. Systematic investigation of aromatic constituents of Pimenta leaves and its unripe berries, Allspice, have resulted in discovery of many and novel aromatic compounds, mostly glycosides and polyphenols that show antibacterial, hypotensive, anti-neuralgic and analgesic properties. Recent studies have shown two of the known compounds isolated from Allspice, Eugenol and Gallic acid have selective antiproliferative and anti-tumor properties on human cancer cells and their animal models. New characterization of novel compounds such as Ericifolin from the aqueous extract of Allspice berries show potent anti-prostate cancer and anti-breast cancer properties that can be verified in vitro as well as in vivo. Considering its purity, mostly available as “organically grown” berries, availability at low cost, wide acceptance in culinary delights of many cultures world-wide, Allspice may have an additional space in most households, in their medicine cabinets. PMID:23140298

  11. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  12. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum trilobatum fruits extract and its antibacterial, cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF 7.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Manikandan; Manikandan, Beulaja; Marimuthu, Prabhu Narayanan; Raman, Thiagarajan; Mahalingam, Anjugam; Subramanian, Palanisamy; Karthick, Saravanan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-04-05

    In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles by a simple and eco-friendly method using unripe fruits of Solanum trilobatum. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to unripe fruits extract were reduced and stabilized over long time resulting in biosynthesis of surface functionalized silver nanoparticles. The bio-reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against few human pathogenic bacteria including Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. In addition, we also demonstrated anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) using MTT, nuclear morphology assay, Western blot and RT-PCR expression. These results taken together show the potential applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using S. trilobatum fruits.

  13. A Validated Reverse Phase HPLC Analytical Method for Quantitation of Glycoalkaloids in Solanum lycocarpum and Its Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tiossi, Renata Fabiane Jorge; Miranda, Mariza Abreu; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; McChesney, James Dewey; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2012-01-01

    Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) is native to the Brazilian Cerrado. Fruits of this species contain the glycoalkaloids solasonine (SN) and solamargine (SM), which display antiparasitic and anticancer properties. A method has been developed for the extraction and HPLC-UV analysis of the SN and SM in different parts of S. lycocarpum, mainly comprising ripe and unripe fruits, leaf, and stem. This analytical method was validated and gave good detection response with linearity over a dynamic range of 0.77–1000.00 μg mL−1 and recovery in the range of 80.92–91.71%, allowing a reliable quantitation of the target compounds. Unripe fruits displayed higher concentrations of glycoalkaloids (1.04% ± 0.01 of SN and 0.69% ± 0.00 of SM) than the ripe fruits (0.83% ± 0.02 of SN and 0.60% ± 0.01 of SM). Quantitation of glycoalkaloids in the alkaloidic extract gave 45.09% ± 1.14 of SN and 44.37% ± 0.60 of SM, respectively. PMID:22567576

  14. Investigations on a novel inductive concept frequency technique for the grading of oil palm fresh fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Ahmad, Desa; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2013-02-07

    From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits.

  15. Medicinal properties of the Jamaican pepper plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean tropical tree, Pimenta dioica has been used for a variety of human endeavors, such as in perfumery industry, food spice, as a natural pesticide, and in folk medicine. Discovered in Jamaica during the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the dried unripe berries of P. dioica also known as Allspice can be found in all continents with unique names in over 50 languages. Systematic investigation of aromatic constituents of Pimenta leaves and its unripe berries, Allspice, have resulted in discovery of many and novel aromatic compounds, mostly glycosides and polyphenols that show antibacterial, hypotensive, anti-neuralgic and analgesic properties. Recent studies have shown two of the known compounds isolated from Allspice, Eugenol and Gallic acid have selective antiproliferative and anti-tumor properties on human cancer cells and their animal models. New characterization of novel compounds such as Ericifolin from the aqueous extract of Allspice berries show potent anti-prostate cancer and anti-breast cancer properties that can be verified in vitro as well as in vivo. Considering its purity, mostly available as "organically grown" berries, availability at low cost, wide acceptance in culinary delights of many cultures world-wide, Allspice may have an additional space in most households, in their medicine cabinets.

  16. Foraging and ranging behavior during a fallback episode: Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii compared.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erin R; Haag, Livia; Mitra-Setia, Tatang; van Schaik, Carel P; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2009-12-01

    Periodic episodes of food scarcity may highlight the adaptive value of certain anatomical traits, particularly those that facilitate the acquisition and digestion of exigent fallback foods. To better understand the selective pressures that favored the distinctive dental and locomotor morphologies of gibbons and orangutans, we examined the foraging and ranging behavior of sympatric Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii during an episode of low fruit availability at Tuanan, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. We found that Hylobates ranged 0.5 km day(-1) or 33% farther than did Pongo, but the overall daily ranging of both species did not vary as fruit availability decreased by as much as 50%. Among gibbons, we observed dietary switching to fallback foods; in particular, there was a progressively greater reliance on figs, liana products, and unripe fruit. Orangutans relied heavily on unripe fruit and fracture-resistant bark and pith tissues. Despite these divergent fallback patterns, the stiffness of fruit mesocarp consumed by Hylobates and Pongo did not differ. We discuss canine and molar functional morphology with respect to dietary mechanics. Next, to contextualize these results, we discuss our findings with respect to forest structure. The rain forests of Southeast Asia have been described as having open, discontinuous canopies. Such a structure may inform our understanding of the ranging behavior and distinctive locomotion of apes in the region, namely richochetal brachiation and quadrumanous clambering. Our approach of integrating behavioral ecology with physical measures of food may be a powerful tool for understanding the functional adaptations of primates.

  17. Characterization of antioxidants and change of antioxidant levels during storage of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Shih Peng; Leong, Lai Peng

    2004-12-29

    Antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables play an important role via their protective effects against the onset of aging-related chronic diseases. Our previous research has indicated that unripe ciku fruits (Manilkara zapota L.) are an excellent source of antioxidants, with over 3000 mg of L-ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) per 100 g of fresh sample. In this study, 24 antioxidants in an extract of ciku king were characterized through a free radical spiking test. Their chemical structures were proposed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and tandem MS (HPLC/MSn). The antioxidant capacity of ciku king fruits was mainly attributed to polyphenolics with basic blocks of gallocatechin or catechin or both. The changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolics content (TPC) of ciku king fruits with storage time were also investigated. It was found that the TAC and TPC decreased significantly as the fruits gradually changed from the unripe to the overripe stage. The best time for one to consume ciku king fruits at a flavorful stage with high amounts of antioxidants with AEAC values ranging from 600 to 1200 mg per 100 g fresh sample is suggested. The change of the content of major antioxidant peaks was also consistent with changes of antioxidant levels during storage.

  18. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community.

  19. Use of portable devices and confocal Raman spectrometers at different wavelength to obtain the spectral information of the main organic components in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebolazabala, Josu; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit samples, in two ripening stages, ripe (red) and unripe (green), collected from a cultivar in the North of Spain (Barrika, Basque Country), were analyzed directly, without any sample pretreatment, with two different Raman instruments (portable spectrometer coupled to a micro-videocamera and a confocal Raman microscope), using two different laser excitation wavelengths (514 and 785 nm, only for the confocal microscope). The combined use of these laser excitation wavelengths allows obtaining, in a short period of time, the maximum spectral information about the main organic compounds present in this fruit. The major identified components of unripe tomatoes were cutin and cuticular waxes. On the other hand, the main components on ripe tomatoes were carotenes, polyphenoles and polysaccharides. Among the carotenes, it was possible to distinguish the presence of lycopene from β-carotene with the help of both excitation wavelengths, but specially using the 514 nm one, which revealed specific overtones and combination tones of this type of carotene.

  20. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism. PMID:28225009

  1. Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Thilo C; Mirbeth, Beate; Rentsch, Judith; Sutter, Corina; Ring, Ludwig; Flachowsky, Henryk; Habegger, Ruth; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a fruit crop with a distinct biphasic flavonoid biosynthesis. Whereas, in the immature receptacle, high levels of proanthocyanidins accumulate, which are associated with herbivore deterrence and pathogen defense, the prominent color-giving anthocyanins are primarily produced in ripe 'fruits' helping to attract herbivores for seed dispersal. Here, constitutive experimental down-regulation of one branch of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was performed. As a result, the proportion of epicatechin monomeric units within the proanthocyanidin polymer chains was reduced, but this was not the case for the epicatechin starter unit. Shortened chain lengths of proanthocyanidins were also observed. All enzymatic activities for the production of color-giving anthocyanins were already present in unripe fruits at levels allowing a striking red anthocyanin phenotype in unripe fruits of the RNAi silencing lines. An immediately recognizable phenotype was also observed for the stigmata of flowers, which is another epicatechin-forming tissue. Thus, the down-regulation of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) induced a redirection of the proanthocyanidin pathway, leading to premature and ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis via enzymatic glycosylation as the alternative pathway. This redirection is also seen in flavonol biosynthesis, which is paralleled by higher pollen viability in silencing lines. ANRi transgenic lines of strawberry provide a versatile tool for the study of the biological functions of proanthocyanidins.

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum trilobatum fruits extract and its antibacterial, cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramar, Manikandan; Manikandan, Beulaja; Marimuthu, Prabhu Narayanan; Raman, Thiagarajan; Mahalingam, Anjugam; Subramanian, Palanisamy; Karthick, Saravanan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles by a simple and eco-friendly method using unripe fruits of Solanum trilobatum. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to unripe fruits extract were reduced and stabilized over long time resulting in biosynthesis of surface functionalized silver nanoparticles. The bio-reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against few human pathogenic bacteria including Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. In addition, we also demonstrated anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) using MTT, nuclear morphology assay, Western blot and RT-PCR expression. These results taken together show the potential applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using S. trilobatum fruits.

  3. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract of Rubus coreanus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hong; Oh, Sun-Mee; Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Yeon Sil; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Oh, Yang-Seok; Choe, Nong-Hoon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2006-12-08

    Foods of plant origin, especially fruits and vegetables, draw increased attention because of their potential benefits to human health. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of four different extracts obtained from the fruits of Rubus coreanus (aqueous and ethanol extracts of unripe and ripe fruits). Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract of unripe fruits of R. coreanus (URCE) suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We also demonstrated that URCE by itself is a potent inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, suppressed the URCE-induced reductions in the production of NO and PGE(2) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Our data suggest that URCE exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages via activation of the HO-1 pathway and helps to elucidate the mechanism underlying the potential therapeutic value of R. coreanus extracts.

  4. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-22

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  5. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    PubMed

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated.

  6. Chemical recognition of fruit ripeness in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Omer; Orts Garri, Rosa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Schulz, Stefan; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Ayasse, Manfred; Laska, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacities that can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection. Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) display high olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe and unripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spider monkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits that become increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spider monkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound that mark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripe fruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise. PMID:26440380

  7. Transcriptomic responses of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae and its symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola to olive feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidi, Nena; Gioti, Anastasia; Wybouw, Nicky; Dermauw, Wannes; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevich, Edouard; Kampouraki, Anastasia; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2017-02-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most destructive pest of olive orchards worldwide. The monophagous larva has the unique capability of feeding on olive mesocarp, coping with high levels of phenolic compounds and utilizing non-hydrolyzed proteins present, particularly in the unripe, green olives. On the molecular level, the interaction between B. oleae and olives has not been investigated as yet. Nevertheless, it has been associated with the gut obligate symbiotic bacterium Candidatus Erwinia dacicola. Here, we used a B.oleae microarray to analyze the gene expression of larvae during their development in artificial diet, unripe (green) and ripe (black) olives. The expression profiles of Ca. E. dacicola were analyzed in parallel, using the Illumina platform. Several genes were found overexpressed in the olive fly larvae when feeding in green olives. Among these, a number of genes encoding detoxification and digestive enzymes, indicating a potential association with the ability of B. oleae to cope with green olives. In addition, a number of biological processes seem to be activated in Ca. E. dacicola during the development of larvae in olives, with the most notable being the activation of amino-acid metabolism.

  8. Changes in the content and biosynthesis of phytoalexins in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Kamo, T; Hirai, N; Tsuda, M; Fujioka, D; Ohigashi, H

    2000-10-01

    Changes in the phytoalexin content in unripe fruit of banana, Musa acuminata, were analyzed after various treatments. The results show that level of hydroxyanigorufone started to increase 1-2 day after either wounding or inoculation with conidia of Colletotrichum musae. Inoculation followed by wounding induced the formation of many other phenylphenalenones. The accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone decreased, after its transient maximum, on ripening by exposure of the wounded fruit to ethylene. The level of production of hydroxyanigorufone in ripe fruit treated by wounding and/or by inoculation was much lower than that in unripe fruit. 2-Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), inhibited the accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone in wounded fruit, and the PAL activity increased after wounding and ethylene treatment, respectively. Feeding experiments with [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C]cinnamic acids, and [2-(13)C]malonate show that two molecules of cinnamic acid and one of malonate were incorporated into each molecule of hydroxyanigorufone. The phytoalexins isolated from fruit to which deuterated hydroxyanigorufone and irenolone had been administered revealed that 2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,8-naphthalic anhydride was biosynthesized from hydroxyanigorufone rather than from irenolone.

  9. Wounding tomato fruit elicits ripening-stage specific changes in gene expression and production of volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Valentina; Cabassi, Giovanni; Spadafora, Natasha D; Aprile, Alessio; Müller, Carsten T; Rogers, Hilary J; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Fleshy fruits develop from an unripe organ that needs to be protected from damage to a ripe organ that attracts frugivores for seed dispersal through production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, different responses to wounding damage are predicted. The aim of this study was to discover whether wound-induced changes in the transcriptome and VOC production alter as tomato transitions from unripe to ripe. Transcript changes were analysed 3h post-wounding using microarray analysis in two commercial salad-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars: Luna Rossa and AVG, chosen for their high aroma production. This was followed by quantitative PCR on Luna Rossa genes involved in VOC biosynthesis and defence responses. VOCs elicited by wounding at different ripening stages were analysed by solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 differentially expressed genes were identified in the cultivar AVG and 2500 in Luna Rossa. In both cultivars the majority of genes were up-regulated and the most affected pathways were metabolism of terpenes, carotenoids, and lipids. Defence-related genes were mostly up-regulated in immature stages of development, whereas expression of genes related to VOCs changed at riper stages. More than 40 VOCs were detected and profiles changed with ripening stage. Thus, both transcriptome and VOC profiles elicited by wounding depend on stage of ripening, indicating a shift from defence to attraction.

  10. A comparative study of melting and non-melting flesh peach cultivars reveals that during fruit ripening endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) is mainly involved in pericarp textural changes, not in firmness reduction.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, A; Onelli, E; Aina, R; Cocucci, M; Citterio, S

    2011-07-01

    Peach softening is usually attributed to the dismantling of the cell wall in which endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG)-catalysed depolymerization of pectins plays a central role. In this study, the hypothesis that the function of endo-PG is critical for achieving a melting flesh fruit texture but not for reducing fruit firmness was tested by comparing pericarp morphology and endo-PG expression and localization in melting (MF) and non-melting flesh (NMF) fruit at successive stages of ripening. MF Bolero, Springbelle, and Springcrest, and NMF Oro-A and Jonia cultivars were analysed. Both MF and NMF fruit were left to ripen on the tree and reached a firmness of <10 Newtons (N). The image analysis of pericarp tissues revealed that during softening the loss of cell turgidity was a process common to mesocarp cells of all MF and NMF fruit and was clearly visible in peaches with a firmness of less than ∼20 N. In contrast, the loss of cell adhesion was a feature exclusively observed in ripe MF fruit pericarp. In this ripe fruit, large numbers of endo-PG isoforms were highly expressed and the enzyme localization corresponded to the middle lamella. As a consequence, wide apoplastic spaces characterized the pericarp of ripe MF peaches. In contrast, no loss of cell adhesion was observed in any NMF fruit or in unripe MF peaches. Accordingly, no endo-PG was detected in unripe NMF fruit, whereas few and poorly expressed enzyme isoforms were revealed in ripe NMF and in unripe MF peaches. In this fruit, the poorly expressed endo-PG localized mainly in vesicles within the cytoplasm and inner primary cell wall. On the whole the results suggested that endo-PG function was needed to achieve melting flesh texture, which was characterized by wide apoplastic spaces and partially deflated mesocarp cells. Conversely, endo-PG activity had no critical influence on the reduction of fruit firmness given the capacity of NMF peaches to soften, reaching values of 5-10 N. As in tomato, the change

  11. Several Well-observed Asteroidal Occultations in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Abramson, H.; Brooks, J.; Caton, D.; Clark, D.; Conard, S.; Cooke, B.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J.; Edberg, S.; Ellington, C.; Faircloth, J.; Herchak, S.; Iverson, E.; Jones, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Maley, P.; Martinez, L.; Menke, J.; Mroz, G.; Nolan, P.; Peterson, R.; Preston, S.; Rattley, G.; Ray, J.; Scheck, A.; Stamm, J.; Stanton, R.; Suggs, R.; Tatum, R.; Thomas, W.

    2011-10-01

    During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy for Quantitative Analysis of Gas Mixtures at Low Temperatures for Homeland Security Applications.

    PubMed

    Meier, D C; Benkstein, K D; Hurst, W S; Chu, P M

    2017-05-01

    Performance standard specifications for point chemical vapor detectors are established in ASTM E 2885-13 and ASTM E 2933-13. The performance evaluation of the detectors requires the accurate delivery of known concentrations of the chemical target to the system under test. Referee methods enable the analyte test concentration and associated uncertainties in the analyte test concentration to be validated by independent analysis, which is especially important for reactive analytes. This work extends the capability of a previously demonstrated method for using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy for quantitatively evaluating the composition of vapor streams containing hazardous materials at Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) to include test conditions colder than laboratory ambient temperatures. The described method covers the use of primary reference spectra to establish analyte concentrations, the generation of secondary reference spectra suitable for measuring analyte concentrations under specified testing environments, and the use of additional reference spectra and spectral profile strategies to mitigate the uncertainties due to impurities and water condensation within the low-temperature (7 °C, -5 °C) test cell. Important benefits of this approach include verification of the test analyte concentration with characterized uncertainties by in situ measurements co-located with the detector under test, near-real-time feedback, and broad applicability to toxic industrial chemicals.

  13. Effect of in Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion on Encapsulated and Nonencapsulated Phenolic Compounds of Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Pulp Extracts and Their Antioxidant Capacity.

    PubMed

    Ydjedd, Siham; Bouriche, Sihem; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Sánchez-Moya, Teresa; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Rezgui, Farouk; Louaileche, Hayette; Kati, Djamel-Edine

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the release and antioxidant capacity of encapsulated and nonencapsulated phenolics carob pulp extracts, unripe and ripe carob pulp extracts were microencapsulated with polycaprolactone via double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Microcapsules' characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analysis. Total phenolics and flavonoids content and antioxidant activities (ORAC, DPPH, and FRAP) were evaluated after each digestion step. The release of phenolic acids and flavonoids was measured along the digestion process by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The most important phenolics and flavonoids content as well as antioxidant activities were observed after gastric and intestinal phases for nonencapsulated and encapsulated extracts, respectively. The microencapsulation of carob polyphenols showed a protective effect against pH changes and enzymatic activities along digestion, thereby promoting a controlled release and targeted delivery of the encapsulated compound, which contributed to an increase in its bioaccessibility in the gut.

  14. Inhibitory effects of Citrus hassaku extract and its flavanone glycosides on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kimihisa; Hirata, Noriko; Masuda, Megumi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Murata, Kazuya; Wakabayashi, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    The 50% ethanolic extract (CH-ext) obtained from the unripe fruit of Citrus hassaku exhibited significant tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The CH-ext showed antioxidant activity, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation of the CH-ext indicated that flavanone glycoside-rich fractions showed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Further examination revealed that the tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the CH-ext were attributable to naringin and neohesperidin, respectively. The CH-ext showed inhibition of melanogenesis without any effects on cell proliferation in cultured murine B16 melanoma cells after glucosamine exposure. The topical application of the CH-ext to the dorsal skin of brownish guinea pigs showed in vivo preventive effects against UVB-induced pigmentation.

  15. A model for plant invasions: the role of distributed generation times.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Vicenç; Campos, Daniel; Sheppard, Andy W

    2009-10-01

    An analytical model consisting of adult plants and two types of seeds (unripe and mature) is considered and successfully tested using experimental data available for some invasive weeds (Echium plantagineum, Cytisus scoparius, Carduus nutans andCarduus acanthoides) from their native and exotic ranges. The model accounts for probability distribution functions (pdfs) for times of germination, growth, death and dispersal on two dimensions, so the general life-cycle of individuals is considered with high level of description. Our work provides for the first time, for a model containing all that life-cycle information, explicit relationship conditions for the invasive success and expressions for the speed of invasive fronts, which can be useful tools for invasions assessment. The expressions derived allow us to prove that the different phenotypes showed by the weeds in their native (exotic) ranges can explain their corresponding non-invasive (invasive) behavior.

  16. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  17. Calcium carbide poisoning via food in childhood.

    PubMed

    Per, Hüseyin; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Yağmur, Fatih; Gümüş, Hakan; Kumandaş, Sefer; Poyrazoğlu, M Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The fast ripening of fruits means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia. The findings are headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema and seizures. We report the case of a previously healthy 5 year-old girl with no chronic disease history who was transferred to our Emergency Department with an 8-h history of coma and delirium. A careful history from her father revealed that the patient ate unripe dates treated with calcium carbide.

  18. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits.

  19. Optimization of a method for the extraction and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls during ripening in grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot).

    PubMed

    Kamffer, Zindi; Bindon, Keren A; Oberholster, Anita

    2010-06-09

    An extraction method to identify and quantify the carotenoid and chlorophyll profile of lyophilized tissue from unripe (green) to ripe (red) Merlot grape berries was developed. The RP-HPLC method baseline separated all of the carotenoids and chlorophylls and their derivatives. Problems encountered during sample storage and extraction are discussed as well as possible alternative methods. This study confirmed that carotenoids and chlorophylls decreased on a per berry (microg/berry) and concentration (microg/g) basis from veraison to harvest over two growing seasons. The carotenoid 5,8-epoxy-beta-carotene was quantified for the first time in grapes and represents a significant amount of the total carotenoids present at harvest. All the carotenoids and chlorophylls except beta-carotene appeared to be sensitive to seasonal variation in climatic conditions. Lutein and beta-carotene were found to be the most abundant carotenoids present in Merlot grape berries together with chlorophyll a for both seasons studied.

  20. Investigations on the effect of flavonoids from banana, Musa paradisiaca L. on lipid metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2009-01-01

    Oral administration of flavonoids extracted from unripe fruits of Musa paradisiaca showed significant hypolipidemic activities in male rats (Sprague Dawley strain) at a dose of 1 mg/100 g body weight (BW)/day. Concentrations of cholesterol, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and triglycerides showed significant decrease in the serum, liver, kidney, and brain of experimental animals. HMG CoA reductase activity was found to be enhanced, while activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were significantly reduced. Activities of lipoprotein lipase and plasma LCAT showed significant enhancement. A significant increase in the concentrations of hepatic and fecal bile acids and fecal neutral sterols was also observed indicating a higher rate of degradation of cholesterol. The present study indicates that although there is an increase in the rate of synthesis of cholesterol in the liver, the process of degradation exceeds the rate of synthesis.

  1. Ultrastructural deposition forms and bioaccessibility of carotenoids and carotenoid esters from goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.).

    PubMed

    Hempel, Judith; Schädle, Christopher N; Sprenger, Jasmin; Heller, Annerose; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2017-03-01

    Goji berries (Lycium barbarum L.) have been known to contain strikingly high levels of zeaxanthin, while the physical deposition form and bioaccessibility of the latter was yet unknown. In the present study, we associated ripening-induced modifications in the profile of carotenoids with fundamental changes of the deposition state of carotenoids in goji berries. Unripe fruit contained common chloroplast-specific carotenoids being protein-bound within chloroplastidal thylakoids. The subsequent ripening-induced transformation of chloroplasts to tubular chromoplasts was accompanied by an accumulation of up to 36mg/100g FW zeaxanthin dipalmitate and further minor xanthophyll esters, prevailing in a presumably liquid-crystalline state within the nano-scaled chromoplast tubules. The in vitro digestion unraveled the enhanced liberation and bioaccessibility of zeaxanthin from these tubular aggregates in goji berries as compared to protein-complexed lutein from spinach. Goji berries therefore might represent a more potent source of macular pigments than green leafy vegetables like spinach.

  2. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated.

  3. Diverse patterns of cell wall mannan/galactomannan occurrence in seeds of the Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Bento, João Francisco; Mazzaro, Irineu; de Almeida Silva, Lia Magalhães; de Azevedo Moreira, Renato; Ferreira, Marília Locatelli Correa; Reicher, Fany; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2013-01-30

    Endosperms from seeds of different subfamilies of Leguminosae were submitted to sequential aqueous and alkaline aqueous extractions. The extractions from species belonging to the Mimosoideae and Faboideae subfamilies yielded galactomannans with constant Man:Gal ratios, whereas the extractions from Caesalpinioideae seeds gave rise to galactomannans with increasing values of the Man:Gal ratio. The presence of a family of galactomannans within the same species may be a trait found only in Caesalpinioideae subfamily. The final insoluble residues that were obtained after the removal of galactomannans from the Caesalpinioideae and Faboideae subfamilies are composed of pure mannans and do not contain cellulose, while those from the Mimosoideae subfamily are composed of cellulose. A mannan was isolated from the unripe endosperm of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, suggesting no developmental relationship between galactomannan and mannan. These results are consistent with the presence of a distinctive cell wall pattern in the endosperms of Leguminosae species.

  4. Identification and characterisation of a nuclear localisation signal in the SMN associated protein, Gemin4

    SciTech Connect

    Lorson, Monique A.; Dickson, Alexa M.; Shaw, Debra J.; Todd, Adrian G.; Young, Elizabeth C.; Morse, Robert; Wolstencroft, Catherine; Lorson, Christian L.; Young, Philip J.

    2008-10-10

    Gemin4 is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein that is involved in U snRNP assembly, apoptosis, nuclear/cytoplasmic transportation, transcription, and RNAi pathways. Gemin4 is one of the core components of the Gemin-complex, which also contains survival motor neuron (SMN), the seven Gemin proteins (Gemin2-8), and Unrip. Mutations in the SMN1 gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although the functions assigned to Gemin4 predominantly occur in the nucleus, the mechanisms that mediate the nuclear import of Gemin4 remain unclear. Here, using a novel panel of Gemin4 constructs we identify a canonical nuclear import sequence (NLS) in the N-terminus of Gemin4. The Gemin4 NLS is necessary and independently sufficient to mediate nuclear import of Gemin4. This is the first functional NLS identified within the SMN-Gemin complex.

  5. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    PubMed

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant.

  6. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity.

  7. The Renaissance of Transcervical Balloon Catheters for Cervical Ripening and Labour Induction.

    PubMed

    Rath, W; Kehl, S

    2015-11-01

    Due to rising rates of labour induction in industrialised countries, safe and effective methods of induction have once again become a focus of interest and research. Prostaglandins are effective for cervical ripening and induction of uterine contractions. They do, however, cause overstimulation of the uterus in up to 20 % of cases, sometimes causing changes in fetal heart rate. Transcervical balloon catheters provide an alternative to prostaglandins for labour induction and have been used for this purpose for almost 50 years. This induction method has experienced a recent renaissance in clinical practice that is reflected in an annually rising number of publications on its use. Balloon catheters allow gentle ripening of the cervix without causing uterine overstimulation. The two catheters available are the Foley catheter (off-label use) and the double balloon catheter, which is licensed for use in induction of labour. Both are as effective as prostaglandins, and do not increase the risk of infection to mother or child. Catheter induction also requires less monitoring compared to prostaglandins resulting in improved patient satisfaction. Balloon catheters provide a useful and promising option to achieve vaginal delivery despite failed prostaglandin induction. Intravenous oxytocin is nevertheless required in up to 85 % of cases for adequate induction/augmentation of contractions. Balloon catheters, vaginal PGE2 and misoprostol are equally effective in the context of an unripe/unfavourable cervix, the rate of uterine hyperstimulation being significantly lower, and the need for oxytocin significantly higher for catheters. Balloon catheters are increasingly being used in combination or sequentially with oral/vaginal misoprostol, although there is currently inadequate published data on the subject. International guidelines recommend the use of balloon catheters for labour induction with an unripe cervix (also following previous caesarean section) as an alternative to

  8. Food mechanical properties, feeding ecology, and the mandibular morphology of wild orangutans.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erin R; Zulfa, Astri; Hardus, Madeleine; Wich, Serge A; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2014-10-01

    Bornean orangutan mandibular morphology has been functionally linked to the exploitation of hard and tough foods, based on evidence that Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii spends a greater percentage of time feeding on bark, seeds and vegetation compared with Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutans) and the assumption that these tissues are more challenging to process than fruit pulp. We measured and compared toughness (R) and Young's modulus (E) of ripe and unripe foods exploited by P. abelii and P. p. wurmbii. Additionally, we recorded and compared the percentage of time these orangutans fed on plants/plant parts of varying degrees of R and E. Compared with P. abelii, P. p. wurmbii consumed significantly tougher and more displacement limited (R/E)(0.5) fruit parts, leaves and inner bark, and spent a significantly greater percentage of time feeding on immature leaves, unripe fruit and other vegetation. Modulus did not vary as expected between species, likely because we failed to capture the high-end range of modulus values for tissues consumed by P. p. wurmbii. Notably, P. p. wurmbii spent ∼40% of its feeding time on the toughest foods consumed (between 1000 and 4000 J m(-2)). Thus, the hypothesis that mandibular robusticity in P. p. wurmbii is functionally linked to feeding on tough foods is supported and is likely related to countering relatively larger external forces and/or repetitive loads required to process the toughest tissues. The importance of elastic modulus on morphological divergence awaits future studies capturing the full range of this material property for P. p. wurmbii. Finally, phenophase and fruit availability influence orangutan species differences in food material properties and percentage of time spent feeding on various foods, emphasizing the importance of incorporating these variables in future studies of feeding ecology and craniodental morphology in extant taxa.

  9. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0065). In study 1B, no groups differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver; P = 0.20). In study 2, the 60% raw Butobe group (0.68 ± 0.17 μmol retinol/liver) differed from the 60% cooked Butobe group (0.87 ± 0.24 μmol retinol/liver); neither group differed from baseline (0.80 ± 0.27 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0001). Total liver retinol was higher in the groups fed cooked bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  10. Identification of host blends that attract the African invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens.

    PubMed

    Biasazin, Tibebe Dejene; Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Hillbur, Ylva; Seyoum, Emiru; Dekker, Teun

    2014-09-01

    Bactrocera invadens, an invasive fruit fly species in the Afro-tropical region belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, causes considerable damage to fruit production and productivity. We sought to find attractants from hosts of B. invadens that could serve as baits in traps for monitoring and management of this pest. The attractiveness of volatiles from four different fruit species (mango, guava, banana and orange) at two stages of ripeness (ripe or unripe) was tested in an olfactometer assay. All fruits were attractive against a clean air control. Using hexane extracts of volatile collections of fruits, we demonstrated that male flies preferred the volatiles of ripe guava and orange over unripe fruit extracts. There was a slight difference in preference between females and males; females preferred orange to guava and mango, whereas males preferred mango and guava to orange. Gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were used to identify compounds to which B. invadens antennae were sensitive. GC/EAD recordings from distal and medio-central parts of the fly antenna showed responses to a number of compounds from each fruit species, with esters dominating the responses. Synthetic blends were made for each fruit species using the shared antennally active compounds in ratios found in the extracts. In the olfactometer, B. invadens was most attracted to the banana and orange blends, followed by the mango and guava blends. The synthetic banana blend was as attractive as the volatile collection of banana, although both were less attractive than the fruit. The results demonstrate that composing attractive blends from GC/EAD-active constituents shared by host fruits can be effective for formulating attractive synthetic host mimics for generalist fruit fly species, such as B. invadens.

  11. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range.

  12. Improvement in sensitivity of an inductive oil palm fruit sensor.

    PubMed

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-02-03

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

  13. Applied studies of plant meridian system: I. The effect of agri-wave technology on yield and quality of tomato.

    PubMed

    Hou, T Z; Mooneyham, R E

    1999-01-01

    Agri-wave technology is a new agricultural technology based on the plant meridian system, that focuses on measurement of plant sound characteristics. The basic principle of agri-wave technology is to improve the yield and quality of plants such as vegetables, flowers, and fruit trees by broadcasting sound waves of certain frequencies and spraying a compound microelement fertilizer on the leaves. The application of agri-wave technology on tomatoes remarkably stimulates growth of their seedlings. Fresh weight of the branch, stems, and leaves of the treated tomatoes is significantly (59.53%, P < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Sampling survey results indicate that agri-wave technology accelerates the ripeness of tomatoes. The fresh weight of ripe tomatoes treated with this technique is 30.73% higher than that of the untreated (P = 0.0018), while the fresh weight of the treated unripe tomatoes is 27.29% lower than that of the untreated unripe group (P = 0.0020). Yield surveys show that the yield of treated plants is 13.89% (p < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Moreover, with agri-wave technology treatment the storage period of tomatoes is almost doubled. Analysis of tomato nutrition shows that agri-wave technology has increased their sugar content by 26.19%, vitamin A and niacin (an antifavours vitamin) by 55.39% and 92.31% respectively. There is no difference concerning vitamin B1, B2, and D content between the two groups, and vitamin C and E contents decreased by 2.10% and 12.69%, respectively. Among the analyzed 33 minerals of tomatoes, 26 increased in content, while 7 decreased. In conclusion, agri-wave technology has promoted the growth of the tomato, increased its yield, and improved its quality.

  14. Capsicum annuum var. grossum (Bell Pepper) Inhibits β-Secretase Activity and β-Amyloid1-40 Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ogunruku, Omodesola Oluwafisayo; Oboh, Ganiyu; Passamonti, Sabina; Trammer, Federica; Boligon, Aline Augusti

    2017-02-01

    The deposition of amyloid protein as senile plaques is the major signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is produced by the sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by secretases. Moreover, peppers are noted for their antiaging and cognitive enhancing properties. Thus, in this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich extracts from bell pepper on amyloid production and aggregation in vitro were investigated. Bell pepper (ripe and unripe) was extracted with methanol-1 N HCl (1:1 v/v). Thereafter, the inhibitory potentials of the extracts on β-secretase and β-amyloid1-40 aggregation were determined. Phenolic composition of the pepper fruits was further determined by HPLC-DAD (high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector). There was a dose-dependent inhibition of β-secretase by the pepper fruits with the ripe fruits (2.17 ± 0.17 μg/L) showing a significantly (P < .05) higher inhibitory effect than the unripe (3.44 ± 0.11 μg/L). Furthermore, Thioflavin-T and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that phenolic extracts from pepper fruits (1 and 10 μg/L) could counteract the initial aggregation of Aβ1-40, as well as prevent further aggregation preformed fibrils. These inhibitory activities could be attributed to the predominant presence of phenolic constituents in the pepper fruits. It is possible to conclude that bell pepper could be a possible dietary intervention into the management of AD.

  15. 1,8-Cineole in French Red Wines: Evidence for a Contribution Related to Its Various Origins.

    PubMed

    Poitou, Xavier; Thibon, Cécile; Darriet, Philippe

    2017-01-18

    The aromatic descriptor "green", reflecting grape unripeness in French red wines, is frequently associated with the levels of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines, particularly 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), which has bell pepper nuances. Nevertheless, not all green aromatic expressions in red wines correlate with 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazine concentrations. This study considered sensory and chemical approaches using Cabernet Sauvignon wines obtained from grapes harvested at one-month intervals during the 2014 and 2015 vintages to investigate other volatile odoriferous compounds. Semipreparative HPLC fractionation of wine extracts revealed a fraction with specific green aromas in the early harvest wines. Its sensory impact was confirmed by omission and reconstitution tests. Then, multidimensional gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry (MDGC-O-MS/TOF) was used for molecular characterization of the aroma compounds associated with the green aromas. Surprisingly, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole), with menthol odor was highlighted and assayed at concentrations sometimes above its olfactory detection threshold in Cabernet Sauvignon and Fer Servadou wines. Sensory tests confirmed its impact at several concentrations detected in French red wines (up to 2.61 ± 0.03 μg/L) on the menthol nuance and overall green perception, particularly via an additive effect with IBMP. Quantitation of 1,8-cineole in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes during berry development in 2015 revealed its varietal origin with abundant concentrations in unripe berries and decrease during grape maturation. Moreover, the implication of an invasive plant (Artemisia verlotiorum) growing in certain vineyards was shown to be responsible for increased 1,8-cineole concentrations in some wines.

  16. The DDX6–4E-T interaction mediates translational repression and P-body assembly

    PubMed Central

    Kamenska, Anastasiia; Simpson, Clare; Vindry, Caroline; Broomhead, Helen; Bénard, Marianne; Ernoult-Lange, Michèle; Lee, Benjamin P.; Harries, Lorna W.; Weil, Dominique; Standart, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    4E-Transporter binds eIF4E via its consensus sequence YXXXXLΦ, shared with eIF4G, and is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein found enriched in P-(rocessing) bodies. 4E-T inhibits general protein synthesis by reducing available eIF4E levels. Recently, we showed that 4E-T bound to mRNA however represses its translation in an eIF4E-independent manner, and contributes to silencing of mRNAs targeted by miRNAs. Here, we address further the mechanism of translational repression by 4E-T by first identifying and delineating the interacting sites of its major partners by mass spectrometry and western blotting, including DDX6, UNR, unrip, PAT1B, LSM14A and CNOT4. Furthermore, we document novel binding between 4E-T partners including UNR-CNOT4 and unrip-LSM14A, altogether suggesting 4E-T nucleates a complex network of RNA-binding protein interactions. In functional assays, we demonstrate that joint deletion of two short conserved motifs that bind UNR and DDX6 relieves repression of 4E-T-bound mRNA, in part reliant on the 4E-T-DDX6-CNOT1 axis. We also show that the DDX6-4E-T interaction mediates miRNA-dependent translational repression and de novo P-body assembly, implying that translational repression and formation of new P-bodies are coupled processes. Altogether these findings considerably extend our understanding of the role of 4E-T in gene regulation, important in development and neurogenesis. PMID:27342281

  17. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

  18. Screening for alternative antibiotics: an investigation into the antimicrobial activities of medicinal food plants of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2010-04-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of 2 endemic medicinal plants; Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF) and Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS) and 2 exotic medicinal plants, Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT) that forms part of local pharmacopoeia of Mauritius and correlate any observed activity with its phytochemical profile. Aqueous and organic fractions of the leaves, fruits, and seeds of these plants were subjected to antimicrobial testing by the disc diffusion method against 8 clinical isolates of bacteria and 2 strains of fungus. It was found that MC, OT, and FF possessed antimicrobial properties against the test organisms. The MIC for MC ranged from 0.5 to 9 mg/mL and that of FF from 2 to 10 mg/mL and the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL) was recorded for the unripe fruits of MC against E. coli. On the other hand, higher concentration of the unripe MC fruit extract of 9 mg/mL was needed to be effective against a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The antimicrobial effect against MRSA was lost upon ripening of the fruits. The methanolic extract of both MC and FF showed highest MIC values compared to the corresponding aqueous extract, which indicates the low efficacy and the need of higher doses of the plant extract. Phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of at least tannins, phenols, flavonoids, and alkaloids, which are known antimicrobial phyto-compounds. In conclusion, the observed antimicrobial properties would tend to further validate the medicinal properties of these commonly used endemic medicinal and food plants of Mauritius.

  19. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue. To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Materials/methods Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. Results The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes. PMID:24495336

  20. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  1. Identification of six loci in which mutations partially restore peroxisome biogenesis and/or alleviate the metabolic defect of pex2 mutants in podospora.

    PubMed Central

    Ruprich-Robert, Gwenaël; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Zickler, Denise; Panvier-Adoutte, Arlette; Picard, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Peroxins (PEX) are proteins required for peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations in PEX genes cause lethal diseases in humans, metabolic defects in yeasts, and developmental disfunctions in plants and filamentous fungi. Here we describe the first large-scale screening for suppressors of a pex mutation. In Podospora anserina, pex2 mutants exhibit a metabolic defect [inability to grow on medium containing oleic acid (OA medium) as sole carbon source] and a developmental defect (inability to differentiate asci in homozygous crosses). Sixty-three mutations able to restore growth of pex2 mutants on OA medium have been analyzed. They fall in six loci (suo1 to suo6) and act as dominant, allele-nonspecific suppressors. Most suo mutations have pleiotropic effects in a pex2(+) background: formation of unripe ascospores (all loci except suo5 and suo6), impaired growth on OA medium (all loci except suo4 and suo6), or sexual defects (suo4). Using immunofluorescence and GFP staining, we show that peroxisome biogenesis is partially restored along with a low level of ascus differentiation in pex2 mutant strains carrying either the suo5 or the suo6 mutations. The data are discussed with respect to beta-oxidation of fatty acids, peroxisome biogenesis, and cell differentiation. PMID:12136013

  2. Tomatidine enhances lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans through mitophagy induction via the SKN-1/Nrf2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Evandro F.; Waltz, Tyler B.; Kassahun, Henok; Lu, Qiping; Kerr, Jesse S.; Morevati, Marya; Fivenson, Elayne M.; Wollman, Bradley N.; Marosi, Krisztina; Wilson, Mark A.; Iser, Wendy B.; Eckley, D. Mark; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Mattson, Mark P.; Nilsen, Hilde; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Becker, Kevin G.

    2017-01-01

    Aging is a major international concern that brings formidable socioeconomic and healthcare challenges. Small molecules capable of improving the health of older individuals are being explored. Small molecules that enhance cellular stress resistance are a promising avenue to alleviate declines seen in human aging. Tomatidine, a natural compound abundant in unripe tomatoes, inhibits age-related skeletal muscle atrophy in mice. Here we show that tomatidine extends lifespan and healthspan in C. elegans, an animal model of aging which shares many major longevity pathways with mammals. Tomatidine improves many C. elegans behaviors related to healthspan and muscle health, including increased pharyngeal pumping, swimming movement, and reduced percentage of severely damaged muscle cells. Microarray, imaging, and behavioral analyses reveal that tomatidine maintains mitochondrial homeostasis by modulating mitochondrial biogenesis and PINK-1/DCT-1-dependent mitophagy. Mechanistically, tomatidine induces mitochondrial hormesis by mildly inducing ROS production, which in turn activates the SKN-1/Nrf2 pathway and possibly other cellular antioxidant response pathways, followed by increased mitophagy. This mechanism occurs in C. elegans, primary rat neurons, and human cells. Our data suggest that tomatidine may delay some physiological aspects of aging, and points to new approaches for pharmacological interventions for diseases of aging.

  3. Shifts in color discrimination during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Levente L; Dastur, Farhad N

    2012-05-25

    The present study explores two hypotheses: a) women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b) women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting) that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM) 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  4. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  5. Fruit Odor as A Ripeness Signal for Seed-Dispersing Primates? A Case Study on Four Neotropical Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Fleshy fruits contain a myriad of secondary metabolites that may fulfill various non-mutually exclusive ecological functions. Among them are defense against pathogens and herbivores, manipulation of frugivores' gut retention time, or controlling the germination process. In addition, it has been suggested that aroma compounds may be used as fruit-selection cues by frugivores, and that plants may be under selection to provide a reliable signal for ripeness to seed-dispersal vectors through ripe fruit aroma. A previous project demonstrated that fruit odor of two Neotropical primate-dispersed plant species can be used by primates to identify ripe fruits. Here, we provide data supporting the hypothesis that olfactory conspicuousness of ripeness in these two species may be an evolved signal rather than a cue exploited by primates. We analyzed the odors of ripe and unripe fruits of the two species along with odors of two sympatric species whose main dispersal vector is passerine birds. We show that only primate-dispersed species significantly change their odor profiles upon ripening. Thus, odor of bird-dispersed species is not informative regarding their ripeness level and is likely to fulfill other functions. We discuss these data in light of the multiple hypotheses for the presence of fruit secondary metabolites, and we offer a roadmap for future studies to establish the hypothesis that fruit odor is an evolved signal for ripeness.

  6. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  7. Comprehensive ripeness-index for prediction of ripening level in mangoes by multivariate modelling of ripening behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyarkai Nambi, Vijayaram; Thangavel, Kuladaisamy; Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Shahir, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of ripeness level in climacteric fruits is essential for post-harvest handling. An index capable of predicting ripening level with minimum inputs would be highly beneficial to the handlers, processors and researchers in fruit industry. A study was conducted with Indian mango cultivars to develop a ripeness index and associated model. Changes in physicochemical, colour and textural properties were measured throughout the ripening period and the period was classified into five stages (unripe, early ripe, partially ripe, ripe and over ripe). Multivariate regression techniques like partial least square regression, principal component regression and multi linear regression were compared and evaluated for its prediction. Multi linear regression model with 12 parameters was found more suitable in ripening prediction. Scientific variable reduction method was adopted to simplify the developed model. Better prediction was achieved with either 2 or 3 variables (total soluble solids, colour and acidity). Cross validation was done to increase the robustness and it was found that proposed ripening index was more effective in prediction of ripening stages. Three-variable model would be suitable for commercial applications where reasonable accuracies are sufficient. However, 12-variable model can be used to obtain more precise results in research and development applications.

  8. A systematic RNAi synthetic interaction screen reveals a link between p53 and snoRNP assembly.

    PubMed

    Krastev, Dragomir B; Slabicki, Mikolaj; Paszkowski-Rogacz, Maciej; Hubner, Nina C; Junqueira, Magno; Shevchenko, Andrej; Mann, Matthias; Neugebauer, Karla M; Buchholz, Frank

    2011-06-05

    TP53 (tumour protein 53) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer and its role during cellular transformation has been studied extensively. However, the homeostatic functions of p53 are less well understood. Here, we explore the molecular dependency network of TP53 through an RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screen employing two HCT116 isogenic cell lines and a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA library. We identify a variety of TP53 synthetic interactions unmasking the complex connections of p53 to cellular physiology and growth control. Molecular dissection of the TP53 synthetic interaction with UNRIP indicates an enhanced dependency of TP53-negative cells on small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) assembly. This dependency is mediated by the snoRNP chaperone gene NOLC1 (also known as NOPP140), which we identify as a physiological p53 target gene. This unanticipated function of TP53 in snoRNP assembly highlights the potential of RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screens to dissect molecular pathways of tumour suppressor genes.

  9. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    PubMed

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  10. Chronic stimulation of uterine prostaglandin synthesis during cervical ripening before the onset of labor.

    PubMed

    Keirse, M J; Thiery, M; Parewijck, W; Mitchell, M D

    1983-05-01

    Concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) were measured in plasma of six carefully selected primigravid women with an unripe cervix at term before and at various intervals after extra-amniotic insertion of a Foley catheter with or without methylhydroxyethylcellulose (Tylose) gel. The procedure caused an acute elevation of PGFM levels within 5 min (P less than 0.025), which was maintained for at least 6 hours in the absence of uterine activation at 179 +/- 32% of the initial values (P less than 0.01). Extra-amniotic administration of Tylose gel caused an increase in PGFM levels which was both higher and more prolonged (greater than 12 hours) than insertion of a Foley catheter alone. The observations indicate that cervical ripening without concomitant uterine activation is associated with an increase in PGFM levels. They also demonstrate that prolonged activation of (intra) uterine prostaglandin synthesis may occur several hours before the onset of labor-like uterine activity. A chance finding further suggests that spontaneous rupture of the membranes too may be preceeded by an increase in (intra) uterine prostaglandin synthesis. In their totality these observations lend strong support to the proposition that an increase in (intra) uterine prostaglandin production is a prerequisite to rather than a consequence of the initiation of labor.

  11. Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.

    PubMed

    Ninio, Racheli; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef; Sitrit, Yaron

    2003-01-29

    The columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller, Cactaceae (koubo), is grown commercially in Israel. The unripe fruits are green, and the color changes to violet and then to red when the fruit is fully ripe. The content of soluble sugars was found to increase 5-fold during ripening. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars accumulated in the fruit pulp, and each increased from 0.5 to 5.5 g/100 g fresh weight during ripening. The polysaccharides content decreased during ripening from 1.4 to 0.4 g/100 g fresh weight. The titratable acidity decreased and the pH increased during ripening. The major organic acid found in the fruit was malic acid, which decreased from 0.75 g/100 g fresh weight at the mature green stage to 0.355 g/100 g fresh weight in ripe fruits. Citric, succinic, and oxalic acids were found in concentrations lower than 0.07 g/100 g fresh weight. Prominent accumulation of aroma volatiles occurred toward the end of the ripening process. The main volatile found in the ripe fruit was linalool, reaching concentrations of 1.5-3.5 microg/g fresh weight.

  12. The gut microbiota appears to compensate for seasonal diet variation in the wild black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Leigh, Steven R; Kent, Angela; Mackie, Roderick I; Yeoman, Carl J; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Garber, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    For most mammals, including nonhuman primates, diet composition varies temporally in response to differences in food availability. Because diet influences gut microbiota composition, it is likely that the gut microbiota of wild mammals varies in response to seasonal changes in feeding patterns. Such variation may affect host digestive efficiency and, ultimately, host nutrition. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation in diet and gut microbiota composition and function in two groups (N = 13 individuals) of wild Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) over a 10-month period in Palenque National Park, Mexico. Temporal changes in the relative abundances of individual bacterial taxa were strongly correlated with changes in host diet. For example, the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae was highest during periods when energy intake was lowest, and the relative abundance of Butyricicoccus was highest when young leaves and unripe fruit accounted for 68 % of the diet. Additionally, the howlers exhibited increased microbial production of energy during periods of reduced energy intake from food sources. Because we observed few changes in howler activity and ranging patterns during the course of our study, we propose that shifts in the composition and activity of the gut microbiota provided additional energy and nutrients to compensate for changes in diet. Energy and nutrient production by the gut microbiota appears to provide an effective buffer against seasonal fluctuations in energy and nutrient intake for these primates and is likely to have a similar function in other mammal species.

  13. The principal toxic glycosidic steroids in Cerbera manghas L. seeds: identification of cerberin, neriifolin, tanghinin and deacetyltanghinin by UHPLC-HRMS/MS, quantification by UHPLC-PDA-MS.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Gaillard, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    The toxicity of the sea mango (Cerbera manghas L.) is well known. The plant is ranked as one of the deadliest of the southern Asian coastline. Cardenolidic heterosides are responsible for the cardiotoxicity of trees of the Cerbera genus. We have identified and determined the concentration of the principal glycosidic steroids present in the seeds of sea mangos (Thailand). Drug screening of an extract of the seeds was carried out using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-MS) with quantification at 219nm. Identification was confirmed by UHPLC-HRMS. Deacetyltanghinin (m/z 549.3055±2ppm), neriifolin (m/z 535.3259±2ppm), tanghinin (m/z 591.3169±2ppm) and cerberin (577.3375±2ppm) were the most abundant glycosidic steroids present in the sea mango seeds. A seed of the dried ripe fruit had concentrations of 1209.1, 804.2, 621.4 and 285.9μg/g, respectively. A seed of the fresh unripe fruit had concentrations of 49.4, 47.0, 3.5 and 2.3μg/g.

  14. Insights into cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of five Juniperus species.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nilufer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergun, Fatma

    2011-09-01

    In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves, ripe fruits, and unripe fruits of Juniperus communis ssp. nana, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus sabina, Juniperus foetidissima, and Juniperus excelsa were investigated in the present study. Cholinesterase inhibition of the extracts was screened using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The extracts had low or no inhibition towards AChE, whereas the leaf aqueous extract of J. foetidissima showed the highest BChE inhibition (93.94 ± 0.01%). The leaf extracts usually exerted higher antioxidant activity. We herein describe the first study on anticholinesterase and antioxidant activity by the methods of ferrous ion-chelating, superoxide radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays of the mentioned Juniperus species.

  15. A novel green approach for the preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers from white coir.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diego M; Almeida, Jessica S; Dias, Amanda F; Figueirêdo, Maria Clea B; Morais, João Paulo S; Feitosa, Judith P A; de F Rosa, Morsyleide

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this work was to optimize the extraction of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) from unripe coconut husk fibers (CHF). The CHF was delignified using organosolv process, followed by alkaline bleaching (5% (w/w) H2O2+4% (w/w) NaOH; 50°C, 90 min). The CHF was subsequently hydrolyzed with 30% (v/v) sulfuric acid (60°C, 360 min). The process yielded a partially delignified acetosolv cellulose pulp and acetic black liquor, from which the lignin was recovered. The CNW from the acetosolv pulp exhibited an average length of 172±88 nm and a diameter of 8±3 nm, (aspect ratio of 22±8). The surface charge of the CNW was -33 mV, indicating a stable aqueous colloidal suspension. The nanocrystals presented physical characteristics close to those extracted from cellulose pulp made by CHF chlorine-pulping. This approach offers the additional advantage of extracting the lignin as an alternative to eradication.

  16. Cloning, sequencing, and identification using proteomic tools of a protease from Bromelia hieronymi Mez.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Mariela Anahí; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Caffini, Néstor Oscar; López, Laura Maria Isabel

    2011-09-01

    Fruits of Bromelia hieronymi, a tropical South American plant, possess a high content of peptidases with potential biotechnological uses. Total RNA was extracted from unripe fruits and peptidase cDNA was obtained by 3'RACE-PCR. The consensus sequence of the cysteine peptidase cDNA contained 875 bp, the 690 first ones codifying for a hypothetical polypeptide chain of the mature peptidase, named Bh-CP1 (molecular mass 24.773 kDa, pI 8.6, extinction molar coefficient 58,705 M(-1) cm(-1)). Bh-CP1 sequence shows a high percentage of identity with those of other cysteine plant proteases. The presence of highly preserved residues is observed, like those forming the catalytic site (Gln19, Cys25, His159, and Asn175, papain numbering), as well as other six Cys residues, involved in the formation of disulfide bounds. Molecular modeling results suggest the enzyme belongs to the α + β class of proteins, with two disulfide bridges (Cys23-Cys63 and Cys57-Cys96) in the α domain, while the β domain is stabilized by another disulfide bridge (Cys153-Cys203). Additionally, peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) of the three peptidases previously isolated from B. hieronymi fruits (namely hieronymain I, II, and III) were performed and compared with the theoretical fingerprint of PMF of Bh-CP1, showing a partial matching between the in silico-translated protein and hieronymain II.

  17. Purification and characterization of hieronymain III. Comparison with other proteases previously isolated from Bromelia hieronymi Mez.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Mariela A; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2008-12-01

    A new proteolytic enzyme, named hieronymain III, has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez. The new peptidase belongs to the cysteine catalytic type, as well as hieronymain I and II, the other two peptidases previously isolated from this species. Hieronymain III showed optimum alkaline pH range (8.6-9.3) and the molecular mass (MALDI-TOF) was 23713 Da. The N-terminal sequence (AVPQSIDWRRYGAVTTSRNQG) exhibited a higher percentage identity with hieronymain II (93%) than with hieronymain I (71%). The three peptidases showed notable differences on synthetic substrates degradation: whereas hieronymain III was the only one able to hidrolyze Z-Arg-Arg-p-nitroanilide, hieronymain I and II could degrade Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide; on the other hand, PFLNA was only split by hieronymain I. Finally, the three proteases showed different preferences on N-alpha-CBZ-p-nitrophenyl aminoacid ester substrates. From a biotechnological point of view, cleavage specificity differences are significant enough to use these enzymes as potential tools in that area.

  18. Changes in Biochemical Characteristics and Activities of Ripening Associated Enzymes in Mango Fruit during the Storage at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2014-01-01

    As a part of the study to explore the possible strategy for enhancing the shelf life of mango fruits, we investigated the changes in biochemical parameters and activities of ripening associated enzymes of Ashwina hybrid mangoes at 4-day regular intervals during storage at −10°C, 4°C, and 30 ± 1°C. Titratable acidity, vitamin C, starch content, and reducing sugar were higher at unripe state and gradually decreased with the increasing of storage time at all storage temperatures while phenol content, total soluble solid, total sugar, and nonreducing sugar contents gradually increased. The activities of amylase, α-mannosidase, α-glucosidase, and invertase increased sharply within first few days and decreased significantly in the later stage of ripening at 30 ± 1°C. Meanwhile polyphenol oxidase, β-galactosidase, and β-hexosaminidase predominantly increased significantly with the increasing days of storage till later stage of ripening. At −10°C and 4°C, the enzymes as well as carbohydrate contents of storage mango changed slightly up to 4 days and thereafter the enzyme became fully dormant. The results indicated that increase in storage temperature and time correlated with changes in biochemical parameters and activities of glycosidases suggested the suppression of β-galactosidase and β-hexosaminidase might enhance the shelf life of mango fruits. PMID:25136564

  19. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)

    PubMed Central

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    “Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 μg/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  20. Fruit availability drives the distribution of a folivorous-frugivorous primate within a large forest remnant.

    PubMed

    Camaratta, Danielle; Chaves, Óscar M; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the ecological factors that influence the presence, abundance, and distribution of species within their habitats is critical for ensuring their long-term conservation. In the case of primary consumers, such as most primates, the availability and richness of plant foods are considered key drivers of population density at these variables influence the spatial distribution of social units within a finer, habitat patch level scale. We tested the hypothesis that the spatiotemporal availability and richness of plant foods, drive the spatial distribution of brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) at a fine spatial scale. We established five line transects (2.6-4.3 km long) to census the population of brown howlers in Morro São Pedro, a 1,200 ha Atlantic forest remnant in southern Brazil, every 2 weeks from January to June 2015. We used data from tree inventories performed in sighting and control plots, and phenological surveys of 17 top food tree species to estimate bi-weekly food availability. We recorded a total of 95 sightings. The number of sightings per sampling period ranged from 2 to 12. The availability of fruit (ripe and unripe) was higher in sighting than in control plots, whereas leaf availability and the richness of food tree species was similar. We conclude that the spatial distribution of fruiting trees and the availability of fruit drive the pattern of habitat use, and spacing of brown howler groups in Morro São Pedro.

  1. Reproductive allocation and output in herbaceous annuals of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia in elevated CO[sub 2] environments

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, E.J.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the capacity of plants to adapt to rapidly changing global climate, we must elucidate the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on reproduction, fitness and evolution. We investigated how elevated CO[sub 2] influenced reproduction and growth of plants exhibiting a range of floral displays, the implications of shifts in allocation for fitness in these species, and whether related taxa would show similar patterns of response. Three herbaceous, annual species each of the genera Polygonum, Ipomoea, and Cassia were grown under 350 or 700 ppm CO[sub 2]. Vegetative growth and reproductive output were non-destructively measured throughout the full life span, and biomass calibrated with a subsample harvest at first flowering. Viability and germination studies of seed progeny were conducted to more precisely characterize fitness. Timecourse and numbers of floral buds, flowers, unripe and abscised fruits differed between CO[sub 2] treatments. Genera differed significantly in their phenological responses to elevated CO[sub 2], Polygonum and Cassia species (but not Ipomoea) showed accelerated, enhanced reproduction. Elevated CO[sub 2] ameliorated trade-offs between vegetative and floral production. However, seed [open quotes]quality[close quotes] and fitness were not always directly correlated with quantity produced. Species within general responded more consistently to CO[sub 2], indicating that phylogeny and life form may be general predictors of performance under global change.

  2. Long aculeus and behavior of Anastrepha ludens render gibberellic acid ineffective as an agent to reduce 'ruby red' grapefruit susceptibility to the attack of this pestiferous fruit fly in commercial groves.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martín; Greany, Patrick; Bigurra, Everardo; Pérez-Staples, Diana; McDonald, Roy

    2006-08-01

    Treating Mexican grapefruit with gibberellic acid (GA3) before color break, significantly delayed peel color change and increased peel puncture resistance, but it did not reduce grapefruit susceptibility to Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) attack under natural conditions. Despite GA3 treatments, larval infestation levels increased with higher fruit fly populations, which also increased as the season progressed. Late in the season, infestation levels were even higher in GA3-treated fruit compared with untreated fruit, possibly because treated fruit were in better condition at that stage. Egg clutch size was significantly greater in very unripe, hard, GA3-treated fruit at the beginning of the harvest season and in December, compared with control fruit. Under laboratory conditions, egg injection into different regions of the fruit suggested that A. ludens eggs are intoxicated by peel oil content in the flavedo region. However, A. ludens' long aculeus allows females to oviposit eggs deeper into the peel (i.e., albedo), avoiding toxic essential oils in the flavedo. This makes A. ludens a particularly difficult species to control compared with other citrus-infesting species such as Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (fly species with significantly shorter aculei), which can be effectively managed with GA3 sprays. We discuss our findings in light of their practical implications and with respect to the oviposition behavior of various fruit flies attacking citrus.

  3. A Rudimentary Optical System in Detecting Ripeness of Red Watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezan Abdullah, Noor; Hashim, Hadzli; Fathullah Sulaiman, Muhammad; Korlina Madzhi, Nina; Faiz Mohd Sampian, Ahmad; Aima Ismail, Faridatul

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this project is to detect the ripeness and quality of the watermelon particularly for red watermelon. The ripeness of the watermelon will be evaluated by using near-infrared spectroscopy sensor (NRIS). The color wavelength will classify the ripeness of the watermelon. An infrared light will be used to get the appropriate wavelength from the watermelon either from the rind or inner of it and the signal received will be analyzed. An appropriate algorithm is used to extract the information of the inner of the watermelon. A microcontroller namely Programmable Interface Controller (PIC) will be used to execute the algorithm and the result will be displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). Based on the result obtain from the device, the data is computed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). This approach is vital to verify the relationship between unripe and ripeness of red watermelon. The objective of this project is to produce an efficient system to detect the ripeness of the watermelon.

  4. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  5. Determination of alkaloids in capsules, milk and ethanolic extracts of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) by ATR-FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Quilitzsch, Rolf; Schütze, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Fourier transform (FT) infrared spectroscopy using a diamond composite ATR crystal and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy techniques were applied for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the most important alkaloids in poppy capsules. Most of the characteristic Raman signals of the alkaloids can be identified in poppy milk isolated from unripe capsules. But also poppy extracts present specific bands relating clearly to the alkaloid fraction. Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts (5-10 microL or 2-5 mg) without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved. The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material.

  6. Biological activity and phytochemical analysis of three Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum and Zingiber purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Arung, Enos Tangke; Aryani, Farida; Min, Yu-Hong; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kim, Yong-ung

    2011-03-01

    Extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum, and Zingiber purpurea were investigated for their biological activity. The presence of phytochemicals, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. Parts of M. koenigii, S. polyanthum, and Z. purpurea were extracted with ethanol. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity was determined with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality test, and phytochemical screening was performed using a standard method. M. koenigii leaf extract exhibited the most activity in the test microorganism activity index (AI), 0.38-1.25, when compared with standard drugs. S. polyanthum ripened fruit displayed significant antioxidant activity (90%) in comparison to ascorbic acid (95%). Z. purpurea rhizome extract possessed the highest cytotoxic effect with a LC(50) of 52 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis revealed that carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid were present in the extracts of M. koenigii leaves and twigs, S. polyanthum leaves and ripened and unripe fruits, and Z. purpurea rhizome, while saponin was only present in the S. polyanthum ripened fruit extract. Our work revealed that the M. koenigii leaves, S. polyanthum ripened fruit, and Z. purpurea rhizome extracts have potential as sources of new antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds, respectively.

  7. Pesticides in urban streams and prespawn mortality of Pacific coho salmon.

    PubMed

    King, Kerensa A; Grue, Christian E; Grassley, James M; Hearsey, James W

    2013-10-01

    The listing of several runs of Pacific salmon as threatened or endangered and associated federal, state, and local efforts to restore/enhance salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest make it imperative that the factors associated with these population declines are understood. Prespawn mortality (PSM) has been documented in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) within urban streams in western Washington since the late 1990s and is characterized by a suite of neurological and respiratory symptoms with mortality occurring shortly thereafter. Mortality rates in returning adults have ranged between 17 and 100%. The cause of PSM is not known, but the presence of pesticide residues within urban streams led to a hypothesis that PSM in coho salmon and pesticides in urban streams were linked. We exposed pairs of "green" (unripe) prespawn male and female coho salmon to a pesticide mixture ("cocktail") reported in urban streams in western Washington State, USA. Longevity, ripening in female salmon, and brain acetylcholinesterase were not significantly affected by continuous exposure to the maximum reported concentrations of the pesticides. Fertilization, hatching success, and growth of fry were also not affected when green adults were exposed to these concentrations for 96 h. The absence of effects suggests it is unlikely that pesticides within stormwater are singularly responsible for PSM in coho salmon or that they impair the reproductive capability of exposed adults.

  8. Evaluating the performance of sampling plans to detect hypoglycin A in ackee fruit shipments imported into the United States.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Saltsman, Joyce J; Ware, George M; Slate, Andrew B

    2007-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is a toxic amino acid that is naturally produced in unripe ackee fruit. In 1973, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) placed a worldwide import alert on ackee fruit, which banned the product from entering the United States. The FDA has considered establishing a regulatory limit for HGA and lifting the ban, which will require development of a monitoring program. The establishment of a regulatory limit for HGA requires the development of a scientifically based sampling plan to detect HGA in ackee fruit imported into the United States. Thirty-three lots of ackee fruit were sampled according to an experimental protocol in which 10 samples, i.e., ten 19 oz cans, were randomly taken from each lot and analyzed for HGA by using liquid chromatography. The total variance was partitioned into sampling and analytical variance components, which were found to be a function of the HGA concentration. Regression equations were developed to predict the total, sampling, and analytical variances as a function of HGA concentration. The observed HGA distribution among the test results for the 10 HGA samples was compared with the normal and lognormal distributions. A computer model based on the lognormal distribution was developed to predict the performance of sampling plan designs to detect HGA in ackee fruit shipments. The performance of several sampling plan designs was evaluated to demonstrate how to manipulate sample size and accept/reject limits to reduce misclassification of ackee fruit lots.

  9. Dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wijewardene, K; Fonseka, P; Goonaratne, C

    1994-01-01

    Although nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy has been studied in detail, there is little information available regarding dietary aversions and some cravings during pregnancy. To study the prevalence and factors associated with dietary aversions and cravings during pregnancy, a survey was carried out on 1000 randomly selected pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a district in southern Sri Lanka. In this group 473 (47.3%) had pregnancy cravings for wide variety of foods: sour food 65%, unripe fruits 40%, meat and fish 47%, ripe fruits 30%, food from alms giving 26% and jam and bread fruit 22%. Ninety nine per cent of those who had pregnancy cravings had made special attempt to obtain the food of their choice and all of them had their cravings satisfied by eating the food of their choice. Pregnancy cravings was significantly higher in women who married after a love affair's than in those who had on 'arranged' marriage (p < 0.05), in women who were superstitious (believed in devil dancing and gods) than in those who were not (p < 0.05), and in women with a family income of less than Rs. 2,500 than in those with an income of more than Rs. 2,500 (p < 0.05).

  10. A review of the hepatotoxic plant Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P; Sharma, Sarita; Pattabhi, Vasantha; Mahato, Shashi B; Sharma, Pritam D

    2007-05-01

    Lantana (Lantana camara Linn) is a noxious weed that grows in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Ingestion of lantana foliage by grazing animals causes cholestasis and hepatotoxicity. Both ruminants and nonruminant animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, and female rats are susceptible to the hepatotoxic action of lantana toxins. The hepatotoxins are pentacyclic triterpenoids called lantadenes. Molecular structure of lantadenes has been determined. Green unripe fruits of the plant are toxic to humans. Lantana spp. exert allelopathic action on the neighboring vegetation. The allelochemicals have been identified as phenolics, with umbelliferone, methylcoumarin, and salicylic acid being the most phytotoxic. In addition to phenolics, a recent report indicates lantadene A and B as more potent allelochemicals. Management of lantana toxicosis in animals is achieved by drenching with activated charcoal and supportive therapy. Recent reports on the bilirubin clearance effect of Chinese herbal tea Yin Zhi Huang (decoction of the plant Yin Chin, Artemisia capillaries, and three other herbs) or its active ingredient 6,7-dimethylesculetin, in jaundice are very exciting and warrant investigations on its, possible, ameliorative effects in lantana intoxicated animals. Research is being conducted on new drug discovery based on natural products in different parts of the lantana plant.

  11. Isolation and characterisation of a cysteine protease (phytolacain G), from Phytolacca americana roots.

    PubMed

    Sussner, Ursula; Abel, Gudrun; Schulte, Ralf; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2004-10-01

    Protein extracts obtained from dried and fresh roots of Phytolacca americana L. (Phytolaccaceae) were examined in order to identify and characterise individual proteins. The extracts were compared with a commercial pokeweed mitogen standard using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A dominant protein, present in both the extracts and the pokeweed mitogen standard, was isolated by subsequent ammonium sulphate fractionation, anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. In this way it was purified 140-fold with about 20 % yield and 70-fold with about 13 % yield from dried and fresh roots, respectively. Its molecular mass as determined by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE was estimated to be about 25 kDa. Subsequent isoelectric focussing revealed one single protein band at pH 6.0. LysC digestion of the 25 kDa protein yielded several peptides which were subjected to micro-sequencing. Comparison with published sequences revealed that the protein isolated was phytolacain G, a cysteine protease previously isolated from unripe fruits of P. americana L. The enzyme showed a high affinity towards the oxidised insulin B-chain and was completely inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl- L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)-butane (E64). The purified phytolacain G showed "lectin-like" activities such as haemagglutination and mitogenic effects towards human lymphocytes.

  12. Isolation and characterization of hieronymain II, another peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Bruno, Mariela A; Trejo, Sebastián A; Avilés, Xavier F; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I

    2006-04-01

    From unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bromeliaceae), a partially purified protease preparation was obtained by acetone fractionation of the crude extract. Purification was achieved by anionic exchange chromatography (FPLC) on Q-Sepharose HP followed by cationic exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose HP). Homogeneity of the new enzyme, named hieronymain II, was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-TOF). The molecular mass of was 23,411 Da, and maximum proteolytic activity (more than 90% of maximum activity) was achieved at pH 7.5-9.0 on casein and at pH 7.30-8.3 on Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid and activated by the addition of cysteine. The N-terminal sequence of hieronymain II (AVPQSIDWRVYGAV) was compared with those of 12 plant cysteine proteases which showed more than 70% of identity. Kinetic enzymatic assays were made on Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide (Km = 0.72mM, kcat = 1.82 seg(-1) , kcat/ Km = 2.54seg(-1) mM(-l)). No detectable activity could be found on PFLNA or Z-Arg-Arg-p-nitroanilide.

  13. Accumulation of uranium by immobilized persimmon tannin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira )

    1994-01-01

    We have discovered that the extracted juice of unripe astringent persimmon fruit, designated as kakishibu or shibuol, has an extremely high affinity for uranium. To develop efficient adsorbents for uranium, we tried to immobilize kakishibu (persimmon tannin) with various aldehydes and mineral acids. Persimmon tannin immobilized with glutaraldehyde can accumulate 1.71 g (14 mEq U) of uranium per gram of the adsorbent. The uranium accumulating capacity of this adsorbent is several times greater than that of commercially available chelating resins (2-3 mEq/g). Immobilized persimmon tannin has the most favorable features for uranium recovery; high selective adsorption ability, rapid adsorption rate, and applicability in both column and batch systems. The uranium retained on immobilized persimmon tannin can be quantitatively and easily eluted with a very dilute acid, and the adsorbent can thus be easily recycled in the adsorption-desorption process. Immobilized persimmon tannin also has a high affinity for thorium. 23 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Evolution of the yields and composition of essential oil from Portuguese myrtle (Myrtus comunis L.) through the vegetative cycle.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula C; Cebola, Maria-João; Bernardo-Gil, M Gabriela

    2009-08-20

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese myrtle was determined at different developmental stages of the plant: pre-flowering, flowering, unripe and ripe berries. The oil was extracted separately by Clevenger distillation from leaves, branches and berries. The yields vary from 0.33% to 0.74% for leaves, 0.02% to 0.19% for branches, and 0.11% to 0.23% for berries. The highest yields were obtained for the leaves in October, and for the berries in September; branches show similar values in the months of June, July and September, and the samples collected in May and October produced very little amount of oil. Altogether, September seems to be the month with the best yields for the three parts of the plant. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and a total of thirty five components were identified. The major components were limonene+1,8-cineole [25.9% (berries)-39.5% (leaves)], myrtenyl acetate [6.6% (berries)-24.8% (leaves)], alpha-pinene [9.7% (berries)-21.5% (leaves)], and linalool [6.2% (leaves)-36.5% (berries)]. Portuguese myrtle belongs to the group of myrtles which are characterized by the presence of myrtenyl acetate as one of the major components.

  15. Determination of pesticide residues in samples of green minor crops by gas chromatography and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Walorczyk, Stanisław; Drożdżyński, Dariusz; Kierzek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for pesticide analysis in samples of high chlorophyll content belonging to the group of minor crops. A new type of sorbent, known as ChloroFiltr, was employed for dispersive-solid phase extraction cleanup (dispersive-SPE) to reduce the unwanted matrix background prior to concurrent analysis by gas chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS). Validation experiments were carried out on green, unripe plants of lupin, white mustard and sorghum. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg(-1) fell in the range between 68 and 120% (98% on average) and 72-104% (93% on average) with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 2 and 19% (7% on average) and 3-16% (6% on average) by GC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS technique, respectively. Because of strong enhancement or suppression matrix effects (absolute values >20%) which were exhibited by about 80% of the pesticide and matrix combinations, acceptably accurate quantification was achieved by using matrix-matched standards. Up to now, the proposed method has been successfully used to study the dissipation patterns of pesticides after application on lupin, white mustard, soya bean, sunflower and field bean in experimental plot trials conducted in Poland.

  16. Antioxidant and enzymatic responses to oxidative stress induced by pre-harvest water supply reduction and ripening on mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Cogshall') in relation to carotenoid content.

    PubMed

    Rosalie, Rémy; Joas, Jacques; Deytieux-Belleau, Christelle; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Payet, Bertrand; Dufossé, Laurent; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2015-07-20

    The effects of a reduction in water supply during fruit development and postharvest fruit ripening on the oxidative status and the antioxidant defense system were studied in the mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Cogshall. Changes in non-enzymatic (ascorbate) and enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR) antioxidants, as well as oxidative parameters (H2O2 and MDA) and major carotenoids, were measured in unripe and ripe fruits from well-irrigated and non-irrigated trees. Under non-limiting water supply conditions, ripening induced oxidation as a result of the production of ROS and decreased ascorbate content. Antioxidant enzymatic systems were activated to protect fruit tissues and to regenerate the ascorbate pool. The carotenoid pool, mainly represented by β-carotene and esterified violaxanthine isomers, accumulated naturally during mango ripening. The suppression of irrigation decreased fruit size and induced accumulation of ABA and of its storage form, ABA-GE, in fruit pulp from the earliest harvest. It also increased oxidation, which was observable by the high levels of ascorbate measured at the early stages at harvest, and by the delay in the time it took to reach the pseudo constant carotene-to-xanthophyll ratio in ripe fruits. Nevertheless, differences between the irrigation treatments on the antioxidant system in ripe fruits were not significant, mainly because of the drastic changes in this system during ripening.

  17. Protection against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract.

    PubMed

    Ajila, C M; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic and cytoprotective activities and other therapeutic properties. Mango peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids and others. In the present study, the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe and ripe mango fruits of two varieties namely, Raspuri and Badami on hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, degradation of membrane proteins and its morphological changes are reported. The oxidative hemolysis of rat erythrocytes by hydrogen peroxide was inhibited by mango peel extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) value for lipid peroxidation inhibition on erythrocyte ghost membrane was found to be in the range of 4.5-19.3 microg gallic acid equivalents. The mango peel extract showed protection against membrane protein degradation caused by hydrogen peroxide. Morphological changes to erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by mango peel extract. The results demonstrated that mango peel extracts protected erythrocytes against oxidative stress and may impart health benefits and it could be used as a valuable food ingredient or a nutraceutical product.

  18. Non-Destructive Sensor-Based Prediction of Maturity and Optimum Harvest Date of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz, Michaela; Blanke, Michael

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: The aim of the study was to use innovative sensor technology for non-destructive determination and prediction of optimum harvest date (OHD), using sweet cherry as a model fruit, based on different ripening parameters. (2) Methods: Two cherry varieties in two growing systems viz. field and polytunnel in two years were employed. The fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight and size proved unsuitable to detect OHD alone due to their dependence on crop load, climatic conditions, cultural practices, and season. Coloration during cherry ripening was characterized by a complete decline of green chlorophyll and saturation of the red anthocyanins, and was measured with a portable sensor viz. spectrometer 3–4 weeks before expected harvest until 2 weeks after harvest. (3) Results: Expressed as green NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index) and red NAI (normalized anthocyanin index) values, NAI increased from −0.5 (unripe) to +0.7 to +0.8 in mature fruit and remained at this saturation level with overripe fruits, irrespective of variety, treatment, and year. A model was developed to predict the OHD, which coincided with when NDVI reached and exceeded zero and the first derivative of NAI asymptotically approached zero. (4) Conclusion: The use of this sensor technology appears suitable for several cherry varieties and growing systems to predict the optimum harvest date. PMID:28146114

  19. Characterization of Sensory Properties of Flavanols - A Molecular Dynamic Approach.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Brás, Natércia F; Gomes, Paula; de Freitas, Victor; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-07-01

    In this work, sensations elicited by catechin and procyanidins in comparison with those elicited by gallocatechin and prodelphinidins were evaluated by means of a sensory panel. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of action, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) experiments have been performed. Results showed clear differences between the 2 types of flavanols. Dihydroxylated B-ring flavanols were more astringent, bitter, dry, rough, unripe, and persistent than trihydroxylated B-ring ones. Besides, these last compounds were smoother, more velvety, and viscous. MD simulations and STD NMR experiments support results obtained from tasting panel. MD results suggested that catechin binds to a human salivary proline-rich peptide IB714 faster than gallocatechin and this interaction is maintained longer. IB714 can interact with 2 catechin molecules concurrently while only interacts with 1 gallocatechin molecule. Accordingly, STD NMR experiments showed a greater affinity of catechin than gallocatechin for the peptide (K D = 2.7 and 25.7, respectively). Results indicate that the number of hydroxyl substituents present in B-ring of the flavanic nucleus is decisive for the interaction with salivary proteins and the development of astringency perception.

  20. Alternative Reproductive Tactics in the Shell-Brooding Lake Tanganyika Cichlid Neolamprologus brevis

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Kazutaka; Aibara, Mitsuto; Morita, Masaya; Awata, Satoshi; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are found in several Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlids. Field studies were conducted in the Wonzye population to examine reproductive ecology and ARTs in the Lake Tanganyika shell-brooding cichlid Neolamprologus brevis. We discovered that this fish occurred in both rocky- and sandy-bottom habitats, but in rocky habitats, brood-caring females exclusively occurred in shell-patches that another cichlid species created. All N. brevis of both sexes in the patches were sexually mature, whereas immature males and females with unripe eggs were found frequently in sandy-bottom habitats. Males in sandy-bottom habitats were smaller, but fed more frequently and were in better somatic condition than males in the patches. Similar tendency was found in females. This indicates that N. brevis uses different habitats depending on the stage of its life history, with migration from sandy-bottom habitats to the shell-patches for reproduction. Males in the patches exhibited different behavior patterns: floating above the patches and lying in the patches. The former was larger, more aggressive, and invested less in gonads (relative to body size) than the latter. These results accord with those of other shell-brooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with ARTs, and they therefore suggest the presence of ARTs in N. brevis. PMID:22888463

  1. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2008-10-22

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications.

  2. Differential expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase during fruit development establishes the different B-ring hydroxylation patterns of flavonoids in Fragaria × ananassa and Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Thill, Jana; Miosic, Silvija; Gotame, Tek Prasad; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Gosch, Christian; Veberic, Robert; Preuss, Anja; Schwab, Wilfried; Stampar, Franci; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) was studied for the first time in different Fragaria species. The cDNA clones isolated from unripe and ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa (garden strawberry) and Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) showed high similarity (99% at the amino acid level) to the publically available F. vesca genome sequence and no significant differences could be identified between species and developmental stages of the fruits. In contrast, the genomic F3'H clones showed differences in the non-coding regions and 5'-flanking elements. The recombinant F3'Hs were functionally active and showed high specificity for naringenin, dihydrokaempferol, and kaempferol, whereas apigenin was only a minor substrate. During fruit development, a clear difference in the F3'H expression was observed between F. × ananassa and F. vesca. While a drastic decline of F3'H expression occurred during fruit ripening in F. × ananassa, F3'H in F. vesca was highly expressed in all stages. This was reflected by the anthocyanin composition, which showed a prevalence of pelargonidin in ripe fruits of F. × ananassa, whereas F. vesca had a high content of cyanidin. Screening of 17 berry species for their anthocyanin and flavonol composition showed that the prevalence of monohydroxylated anthocyanins makes garden strawberry unique among all other fruit species indicating that selection of bright red color during strawberry breeding, which consumers typically associate with freshness and ripeness, has selected phenotypes with a special biochemical background.

  3. Food search through the eyes of a monkey: a functional substitution approach for assessing the ecology of primate color vision.

    PubMed

    Melin, A D; Kline, D W; Hickey, C M; Fedigan, L M

    2013-06-28

    Efficient detection and selection of reddish fruits against green foliage has long been thought to be a major selective pressure favoring the evolution of primate trichromatic color vision. This has recently been questioned by studies of free-ranging primates that fail to show predicted differences in foraging efficiency between dichromats and trichromats. In the present study, we use a unique approach to evaluate the adaptive significance of trichromacy for fruit detection by undertaking a functional substitution model. The color vision phenotypes of neotropical monkeys are simulated for human observers, who use a touch-sensitive computer interface to search for monkey food items in digital images taken under natural conditions. We find an advantage to trichromatic phenotypes - especially the variant with the most spectrally separated visual pigments - for red, yellow and greenish fruits, but not for dark (purple or black) fruits. These results indicate that trichromat advantage is task-specific, and that shape, size and achromatic contrast variation between ripe and unripe fruits cannot completely mitigate the advantage of color vision. Similarities in fruit foraging performance between primates with different phenotypes in the wild likely reflect the behavioral flexibility of dichromats in overcoming a chromatic disadvantage.

  4. Use and Selection of Sleeping Sites by Proboscis Monkeys, Nasalislarvatus, along the Kinabatangan River, Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Valentine; Stark, Danica J; Goossens, Benoît; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Vercauteren Drubbel, Régine; Vercauteren, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The choice of a sleeping site is crucial for primates and may influence their survival. In this study, we investigated several tree characteristics influencing the sleeping site selection by proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) along Kinabatangan River, in Sabah, Malaysia. We identified 81 sleeping trees used by one-male and all-male social groups from November 2011 to January 2012. We recorded 15 variables for each tree. Within sleeping sites, sleeping trees were taller, had a larger trunk, with larger and higher first branches than surrounding trees. The crown contained more mature leaves, ripe and unripe fruits but had vines less often than surrounding trees. In addition, in this study, we also focused on a larger scale, considering sleeping and non-sleeping sites. Multivariate analyses highlighted a combination of 6 variables that revealed the significance of sleeping trees as well as surrounding trees in the selection process. During our boat surveys, we observed that adult females and young individuals stayed higher in the canopy than adult males. This pattern may be driven by their increased vulnerability to predation. Finally, we suggest that the selection of particular sleeping tree features (i.e. tall, high first branch) by proboscis monkeys is mostly influenced by antipredation strategies.

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of apple polyphenols against concanavalin A-induced immunological liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Xue, Yang; Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Fang; Sun, Ying; Li, Ting; Wu, Chunfu

    2016-10-25

    Apple polyphenols (AP), a polyphenol extracted from the unripe apple, has been reported to improve acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4 in mice due to its significant antioxidant activity. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of AP against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced immunological liver injury in mice was investigated. Mice were treated with AP daily for seven days prior to a single intravenous administration of Con A. The serum levels of AST, ALT, TP, Alb and histopathological changes were determined and the A/G ratio was calculated. Potential mechanisms were further explored by measuring TNF-α and IFN-γ levels, NO content as well as changes in the levels of endogenous oxidants and antioxidants. AP significantly improved the abnormal levels of ALT, AST, TP and Alb, and the A/G ratio. AP was also associated with improvement of liver histopathological changes after Con A-induced liver injury. Moreover, AP reduced serum levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, decreased serum NO content, inhibited oxidative DNA single-strand breaks, and improved the abnormalities of MDA content, SOD activity and GSH level. These results suggest that AP exerts a protective effect against Con A-induced immunological liver injury through suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and activating the antioxidant system.

  6. Bifidogenic characteristic and protective effect of saba starch on survival of Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 during vacuum-drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Uraipan, Supansa

    2015-03-06

    Resistant starch (RS) from unripe saba banana (Musa sapientum (Linn)) (Kluai Hin) exhibited high resistance to gastric acid and intestinal amylases. Its bifidogenic effect under competition of human fecal microflora was determined in the simulated proximal region of human colon. In addition, saba RS effectively protected Lactobacillus plantarum CIF17AN2 during drying process. The maximum survival of 85.81% was achieved under vacuum drying operated at 37 °C when saba RS was added. The addition of saba RS to formulate a synbiotic product was able to retain high viability of the vacuum-dried L. plantarum during 8-week storage at ambient temperature. This is because saba RS can stabilize the moisture content of the synbiotic product. In contrast, the dramatic increase of moisture content in the vacuum-dried L. plantarum without saba RS led to significant decrease in cell survival. Moreover, saba RS could potentially protect the vacuum-dried L. plantarum from gastric acid and bile exposures.

  7. Simultaneous transcriptome analysis of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Friedlander, Gilgi; Ment, Dana; Prusky, Dov; Fluhr, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. There is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. Transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. Conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific transcription that was accompanied by massive fruit defense responses. The subsequent quiescent stage showed the development of dendritic-like structures and swollen hyphae within the fruit epidermis. The quiescent fungal transcriptome was characterized by activation of chromatin remodeling genes and unsuspected environmental alkalization. Fruit response was portrayed by continued highly integrated massive up-regulation of defense genes. During cuticle infection of green or ripe fruit, fungi recapitulate the same developmental stages but with differing quiescent time spans. The necrotrophic stage showed a dramatic shift in fungal metabolism and up-regulation of pathogenicity factors. Fruit response to necrotrophy showed activation of the salicylic acid pathway, climaxing in cell death. Transcriptome analysis of C. gloeosporioides infection of fruit reveals its distinct stage-specific lifestyle and the concurrent changing fruit response, deepening our perception of the unfolding fungal-fruit arms and defenses race.

  8. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L. T.; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit–pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit–B. cinerea interaction. PMID:23717322

  9. Improving root-zone soil properties for Trembling Aspen in a reconstructed mine-site soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, M. F.; Sabbagh, P.; Bockstette, S.; Landhäusser, S.; Pinno, B.

    2014-12-01

    Surface mining activities have significantly depleted natural tree cover, especially trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), in the Boreal Forest and Aspen Parkland Natural Regions of Alberta. The natural soil profile is usually destroyed during these mining activities and soil and landscape reconstruction is typically the first step in the reclamation process. However, the mine tailings and overburden materials used for these new soils often become compacted during the reconstruction process because they are subjected to high amounts of traffic with heavy equipment. Compacted soils generally have low porosity and low penetrability through increased soil strength, making it difficult for roots to elongate and explore the soil. Compaction also reduces infiltration capacity and drainage, which can cause excessive runoff and soil erosion. To improve the pore size distribution and water transmission, subsoil ripping was carried out in a test plot at Genesee Prairie Mine, Alberta. Within the site, six replicates with two treatments each, unripped (compacted) and ripped (decompacted), were established with 20-m buffers between them. The main objective of this research was to characterize the effects of subsoil ripping on soil physical properties and the longevity of those effects.as well as soil water dynamics during spring snowmelt. Results showed improved bulk density, pore size distribution and water infiltration in the soil as a result of the deep ripping, but these improvements appear to be temporary.

  10. Network Inference Analysis Identifies an APRR2-Like Gene Linked to Pigment Accumulation in Tomato and Pepper Fruits1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu; Bradley, Glyn; Pyke, Kevin; Ball, Graham; Lu, Chungui; Fray, Rupert; Marshall, Alexandra; Jayasuta, Subhalai; Baxter, Charles; van Wijk, Rik; Boyden, Laurie; Cade, Rebecca; Chapman, Natalie H.; Fraser, Paul D.; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham B.

    2013-01-01

    Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health-promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by artificial neural network inference analysis and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato fruit gene regulatory network was generated using artificial neural network inference analysis and transcription factor gene expression profiles derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the transcription factor gene expression profiles with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild-type tomato fruits and, when overexpressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area, and pigment content, enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines overexpressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the overexpression lines, providing a link between the expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative ortholog of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening. PMID:23292788

  11. Cryobanking of Korean allium germplasm collections: results from a 10 year experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, H H; Popova, E; Shin, D J; Yi, J Y; Kim, C H; Lee, J S; Yoon, M K; Engelmann, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a 10-year experience in establishing a cryopreserved Allium germplasm collection at the genebank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center, Republic of Korea. A systematic approach to Allium cryopreservation included: 1. revealing the most critical factors that affected regeneration after cryostorage; 2. understanding the mechanisms of cryoprotection by analyzing the thermal behavior of explants and cryoprotectant solutions using DSC and influx/efflux of cryoprotectants using HPLC; 3. assessing genetic stability of regenerants; and 4. revealing the efficiency of cryotherapy. Bulbil primordia, i.e. asexual bulbs formed on unripe inflorescences, proved to be the most suitable material for conservation of bolting varieties due to high post-cryopreservation regrowth and lower microbial infection level, followed by apical shoot apices from single bulbs and cloves. A total of 1,158 accessions of garlic as well as some Allium species have been cryopreserved during 2005-2010 using the droplet-vitrification technique with a mean regeneration percentage of 65.9 percent after cryostorage. These results open the door for large-scale implementation of cryostorage and for simplifying international exchange for clonal Allium germplasm.

  12. Caregiver knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding vitamin A intake by Dominican children.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jordan P; Mills, Timothy A; Reicks, Marla

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major concern in the Dominican Republic. Successful educational interventions are based on needs assessment data specific to the population for which behavioural change is desired. The purpose of this study was to establish a foundation for nutrition education efforts for caregivers of young children to prevent VAD in the Dominican Republic. A cross-sectional survey was administered to caregivers (N = 151) from rural/peri-urban villages in five provinces to assess vitamin A knowledge and attitudes, frequency of consumption of foods rich in vitamin A by an index child (age range 3-9 years), and food-related practices contributing to vitamin A intake. Caregiver knowledge regarding vitamin A was low in all villages regardless of differences in socio-economic status and level of education. A majority of the caregivers (67%) reported having a garden, but produce from the garden was thought mainly to provide a financial benefit vs. a nutritional benefit for the family. Several vegetables rich in vitamin A used as seasoning, mango, and unripe banana and plantain were commonly consumed by children as reported by caregivers. Educational interventions should focus on basic vitamin A knowledge regarding sources as well as symptoms of deficiency. Education should also emphasize increasing the variety of foods rich in provitamin A carotenoids grown in home gardens.

  13. A short note on seed dispersal by colobines: the case of the proboscis monkey.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ikki; Higashi, Seigo; Otani, Yosuke; Tuuga, Augustine; Bernard, Henry; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-12-01

    Although the role of primates in seed dispersal is generally well recognized, this is not the case for colobines, which are widely distributed in Asian and African tropical forests. Colobines consume leaves, seeds and fruits, usually unripe. A group of proboscis monkeys (Colobinae, Nasalis larvatus) consisting of 1 alpha-male, 6 adult females and several immatures, was observed from May 2005 to May 2006. A total of 400 fecal samples from focal group members covering 13 months were examined, with over 3500 h of focal observation data on the group members in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. Intact small seeds were only found in 23 of 71 samples in Nov 2005, 15 of 38 in Dec 2005 and 5 of 21 in Mar 2006. Seeds of Ficus (all <1.5 mm in length) were found in all 3 months and seeds from Antidesma thwaitesianum (all <3 mm) and Nauclea subdita (all <2 mm) only in Nov and Dec, which was consistent with members of the study group consuming fruits of these species mostly at these times. To our knowledge, these are the first records of seeds in the fecal samples of colobines. Even if colobines pass relatively few seeds intact, their high abundance and biomass could make them quantitatively significant in seed dispersal. The potential role of colobines as seed dispersers should be considered by colobine researchers.

  14. Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

  15. Endophytic Fungal Flora from Roots and Fruits of an Indian Neem Plant Azadirachta indica A. Juss., and Impact of Culture Media on their Isolation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vijay C; Gond, Surendra K; Kumar, Anuj; Kharwar, Ravindra N; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Strobel, Gary A

    2011-10-01

    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (neem), native to India, is well known worldwide for its insecticidal and ethanopharmacological properties. Although endophytic microbes are known from this plant as only leaves and stems were the subjects of past reports. Now, a variety of procedures and a number of different media were used to isolate the maximum number of endophytic fungi from unripe fruits and roots. A total of 272 isolates of 29 filamentous fungal taxa were isolated at rate of 68.0% from 400 samples of three different individual trees (at locations-Az1, Az2, Az3). Mycological agar (MCA) medium yielded the highest number of isolates (95, with a 14.50% isolation rate) with the greatest species richness. Mycelia Sterilia (1, 2, 3) accounted for 11.06%, Coelomycetes 7.25%, while Hyphomycetes showed the maximum number of representative isolates (81.69%). Mycelia-Sterilia (1, 2, 3), based on their 5.8S ITS 1, ITS2 and partial 18S and 28S rDNA sequences were identified as Fusarium solani (99%), Chaetomium globosum (93%) and Chaetomium globosum (93%) respectively. Humicola, Drechslera, Colletotrichum, and Scytalidium sp. were some of the peculiar fungal endophytes recovered from this plant.

  16. [Study on classification of ethylene treated and non-ethylene treated watermelons by visible/near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tian, Hai-qing; Ying, Yi-bin; Lu, Hui-shan; Xu, Hui-rong; Xie, Li-juan

    2009-04-01

    According to the fact that farmers often picked unripe watermelon and treated them with high concentration ethylene to quicken ripeness, classification experiments on the two classes of watermelon mentioned above were conducted based on the Vis/NIR spectroscopy diffuse transmittance technique. In the discriminant analysis, a method to classify them by diffuse transmittance ration at two wavelengths was adopted to discriminate them. Result of mistake ratio 32.5% for samples without ethylene treatment and 20% for ethylene treatment samples indicated that this method could discriminate the two classes of watermelons roughly. Mahalanobis distance and partial least square methods were also used here for discriminant analysis and satisfied results were obtained. The first derivative spectra with Norris derivative filtering of samples without being ethylene-treated using Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis got the result of mistake ratio 1.67% for calibration set, no mistake for prediction set and no mistake for samples being ethylene treated. No mistake took place for the second derivative spectra using partial least square method. In discriminant analysis, spectral data pretreatment methods influence the discriminant results and it should be selected according to the analysis methods.

  17. Inter-specific and intra-specific variability in fruit color preference in two species of Turdus.

    PubMed

    Larrinaga, Asier R

    2011-09-01

    One of the main hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of fruit color deals with a preference of avian frugivores for specific colors, mainly black and red, which are the most common fruit colors in many of the studied habitats. I analyzed fruit color preferences by wild birds belonging to 2 species of the highly frugivorous genus Turdus (Eurasian Blackbird Turdus merula Linnaeus, 1758 and Redwing Turdus iliacus Linnaeus, 1758) by means of captivity experiments with artificial fruits. Despite important within-individual (i.e. temporal) and among-individual variability, consistent patterns of species-specific color preferences emerged. Eurasian Blackbirds tended to prefer red over blue, green and black, whereas Redwings seemed to prefer black over the rest. Green was systematically avoided by both species, suggesting that it might signal unripeness of fruits. Both preferred colors have been previously reported as the most common among fleshy-fruited plants. The high variability, both within and between individuals, in preferences suggests that they can be subject to changes through experience and learning and, therefore, are not likely to drive the evolution of fruit color. The main differences between both species could be related to the most common fruit color they fed upon during the last months before capture.

  18. Phenolics and physico-chemical characteristics of persimmon during post-harvest storage.

    PubMed

    Bibi, N; Chaudry, M A; Khan, F; Ali, Z; Sattar, A

    2001-04-01

    Garden picked mature but unripe fresh persimmon fruits were unipackaged in different thicknesses of polyethylene (PE) and stored at room (18.5-30 degrees C) and refrigerated temperature (6 +/- 1 degrees C). Maximum mean methanol extractable sinapine (0.168%), catechin (1.51%), and leucoanthocyanidine (10.94 delta A550/g) were recorded in the unipackaged samples kept at room temperature during 6 weeks storage, whereas the minimum values for water extractable phenolics (sinapin, catechin and procyanidin) were recorded in unipackaged samples under refrigerated temperature. The mean maximum weight loss of 12.58 and 7.90% was recorded in control samples kept at room temperature and low temperature, respectively. The weight loss for unipackaged in different thicknesses of PE ranged between 0.93-0.96% and 0.43-0.45% for samples kept at room and low temperature, respectively. Changes in texture values were significantly faster in control than unipackaged samples (P < 0.05). Low temperature combined with unipackaging in PE film performed better for the maintenance of overall fruit quality during post-harvest storage.

  19. Design and develop a nondestructive infrared spectroscopy instrument for assessment of mango (Mangifera indica) quality.

    PubMed

    Izneid, Basem Abu; Fadhel, M I; Al-Kharazi, Tareq; Ali, Malek; Miloud, Souiyah

    2014-11-01

    A portable infrared spectroscopy system has been designed and developed for assessment of quality of mango fruit. This paper describes the design and development of a fruit quality grading device using reflectance mode optical sensor. The experiment was conducted to obtain the best results from the system and the device was correlated according to the measured output. In the experiment, several samples of mango fruits have been monitored for six days to study the relation how fruit quality increases with time as fruit ripens. Between the unripe mango fruit and the ripest one, a range of 3.5 V to 4.2 V was measured by the developed system. The rate of quality increase was calculated as an average of 6.7 mV per day. These results were used to correlate the final hardware and software development of the device. The results demonstrate that, portable near infrared spectroscopy is feasible for evaluating mango quality non-destructively.

  20. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  1. Characterisation of two alcohol acyltransferases from kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) reveals distinct substrate preferences.

    PubMed

    Günther, Catrin S; Chervin, Christian; Marsh, Ken B; Newcomb, Richard D; Souleyre, Edwige J F

    2011-06-01

    Volatile esters are key compounds of kiwifruit flavour and are formed by alcohol acyltransferases that belong to the BAHD acyltransferase superfamily. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen kiwifruit-derived expressed sequence tags with proposed acyltransferase function in order to select ripening-specific sequences and test their involvement in alcohol acylation. The screening criterion was for at least 10-fold increased transcript accumulation in ripe compared with unripe kiwifruit and in response to ethylene. Recombinant expression in yeast revealed alcohol acyltransferase activity for Actinidia-derived AT1, AT16 and the phylogenetically distinct AT9, using various alcohol and acyl-CoA substrates. Functional characterisation of AT16 and AT9 demonstrated striking differences in their substrate preferences and apparent catalytic efficiencies (V'(max)K(m)(-1)). Thus revealing benzoyl-CoA:alcohol O-acyltransferase activity for AT16 and acetyl-CoA:alcohol O-acyltransferase activity for AT9. Both kiwifruit-derived enzymes displayed higher reaction rates with butanol compared with ethanol, even though ethanol is the main alcohol in ripe fruit. Since ethyl acetate and ethyl benzoate are major esters in ripe kiwifruit, we suggest that fruit characteristic volatile profiles result from a combination of substrate availability and specificity of individual alcohol acyltransferases.

  2. Protective effect of rutaecarpine against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity by upregulating antioxidant enzymes via the CaMKII-Akt and Nrf2/ARE pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sun Woo; Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Chul Yung; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Se Jong; Kim, Yongan; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Kyung Jin; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-02-01

    Rutaecarpine, an indolopyridoquinazolinone alkaloid isolated from the unripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa, has been shown to have cytoprotective potential, but the molecular mechanism underlying this activity remains unclear. Our study was designed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of rutaecarpine against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and to elucidate its action mechanism of action of rutaecarpine in a cultured HepG2 cell line and in mouse liver. Rutaecarpine decreased t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cytotoxicity, and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment with rutaecarpine prior to the injection of t-BHP significantly prevented the increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, and lipid peroxidation in mice liver. It increased the transcriptional activity of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as well as the products of the Nrf2 target genes hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). Moreover, rutaecarpine also enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII). The pharmaceutical inhibitors, such as KN-93 (CaMKII inhibitor) and LY294002 (Akt inhibitor) suppressed rutaecarpine-induced HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Our findings identify the CaMKII-PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 cascade as an antioxidant pathway mediating rutaecarpine signaling and leading to HO-1 expression in hepatocytes.

  3. Fatal intoxication due to ackee (Blighia sapida) in Suriname and French Guyana. GC-MS detection and quantification of hypoglycin-A.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Carlier, Jérémie; Berscht, Marc; Mazoyer, Cédric; Bevalot, Fabien; Guitton, Jérôme; Fanton, Laurent

    2011-03-20

    Between 1998 and 2001 the deaths of 16 Surinamese children were recorded along the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guyana. After a metabolic origin was eliminated, ethnobotanical research in the field led to a hypothesis of intoxication through the ingestion of ackee. Ackee (Blighia sapida) is a large green leafy tree of West African origin. Its unripe fruit contains large quantities of two toxic molecules: hypoglycin-A and hypoglycin-B, the former being the more toxic. We have developed a GC-MS procedure allowing us to demonstrate the presence of hypoglycin-A in the gastric fluid of one of the deceased children, and to compare the content of hypoglycin-A in fruit collected on the road to Paramaribo in Suriname (5.1mg/g) with samples from Burkina Faso (8.1mg/g) and Jamaica (9.2mg/g). Field research showed the misuse of this little-known plant by Maroon witch doctors. The Bushinengue witch doctors were informed about the dangers of ackee, and no new cases have been reported to date.

  4. De-novo RNA sequencing and metabolite profiling to identify genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel).

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Lee, Sarah; Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-01-01

    The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3'H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant.

  5. Nutritional evaluation of outer fleshy coat of Terminalia catappa fruit in two varieties.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Madhurima; Samudrasok, Rupali Krishna

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional potential of outer (50-55%) fleshy edible cover of Terminalia catappa fruit was selected for investigation in search of a new source of nutrients. Two different varieties, red and yellow in their ripe and unripe stages, were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition along with phytochemicals. In the results (per 100 g sample), the red variety has shown to be a rich source of protein (1.95 g vs. 1.65 g) while the yellow variety has shown a high content of carbohydrate and ash (12.03 g vs. 6.14 g and 1.21 g vs. 0.70 g). Of the phytochemicals, β-carotene and vitamin C were found to be present in high amount in the red variety (2,090 μg vs. 754 μg and 138.6 mg vs. 105.4 mg), wherein the former increased while the latter decreased with ripening of the fruit. The results of the study show that the edible outer cover of tropical almond can contribute significantly to the nutrient intake.

  6. "This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control.

  7. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  8. [Yield of starch extraction from plantain (Musa paradisiaca). Pilot plant study].

    PubMed

    Flores-Gorosquera, Emigdia; García-Suárez, Francisco J; Flores-Huicochea, Emmanuel; Núñez-Santiago, María C; González-Soto, Rosalia A; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2004-01-01

    In México, the banana (Musa paradisiaca) is cooked (boiling or deep frying) before being eaten, but the consumption is not very popular and a big quantity of the product is lost after harvesting. The unripe plantain has a high level of starch and due to this the use of banana can be diversified as raw material for starch isolation. The objective of this work was to study the starch yield at pilot plant scale. Experiments at laboratory scale were carried out using the pulp with citric acid to 0,3 % (antioxidant), in order to evaluate the different unitary operations of the process. The starch yield, based on starch presence in the pulp that can be isolated, were between 76 and 86 %, and the values at pilot plant scale were between 63 and 71 %, in different lots of banana fruit. Starch yield values were similar among the diverse lots, showing that the process is reproducible. The lower values of starch recovery at pilot plant scale are due to the loss during sieving operations; however, the amount of starch recovery is good.

  9. Network inference analysis identifies an APRR2-like gene linked to pigment accumulation in tomato and pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu; Bradley, Glyn; Pyke, Kevin; Ball, Graham; Lu, Chungui; Fray, Rupert; Marshall, Alexandra; Jayasuta, Subhalai; Baxter, Charles; van Wijk, Rik; Boyden, Laurie; Cade, Rebecca; Chapman, Natalie H; Fraser, Paul D; Hodgman, Charlie; Seymour, Graham B

    2013-03-01

    Carotenoids represent some of the most important secondary metabolites in the human diet, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a rich source of these health-promoting compounds. In this work, a novel and fruit-related regulator of pigment accumulation in tomato has been identified by artificial neural network inference analysis and its function validated in transgenic plants. A tomato fruit gene regulatory network was generated using artificial neural network inference analysis and transcription factor gene expression profiles derived from fruits sampled at various points during development and ripening. One of the transcription factor gene expression profiles with a sequence related to an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ARABIDOPSIS PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR2-LIKE gene (APRR2-Like) was up-regulated at the breaker stage in wild-type tomato fruits and, when overexpressed in transgenic lines, increased plastid number, area, and pigment content, enhancing the levels of chlorophyll in immature unripe fruits and carotenoids in red ripe fruits. Analysis of the transcriptome of transgenic lines overexpressing the tomato APPR2-Like gene revealed up-regulation of several ripening-related genes in the overexpression lines, providing a link between the expression of this tomato gene and the ripening process. A putative ortholog of the tomato APPR2-Like gene in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) was associated with pigment accumulation in fruit tissues. We conclude that the function of this gene is conserved across taxa and that it encodes a protein that has an important role in ripening.

  10. De-novo RNA Sequencing and Metabolite Profiling to Identify Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Korean Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel)

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-01-01

    The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3′H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant. PMID:24505466

  11. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the essential oils from the aerial parts of Pimpinella anagodendron Bolle and Pimpinella rupicola Svent., two endemic species to the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Negueruela, A; Pérez-Alonso, M J; de Paz, P L Pérez; Palá-Paúl, J; Sanz, J

    2005-11-18

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Pimpinella anagodendron Bolle and Pimpinella rupicola Svent., two endemic species growing in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, were studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of the flowering tops (flowers+unripe fruits) of P. rupicola (PRFT) were found to be beta-bisabolene (34.8%), limonene (10.9%) and alpha-zingiberene (10.5%), whereas in the flowering tops of P. anagodendron (PAFT), the main constituents were alpha-zingiberene (32.9%), beta-bisabolene (17.9%), beta-pinene (15.8%) and ar-curcumene (11.5%). The major compounds found in the stems+leaves of P. rupicola (PRSL) were beta-bisabolene (31.6%), alpha-zingiberene (11.4%) and limonene (10.8%), whereas those of P. anagodendron (PASL) were alpha-zingiberene (32.3%), beta-bisabolene (14.0%) and ar-curcumene (12.6%). In all the oils were found the characteristic constituents of genus Pimpinella, the pseudoisoeugenol esters. In accordance with the morphological, chorological and chemical differences between both species, we suggest that P. rupicola Svent. is a good taxon and not a synonym of P. anagodendron.

  12. Assessing the efficacy of vaginal hyoscine butyl bromide on cervical ripening prior to intrauterine procedures: A double-blinded clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hadadian, Shiva; Fallahian, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Unripe cervix prevents entering the endometrial cavity during intrauterine procedures. Mechanical dilatation of cervical canal might cause undesirable complications. Objective: To investigate the substitute of mechanical intervention with chemical treatment by administering hyoscine to patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty non-pregnant women, 20-70 years of age, with a closed cervix who were scheduled for an intrauterine procedure, were randomly divided into two groups. Group A as experimental (received two doses of hyoscine) and group B, as control group (received two doses of vitamin B6) in the vagina (8 hrs and 2 hrs before procedure) and the effect of these two drugs on dilatation and consistency of cervix were studied. Results: Statistics resulted from Mann-Whitney U test (p=0.027) and 2(p=0.002) indicated that in premenopausal women, the priming effect of hyoscine on dilatation and consistency of uterine cervix was significant, but there were no significant benefits from giving vaginal hyoscine to menopausal women preoperatively (p=0.603). Conclusion: Hyoscine proved a good choice for inducing cervical priming before intrauterine procedures in premenopausal women. PMID:27981257

  13. Patterns of secondary metabolite allocation to fruits and seeds in Piper reticulatum.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, S R; Jeffrey, C S; Leonard, M D; Dodson, C D; Dyer, L A; Bowers, M D

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the evolution, diversity, and functional significance of secondary metabolites in reproductive plant parts, particularly fruits and seeds of plants in natural ecosystems. We compared the concentration and diversity of amides among six tissue types of Piper reticulatum: leaves, roots, flowers, unripe fruit pulp, ripe fruit pulp, and seeds. This represents the first detailed description of amides in P. reticulatum, and we identified 10 major and 3 minor compounds using GC/MS and NMR analysis. We also detected 30 additional unidentified minor amide components, many of which were restricted to one or a few plant parts. Seeds had the highest concentrations and the highest diversity of amides. Fruit pulp had intermediate concentrations and diversity that decreased with ripening. Leaves and roots had intermediate concentrations, but the lowest chemical diversity. In addition, to investigate the potential importance of amide concentration and diversity in plant defense, we measured leaf herbivory and seed damage in natural populations, and examined the relationships between amide occurrence and plant damage. We found no correlations between leaf damage and amide diversity or concentration, and no correlation between seed damage and amide concentration. The only relationship we detected was a negative correlation between seed damage and amide diversity. Together, our results provide evidence that there are strong selection pressures for fruit and seed defense independent of selection in vegetative tissues, and suggest a key role for chemical diversity in fruit-frugivore interactions.

  14. Differential regulation of Salmonella typhimurium genes involved in O-antigen capsule production and their role in persistence within tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano; Cox, Clayton E; Xu, Yimin; Noel, Jason T; Giovannoni, James J; Teplitski, Max

    2013-07-01

    Enteric pathogens, including non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. and enterovirulent Escherichia coli, are capable of persisting and multiplying within plants. Yet, little is still known about the mechanisms of these interactions. This study identified the Salmonella yihT gene (involved in synthesis of the O-antigen capsule) as contributing to persistence in immature tomato fruit. Deletion of yihT reduced competitive fitness of S. enterica sv. Typhimurium in green (but not ripe, regardless of color) tomato fruit by approximately 3 logs. The yihT recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) reporter was strongly activated in unripe tomato fruit, and fitness of the mutant inversely correlated with the level of the yihT gene expression. Expression of yihT in mature tomato fruit was low, and yihT did not affect competitive fitness within mature fruit. To better understand the molecular basis of the phenotype, behaviors of the yihT RIVET reporter and the yihT mutant were tested in tomato fruit defective in ethylene signaling. These experiments suggest a role for functional ethylene-mediated signaling in the persistence of Salmonella spp. within tomato fruit. Furthermore, jasmonic acid and its precursors strongly reduced expression of yihT.

  15. HepML, an XML-based format for describing simulated data in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S.; Dudko, L.; Kekelidze, D.; Sherstnev, A.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we describe a HepML format and a corresponding C++ library developed for keeping complete description of parton level events in a unified and flexible form. HepML tags contain enough information to understand what kind of physics the simulated events describe and how the events have been prepared. A HepML block can be included into event files in the LHEF format. The structure of the HepML block is described by means of several XML Schemas. The Schemas define necessary information for the HepML block and how this information should be located within the block. The library libhepml is a C++ library intended for parsing and serialization of HepML tags, and representing the HepML block in computer memory. The library is an API for external software. For example, Matrix Element Monte Carlo event generators can use the library for preparing and writing a header of an LHEF file in the form of HepML tags. In turn, Showering and Hadronization event generators can parse the HepML header and get the information in the form of C++ classes. libhepml can be used in C++, C, and Fortran programs. All necessary parts of HepML have been prepared and we present the project to the HEP community. Program summaryProgram title: libhepml Catalogue identifier: AEGL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 866 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 613 122 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, C Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: Scientific Linux CERN 4/5, Ubuntu 9.10 RAM: 1 073 741 824 bytes (1 Gb) Classification: 6.2, 11.1, 11.2 External routines: Xerces XML library ( http://xerces.apache.org/xerces-c/), Expat XML Parser ( http://expat.sourceforge.net/) Nature of problem: Monte Carlo simulation in high

  16. New Insights into the Complex Relationship between Weight and Maturity of Burgundy Truffles (Tuber aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Bagi, István; Fekete, Oszkár; Molinier, Virginie; Peter, Martina; Splivallo, Richard; Vahdatzadeh, Maryam; Richard, Franck; Murat, Claude; Tegel, Willy; Stobbe, Ulrich; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Sproll, Ludger; Hülsmann, Lisa; Nievergelt, Daniel; Meier, Barbara; Egli, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for Burgundy truffles (Tuber aestivum), gaps remain in our understanding of the fungus’ overall lifecycle and ecology. Here, we compile evidence from three independent surveys in Hungary and Switzerland. First, we measured the weight and maturity of 2,656 T. aestivum fruit bodies from a three-day harvest in August 2014 in a highly productive orchard in Hungary. All specimens ranging between 2 and 755 g were almost evenly distributed through five maturation classes. Then, we measured the weight and maturity of another 4,795 T. aestivum fruit bodies harvested on four occasions between June and October 2015 in the same truffière. Again, different maturation stages occurred at varying fruit body size and during the entire fruiting season. Finally, the predominantly unrelated weight and maturity of 81 T. aestivum fruit bodies from four fruiting seasons between 2010 and 2013 in Switzerland confirmed the Hungarian results. The spatiotemporal coexistence of 7,532 small-ripe and large-unripe T. aestivum, which accumulate to ~182 kg, differs from species-specific associations between the size and ripeness that have been reported for other mushrooms. Although size-independent truffle maturation stages may possibly relate to the perpetual belowground environment, the role of mycelial connectivity, soil property, microclimatology, as well as other abiotic factors and a combination thereof, is still unclear. Despite its massive sample size and proof of concept, this study, together with existing literature, suggests consideration of a wider ecological and biogeographical range, as well as the complex symbiotic fungus-host interaction, to further illuminate the hidden development of belowground truffle fruit bodies. PMID:28125633

  17. A role for protein phosphatase PP1γ in SMN complex formation and subnuclear localization to Cajal bodies.

    PubMed

    Renvoisé, Benoît; Quérol, Gwendoline; Verrier, Eloi Rémi; Burlet, Philippe; Lefebvre, Suzie

    2012-06-15

    The spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene product SMN forms with gem-associated protein 2-8 (Gemin2-8) and unrip (also known as STRAP) the ubiquitous survival motor neuron (SMN) complex, which is required for the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), their nuclear import and their localization to subnuclear domain Cajal bodies (CBs). The concentration of the SMN complex and snRNPs in CBs is reduced upon SMN deficiency in SMA cells. Subcellular localization of the SMN complex is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation in HeLa cell extracts and in vitro protein binding assays, we show here that the SMN complex and its component Gemin8 interact directly with protein phosphatase PP1γ. Overexpression of Gemin8 in cells increases the number of CBs and results in targeting of PP1γ to CBs. Moreover, depletion of PP1γ by RNA interference enhances the localization of the SMN complex and snRNPs to CBs. Consequently, the interaction between SMN and Gemin8 increases in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells. Two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis revealed that SMN is hyperphosphorylated in nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells and expression of PP1γ restores these isoforms. Notably, SMN deficiency in SMA leads to the aberrant subcellular localization of Gemin8 and PP1γ in the atrophic skeletal muscles, suggesting that the function of PP1γ is likely to be affected in disease. Our findings reveal a role of PP1γ in the formation of the SMN complex and the maintenance of CB integrity. Finally, we propose Gemin8 interaction with PP1γ as a target for therapeutic intervention in SMA.

  18. Fructus mume Ethanol Extract Prevents Inflammation and Normalizes the Septohippocampal Cholinergic System in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Bang, Ji Hye; Lee, Jun; Han, Jung-Soo; Kang, Hyung Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fructus mume (F. mume), the unripe fruit of Prunus mume, has long been used in Asian countries to treat cough and chronic diarrhea. We previously reported that F. mume exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a key etiological factor of vascular dementia (VaD). The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of an ethanolic extract of F. mume on the inflammatory response and cholinergic dysfunction in a model of CCH induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo) in Wistar rats. Rats were assigned to three treatment groups: sham plus vehicle, BCCAo plus vehicle, and BCCAo plus F. mume extract (200 mg/kg). F. mume was administered by oral gavage from days 21 to 42 following BCCAo. Glial cell numbers were measured in the white matter and hippocampus. The hippocampal expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, angiotensin-II (Ang-II), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) were also evaluated. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels in the hippocampus and basal forebrain were examined. Rats with BCCAo showed an increase in the number of glial cells and levels of proinflammatory cytokines, Ang-II, RAGE, and MAPKs, all of which were significantly attenuated by F. mume treatment. F. mume administration also restored ChAT expression in the basal forebrain and hippocampus following chronic BCCAo. These results suggest that F. mume is a potentially valuable drug or nutraceutical for the treatment of VaD. PMID:26714236

  19. Preinduction cervical ripening.

    PubMed

    Thiery, M

    1983-01-01

    This work reviews the evolution of cervical ripening procedures and discusses the most effective current techniques. Current knowledge of the process of spontaneous ripening of the cervix is briefly assessed, but the review concentrates on methodological aspects and the clinical results of preinduction cervical ripening. The historical development of mechanical and pharmacologic ripening procedures is examined, including enzymes, oxytocin, relaxin, corticosteriods, estrogens administered parenterally or locally, and prostaglandins (PGs) administered intravenously, orally, locally, and intravaginally. 3 effective procedures for preinduction cervical ripening are identified and described in greater detail: the catheter technique and local and vaginal administration of PGs. The extraamniotic catheter technique is simple, effective, and safe and is recommended for patients with not totally unripe cervixes and for whom PGs are unavailable or contraindicated. Single-dose extraamniotic instillation of PGE2 in Tylose gel was found to be highly effective for priming the unfavorable cervix before conventional labor induction. In some patients the procedure induces labor. The technique is easy to use, well accepted by the woman, and safe when applied appropriately to carefully selected patients. PGF2alpha gel has been less thoroughly studied. Electronic monitoring at the ripening stage is recommended for patients at risk, and even in low-risk cases much larger series will require study before conclusions can be reached about safety. Injection of PG gel into the cervical canal is less invasive than extraamniotic instillation, but no definite conclusions about its safety are possible due to small series and dissimilar clinical protocols. Pericervical administration of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and intracervical and intraamniotic tablets of PGE2 are briefly assessed. Adoption of the intravaginal route has been a major step in the development of ripening techniques. 3 types of media

  20. In vitro antimycobacterial activity and toxicity of eight medicinal plants against pathogenic and nonpathogenic mycobacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Nguta, Joseph M; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a serious public health challenge towards which new hits are urgently needed. Medicinal plants remains a major source of new ligands against global infectious illnesses. In our laboratories, we are currently investigating locally used ethnobotanicals for novel compounds against zoonotic tuberculosis. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used to study the anti-TB activity while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients (R(2)) were used to compare the relationship between antimycobacterial activity of the eight crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) values indicated that all the eight tested medicinal plant species had activity against all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration value as low as 19.5µg/mL was observed against non-pathogenic strains M. bovis. Activity of the crude extracts against M. aurum was the best predictor of natural product activity against the pathogenic Mycobacterium bovis strain, with a correlation coefficient value (R(2)) of 0.1371. Results obtained from the current study validate, in part, the traditional utilization of the tested medicinal plants against tuberculosis. The unripe fruits from Solanum torvum are a potential source of safe and efficacious anti-TB crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents, and thus deserve further investigation towards development of a new class of molecules with activity against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. bovis.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; de Oliveira, Maria Liduína M; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana Célia S; Tomé, Adriana R; Maia de Sousa, Francisco Yuri; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo M; Moura, Carlos Farley H; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Mota, Erika Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. In spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. Thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. Juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. Those were evaluated in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Swiss mice were treated with cashew juice by gavage. Edema thickness was measured and skin lesions were analyzed by planimetry and histology. Both antioxidant content and total antioxidant activity were higher in ripe cashew apple juice (RCAJ) than in unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ). The UNCAJ presented the main anti-inflammatory activity by a significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) when compared to RCAJ (10%). Moreover, UNCAJ also showed the best result for wound contraction (86.31%) compared to RCAJ (67.54%). Despite of higher antioxidant capacity, RCAJ did not promote better anti-inflammatory, and healing responses, which may be explained by the fact that treatment increased antioxidants level leading to a redox “imbalance” turning down the inflammatory response modulation exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results suggest that UNCAJ presents a greater therapeutic activity due to a synergistic effect of its phytochemical components, which improve the immunological mechanisms as well as an optimal balance between ROS and antioxidants leading to a better wound healing process. PMID:25819683

  2. Differentiation between cooking bananas and dessert bananas. 1. Morphological and compositional characterization of cultivated Colombian Musaceae (Musa sp.) in relation to consumer preferences.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Olivier; Dufour, Dominique; Giraldo, Andrés; Sánchez, Teresa; Reynes, Max; Pain, Jean-Pierre; González, Alonso; Fernández, Alejandro; Díaz, Alberto

    2009-09-09

    The morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics of 23 unripe cultivated varieties of Colombian Musaceae were assessed. Fresh pulp dry matter helped to discriminate the following consumption subgroups: FHIA dessert hybrids (hydes: 24.6%) < dessert bananas (des: 29.4%) < nonplantain cooking bananas (cook: 32.0%) < FHIA cooking hybrids (hycook: 34.2%) < plantains (pl: 41.1%). Banana flour starch content on dry basis (db) varied from 74.2 to 88.2% among the varieties, with: pl: 86.5% > cook and hycook: 84% > des: 81.9% > hydes: 79.7% (p

  3. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D; van Dam, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4-7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1-3 (High) and 4-6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs.

  4. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  5. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    PubMed

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  6. Floral display size, conspecific density and florivory affect fruit set in natural populations of Phlox hirsuta, an endangered species

    PubMed Central

    Ruane, Lauren G.; Rotzin, Andrew T.; Congleton, Philip H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural variation in fruit and seed set may be explained by factors that affect the composition of pollen grains on stigmas. Self-incompatible species require compatible outcross pollen grains to produce seeds. The siring success of outcross pollen grains, however, can be hindered if self (or other incompatible) pollen grains co-occur on stigmas. This study identifies factors that determine fruit set in Phlox hirsuta, a self-sterile endangered species that is prone to self-pollination, and its associated fitness costs. Methods Multiple linear regressions were used to identify factors that explain variation in percentage fruit set within three of the five known populations of this endangered species. Florivorous beetle density, petal colour, floral display size, local conspecific density and pre-dispersal seed predation were quantified and their effects on the ability of flowers to produce fruits were assessed. Key Results In all three populations, percentage fruit set decreased as florivorous beetle density increased and as floral display size increased. The effect of floral display size on fruit set, however, often depended on the density of nearby conspecific plants. High local conspecific densities offset – even reversed – the negative effects of floral display size on percentage fruit set. Seed predation by mammals decreased fruit set in one population. Conclusions The results indicate that seed production in P. hirsuta can be maximized by selectively augmenting populations in areas containing isolated large plants, by reducing the population sizes of florivorous beetles and by excluding mammals that consume unripe fruits. PMID:24557879

  7. Diet and feeding behavior of Rhinopithecus brelichi at Yangaoping, Guizhou.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Liang, Wen-Bin; Nie, Shuai-Guo; Li, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Expectations of increases in human population growth and accelerated habitat loss, along with the realization that efforts to provide protection for ecosystems that sustain primates have met with limited success, make it critical that conservation plans are grounded firmly in scientific observation. Studies of the diet breadth and feeding behavior of endangered species, therefore, are critical for understanding ecological adaptations and developing a conservation strategy. The diet and feeding ecology of gray snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) were studied in the Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China. The monkeys were found to consume 107 different species of trees, shrubs, and ground plants from 58 genera and 28 families. Food items included young leaves, mature leaves, flowers, fruits/seeds, buds, and insects. Among these food items, there were at least 13 evergreen species of tree and liana, 3 species of grasses, and at least 2 kinds of invertebrates collected from decayed wood. Diet varied markedly throughout different seasons. Overall, diet composition (based on feeding records) was 15.3% buds, 25.5% young leaves, 21.8% mature leaves, 9.4% flowers, 21.6% fruits/seeds, and 6.3% other items. The monkeys feed mainly on young leaves and flowers in spring, unripe fruits/seeds and young leaves in summer, ripe fruits/seeds in autumn, and mature leaves and buds in winter. We propose that when inhabiting forests of lower elevation and greater vegetation complexity, R. brelichi is characterized by expanded diet breadth and includes a greater diversity of food types and plant species in its diet. One food type that appears critical to the diet of this species, especially during the winter, are the buds of Magnolia sprengeri. To protect this resource we advocate working with local communities to limit the collection of M. sprengeri, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine and has high economic value for people in the reserve.

  8. Cloning and expression of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene and ascorbic acid content of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit at ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Jeong, Seok T; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Esaka, Muneharu

    2007-09-01

    Acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) is one of the richest natural sources of L-ascorbic acid (AsA; vitamin C). GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP; EC 2.7.7.13) was found to play a major role in the proposed AsA biosynthetic pathway in plants, considering that Arabidopsis vtc1-1 mutant with point mutation in this gene has a highly reduced AsA content. GMP cDNA was isolated from acerola fruits, designated MgGMP, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and its expression was monitored during fruit ripening. The full-length cDNA was found to have an ORF of 1083bp encoding a polypeptide of 361 amino acids. In silico analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence showed a pI of 6.45 and molecular mass of 39.7kD. MgGMP showed over 80% amino acid sequence identity with other plant GMP homologues. The phylogenetic tree shows the close relation of MgGMP to the GMP of other plants as against those from parasite, yeasts and mammals. Southern analysis indicated that M. glabra contains not less than two copies of GMP genes. Northern blot analysis showed the transcript abundance of MgGMP in all the organs of acerola examined, with the fruit having the highest expression. The relative transcript abundance of MgGMP mRNA levels in the fruits changes as the ripening process progresses, with the unripe green fruits having the highest relative mRNA level, and the lowest was found in the fruits at advanced ripening stage. A strong correlation was also observed between the relative MgGMP mRNA levels and the AsA contents of acerola during fruit ripening.

  9. pH Regulation of Pectate Lyase Secretion Modulates the Attack of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Avocado Fruits†

    PubMed Central

    Yakoby, Nir; Kobiler, Ilana; Dinoor, Amos; Prusky, Dov

    2000-01-01

    Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in pectolytic enzyme-inducing medium (PEIM) increased the pH of the medium from 3.8 to 6.5. Pectate lyase (PL) secretion was detected when the pH reached 5.8, and the level of secretion increased up to pH 6.5. PL gene (pel) transcript production began at pH 5.0 and increased up to pH 5.7. PL secretion was never detected when the pH of the inducing medium was lower than 5.8 or when C. gloeosporioides hyphae were transferred from PL-secreting conditions at pH 6.5 to pH 3.8. This behavior differed from that of polygalacturonase (PG), where pg transcripts and protein secretion were detected at pH 5.0 and continued up to 5.7. Under in vivo conditions, the pH of unripe pericarp of freshly harvested avocado (Persea americana cv. Fuerte) fruits, resistant to C. gloeosporioides attack, was 5.2, whereas in ripe fruits, when decay symptoms were expressed, the pericarp pH had increased to 6.3. Two avocado cultivars, Ardit and Ettinger, which are resistant to C. gloeosporioides attack, had pericarp pHs of less than 5.5, which did not increase during ripening. The present results suggest that host pH regulates the secretion of PL and may affect C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity. The mechanism found in avocado may have equivalents in other postharvest pathosystems and suggests new approaches for breeding against and controlling postharvest diseases. PMID:10698767

  10. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Philips; Austin, Ravi David; Varghese, Soma Susan; Manojkumar, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Potentially malignant disorders like oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) often precede oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The rate of transformation of OSMF to OSCC ranges from 3 to 19%. OSMF is etiologically related to chewing of areca nut (betel nut), and the high copper content in areca nut plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Even though many studies estimated and confirmed increased copper levels in areca nuts, studies tracing the source of the increased copper content are scarce. Interestingly, on review of agricultural literature, it was found that most of the areca nut plantations in South India commonly use a copper-based fungicide, bordeaux mixture (BM). Aim: The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the copper content in areca nuts from plantations with and without copper-based fungicide usage. Materials and Methods: Four areca nut plantations from Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka (group A) and four plantations from Ernakulam district, Kerala (group B) were selected for the study. The plantations from Karnataka used copper-based fungicide regularly, whereas the latter were devoid of it. Areca nut samples of three different maturities (unripe, ripe, and exfoliated) obtained from all plantations were dehusked, ground, and subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for copper analysis. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the copper content of areca nuts from both groups. The areca nuts from plantations treated with copper-based fungicide showed significantly higher copper levels in all maturity levels compared to their counterparts in the other group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The high copper content in areca nut may be related to the copper-based fungicide treatment on the palms. These areca nuts with high copper content used in quid or commercial products may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of OSMF. PMID:26312227

  11. Spatio-temporal complexity of chimpanzee food: How cognitive adaptations can counteract the ephemeral nature of ripe fruit.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Boesch, Christophe; Byrne, Richard; Chapman, Colin A; Goné Bi, Zoro B; Head, Josephine S; Robbins, Martha M; Wrangham, Richard W; Polansky, Leo

    2016-06-01

    Ecological complexity has been proposed to play a crucial role in primate brain-size evolution. However, detailed quantification of ecological complexity is still limited. Here we assess the spatio-temporal distribution of tropical fruits and young leaves, two primary chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) foods, focusing on the predictability of their availability in individual trees. Using up to 20 years of information on monthly availability of young leaf, unripe and ripe fruit in plant species consumed by chimpanzees from tropical forests in East, Central, and West Africa, we estimated: (1) the forest-wide frequency of occurrence of each food type and (2) the predictability of finding ripe fruit-bearing trees, focusing on the timing, frequency, and amount of ripe fruit present. In all three forests, at least half of all encountered trees belonged to species that chimpanzees were known to feed on. However, the proportion of these trees bearing young leaves and fruit fluctuated widely between months. Ripe fruit was the most ephemeral food source, and trees that had more than half of their crown filled were at least nine times scarcer than other trees. In old growth forests only one large ripe fruit crop was on average encountered per 10 km. High levels of inter-individual variation in the number of months that fruit was present existed, and in some extreme cases individuals bore ripe fruit more than seven times as often as conspecifics. Some species showed substantially less variation in such ripe fruit production frequencies and fruit quantity than others. We hypothesize that chimpanzees employ a suite of cognitive mechanisms, including abilities to: (1) generalize or classify food trees; (2) remember the relative metrics of quantity and frequency of fruit production across years; and (3) flexibly plan return times to feeding trees to optimize high-energy food consumption in individual trees, and efficient travel between them. Am. J. Primatol. 78:626-645, 2016. © 2016

  12. Expression of a ripening-related cytochrome P450 cDNA in Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Williams).

    PubMed

    Pua, Eng-Chong; Lee, Yi-Chuan

    2003-02-13

    As part of a study to understand the molecular basis of fruit ripening, this study reports the isolation and characterization of a banana cytochrome P450 (P450) cDNA, designated as MAP450-1, which was associated with fruit ripening of banana. MAP450-1 encoded a single polypeptide of 507 amino acid residues that shared an overall identity of 27-45% with that of several plant P450s, among which MAP450-1 was most related phylogenetically to the avocado P450 CYP71A1. The polypeptide that possessed residue domains conserved in all P450s was classified as CYP71N1. Expression of CYP71N1 varied greatly between banana organs. Transcripts were detected only in peel and pulp of the ripening fruit and not in unripe fruit tissues at all developmental stages or other organs (root, leaf, ovary and flower). During ripening, transcripts were barely detectable in pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits but, as ripening progressed, they began to accumulate and reached a maximum in post-climacteric fruits. CYP71N1 expression in pre-climacteric fruit could be upregulated by exogenous application of ethylene (1-5 ppm) and treatment of overripe fruit with exogenous sucrose (50-300 mM) but not glucose downregulated the expression. These results indicate that P450s may not play a role in fruit development and its expression is associated with ripening, which may be regulated, in part, by ethylene and/or sucrose, at the transcript level.

  13. Impact of isostatic land uplift and artificial drainage on oxidation of brackish-water sediments rich in metastable iron sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boman, Anton; Fröjdö, Sören; Backlund, Krister; Åström, Mats E.

    2010-02-01

    This study examines the dynamics of sulfur and trace elements (As, Co, Mo, Ni, Ti and Zn) when brackish-water sediments, unusually rich in metastable iron sulfide (probably a mixture of mackinawite and greigite), are brought into the oxidation zone by postglacial isostatic land uplift and farmland drainage. When subaqueous sediments approach the sea level, metastable iron sulfide is oxidized in the upmost layers and pyrite preserved and even accumulated concomitantly trapping Co, Ni and Zn but not As and Mo. When the land uplift has brought the sediments above sea level and natural drainage thus is initiated, the pyrite is oxidized and Co, Ni and Zn are released and transported down the profile. If this setting remained undisturbed, the slightly oxidized sediment (unripe soil) would become covered by peat and thus protected from further oxidation and metal translocation. Often these sediments are, however, artificially drained resulting in extensive oxidation and fast soil-profile development. The soil is an acid sulfate (AS) soil, characterized by low pH (<4), extensive leaching of metals and an abundance of disseminated brownish Fe(III) precipitates. We suggest that the fast soil development is due to initial oxidation of metastable iron sulfide, followed by pyrite oxidation. Drain bottom sediment, which in terms of chemistry and S-isotopes resembled that of the surfacing sea bottom strata, acted during the sampling period as a sink for metals. The abundant preservation of metastable iron sulfide below the groundwater table, even long periods after uplift above the sea level, is a puzzling feature. We suggest that it is the net result of sulfur starvation, an abundance of Fe(II) and strongly reducing conditions.

  14. Cloning and Expression Profiling of the Polycomb Gene, Retinoblastoma-related Protein from Tomato Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Zainab M; Sadder, Monther T

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle regulation mechanisms appear to be conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. One of the important proteins involved in the regulation of cell cycle processes is retinoblastoma-related protein (RBR), which is a negative regulator of cell cycle progression, controlling the G1/S transition in plants and animals. In this study, we present the cloning and genomic structure of a putative SlRBR gene in the tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. by isolating cDNA clones that correspond to the SlRBR gene from tomato using primers that were designed from available Solanaceae ESTs based on conserved sequences between the PcG genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato. The SlRBR cDNAs were cloned into the pBS plasmid and sequenced. Both 5'- and 3'-RACE were generated and sequenced. FlcDNA of the SlRBR gene of 3,554 bp was composed of a 5'-UTR of 140 bp, an ORF of 3,054 bp, and a 3'-UTR of 360 bp. The translated ORF encodes a polypeptide of 1,018 amino acids. An alignment of the deduced amino acids indicates that there are highly conserved regions between the tomato SlRBR predicted protein and plant hypothetical RBR gene family members. Both of the unrooted phylogenetic trees, which were constructed using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods, indicate a close relationship between the SlRBR predicted protein and the RBR protein of Nicotiana benthamiana. QRT-PCR indicates that SlRBR gene is expressed in closed floral bud tissues 1.7 times higher than in flower tissues, whereas the expression level in unripe fruit tissue is lower by about three times than in flower tissues.

  15. Areca (Betel) Nut Chewing Practices in Micronesian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Paulino, Yvette C.; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Design Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18–60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Results Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). Conclusion The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. Implication If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success. PMID:25678943

  16. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes encode enzymes with contrasting substrate specificity and show divergent gene expression profiles in Fragaria species.

    PubMed

    Miosic, Silvija; Thill, Jana; Milosevic, Malvina; Gosch, Christian; Pober, Sabrina; Molitor, Christian; Ejaz, Shaghef; Rompel, Annette; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    During fruit ripening, strawberries show distinct changes in the flavonoid classes that accumulate, switching from the formation of flavan 3-ols and flavonols in unripe fruits to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the ripe fruits. In the common garden strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) this is accompanied by a distinct switch in the pattern of hydroxylation demonstrated by the almost exclusive accumulation of pelargonidin based pigments. In Fragaria vesca the proportion of anthocyanins showing one (pelargonidin) and two (cyanidin) hydroxyl groups within the B-ring is almost equal. We isolated two dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) cDNA clones from strawberry fruits, which show 82% sequence similarity. The encoded enzymes revealed a high variability in substrate specificity. One enzyme variant did not accept DHK (with one hydroxyl group present in the B-ring), whereas the other strongly preferred DHK as a substrate. This appears to be an uncharacterized DFR variant with novel substrate specificity. Both DFRs were expressed in the receptacle and the achenes of both Fragaria species and the DFR2 expression profile showed a pronounced dependence on fruit development, whereas DFR1 expression remained relatively stable. There were, however, significant differences in their relative rates of expression. The DFR1/DFR2 expression ratio was much higher in the Fragaria×ananassa and enzyme preparations from F.×ananassa receptacles showed higher capability to convert DHK than preparations from F. vesca. Anthocyanin concentrations in the F.×ananassa cultivar were more than twofold higher and the cyanidin:pelargonidin ratio was only 0.05 compared to 0.51 in the F. vesca cultivar. The differences in the fruit colour of the two Fragaria species can be explained by the higher expression of DFR1 in F.×ananassa as compared to F. vesca, a higher enzyme efficiency (Kcat/Km values) of DFR1 combined with the loss of F3'H activity late in fruit development of F.×ananassa.

  17. Identification and characterization of MYB-bHLH-WD40 regulatory complexes controlling proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits.

    PubMed

    Schaart, Jan G; Dubos, Christian; Romero De La Fuente, Irene; van Houwelingen, Adèle M M L; de Vos, Ric C H; Jonker, Harry H; Xu, Wenjia; Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Lepiniec, Loïc; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits contain high concentrations of flavonoids. In unripe strawberries, the flavonoids are mainly represented by proanthocyanidins (PAs), while in ripe fruits the red-coloured anthocyanins also accumulate. Most of the structural genes leading to PA biosynthesis in strawberry have been characterized, but no information is available on their transcriptional regulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the expression of the PA biosynthetic genes is specifically induced by a ternary protein complex, composed of AtTT2 (AtMYB123), AtTT8 (AtbHLH042) and AtTTG1 (WD40-repeat protein). A strategy combining yeast-two-hybrid screening and agglomerative hierarchical clustering of transcriptomic and metabolomic data was undertaken to identify strawberry PA regulators. Among the candidate genes isolated, four were similar to AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1 (FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1, respectively) and two encode putative negative regulators (FaMYB5 and FabHLH3∆). Interestingly, FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 were found to complement the tt2-1, tt8-3 and ttg1-1 transparent testa mutants, respectively. In addition, they interacted in yeast and activated the Arabidopsis BANYULS (anthocyanidin reductase) gene promoter when coexpressed in Physcomitrella patens protoplasts. Taken together, these results demonstrated that FaMYB9/FaMYB11, FabHLH3 and FaTTG1 are the respective functional homologues of AtTT2, AtTT8 and AtTTG1, providing new tools for modifying PA content and strawberry fruit quality.

  18. Individual shrink wrapping extends the storage life and maintains the antioxidants of mango (cvs. 'Alphonso' and 'Banganapalli') stored at 8 °C.

    PubMed

    Rao, D V Sudhakar; Shivashankara, K S

    2015-07-01

    Freshly-harvested mature green mangoes (cvs. 'Alphonso' and 'Banganapalli') were individually shrink wrapped using two semi-permeable Cryovac films® (D-955 and LD-935) and a locally available LDPE film. The shrink wrapped and non-wrapped fruit were stored at 8 °C for 5 weeks and transferred to ambient conditions for subsequent ripening, to study the feasibility of alleviation of chilling injury (CI) and to determine shrink wrapping effect on fruit quality. Shrink wrapped mangoes of 'Banganapalli' and 'Alphonso' cultivars packed in D-955 (15 μm thickness) film could be stored for 5 weeks at 8 °C in fresh and unripe green condition. After storage, these cultivars respectively lost only 0.5 and 1.4 % mass in case of shrink wrapping as compared to 5.8 and 6.9 % loss in non-wrapped fruit. After removal from low temperature and unwrapping, shrink wrapped mangoes showed normal respiratory behaviour with production of CO2 and ethylene peaks (climacteric peaks) during ripening, whereas non-wrapped fruit did not show any respiratory peaks. Shrink wrapped mangoes ripened normally within a week at ambient temperature (24-32 °C and 60-70 % RH) with good surface yellow colour (reflected by hue and chroma values), edible softness, retention of nutritional quality and acceptable organoleptic quality. These quality parameters were better in fruit wrapped with D-955 film compared to LD-935 and LDPE films. Total carotenoids in terms of β-carotene content were significantly higher in shrink wrapped fruit when compared to non-wrapped fruit. Among different shrink films, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging abilities were higher in LD-935 wrapped fruit in case of 'Alphonso' cultivar whereas these were on par in LD-935 and D-955 film wrapped fruit in case of 'Banganapalli' cultivar.

  19. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cirino, Lauren A.; Miller, Christine W.

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak) over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon) decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this study is far from

  20. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.) in mice.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; de Oliveira, Maria Liduína M; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana Célia S; Tomé, Adriana R; Maia de Sousa, Francisco Yuri; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo M; Moura, Carlos Farley H; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Mota, Erika Freitas; de Melo, Dirce Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. In spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. Thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. Juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. Those were evaluated in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Swiss mice were treated with cashew juice by gavage. Edema thickness was measured and skin lesions were analyzed by planimetry and histology. Both antioxidant content and total antioxidant activity were higher in ripe cashew apple juice (RCAJ) than in unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ). The UNCAJ presented the main anti-inflammatory activity by a significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) when compared to RCAJ (10%). Moreover, UNCAJ also showed the best result for wound contraction (86.31%) compared to RCAJ (67.54%). Despite of higher antioxidant capacity, RCAJ did not promote better anti-inflammatory, and healing responses, which may be explained by the fact that treatment increased antioxidants level leading to a redox "imbalance" turning down the inflammatory response modulation exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results suggest that UNCAJ presents a greater therapeutic activity due to a synergistic effect of its phytochemical components, which improve the immunological mechanisms as well as an optimal balance between ROS and antioxidants leading to a better wound healing process.

  1. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Beatriz P.; Solferini, Vera N.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense. PMID:26517873

  2. Evodiamine Inhibits Insulin-Stimulated mTOR-S6K Activation and IRS1 Serine Phosphorylation in Adipocytes and Improves Glucose Tolerance in Obese/Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Kusudo, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Tamaki; Yamashita, Yukari; Kontani, Yasuhide; Okamatsu, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki; Mori, Nozomu; Yamashita, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Evodiamine, an alkaloid extracted from the dried unripe fruit of the tree Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), reduces obesity and insulin resistance in obese/diabetic mice; however, the mechanism underlying the effect of evodiamine on insulin resistance is unknown. This study investigated the effect of evodiamine on signal transduction relating to insulin resistance using obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and an in vitro adipocyte culture. There is a significant decrease in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase (S6K) signaling in white adipose tissue (WAT) in KK-Ay mice treated with evodiamine, in which glucose tolerance is improved. In addition, reduction of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) serine phosphorylation, an indicator of insulin resistance, was detected in their WAT, suggesting suppression of the negative feedback loop from S6K to IRS1. As well as the stimulation of IRS1 and Akt serine phosphorylation, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K is time-dependent in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas evodiamine does not affect their phosphorylation except for an inhibitory effect on mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, evodiamine inhibits the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, leading to down-regulation of IRS1 serine phosphorylation in the adipocytes. Evodiamine also stimulates phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, which may cause down-regulation of mTOR signaling in adipocytes. A similar effect on AMPK, mTOR and IRS1 phosphorylation was found in adipocytes treated with rosiglitazone. These results suggest evodiamine improves glucose tolerance and prevents the progress of insulin resistance associated with obese/diabetic states, at least in part, through inhibition of mTOR-S6K signaling and IRS1 serine phosphorylation in adipocytes. PMID:24391749

  3. Pharmacological research on natural substances in Latvia: Focus on lunasin, betulin, polyprenol and phlorizin.

    PubMed

    Muceniece, Ruta; Namniece, Jana; Nakurte, Ilva; Jekabsons, Kaspars; Riekstina, Una; Jansone, Baiba

    2016-11-01

    In this concise review the current research in plant bioactive compound studies in Latvia is described. The paper summarizes recent studies on substances from edible plants (e.g., cereals and apples) or their synthetic analogues, such as peptide lunasin, as well as substances isolated from inedible plants (e.g., birch and conifer), such as pentacyclic triterpenes (e.g., betulin, betulinic acid, and lupeol) and polyprenols. Latvian researchers have been first to demonstrate the presence of lunasin in triticale and oats. Additionally, the impact of genotype on the levels of lunasin in cereals was shown. Pharmacological studies have revealed effects of lunasin and synthetic triterpenes on the central nervous system in rodents. We were first to show that synthetic lunasin causes a marked neuroleptic/cataleptic effect and that betulin antagonizes bicuculline-induced seizures (a GABA A receptor antagonist). Studies on the mechanisms of action showed that lunasin binds to dopamine D1 receptors and betulin binds to melanocortin and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors therefore we suggest that these receptors play an essential role in lunasin's and betulin's central effects. Recent studies on conifer polyprenols demonstrated the ability of polyprenols to prevent statin-induced muscle weakness in a rat model. Another study on plant compounds has demonstrated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of phlorizin-containing unripe apple pomace in healthy volunteers. In summary, research into plant-derived compounds in Latvia has been focused on fractionating, isolating and characterizing of lunasin, triterpenes, polyprenols and phlorizin using in vitro, and in vivo assays, and human observational studies.

  4. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  5. Allelopathic effects of glucosinolate breakdown products in Hanza [Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam.] processing waste water

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Vega, Loren J.; Krosse, Sebastian; de Graaf, Rob M.; Garvi, Josef; Garvi-Bode, Renate D.; van Dam, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Boscia senegalensis is a drought resistant shrub whose seeds are used in West Africa as food. However, the seeds, or hanza, taste bitter which can be cured by soaking them in water for 4–7 days. The waste water resulting from the processing takes up the bitter taste, which makes it unsuitable for consumption. When used for irrigation, allelopathic effects were observed. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are the potential causes for both the bitter taste and the allelopathic effects. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify the glucosinolates present in processed and unprocessed hanza as well as different organs of B. senegalensis, to analyze the chemical composition of the processing water, and to pinpoint the causal agent for the allelopathic properties of the waste water. Hanza (seeds without testa), leaves, branches, unripe, and ripe fruits were collected in three populations and subjected to glucosinolate analyses. Methylglucosinolates (MeGSL) were identified in all plant parts and populations, with the highest concentrations being found in the hanza. The levels of MeGSLs in the hanza reduced significantly during the soaking process. Waste water was collected for 6 days and contained large amounts of macro- and micronutrients, MeGSL as well as methylisothiocyanate (MeITC), resulting from the conversion of glucosinolates. Waste water from days 1–3 (High) and 4–6 (Low) was pooled and used to water seeds from 11 different crops to weeds. The High treatment significantly delayed or reduced germination of all the plant species tested. Using similar levels of MeITC as detected in the waste water, we found that germination of a subset of the plant species was inhibited equally to the waste water treatments. This confirmed that the levels of methylisiothiocyanate in the waste water were sufficient to cause the allelopathic effect. This leads to the possibility of using hanza waste water in weed control programs. PMID:26236325

  6. Effects of plantain and corn starches on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Akin-Ajani, Olufunke D; Itiola, Oludele A; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A

    2005-10-22

    The effects of plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of the plant Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) on the mechanical and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets have been investigated in comparison with the effects of corn starch BP using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The individual and combined effects of nature of starch binder (N), concentration of starch binder (C), and the relative density of tablet (RD) on the tensile strength (TS), brittle fracture index (BFI), and disintegration time (DT) of the tablets were investigated. The ranking of the individual effects on TS was RD > C > N, on BFI was C > RD > N and on DT was N > C > RD. The ranking for the interaction effects on TS and DT was N-C > N-RD > C-RD, while that on BFI was N-C > C-RD > N-RD. Changing nature of starch from a "low" (plantain starch) to a "high" (corn starch) level, increasing the concentration of starch binding agent from 2.5% to 10.0% wt/wt, and increasing relative density of the tablet from 0.80 to 0.90, led to increase in the values of TS and DT, but a decrease in BFI. Thus, tablets containing plantain starch had lower tensile strength and disintegration time values than those containing corn starch, but showed better ability to reduce the lamination and capping tendency in paracetamol tablet formulation. The interaction between N and C was significantly (P < .001) higher than those between N and RD and between C and RD. There is therefore the need to carefully choose the nature (N) and concentration (C) of starch used as binding agent in tablet formulations to obtain tablets of desired bond strength and disintegration properties. Furthermore, plantain starch could be useful as an alternative binding agent to cornstarch, especially where faster disintegration is required and the problems of lamination and capping are of particular concern.

  7. Ribonucleoprotein assembly defects correlate with spinal muscular atrophy severity and preferentially affect a subset of spliceosomal snRNPs.

    PubMed

    Gabanella, Francesca; Butchbach, Matthew E R; Saieva, Luciano; Carissimi, Claudia; Burghes, Arthur H M; Pellizzoni, Livio

    2007-09-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by reduced levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN together with Gemins2-8 and unrip proteins form a macromolecular complex that functions in the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) of both the major and the minor splicing pathways. It is not known whether the levels of spliceosomal snRNPs are decreased in SMA. Here we analyzed the consequence of SMN deficiency on snRNP metabolism in the spinal cord of mouse models of SMA with differing phenotypic severities. We demonstrate that the expression of a subset of Gemin proteins and snRNP assembly activity are dramatically reduced in the spinal cord of severe SMA mice. Comparative analysis of different tissues highlights a similar decrease in SMN levels and a strong impairment of snRNP assembly in tissues of severe SMA mice, although the defect appears smaller in kidney than in neural tissue. We further show that the extent of reduction in both Gemin proteins expression and snRNP assembly activity in the spinal cord of SMA mice correlates with disease severity. Remarkably, defective SMN complex function in snRNP assembly causes a significant decrease in the levels of a subset of snRNPs and preferentially affects the accumulation of U11 snRNP--a component of the minor spliceosome--in tissues of severe SMA mice. Thus, impairment of a ubiquitous function of SMN changes the snRNP profile of SMA tissues by unevenly altering the normal proportion of endogenous snRNPs. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that SMN deficiency affects the splicing machinery and in particular the minor splicing pathway of a rare class of introns in SMA.

  8. The Gemin Associates of Survival Motor Neuron Are Required for Motor Function in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Rebecca; Cauchi, Ruben J.

    2013-01-01

    Membership of the survival motor neuron (SMN) complex extends to nine factors, including the SMN protein, the product of the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene, Gemins 2–8 and Unrip. The best-characterised function of this macromolecular machine is the assembly of the Sm-class of uridine-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles and each SMN complex member has a key role during this process. So far, however, only little is known about the function of the individual Gemin components in vivo. Here, we make use of the Drosophila model organism to uncover loss-of-function phenotypes of Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5, which together with SMN form the minimalistic fly SMN complex. We show that ectopic overexpression of the dead helicase Gem3ΔN mutant or knockdown of Gemin3 result in similar motor phenotypes, when restricted to muscle, and in combination cause lethality, hence suggesting that Gem3ΔN overexpression mimics a loss-of-function. Based on the localisation pattern of Gem3ΔN, we predict that the nucleus is the primary site of the antimorphic or dominant-negative mechanism of Gem3ΔN-mediated interference. Interestingly, phenotypes induced by human SMN overexpression in Drosophila exhibit similarities to those induced by overexpression of Gem3ΔN. Through enhanced knockdown we also uncover a requirement of Gemin2, Gemin3 and Gemin5 for viability and motor behaviour, including locomotion as well as flight, in muscle. Notably, in the case of Gemin3 and Gemin5, such function also depends on adequate levels of the respective protein in neurons. Overall, these findings lead us to speculate that absence of any one member is sufficient to arrest the SMN-Gemins complex function in a nucleocentric pathway, which is critical for motor function in vivo. PMID:24391840

  9. Indigenous anti-ulcer activity of Musa sapientum on peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, P.; Karpagam, Thirunethiran; Varalakshmi, B.; Packiavathy, A. Sohna Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD. Material and Methods: The unripe plantain bananas (Musa sapientum) were shade-dried, powdered and used for phytochemical analysis and as antiulcer drug. In our present study Group I rats served as control and were treated with saline, Group II was indomethacin-induced ulcerated rats, Group III received aqueous extract of Musa sapientum along with indomethacin and Group IV received esomeprazole along with indomethacin for 21 days. The anti-ulcerogenic activity was investigated by performing hematological, mucosal, antioxidant profile in comparison with the standard drug esomeprazole. Results: Our findings from High - Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that Musa sapientum has an active compound a monomeric flavonoid (leucocyanidin) with anti-ulcerogenic activity. Results were expressed as mean ± SD. All our results are in congruous with the results of standard drug esomeprazole. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that administration of the aqueous extract of Musa sapientum at the dose used in this study tends to ameliorate ulcers. Its use in indigenous medicine should be scientifically scrutinized with further research. PMID:22224045

  10. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept. PMID:25414970

  11. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Cirino, Lauren A; Miller, Christine W

    2017-01-17

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, including the degree of sexual dimorphism and mating behavior. Our goal with this study was to determine if similar phenotypic changes of N. femorata occurred over time in the wild, and the extent to which these changes were concordant with phenological changes in its host plant. Further, we investigate the length of the insect mouthparts (beak) over time. Ongoing work has suggested that beak length may change across cohorts of developing insects in response to feeding deep within cactus fruit where seed and pulp depth decrease as the fruit ripens. Our results revealed a drop in cactus fruit abundance between the months of July through October 2015 as cactus fruits turned red and ripened. Simultaneously, the average body size of both males and females of N. femorata declined at two sampled sites. Male hind femora (a sexually-selected weapon) decreased disproportionately in size over time so that males later in the year had relatively smaller hind femora for their body size. The sex-specific patterns of morphological change led to increased sexual-size dimorphism and decreased sexual dimorphism for hind femora later in the year. Further, we found that beak length decreased across cohorts of insects as cactus fruit ripened, suggesting phenotypic plasticity in mouthpart length. Behavioral studies revealed that female readiness to mate increased as the season progressed. In sum, we found pronounced changes in the phenotypes of these insects in the field. Although this study is far from

  12. Metabolite profiling of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 1H NMR spectroscopy as a tool to detect potential unintended effects following a genetic modification.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Colquhoun, Ian J; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E

    2003-04-23

    The maize transcription factors LC and C1 were simultaneously overexpressed in tomato with the aim of producing lines with increased amounts of flavonols. The metabolite composition of these genetically modified tomatoes has been compared with that of azygous (nonmodified) controls grown side-by-side under the same conditions. It has been possible to observe metabolic changes in both types at different stages of maturity. (1)H NMR spectra showed that the levels of glutamic acid, fructose, and some nucleosides and nucleotides gradually increase from the immature to the ripe stage, whereas some amino acids such as valine and gamma-aminobutyric acid were present in higher amounts in unripe tomatoes. Apart from the significantly increased content of six main flavonoid glycosides (mainly kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, with additional increases in kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, a dihydrokaempferol-O-hexoside (3), and naringenin-7-O-glucoside), the levels of at least 15 other metabolites were found to be different between the two types of red tomato. Among them were citric acid, sucrose, phenylalanine, and trigonelline. However, although statistically significant, these changes in mean values were relatively minor (less than 3-fold) and within the natural variation that would be observed in a field-grown crop. Nevertheless, this study clearly showed that NMR combined with chemometrics and univariate statistics can successfully trace even small differences in metabolite levels between plants and therefore represents a powerful tool to detect potential unintended effects in genetically modified crops.

  13. Scopolamine in Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae): defense, allocation, costs, and induced response.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marcos Nopper; Sartoratto, Adilson; Trigo, José Roberto

    2007-02-01

    Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) contains tropane alkaloids (TAs), which can act as chemical defenses. Selective pressures might modulate the allocation of alkaloids within the plant, as postulated by optimal-defense theory. By tracing scopolamine, the most abundant TA in this species, we found that scopolamine in an artificial diet, in concentrations similar to those in leaves of B. suaveolens, increased mortality and prolonged developmental time of the larvae of the generalist noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda. A diet of undamaged leaves of B. suaveolens also showed a large negative effect on the growth of larvae of S. frugiperda compared to a diet of leaves of Ricinus communis, a species that did not have negative effects on this moth; more valuable plant parts, such as young leaves, flowers, and unripe fruits with seeds, have higher scopolamine concentrations than other tissues; leaves of B. suaveolens increase their content of scopolamine after artificial damage. The highest induction was found 24 hr after the damage, and after that, scopolamine content decreased to constitutive levels. This increase represented a cost, because in another experiment, a treatment with methyl jasmonate, an elicitor hormone, increased scopolamine production 9.5-fold and decreased leaf growth 2.3-fold; a diet of artificially damaged leaves of B. suaveolens showed a negative effect on the growth of larvae of S. furgiperda compared to undamaged leaves, suggesting that damage by herbivores induces resistance. Our data are in line with the optimal-defense theory, but experiments in the field with herbivores that share an evolutionary history with B. suaveolens must be undertaken to understand the dynamics of TA allocation in response to herbivory.

  14. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  15. Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom.

    PubMed

    Otero, R; Núñez, V; Barona, J; Fonnegra, R; Jiménez, S L; Osorio, R G; Saldarriaga, M; Díaz, A

    2000-11-01

    Thirty-one of 75 extracts of plants used by traditional healers for snakebites, had moderate or high neutralizing ability against the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-western Colombia. After preincubation of several doses of every extract (7.8-4000 microg/mouse) with six minimum haemorrhagic doses (10 microg) of venom, 12 of them demonstrated 100% neutralizing capacity when the mixture was i.d. injected into mice (18-20 g). These were the stem barks of Brownea rosademonte (Caesalpiniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae); the whole plants of Pleopeltis percussa (Polypodiaceae), Trichomanes elegans (Hymenophyllaceae) and Senna dariensis (Caesalpiniaceae); rhizomes of Heliconia curtispatha (Heliconiaceae); leaves and branches of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae), Philodendron tripartitum (Araceae), Struthanthus orbicularis (Loranthaceae) and Gonzalagunia panamensis (Rubiaceae); the ripe fruits of Citrus limon (Rutaceae); leaves, branches and stem of Ficus nymphaeifolia (Moraceae). Extracts of another 19 species showed moderate neutralization (21-72%) at doses up to 4 mg/mouse, e.g. the whole plants of Aristolochia grandiflora (Aristolochiaceae), Columnea kalbreyeriana (Gesneriaceae), Sida acuta (Malvaceae), Selaginella articulata (Selaginellaceae) and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Asteraceae); rhizomes of Renealmia alpinia (Zingiberaceae); the stem of Strychnos xinguensis (Loganiaceae); leaves, branches and stems of Hyptis capitata (Lamiaceae), Ipomoea cairica (Convolvulaceae), Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae), Ocimum micranthum (Lamiaceae), Piper pulchrum (Piperaceae), Siparuna thecaphora (Monimiaceae), Castilla elastica (Moraceae) and Allamanda cathartica (Apocynaceae); the macerated ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae); the unripe fruits of Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); leaves and branches of Piper arboreum (Piperaceae) and Passiflora quadrangularis (Passifloraceae). When the extracts were independently administered

  16. Iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides in a hybrid complex of bush honeysuckles (Lonicera spp., Caprifolicaceae): implications for evolutionary ecology and invasion biology.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Susan R; Bowers, M Deane

    2013-02-01

    Interspecific hybridization among non-native plant species can generate genotypes that are more reproductively successful in the introduced habitat than either parent. One important mechanism that may serve as a stimulus for the evolution of invasiveness in hybrids is increased variation in secondary metabolite chemistry, but still very little is known about patterns of chemical trait introgression in plant hybrid zones. This study examined the occurrence of iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides (IGs), an important group of plant defense compounds, in three species of honeysuckle, Lonicera morrowii A. Gray, Lonicera tatarica L., and their hybrid Lonicera×bella Zabel. (Caprifoliaceae), all of which are considered invasive in various parts of North America. Hybrid genotypes had a diversity of IGs inherited from both parent species, as well as one component not detected in either parent. All three species were similar in that overall concentrations of IGs were significantly higher in fruits than in leaves, and several compounds that were major components of fruits were never found in leaves. However, specific patterns of quantitative distribution among leaves, unripe fruits, and ripe fruits differed among the three species, with a relatively higher allocation to fruits in the hybrid species than for either parent. These patterns likely have important consequences for plant interactions with antagonistic herbivores and pathogens as well as mutualistic seed dispersers, and thus the potential invasiveness of hybrid and parental species in their introduced range. Methods established here for quantitative analysis of IGs will allow for the exploration of many compelling research questions related to the evolutionary ecology and invasion biology of these and other related species in the genus Lonicera.

  17. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data

  18. Root treatment with rhizobacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora blight affects anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field.

    PubMed

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong Do; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We previously selected rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, ISE13, and ISE14, which were antagonistic to Phytophthora blight of pepper. In this study, we investigated the effects of root treatment of rhizobacteria on anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field in 2008 and 2009. We also examined the effects of volatiles produced by the strains on fruit ripening and on mycelial growth and spore development of Colletotrichum acutatum and Phytophthora capsici in the laboratory, identifying the volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the house tests, all strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence on pepper fruit; strains GSE09 and ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers of pepper fruit or increased the fresh weight of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the field tests, all strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose occurrence on either green or red pepper fruit; strain ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers or increased fresh weights of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the laboratory tests, volatiles produced by strains GSE09 and ISE13 only stimulated maturation of pepper fruit from green (unripe) to red (ripe) fruit; the volatiles of certain strains inhibited the growth and development of C. acutatum and P. capsici. On the other hand, GC-MS analysis of volatiles of strains GSE09 and ISE13 revealed 17 distinct compounds in both strains, including decane, dodecane, 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene, tetradecane, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and hexadecane. Among these compounds, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol only stimulated fruit ripening and inhibited growth and development of the pathogens. Taken together, strains GSE09 and ISE14 effectively reduced anthracnose occurrence and stimulated pepper fruit ripening and yield, possibly via bacterial volatiles. Therefore, these two strains could be potential agents for controlling Phytophthora

  19. Leaf-Canopy inversion model though a Neural Network algorithm: Application to coffee cherry estimation using UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Furfaro, R.; Johnson, L. F.; Herwitz, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past two years, NASA has had great interest in exploring the economic potential of deploying UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) as long-duration platforms equipped with high resolution imaging systems for commercial agricultural applications. In October 2002, a team in the Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch at NASA/Ames Research Center prepared and successfully flew a UAV, equipped with off-the-shelf camera systems, over coffee plantations at Kauai (Hawaii). The idea is to help growers to find the best possible harvesting strategy. The most important information that needs to be conveyed to the growers is the percentage of ripe, unripe and overripe cherries in the field. It is of vital importance to devise a robust and reliable "intelligent "algorithm capable of predicting the amount of ripe cherries present in any digital image coming from the onboard cameras. During the campaign, the two UAV camera systems produced digital images that contain information about the down-looking plantation field. These images need to be processed to extract information concerning the percentage of ripe (yellow) cherries. To date, no robust automated algorithm has been developed to perform this task. Currently, every image is viewed by human eyes on a case by case basis. We propose a neural network algorithm that can automate the process in an intelligent way. Biologically inspired Neural Networks are made of elements called "neurons" that can simulate the brain activity during a learning process. The idea is to design an appropriate neural network that learns the relation between the reflectance coming from an image and the percentage of cherries present in a coffee field. We envision a situation in which reflectance from digital images at different wavebands is processed by a trained neural network and the percentage of the different cherries estimated. The key factor is training the network to recognize the reflectance/cherry percentage relation. Over the past few

  20. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  1. Effect of ethylene and temperature conditioning on sensory attributes and chemical composition of 'Comice' pears.

    PubMed

    Makkumrai, Warangkana; Sivertsen, Hanne; Sugar, David; Ebeler, Susan E; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2014-06-04

    'Comice' is among the pear varieties most difficult to ripen after harvest. Ethylene, cold temperature, and intermediate (10 °C) temperature conditioning have been successfully used to stimulate the ability of 'Comice' pears to ripen. However, the sensory quality of pears stimulated to ripen by different conditioning treatments has not been evaluated. In this study, a descriptive sensory analysis of 'Comice' pears conditioned to soften to 27, 18, and 9 N firmness with ethylene exposure for 3 or 1 days, storage at 0 °C for 25 or 15 days, or storage at 10 °C for 10 days was performed. Sensory attributes were then related to changes in chemical composition, including volatile components, water-soluble polyuronides, soluble solids content (SSC), and titratable acidity (TA). The sensory profile of fruit conditioned with ethylene was predominant in fibrous texture and low in fruity and pear aroma. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C was described as crunchy at 27 and 18 N firmness and became juicy at 9 N firmness. Fruit conditioned at 0 °C produced the highest quantity of alcohols and fewer esters than fruit conditioned at 10 °C, and they had higher fruity and pear aroma than fruit conditioned with ethylene, but lower than fruit conditioned at 10 °C. Fruit held at 10 °C were predominant in fruity and pear aroma and had the highest concentration of esters. Water-soluble polyuronides were strongly, positively correlated (r > 0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with ripeness, including juiciness, butteriness, and sweetness and negatively correlated (r > -0.9) with sensory attributes generally associated with the unripe stage, such as firmness and crunchiness. However, water-soluble polyuronides were not significantly different among conditioning treatments. Sensory sweetness was not significantly correlated with SSC, but TA and SSC/TA were significantly correlated with sensory tartness. However, there were no significant differences among the conditioning

  2. Effects of pigeon pea and plantain starches on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets.

    PubMed

    Dare, Kunle; Akin-Ajani, Dorothy O; Odeku, Oluwatoyin A; Itiola, Oludele A; Odusote, Omotunde M

    2006-03-01

    A study has been made of the effects of pigeon pea starch obtained from the plant Cajanus cajan (L) Millisp. (family Fabaceae) and plantain starch obtained from the unripe fruit of Musa paradisiaca L. (family Musaceae) on the compressional, mechanical, and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets in comparison with official corn starch BP. Analysis of compressional properties was done by using density measurements, and the Heckel and Kawakita equations, whereas the mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated by using tensile strength (T--a measure of bond strength) and brittle fracture index (BFI--a measure of lamination tendency). The ranking for the mean yield pressure, P(y), for the formulations containing the different starches was generally corn < pigeon pea < plantain starch while the ranking for P(k), an inverse measure of the amount of plasticity, was pigeon pea < plantain < corn starch, which indicated that formulations containing corn starch generally exhibited the fastest onset of plastic deformation, whereas those formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest amount of plastic deformation during tableting. The tensile strength of the tablets increased with increase in concentration of the starches while the Brittle Fracture Index decreased. The ranking for T was pigeon pea > plantain > corn starch while the ranking for BFI was corn > plantain > pigeon pea starch. The bonding capacity of the formulations was in general agreement with the tensile strength results. The disintegration time (DT) of the formulation increased with concentration of plantain and corn starches but decreased with concentration of pigeon pea starch. The general ranking of DT values was plantain < pigeon pea < corn starch. Notably, formulations containing pigeon pea starch exhibited the highest bond strength and lowest brittleness, suggesting the usefulness of pigeon pea starch in producing strong tablets with minimal lamination tendency. Plantain

  3. Overview and expert assessment of off-label use of misoprostol in obstetrics and gynaecology: review and report by the Collège national des gynécologues obstétriciens français.

    PubMed

    Marret, H; Simon, E; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Gaudineau, A; Vayssière, C; Lesavre, M; Pluchon, M; Winer, N; Fernandez, H; Aubert, J; Bejan-Angoulvant, T; Jonville-Bera, A P; Clouqueur, E; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Garrigue, A; Pierre, F

    2015-04-01

    The literature suggests that misoprostol can be offered to patients for off-label use as it has reasonable efficacy, risk/benefit ratio, tolerance and patient satisfaction, according to the criteria for evidence-based medicine. Both the vaginal and sublingual routes are more effective than the oral route for first-trimester cervical dilatation. Vaginal misoprostol 800μg, repeated if necessary after 24 or 48h, is a possible alternative for management after early pregnancy failure. However, misoprostol has not been demonstrated to be useful for the evacuation of an incomplete miscarriage, except for cervical dilatation before vacuum aspiration. Oral mifepristone 200mg, followed 24-48h later by vaginal, sublingual or buccal misoprostol 800μg (followed 3-4h later, if necessary, by misoprostol 400μg) is a less efficacious but less aggressive alternative to vacuum aspiration for elective or medically-indicated first-trimester terminations; this alternative becomes increasingly less effective as gestational age increases. In the second trimester, vaginal misoprostol 800-2400μg in 24h, 24-48h after at least 200mg of mifepristone, is an alternative to surgery, sulprostone and gemeprost. Data for the third trimester are sparse. For women with an unripe cervix and an unscarred uterus, vaginal misoprostol 25μg every 3-6h is an alternative to prostaglandin E2 for cervical ripening at term for a live fetus. When oxytocin is unavailable, misoprostol can be used after delivery for prevention (sublingual misoprostol 600μg) and treatment (sublingual misoprostol 800μg) of postpartum haemorrhage. The use of misoprostol to promote cervical dilatation before diagnostic hysteroscopy or surgical procedures is beneficial for premenopausal women but not for postmenopausal women. Nonetheless, in view of the side effects of misoprostol, its use as a first-line treatment is not indicated, and it should be reserved for difficult cases. Misoprostol is not useful for placing or removing

  4. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with NG-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  5. Exploring the Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. on Cognitive Performance, Brain Antioxidant Markers and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rats: Promising Natural Gift for the Mitigation of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Sahab; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md. Sarwar; Akter, Farjana; Iqbal, Mohammed Ashraful; Asaduzzaman, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in the progressive degeneration of nerve cells, which affect the cognitive activity. Currently, as a result of multiple studies linking Alzheimer's disease (AD) to oxidative damage, the uses of natural antioxidant to prevent, delay, or enhance the pathological changes underlying the progression of AD has received considerable attention. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining the effect of ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (EEPE) ripe (EEPEr) and EEPE unripe (EEPEu) fruits on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat. The effects of EEPEr and EEPEu fruits (i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) were examined in Swiss albino male rats for 12 days and its effect on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and AChE activity determined. Learning and memory enhancing activity of EEPE fruit was examined by using passive avoidance test and rewarded alternation test. Antioxidant potentiality was evaluated by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase, and the contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in entire brain tissue homogenates. AChE activity was determined using colorimetric method. Administration of the highest dose (i.e., 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEr fruit significantly (p < 0.01) and both lowest and highest doses (i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEu fruit markedly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) increased step-through latency in rats on 6th, 11th, and 12th day with respect to the control group. For aforementioned doses, the percentage of memory retention (MR) was considerably (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) increased in rats on 10th, 11th, and 12th days with respect to the control group. The extract, particularly highest dose (i.e., 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEr

  6. Exploring the Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. on Cognitive Performance, Brain Antioxidant Markers and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rats: Promising Natural Gift for the Mitigation of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Sahab; Mamun, Abdullah Al; Hossain, Md Sarwar; Akter, Farjana; Iqbal, Mohammed Ashraful; Asaduzzaman, Md

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in the progressive degeneration of nerve cells, which affect the cognitive activity. Currently, as a result of multiple studies linking Alzheimer's disease (AD) to oxidative damage, the uses of natural antioxidant to prevent, delay, or enhance the pathological changes underlying the progression of AD has received considerable attention. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining the effect of ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (EEPE) ripe (EEPEr) and EEPE unripe (EEPEu) fruits on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat. The effects of EEPEr and EEPEu fruits (i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) were examined in Swiss albino male rats for 12 days and its effect on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and AChE activity determined. Learning and memory enhancing activity of EEPE fruit was examined by using passive avoidance test and rewarded alternation test. Antioxidant potentiality was evaluated by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase, and the contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in entire brain tissue homogenates. AChE activity was determined using colorimetric method. Administration of the highest dose (i.e., 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEr fruit significantly (p < 0.01) and both lowest and highest doses (i.e., 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEu fruit markedly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) increased step-through latency in rats on 6th, 11th, and 12th day with respect to the control group. For aforementioned doses, the percentage of memory retention (MR) was considerably (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) increased in rats on 10th, 11th, and 12th days with respect to the control group. The extract, particularly highest dose (i.e., 200 mg/kg b.w.) of EEPEr

  7. The Reflectance Spectrum of Troilite and the T-Type Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britt, D. T.; Bell, J. F.; Haack, H.; Scott, E. R. D.

    1992-07-01

    meteorite has an unusually high sulfur content (8 wt%) and total troilite content is estimated at 25-35 vol%. Average troilite composition in weight % is as follows: 63% Fe, 0.5% Cr, 0.3% Zn, and 36.2% S [4]. The sample was crushed in a clean ceramic mortar and pestle to a bulk powder and dry sieved to a particle size of <250 micrometers. Six additional particle size separates were dry sieved from this bulk sample. Shown in Figure 1 are the spectra of the bulk sample and the particle size separates of Mundrabilla troilite. The spectrum of the bulk material is dark, always less than 10% reflective, and strongly red sloped. The rapid increase in reflectance at the green and red wavelengths (0.4-0.5 microns) is probably responsible for the overall bronze color of hand sample troilite. Since Mundrabilla is a find, the depth of the UV-visible absorption may have been increased by small amounts of Fe3+ from terrestrial rust. Additional samples of troilite from fresh fall need to be measured to confirm this result. The bulk sample has a reflectance between the smallest and largest particle size separates suggesting that its reflectance is dominated by small particles coating larger grains. Previous work with spectral mixture modelling shows that small particle size troilite and metal can dominate the spectra of ordinary chondrite meteorites, producing a dark, subdued and reddened spectrum similar to some dark asteroids [5]. Implications for Asteroids: The strong red slopes and low reflectances of the troilite spectra are similar to the spectral characteristics of the T and possibly some M-class asteroids. Shown in Figure 2 are the spectra of bulk troilite (solid lines) and four T-class asteroids (boxes and error bars). The IR spectra of 96 Aegle, 114 Kassandra, and 233 Asterope are strongly similar to the spectrum of bulk troilite. The deeper W absorption in troilite may be due to terrestrial rust. The spectrum of 308 Polyxo is substantially different, but Polyxo is also the only

  8. Methods for assessing pre-induction cervical ripening

    PubMed Central

    Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Eleje, George U; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E

    2015-01-01

    , rupture the membranes or separate them from the cervix) but TVUS can give additional information that may affect the course and management of the labour. The choice of a particular method may differ depending on the environment and need since TVUS requires training and may not be readily available and affordable in resource-poor countries. Future research The two included studies involved a small number of women and further studies are needed. Such studies should include outcomes such as rupture of the womb, perinatal mortality, most appropriate cut-off value for the cervical length and Bishop score to classify women as having ripe or unripe cervices, and cost. PMID:26068943