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Sample records for aegypti salivary gland

  1. Characterization of a vasodilator from the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, J M

    1992-04-01

    Salivary gland homogenates and oil-induced saliva of the mosquito Aedes aegypti dilate the rabbit aortic ring and contract the guinea pig ileum. The vasodilatory activity is endothelium-dependent, heat-stable, sensitive to both trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments, and both smooth muscle activities cross-desensitize to the tachykinin peptide substance P. Both bioactivities co-elute when salivary gland homogenates are fractionated by reversed-phase HPLC. Molecular sieving chromatography indicates a relative molecular mass of 1400. A monoclonal antibody specific to the carboxy terminal region of tachykinins reacts with material in the posterior part of the central lobe of paraformaldehyde-fixed salivary glands. The presence of a vasodilatory peptide of the tachykinin family in the salivary glands of A. aegypti is proposed and its role in blood feeding is discussed. PMID:1375258

  2. Salivary Glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... salivary gland tumors usually show up as painless enlargements of these glands. Tumors rarely involve more than ... otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon should check these enlargements. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands can ...

  3. A salivary gland-specific, maltase-like gene of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    James, A A; Blackmer, K; Racioppi, J V

    1989-01-30

    Genomic and cDNA clones of a gene expressed specifically in the salivary glands of adult Aedes aegypti have been isolated and sequenced. This gene encodes an abundant mRNA that is transcribed throughout the male salivary gland but only in the cells of the proximal lateral lobes of the female gland. The deduced protein has many basic amino acids, several possible sites for N-glycosylation, and displays striking similarities with the products of a yeast maltase gene and three previously unidentified genes from Drosophila melanogaster. We propose the name 'Maltase-like I' (MalI) to designate this gene. The presumed function of this gene product is to assist the mosquito in its sugar-feeding capabilities. The mosquito and fruitfly genes have similar structural features 5' to the protein coding regions, indicating that these genes may share common control mechanisms.

  4. Transgene-mediated suppression of dengue viruses in the salivary glands of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G; Sanchez-Vargas, I; Alvarez, D; Olson, K E; Marinotti, O; James, A A

    2010-12-01

    Controlled sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression of antipathogen effector molecules is important for genetic engineering strategies to control mosquito-borne diseases. Adult female salivary glands are involved in pathogen transmission to human hosts and are target sites for expression of antipathogen effector molecules. The Aedes aegypti 30K a and 30K b genes are expressed exclusively in adult female salivary glands and are transcribed divergently from start sites separated by 263 nucleotides. The intergenic, 5'- and 3'-end untranslated regions of both genes are sufficient to express simultaneously two different transgene products in the distal-lateral lobes of the female salivary glands. An antidengue effector gene, membranes no protein (Mnp), driven by the 30K b promoter, expresses an inverted-repeat RNA with sequences derived from the premembrane protein-encoding region of the dengue virus serotype 2 genome and reduces significantly the prevalence and mean intensities of viral infection in mosquito salivary glands and saliva.

  5. Proteomic analysis of immunogenic proteins from salivary glands of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Oktarianti, Rike; Senjarini, Kartika; Hayano, Toshiya; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Aulanni'am

    2015-01-01

    Humans develop anti-salivary proteins after arthropod bites or exposure to insect salivary proteins. This reaction indicates that vector bites have a positive effect on the host immune response, which can be used as epidemiological markers of exposure to the vector. Our previous study identified two immunogenic proteins with molecular weights of 31 kDa and 56 kDa from salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti that cross-reacted with serum samples from Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) patients and healthy people in an endemic area (Indonesia). Serum samples from individuals living in non-endemic area (sub-tropical country) and infants did not show the immunogenic reactions. The objective of this research was to identify two immunogenic proteins, i.e., 31 and 56 kDa by using proteomic analysis. In this study, proteomic analysis resulted in identification of 13 proteins and 7 proteins from the 31 kDa- and 56 kDa-immunogenic protein bands, respectively. Among those proteins, the D7 protein (Arthropode Odorant-Binding Protein, AOBP) was the most abundant in 31-kDa band, and apyrase was the major protein of the 56-kDa band.

  6. Proteomic analysis of immunogenic proteins from salivary glands of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Oktarianti, Rike; Senjarini, Kartika; Hayano, Toshiya; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Aulanni'am

    2015-01-01

    Humans develop anti-salivary proteins after arthropod bites or exposure to insect salivary proteins. This reaction indicates that vector bites have a positive effect on the host immune response, which can be used as epidemiological markers of exposure to the vector. Our previous study identified two immunogenic proteins with molecular weights of 31 kDa and 56 kDa from salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti that cross-reacted with serum samples from Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) patients and healthy people in an endemic area (Indonesia). Serum samples from individuals living in non-endemic area (sub-tropical country) and infants did not show the immunogenic reactions. The objective of this research was to identify two immunogenic proteins, i.e., 31 and 56 kDa by using proteomic analysis. In this study, proteomic analysis resulted in identification of 13 proteins and 7 proteins from the 31 kDa- and 56 kDa-immunogenic protein bands, respectively. Among those proteins, the D7 protein (Arthropode Odorant-Binding Protein, AOBP) was the most abundant in 31-kDa band, and apyrase was the major protein of the 56-kDa band. PMID:26054892

  7. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  8. Salivary Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your salivary glands make saliva - sometimes called spit - and empty it into your mouth through openings called ducts. Saliva makes your ... antibodies that can kill germs. Problems with salivary glands can cause the glands to become irritated and ...

  9. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  10. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands are located around the mouth. They produce saliva, which moistens food to help with chewing and ... the rest of the mouth. Salivary glands empty saliva into the mouth through ducts that open at ...

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  13. Benign Pediatric Salivary Gland Lesions.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Eric R; Ord, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland lesions are rare in pediatric patients. In addition, the types of salivary gland tumors are different in their distribution in specific sites in the major and minor salivary glands in children compared with adults. This article reviews benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic salivary gland disorders in pediatric patients to help clinicians to develop an orderly differential diagnosis that will lead to expedient treatment of pediatric patients with salivary gland lesions.

  14. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children.

  15. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin F; Meier, Jeremy D; Ward, P Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Salivary gland disorders include inflammatory, bacterial, viral, and neoplastic etiologies. The presentation can be acute, recurrent, or chronic. Acute suppurative sialadenitis presents as rapid-onset pain and swelling and is treated with antibiotics, salivary massage, hydration, and sialagogues such as lemon drops or vitamin C lozenges. Viral etiologies include mumps and human immunodeficiency virus, and treatment is directed at the underlying disease. Recurrent or chronic sialadenitis is more likely to be inflammatory than infectious; examples include recurrent parotitis of childhood and sialolithiasis. Inflammation is commonly caused by an obstruction such as a stone or duct stricture. Management is directed at relieving the obstruction. Benign and malignant tumors can occur in the salivary glands and usually present as a painless solitary neck mass. Diagnosis is made by imaging (e.g., ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and biopsy (initially with fine-needle aspiration). Overall, most salivary gland tumors are benign and can be treated with surgical excision.

  16. Lymphomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M J; Bennett, M H; Cawson, R A

    1986-08-01

    Primary lymphomas arising in salivary glands are very uncommon. The histologic classification of 40 cases of lymphomas in salivary gland tissue submitted to the British Salivary Gland Tumour Panel is reported, and, for 30 of the patients for whom adequate information was available, the clinical presentation, management, and outcome have been analyzed. Lymphomas in salivary glands represented 1.7% of all reported salivary neoplasms. The majority developed in the parotid glands of patients aged between 50 and 70 years. Only four cases gave a premorbid history compatible with sicca syndrome. In this series, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas predominated; 23 were Grade I, and 13 were Grade II. Treatment regimens were not uniform, but are outlined. Survival ranged from 5 to 111 months. Median survival for the group was 49 months. Prognosis was not influenced by the clinical stage of disease at presentation. Four cases of lymphoma arising in benign lymphoepithelial lesions are included. None had clinical symptoms of sicca complex. Prognosis for this group was found to be as favorable as the others.

  17. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  18. What Is Salivary Gland Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are many types of salivary gland adenocarcinomas. Acinic cell carcinoma: Most acinic cell carcinomas start in the ... cancer can develop in the salivary glands. Squamous cell carcinoma: This cancer occurs mainly in older men. ...

  19. [The pathology of salivary glands. Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahy, P; Reychler, H

    2006-01-01

    The management of benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands requires precise knowledge of tumor histogenesis and classification as well as surgical skills. Pleomorphic adenoma and Whartin's tumor are the most frequent tumors in parotid glands while the probability for malignant tumors is higher in other glands, especially in sublingual and minor salivary glands. Those malignant salivary glands tumors are rare and necessitate multidisciplinar staging and management in close collaboration with the pathologist and the radiation oncologist.

  20. Pictorial essay: Salivary gland imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Rajul; Bhargava, Sumeet; Mallarajapatna, Govindarajan Janardan; Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands are the first organs of digestion secreting their digestive juices into the oral cavity. Parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands are the major paired salivary glands in the decreasing order of their size. In addition, multiple small minor salivary glands are noted randomly distributed in the upper aerodigestive tract, including paranasal sinuses and parapharyngeal spaces. The imaging is directed to the major salivary glands. Commonly used imaging methods include plain radiography and conventional sialography. Recently, high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) is being increasingly used for targeted salivary gland imaging. However, the advent of cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have revolutionized the imaging of salivary glands. This article illustrates the role of imaging in evaluating the variegated disease pattern of the major salivary glands. PMID:23833425

  1. Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vilar-González, S; Bradley, K; Rico-Pérez, J; Vogiatzis, P; Golka, D; Nigam, A; Sivaramalingam, M; Kazmi, S

    2015-11-01

    Salivary gland myoepithelial carcinoma (MC) or malignant myoepithelioma is a rare entity. MC usually presents as a slow-growing painless mass arising in the parotid gland, but may involve other salivary glands. This tumour may be particularly locally aggressive, but its clinical and biological features are not yet fully understood. MC may arise from pre-existing benign lesions, such as pleomorphic adenomas or benign myoepitheliomas, or may arise de novo. It usually affects patients over 50 years old, with no gender preference. Because it is often asymptomatic, the presentation and diagnosis can be delayed by months, even years. The current WHO classification considers MC to be an intermediate- to high-grade malignancy. Other published data suggest it is likely to be a high-grade neoplasm, consistent with its aggressive behaviour. Its epidemiology, histopathological features, immunohistochemical profile, clinical behaviour and optimal management are not well understood. Following review of the current literature we aim to address these.

  2. Imaging of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weissman, J L

    1995-12-01

    CT and MRI have greatly facilitated evaluation of pathology of the three pairs of major salivary glands and the hundreds of minor salivary glands. Imaging can frequently offer a specific histological diagnosis for benign and malignant neoplasms of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Obstruction, infection, autoimmune processes, and congenital anomalies also are readily diagnosed. CT and MRI studies assess the anatomic extent of minor salivary gland neoplasms. Sialography continues to provide useful information about intrinsic abnormalities of the parotid and submandibular ducts.

  3. Labial salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Neville, B W; Damm, D D; Weir, J C; Fantasia, J E

    1988-05-15

    A study was conducted on labial salivary gland tumors from four oral pathology laboratories. Of the 103 identified tumors, 87 (84.5%) were from the upper lip, whereas 16 (15.5%) were from the lower lip. Of the 87 upper lip tumors, 80 (92.0%) were benign. Forty-three of these were monomorphic adenomas and 37 were pleomorphic adenomas. Seven malignant tumors of the upper lip were as follows: four adenoid cystic carcinomas, two acinic cell carcinomas, and one adenocarcinoma. Of the 16 lower lip tumors, 15 (93.8%) were malignant. Thirteen of these were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and two were acinic cell carcinomas. The only benign lower lip tumor was an intraductal papilloma. These results confirm the findings of previous investigations, showing that minor salivary gland tumors are much more common in the upper lip than the lower lip, but that lower lip tumors are more likely to be malignant.

  4. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  5. Taxonomy of salivary gland neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  6. Taxonomy of Salivary Gland Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Shahela, Tanveer; Aesha, Syeda; Satish, Muthu Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Classification of neoplasms of any organ should be predicted on the patterns of differentiation that reflect the organization and cell types of the parental tissue. The ability to classify a neoplasm instills confidence in its predicted biologic behavior and the selection of treatment. There has not been a single universally used classification system for salivary gland tumor. Histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts and the developing information on various molecular parameters will have significant influence on the classification of salivary glands tumors. In this article we would highlight the histogenetic and morphogenetic concepts in salivary gland neoplasms and elaborate on the taxonomic system of classification of salivary gland neoplasms. PMID:24783163

  7. Salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Speight, P M; Barrett, A W

    2002-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Although most clinicians and pathologists will have encountered the more common benign neoplasms, few have experience of the full range of salivary cancers, which are best managed in specialist centres. This review considers some current areas of difficulty and controversy in the diagnosis and management of these neoplasms. The classification of these lesions is complex, encompassing nearly 40 different entities, but precise classification and terminology is essential for an accurate diagnosis and for the allocation of tumours to prognostic groups. For many salivary tumours diagnosis is straightforward but the wide range of morphological diversity between and within tumour types means that a diagnosis may not be possible on small incisional biopsies and careful consideration of the clinical and pathological features together is essential. Although tumour grading is important and helpful, it is not an independent prognostic indicator and must be considered in the context of stage. Large malignancies tend to have a poor prognosis regardless of grade and even high-grade neoplasms may do well when they are small. A helpful guide to management of salivary cancers is the '4 cm rule'.

  8. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  9. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  10. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  11. Salivary gland neoplasia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bull, P D

    1999-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours, benign or malignant, are rare in childhood and as a result may be misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately. Ten children with salivary gland tumours have been treated by the author over a period of 18 years. Four tumours were benign and six malignant. Treatment in all cases was by surgical excision. There has been one recurrence, treated by further surgery, in an acinic cell carcinoma. Three cases had inadequate surgery or biopsy before referral. These findings reflect other series, which demonstrate that a solid tumour in a salivary gland in childhood is more likely to be malignant than to be benign.

  12. Salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, P J; Black, K M

    1985-10-01

    A retrospective review of 643 patients with salivary gland tumors seen between 1958-72 is reported. There were 328 malignant and 375 benign tumors. All patients with malignant tumors were assessed in a multidisciplinary head and neck clinic. The median age for developing malignant tumors was 58 and there was a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. For benign tumors the median age was 46 years and the male to female ratio 0.8:1. Overall the primary tumor was controlled by the first planned treatment in 145 (44%) malignant tumors and in 253 (80%) benign tumors. The five and 10 year actuarial survival for malignant tumors was 59.4% and 45.6% respectively.

  13. Tubuloalveolar adenoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Pulitzer, D R; Reed, R J; Megehee, J A

    1985-06-01

    An unusual monomorphic salivary gland adenoma, occurring in a 57-year-old woman, is described. The lesion was histologically similar to the so-called tubular adenoma; however, occasional microscopic foci of serous (acinar cell) differentiation were present. The term tubuloalveolar adenoma is proposed to describe salivary gland tumors that are histologically benign and composed of cells resembling those of normal intercalated ducts and secretory units (acini).

  14. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Rice, D H; Batsakis, J G; McClatchey, K D

    1976-11-01

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years.

  15. Salivary gland tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; el-Naggar, A K

    1991-10-01

    Fewer than 5% of all primary salivary gland neoplasms occur in children, but if benign supporting tissue tumors are excluded, a higher proportion than in adults are malignant. The first decade of life, and particularly the first 2 years of life, has a preponderance of benign neoplasms. Commencing with the second decade, carcinomas rise in incidence and are most often mucoepidermoid and acinic cell carcinomas. The pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial salivary tumor throughout childhood. The embryoma may be a uniquely childhood epithelial salivary gland tumor.

  16. Embryoma (sialoblastoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Frankenthaler, R

    1992-11-01

    There are four clinicopathologic categories of the exclusively major salivary gland tumors that present in the perinatal period. The two with the smallest representation among the 20 cases reported to date are those with a hamartomalike appearance and those with benign adult equivalents--the pleomorphic and monomorphic adenomas. Five cases have been undifferentiated or basaloid salivary carcinomas. Embryomas (sialoblastomas) are the most numerous. These tumors manifest a histologic phenotype like that of the epithelial anlage of the salivary glands, albeit in an arrested state of differentiation.

  17. [Tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Halimi, P; Gardner, M; Petit, F

    2005-06-01

    Tumors of salivary glands arise mainly from the parotid gland. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is mandatory not only to localize precisely the tumor within the gland but also to differentiate between benign and malignant neoplasms, in competition with cytology in fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Tumors without risk of transformation, such as adenolymphoma, are not systematically operated on. Indications of roentgenotherapy and irradiation volumes depend on histologic type, localisation and size of the tumor.

  18. Advances in salivary gland pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, W; Chan, J K C

    2007-07-01

    This review summarizes the new findings on salivary gland pathology under the following categories: immunohistochemistry; molecular genetics; newly recognized tumour types; known tumour entities with new findings; and progression of salivary gland tumours. In the application of immunohistochemistry, CD117 can aid in highlighting the luminal cell component of various salivary gland tumours, whereas p63 or maspin can aid in highlighting the abluminal cell component. A high Ki67 index remains the most useful marker to predict adverse outcome in salivary gland carcinoma. Specific chromosomal translocations are recognized in pleomorphic adenoma (with translocation involving PLGA1 or HMGA2 gene) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with MECT1-MAML2 gene fusion). Newly recognized entities include: sclerosing polycystic adenosis (with recent molecular evidence supporting its neoplastic nature), sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, keratocystoma, adenoma with additional stromal component (lymphadenoma, lipoadenoma and adenofibroma), cribriform adenocarcinoma of the tongue and signet ring adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. Known tumour entities with new findings include: salivary duct carcinoma (with newly recognized mucinous, micropapillary and sarcomatoid variants), intraductal carcinoma (with controversies in terminology), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (with newly proposed grading parameters and oncocytic variant), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (with newly recognized morphological variants), small cell carcinoma (with most cases being related to Merkel cell carcinoma), extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (with specific chromosomal translocation) and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (being a component of IgG4-related sclerosing disease). Progression of salivary gland tumours can take the form of malignant transformation of a benign tumour, progression from low-grade to high-grade carcinoma, dedifferentiation, or stromal invasion of an in situ carcinoma.

  19. Recurrent malignant salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Bigas, M A; Sako, K; Razack, M S; Shedd, D P; Bakamjian, V Y; Castillo, N B; Rao, U

    1989-10-01

    Recurrent salivary gland malignancies present difficult therapeutic decisions and poor prognosis in many instances, and treatment becomes of a palliative nature only. As many of the salivary gland malignancies we see are of the recurrent type, the following study was done to determine the efficacy of a vigorous attempt at retreatment. During the period January 1, 1960, through December 31, 1984, 352 patients with major and minor salivary gland tumors were evaluated at our institution. There were 149 benign lesions and 203 patients with malignant tumors. Of these, 99 patients had recurrent and metastatic tumors that had been treated initially elsewhere. Thirty-three of these patients were able to be treated with curative intent: surgery, 21; surgery plus radiation, 9; radiation therapy alone, 2; and radiation plus chemotherapy, 1. The 5 year survival with no evidence of disease was achieved in three patients with surgery alone and two patients with surgery plus radiation therapy. The group of five patients was comprised of two patients with adenoid cystic carcinomas of the parotid, one with intermediate grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid, one, sebaceous cell carcinoma of the parotid, and one, adenoid cystic carcinoma of an accessory salivary gland. The results of this study serve to re-emphasize the relative poor yield of attempts at retreatment of loco-regional recurrence of salivary gland tumors.

  20. General Information about Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  1. A guide to salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    McEwen, D R; Sanchez, M M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses salivary gland disorders and provides nurses with a broad base of knowledge for use in planning and implementing perioperative patient care. Salivary gland disorders may be caused by nonneoplastic conditions or neoplasms. Nonneoplastic conditions generally are related to inflammatory processes or are secondary to existing disease processes. Neoplasms manifest themselves as benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands. Patients with nonneoplastic conditions may undergo surgical procedures for health problems unrelated to their salivary gland disorders; however, patients with salivary gland neoplasms usually undergo surgical excisions of their tumors and affected glands. Patients in both categories require skilled perioperative nursing care.

  2. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  3. Tenascin in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Pääkkö, P; Virtanen, I; Lehto, V P

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of tenascin immunoreactivity was analysed in salivary gland tissue and in various benign and malignant tumours of the salivary gland. In the non-neoplastic tissue, tenascin was seen in the areas of basement membranes of the ductal epithelium. No immunoreactivity could be observed in the serous or mucous glands. In pleomorphic adenomas, tenascin immunoreactivity could be seen in the stromal compartment. It was more pronounced in the dense stromal areas and chondroid elements than in the myxoid area. In Warthin's tumours, strong tenascin immunoreactivity could be observed in the basement membrane zone of the epithelial component. In the lymphatic component, faint reticular staining could be seen. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, acinic cell tumours and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, tenascin showed a linear stromal distribution. No intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity could be seen in any of the cases. The widespread tenascin positivity in salivary gland tumours suggests that tenascin may play a role in the induction and progression of salivary gland tumours, presumably by interfering with the normal parenchymal-mesenchymal interaction.

  4. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Shubhangi; Dive, Alka; Munde, Prashant; Wankhede, Neena Dongre

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland swellings can result from tumors, an inflammatory process or cysts. It can sometimes be difficult to establish; whether pathology arises from the salivary gland itself or adjacent structures. Neoplasms of the salivary glands account for less than 1% of all tumors, 3-5% of all head and neck tumors and benign pleomorphic adenoma (PA) of minor salivary glands arising de novo is very rare. PA is the most common tumor of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the buccal minor salivary gland. A case of PA of minor salivary glands in the buccal mucosa in a 70-year-old female is discussed. It includes review of literature, clinical features, histopathology, radiological findings and treatment of the tumor; with emphasis on diagnosis.

  5. Tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Madani, Gitta; Beale, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the role of imaging in the management of tumors of the salivary glands, discussing tumor localization, extent, and, where possible, characterization. The relative benefits of the different modalities and the typical features of benign and malignant lesions are discussed for each modality. Characteristic appearances of specific tumors are highlighted.

  6. Ultrasound in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Bruneton, J N; Mourou, M Y

    1993-01-01

    This text reviews the normal ultrasound (US) anatomy of the salivary glands along with tumoral, lithiasic, and inflammatory pathologies. For salivary gland tumors, US does have limitations (failure to visualize the entire parotid gland, relations with the nerve plexus, in-depth spread of large tumors, false-negative errors of malignancy for small encapsulated tumors). However, US is a simple technique allowing correct identification of the benign nature of a lesion in over 80% of the cases. For lesions under 3 cm in diameter, US is generally the only imaging technique used; for larger lesions, CT or MR is required. Sialolithiasis and inflammatory diseases are being documented by US more and more and the indications for sialography have strongly decreased.

  7. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph. PMID:24862590

  8. Diagnostic problems of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Dey, Pranab

    2015-06-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland is a popular technique with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the interpretation of FNAC smear of salivary gland lesions is a great challenge to the cytologists. The cytological features of the various tumors of the salivary gland have overlapping cytological features and many other lesions in the head neck region may mimic salivary lesions. Moreover, at times it may be difficult to differentiate benign from malignant tumor of the tumor with same cell of origin. In this article, we have discussed the various problems in the diagnosis of FNAC of the salivary gland lesions.

  9. Cytology of the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2014-03-01

    Common usage of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) for salivary gland lesions is the preoperative determination of whether a lesion is neoplastic, its lineage, and if neoplastic, whether it is low grade/benign, or high grade. Immunohistochemical stains can be performed on cell blocks to determine lineage and help refine diagnosis, although their performance is not always equivalent to that seen in surgical specimens. Several characteristic translocations have been described in various entities in these categories, and these can be evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the future, high-throughput next-generation sequencing panels may further refine cytologic diagnosis in salivary tumors.

  10. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goode, R K; Corio, R L

    1988-01-01

    Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of salivary gland origin is an extremely rare neoplasm. The diagnosis is established on the basis of oncocytic cellular features in conjunction with dysplastic change. These dysplastic changes may occur in benign oncocytomas or arise de novo. The tumor occurs most commonly in the parotid glands of persons over 60 years of age. Tumors that measure less than 2 cm at the initial surgical procedure appear to have a better prognosis than larger tumors. Aggressive surgical intervention at the initial presentation of the neoplasm, compared to simple enucleation, seems to offer a more favorable prognosis. Recurrence is an ominous feature. Metastasis, when it occurs, is widespread.

  11. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, N; Agarwal, A; Raj, V; Chandra, S

    2013-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors are one of the most complex and relatively rare group of lesions encountered in oral pathology practice. Their complexity is attributed to heterogeneity of the cells of origin of these lesions. The problem is compounded by the ability of these cells to differentiate and modify into various morphological subtypes resulting in a myraid of histomorphological patterns. This also leads to a frequent overlap of microscopic features among various neoplasms and sometimes even between benign and malignant lesions causing significant diagnostic dilemma which sometimes may even not be resolved by immunohistochemical studies. Despite this the knowledge of histogenesis and morhogenetic concepts of salivary gland tumorigenesis greatly helps the pathologist in classifying these lesions as well as determining the prognosis. It will also help in development of newer strategies for differentiating these lesions and making an early diagnosis. The present article is aimed at reviewing and summarizing the current concepts regarding the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors and their relevance to routine diagnosis and classification of these lesions.

  12. Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) on the anterior chest wall of a newborn.

    PubMed

    Aby, Janelle L; Patel, Mayha; Sundram, Uma; Benjamin, Latanya T

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (heterotopic salivary gland tissue) is a rare condition typically seen in the newborn period. This developmental heterotopia is generally nonprogressive, with little risk of malignant transformation. We present the second known reported case of a salivary gland choristoma located on the anterior chest wall. Knowledge of this rare entity will allow for accurate diagnosis and management of this benign anatomic variant.

  13. Aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Kline, T S; Merriam, J M; Shapshay, S M

    1981-09-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been an under-utilized technic in the United States. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 69 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined by this technic; 47 had confirmative histology. Characteristic ABC patterns were seen in the benign mixed tumor, the papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, the mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and malignancy metastatic to the salivary gland. These findings are described. The method proved complication-free and accurate and is recommended for all tumors of the salivary gland.

  14. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M

    1994-03-01

    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  15. [Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Schell, H

    1998-10-01

    Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands is a rare benign tumor that clinically resembles a mucous cyst. We demonstrate its histologic features and differential diagnosis by a case report. Benign and malignant neoplasms of the minor salivary glands are not well acknowledged in the dermatologic literature, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis for mucous cysts.

  16. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of salivary gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Fazylov, A A; Baĭmatova, B A

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic tomography was applied to diagnose salivary gland diseases in 201 patients. Malignant disorders were found in 53 cases, benign in 127, and inflammation in 21. The investigation yielded some echographic diagnostic criteria for tumors and non-tumorous salivary gland diseases.

  17. Sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Claudia M; Mooney, Julia E; Luna, Mario A

    2003-08-01

    Primary sebaceous neoplasms of the salivary glands are extremely rare occurrences; furthermore, sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma has only been reported in three patients. We report a case of sebaceous lymphadenocarcinoma arising in a lymphadenoma of the parotid gland. The patient was a 55-year-old man who presented with a parotid mass of 3 years' duration. Histologically, the lesion consisted of a sebaceous lymphadenoma with transition to a sebaceous carcinoma. The cytologic touch-preparation at the time of frozen section showed clusters of benign sebaceous cells in a rich lymphocytic background together with tridimensional clusters of malignant epithelial cells, strongly raising the suspicion of a malignant neoplasm arising in a benign sebaceous lesion. Malignant transformation of the sebaceous lymphadenoma, although rare, should be considered in enlarging, locally invasive parotid lesions, considering that clinical behavior and prognosis will be determined by the nature of the malignant component.

  18. Salivary gland neoplasms in children.

    PubMed

    Ogata, H; Ebihara, S; Mukai, K

    1994-04-01

    We reviewed 20 children with salivary gland neoplasms treated at the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1964 and 1990. Retrospective analyses of pathological features and the clinical courses of these cases constituted the bases of the present study. The age of onset was late childhood in 19 cases, ranging from 9 to 20 years, but one patient was 1 year old. Approximately half (55%) the neoplasms were malignant. Histologically, all the benign neoplasms were pleomorphic adenomas (nine cases) and the most common malignant neoplasm was mucoepidermoid carcinoma (six cases, 55%), followed by adenocarcinoma (three cases, 27%), adenoid cystic carcinoma (one case, 9%) and malignant mixed tumor (one case, 9%). Recurrences of pleomorphic adenomas occurred only in the three patients initially treated with enucleation; meanwhile, five patients treated with superficial parotidectomy, and one with submandibular glandectomy, had no recurrence. Recurrences of malignant tumors occurred in all six patients initially treated with enucleation only and in one with superficial parotidectomy but not in two patients treated with total parotidectomy. In seven patients treated with prophylactic neck dissection, no metastasis was identified pathologically. The results support no enucleation of the tumor being applied at the first operation for curing both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The indication for radical neck dissection appears to be limited.

  19. Oncocytoma of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Khakbaz Baboli, Oveis; Yarmand, Fateme

    2015-05-01

    Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor, which mostly occurs in the parotid gland. In this article, we describe an early onset of oncocytoma of minor salivary gland in a 36-year, white male. On clinical examination, we encounter with a painless, granular, sessile mass. After Excisional biopsy, the histopathological features revealed sheets of cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large, round nuclei that are known as "Oncocyte".

  20. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  1. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-10

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  2. Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Colby, T V; Dorfman, R F

    1979-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas involving the salivary glands are probably more common than has been previously recognized. They must be differentiated from the benign lymphoepithelial lesion, although there may be an association between the two. The entire histologic spectrum of malignant lymphomas found at other sites can be seen in the salivary gland. In this study of 59 patients with lymphoma affecting the salivary gland, a large percentage were found to have disseminated disease. We recommend the same rigorous clinical evaluation and staging procedures as used in patients who present with primary lymph node involvement.

  3. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Worley, N K; Daroca, P J

    1997-06-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the minor salivary glands has been rarely reported in the world literature. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma, which is a variant of undifferentiated carcinoma, is distinguished from small cell and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma by its association with benign lymphoepithelial lesions. We report a case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma developing in a minor salivary gland of the oral cavity in a 69-year-old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising from a minor salivary gland.

  4. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  5. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-02-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts).

  6. Interactions between developing nerves and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João N; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a summary of the field of salivary gland development and regeneration from the perspective of what is known about the function of nerves during these processes. The primary function of adult salivary glands is to produce and secrete saliva. Neuronal control of adult salivary gland function has been a focus of research ever since Pavlov's seminal experiments on salivation in dogs. Less is known about salivary gland innervation during development and how the developing nerves influence gland organogenesis and regeneration. Here, we will review what is known about the communication between the autonomic nervous system and the epithelium of the salivary glands during organogenesis. An important emerging theme is the instructive role of the nervous system on the epithelial stem/progenitor cells during development as well as regeneration after damage. We will provide a brief overview of the neuroanatomy of the salivary glands and discuss recent literature that begins to integrate neurobiology with epithelial organogenesis, which may provide paradigms for exploring these interactions in other organ systems. PMID:23974175

  7. [Radiotherapy of carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Servagi-Vernat, S; Tochet, F

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, and technique of radiotherapy for salivary glands carcinoma are presented, and the contribution of neutrons and carbon ions. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. PMID:27521038

  8. [Benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Dusek, J; Cerný, L; Wiedermann, B

    1977-05-01

    A series of eight observations serves for demonstrating the clinico-pathological picture of the benign lymphoepithelial lesion of salivary glands. The glandular lesion was associated with joint symptoms, one of the female patients developed malignant lymphoma.

  9. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-02-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  11. Cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Skálová, A; Leivo, I

    1996-06-01

    Salivary gland tumors often pose considerable difficulty in differential diagnostic and prognostic assessment based on histomorphologic grounds alone. Histomorphology may poorly correlate with clinical outcome and the tumors within the same type in classification schedule exhibit different clinical courses. Prognostic relevance of various cell proliferation markers has been investigated in many types of human cancer, recently including salivary gland tumors. Evaluation of DNA content by flow cytometry and by cytophotometry, AgNOR technique, and immunohistochemical detection of antigens in cycling cells such as the Ki67 antigen and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) have been applied to a variety of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors in only few studies so far. Cell proliferation, assessed with the MIB1 antibody, that recognizes the Ki67 antigen in proliferating cells, represents a significant prognostic factor for acinic cell carcinomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary gland origin. Moreover, much lower proliferative activity as assessed with the MIB1 antibody helps to distinguish difficult cases of polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas from adenoid cystic carcinomas and may contribute to differentiation of solid myoepithelial cell-rich pleomorphic adenomas from various malignant tumors. Thus, assessment of cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors using the MIB1 antibody and PCNA in paraffin-embedded tissue should be incorporated into routine immunohistologic evaluation of histologically difficult cases of salivary gland tumors.

  12. Major and minor salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Marco; Locati, Laura D; Prott, Franz J; Gatta, Gemma; McGurk, Mark; Licitra, Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare. The most common tumor site is the parotid. Aetiologic factors are not clear. Nutrition may be a risk factor, as well as irradiation or a long-standing histologically benign tumor that occurs at youth. Painless swelling of a salivary gland should always be considered as suspicious, especially if no sign of inflammation is present. Signs and symptoms related to major salivary gland tumors differ from those concerning minor salivary gland tumors, as they depend on the different location of the salivary gland. Surgical excision represents the standard option in the treatment of resectable tumors of both major and minor salivary glands. Neutron, heavy ions or proton radiotherapy may be a treatment option for inoperable locoregional disease. Surgery, irradiation or re-irradiation are treatment options for local relapse, whereas radical neck dissection is indicated for regional relapses. Metastatic disease may be either treated with radiotherapy or palliative chemotherapy, depending on the site of metastases. For highly selected patients the employment of anti-androgen therapy is indicated.

  13. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, Antonius W.T. . E-mail: a.w.t.konings@med.rug.nl; Coppes, Rob P.; Vissink, Arjan

    2005-07-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to the salivary glands after radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Selected published data on the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity and radioprotection were studied and analyzed. Results: From a classical point of view, the salivary glands should not respond as rapidly to radiation as they appear to do. Next to the suggestion of massive apoptosis, the leakage of granules and subsequent lysis of acinar cells was suggested to be responsible for the acute radiation-induced function loss of the salivary glands. The main problem with these hypotheses is that recently performed assays show no cell loss during the first days after irradiation, while saliva flow is dramatically diminished. The water secretion is selectively hampered during the first days after single-dose irradiation. Literature is discussed that shows that the compromised cells suffer selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane, disturbing signal transduction primarily affecting watery secretion. Although the cellular composition of the submandibular gland and the parotid gland are different, the damage response is very alike. The acute radiation-induced function loss in both salivary glands can be ameliorated by prophylactic treatment with specific receptor agonists. Conclusions: The most probable mechanism of action, explaining the enigmatic high radiosensitivity for early effects, is selective radiation damage to the plasma membrane of the secretory cells, disturbing muscarinic receptor stimulated watery secretion. Later damage is mainly due to classical mitotic cell death of progenitor cells, leading to a hampered replacement capacity of the gland for secretory cells

  14. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence.

  15. [Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Cwalina, Piotr; Skorek, Andrzej; Narozny, Waldemar; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2002-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma, a benign tumor often seen in ENT practice, arises either from minor as well from major salivary glands. 5-14% of tumors occur in minor glands. Sixteen cases of minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas are studied. Eight of them originate from the oral cavity: 6 from the palate, one from the lower lip and one from the cheek. Two oral adenomas were malignant. In 4 patients tumors occur in the nasal cavity and in two other patients--in the neck. The clinical and pathological features of these patients are presented. Special attention is given to malignant transformation and the rate of recurrence of the tumors.

  16. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of oral minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Speight, P M

    1995-04-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia is a rare cause of swelling of the oral minor salivary glands, but is of significance because of its clinical resemblance to salivary gland tumors. The histologic appearance is one of benign hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the minor mucous glands. The clinical and histologic features of 20 new cases are reported, 19 of which occurred in the hard or soft palate. The cause of adenomatoid hyperplasia has hitherto been unclear, but the observation that 14 subjects were tobacco smokers or denture wearers, or both, suggests chronic, local trauma may be an important factor in the development of the condition.

  17. F. N. A. C. of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Senguptal, Sanjay; Roy, Anup; Mallick, Mamata Cuha; Kundu, Biswajit; Das, Sudip Kumar; Das, Sulekha

    2002-07-01

    During a period of 12 years, 874 salivary gland lesions were aspirated of which 740 (86.85%) were from parotid gland. Cystic, inflammatory & neoplastic lesions were 25.25%. 54.45% & 20.30%, respectively. Plcomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign & adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most frequent malignant tumors.On cytohistologic correlation, sensilitvity of cytology for diagnosing cystic, inflammatory, neoplastic lesions proved to be 93.3%. 95.7% & 100% respectively. Overall accuracy for cytodiagnosis of malignant salivary gland lesions in our study was 96.07%.

  18. [The ultrasound examination of salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Kordylewska, M; Dziamska, K; Citowicki, W

    1993-01-01

    The results obtained after the examination of 107 ultrasound cases of changed salivary glands were presented. The characteristic features for changes most often appearing in salivary glands were presented. In case of tumours and cysts the diagnosis was formed on the basis of the ultrasound character of the change (low homogenas, density in cysts, higher density, non homogenous character in tumours), the degree of separation from the surrounding tissue (clear capsule in cyst and benign tumours, lack of capsule, indistinctive image in change of malignant character, in case of infiltration of surrounding tissues). The diagnosis of inflammation was made depending on the character of the change of the parenchyma of salivary gland--the increase of the gland with the lowering of density characteristic for acute inflammation, the reduction of size, increased sonographic density, enlarged leading out (duct), the echo of concrement is characteristic together with the accompanying acoustic shade for bigger concrements.

  19. The activity of selected glycosidases in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Bierc, Marcin; Minarowski, Lukasz; Woźniak, Lukasz; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Knas, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2010-09-30

    The monitoring of the patients after salivary gland tumors surgery is an important clinical issue. Still imperfect diagnostic procedures also remain a challenge for searching new sensitive and specific biomarkers of neoplastic processes in salivary glands. The aim of the presented study was an the assessment of the activity of HEX, with its isoforms HEX-A and HEX-B, GLU, GAL, MAN and FUC in salivary gland tumor tissues in comparison to a healthy salivary gland tissues taken during autopsy. A group of 42 patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, aged 25-65 were examined. Fragments of salivary gland tumor tissue, fragments of healthy tissue removed during autopsy, blood serum and saliva were collected from patients with salivary gland tumors and healthy volunteers. In salivary gland tumor tissue the activity of HEX, HEX-A, HEX-B, GAL, FUC was considerably higher than in comparison to healthy salivary gland tissue and ascending trend of activity of GLU, MAN was also noticed. The activity of all lysosomal exoglycosidases in blood serum in patients with salivary gland tumors was considerably higher in comparison to healthy volunteers blood serum. The considerably higher activity of HEX, HEX-A, GLU, GAL, MAN, FUC and descending trend of activity of HEX-B were noticed in saliva of patients with salivary gland tumors in comparison to healthy volunteers. The assessment of HEX in blood serum and saliva of patients with salivary gland tumor can be possibly used in diagnostics and monitoring of salivary glands tumors.

  20. Salivary duct carcinoma in major and minor salivary glands. A clinicopathological analysis of four cases.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Y; Shem-Tov, Y; Gal, R

    1988-10-01

    Salivary duct carcinomas are an uncommon but distinct group of highly malignant salivary gland tumours. We report the clinical course, pathological findings and surgical treatment of this tumour in 4 patients. In one patient an intraductal tumour developed in a minor salivary gland, while in the other three patients, a major salivary gland was involved by an infiltrating salivary duct carcinoma. We point out the highly aggressive biological behaviour of the tumour when occurring in the major salivary glands, in contrast to the benign course of the intraductal carcinoma in the minor salivary gland.

  1. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Additional resources for salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  2. Pathophysiology of myoepithelial cells in salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha Ashok Kumar; Mulla, Aamera Farouq; Mayank, Mrinal

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial cells (MECs) are considered to be a key participant in most salivary gland diseases, particularly tumors. MECs structurally resemble both epithelial cells and smooth muscles. Diagnostic dilemmas caused are due to inadequacy of characterizing the wide spectrum of morphologic and immunologic features which are different for both normal and neoplastic MECs. This article discusses the development, functions and structure of both normal and neoplastic MECs, their staining properties and differences in the morphologic and immunophenotypic properties of the MEC in detail. It also describes the role of MEC in pathogenesis and morphogenesis of various nonneoplastic and neoplastic salivary gland lesions and thereby are responsible for the myriad histopathology of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27721615

  3. Salivary gland tumors of the lip.

    PubMed

    Owens, O T; Calcaterra, T C

    1982-01-01

    The UCLA experience with minor salivary gland tumors of the lip is presented and contrasted with that of the literature. The incidence of benign to malignant tumors of the lip does not follow the inverse relationship stated in the axiom that the smaller the salivary gland the greater the probability that a developing tumor will be malignant. Benign tumors represent over 80% of all salivary gland tumors of the lip. There is no preponderant malignant tumor for the lip. Adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma occur with almost equal frequency. Because of the indolent nature of these tumors, excellent survival rates can be achieved with wide local excision with few recurrences, if the tumors are adequately treated when first seen.

  4. [Basal cell adenomas of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, O M

    1975-01-01

    The author presents data on morphology and clinical features of basal-cell adenomas of the salivary gland (10 cases). Singling out this neoplasm into independent onconosological group seems reasonable since basal-cell adenoma not infrequently is erroneously diagnosed as cylindroma or mixed tumour of the salivary gland, which may lead to a wrong clinical prognosis and inadequate therapeutic measures. The clinical course of this tumour is benign. The main morphological feature of the tumour is a monomorphic character of cell elements, their palisade-like distribution over the periphery of individual tumour structures and a clear-cut delimination of the parenchyma from the stroma.

  5. [Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Guallart Doménech, F; Molina Mira, A; González Martínez, M A; Pons Rocher, F; Mompó Romero, L; Serrano Badía, E

    1994-01-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands in an uncommon clinicopathologic entity, first reported, in 1971, by Giansanti and cols. The condition mimics a neoplasm because of its swelling, but the histologic picture agrees with that of normal appearing salivary gland tissue. The interest of this entity is that although benign pseudotumoral lesion, it can be clinically confused with benign or malignant tumors and even, through fine needle aspiration cytology, with low grade mucoepidermoid tumors. We present one case of this condition arising in the soft palate in a patient with unilateral serous otitis media. A review of the published literature on the subject is done.

  6. Imaging tumors of the minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, T; Minami, M; Ozawa, K; Akimoto, Y; Okada, M; Yamamoto, H; Suzuki, H; Sasaki, Y

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging evaluations of nine histopathologically confirmed minor salivary gland tumors were made retrospectively and compared with evaluations of images obtained by computed tomography. All tumors had low-to-intermediate T1 signal intensities and intermediate-to-high T2 signal intensities. Malignant tumors had an irregular margin in all but one case. Benign tumors invariably had well-defined margins. In terms of tumor margination, the magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated well with the histopathologic findings. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the internal architecture of the minor salivary gland tumors multidirectionally and was superior to computed tomography in this respect and in the ability to locate the tumors.

  7. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion.

  8. Ulcerative sialadenitis of minor salivary gland: A short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Roopashri Rajesh; Nair, R. Gopakumar; Kashyap, Rajesh Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Minor salivary glands have an important role in the physiology and pathology of the oral cavity though they have been neglected at times. Smoking has a direct effect on the palatal minor salivary glands, and their most common presentation is stomatitis nicotina. We report a case of ulceration in the palatal salivary gland presented with intermittent heavy bleeding from the lesion. PMID:26752884

  9. [Salivary gland-like tumors of the breast].

    PubMed

    Otterbach, F; Schmid, K W

    2006-09-01

    A subset of rare benign and malignant breast tumors with and without myoepithelial differentiation are morphologically and histogenetically similar to salivary gland tumors, but may differ in incidence and clinical behavior. The clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and prognostic features of ten salivary gland-like tumor entities of the breast are discussed and compared with their respective counterparts in the salivary glands.

  10. Cell therapy for salivary gland regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lin, C-Y; Chang, F-H; Chen, C-Y; Huang, C-Y; Hu, F-C; Huang, W-K; Ju, S-S; Chen, M-H

    2011-03-01

    There are still no effective therapies for hyposalivation caused by irradiation. In our previous study, bone marrow stem cells can be transdifferentiated into acinar-like cells in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells may help functional regeneration of salivary glands. Bone marrow stem cells were labeled with nanoparticles and directly co-cultured with acinar cells to obtain labeled acinar-like cells. In total, 140 severely combined immune-deficiency mice were divided into 4 groups for cell therapy experiments: (1) normal mice, (2) mice receiving irradiation around their head-and-neck areas; (3) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled stem cells; and (4) mice receiving irradiation and intra-gland transplantation with labeled acinar-like cells. Our results showed that salivary glands damaged due to irradiation can be rescued by cell therapy with either bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells for recovery of saliva production, body weight, and gland weight. Transdifferentiation of bone marrow stem cells into acinar-like cells in vivo was also noted. This study demonstrated that cell therapy with bone marrow stem cells or acinar-like cells can help functional regeneration of salivary glands, and that acinar-like cells showed better therapeutic potentials than those of bone marrow stem cells.

  11. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  12. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Białek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wiesław

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related), similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth) can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:27446603

  13. Malignant oncocytic tumour of the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Leventon, G; Katz, D R; Bell, C D

    1976-03-01

    A 49-year-old man developed a tumour mass in his right parotid salivary gland nine years after a histologically proven benign mixed tumour of the same salivary gland had been surgically removed. Radical resection of the right parotid salivary gland and associated lymph nodes and soft tissues of the neck was performed. The parotid tumour was composed of oncocytic cells which infiltrated the surviving salivary gland tissue. Most of the excised lymph nodes contained metastatic deposits of oncocytic cells identical to the tumour seen in the parotid. There are no previous reports of the occurrence of both pleomorphic adenoma and malignant oncocytoma in the same salivary gland.

  14. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Fois, Paolo; Giannuzzi, Anna Lisa; Paties, Carlo Terenzio; Falcioni, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Choristoma of the middle ear is a rare condition characterized by the presence of normal salivary gland tissue in the middle ear space. Salivary gland choristomas are benign lesions that are frequently associated with ossicular chain and facial nerve anomalies. Total surgical excision is indicated when there is no risk of damaging the facial nerve. We describe a new case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear, and we discuss the etiology, histologic features, and management of such lesions. Our patient was a 22-year-old woman in whom we surgically removed a whitish retrotympanic mass. Intraoperatively, we also detected an ossicular chain malformation. Histologic examination of the choristoma revealed the presence of salivary gland tissue. Furthermore, the lesion contained an extensive and previously undescribed component: a well-defined pseudostratified respiratory-type epithelium, similar to that of a normal eustachian tube. Ten months after removal of the choristoma, we surgically repaired the ossicular chain anomalies. No recurrence was noted on follow-up.

  15. Salivary gland lesions: a Jamaican perspective.

    PubMed

    Williams, N P; Boyd, D L; Choy, L; Hanchard, B

    2001-03-01

    A retrospective analysis of the spectrum and relative frequency of salivary gland lesions diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, between 1965 and 1994, is reported. Four hundred and sixty-four salivary gland biopsies were received. Of these 99 (21.3%) were non-neoplastic and the remaining 365 (78.7%) were neoplasms: 261 (71.5%) were benign and 104 (28.5%) malignant. Benign mixed tumour (BMT)/pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most common neoplasm (63.3%) while mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was the most common malignant neoplasm (9.6%), followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) (7.4%). The increased frequency of MEC over ACC is at variance with other reported series but the preponderance of pleomorphic adenoma is consistent. In the major salivary glands, benign neoplasms predominate at a ratio of 3:1, while a higher proportion of minor salivary gland neoplasms was malignant, ratio 1.2:1 (p = 0.003). These data represent the first attempt to document the spectrum of disease related to oral and maxillofacial pathology in Jamaica.

  16. Oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jahan-Parwar, B; Huberman, R M; Donovan, D T; Schwartz, M R; Ostrowski, M L

    1999-05-01

    Two parotid mucoepidermoid carcinomas with predominant oncocytic features were initially assessed on frozen section. Because of extensive oncocytic change, it was inferred that the lesions were most likely benign. Permanent sections revealed low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma with prominent oncocytic change (in more than 75% of the neoplasms) in both cases. Review of 48 additional consecutive cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands revealed prominent oncocytic change (accounting for 60% of the neoplasm) in one high-grade lesion. Phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin stains revealed strong granular cytoplasmic staining in the oncocytic elements; immunohistochemical stains for antimitochondrial antibodies also showed intense immunoreactivity in these cells. Oncocytic change is not typically a prominent feature of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands, and to our knowledge, only three such cases have been reported previously. Because most salivary gland lesions with oncocytic change are benign, it is important to distinguish mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other entities that may show prominent oncocytic change. We report three additional examples of this rare lesion, two low-grade tumors and one high-grade tumor, and review our experience with oncocytic change in mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

  17. Salivary gland tumors: review of 643 cases.

    PubMed

    Main, J H; Orr, J A; McGurk, F M; McComb, R J; Mock, D

    1976-03-01

    643 cases of salivary gland tumors constitute two series of histological sections that were studied from hospitals and dental schools in Southeast Scotland and Southern Ontario. The Scottish series represented epithelial tumors of the parotid and intra-oral salivary glands, but the Canadian series also included tumors of the submandibular and sublingual glands. Classification was based on that recommended by the World Health Organisation (Thackray 1972). While direct statiscal comparisons between the two series are not appropriate, the differences between them suggest that malignant tumors are more common in Canada. The Scottish series contains the largest proportion of benign salivary tumors so far reported. In the Scottish series, 88.7% of parotid tumors were benign compared with 51.9% of Canadian series. In the Canadian series from the submandibular glands, 21.2% only were benign. Of the intra-oral salivary tumors, 62.2% from the Scottish series were benign compared with only 34.7% from the Canadian series.

  18. Prolactin binding in minor salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Abbey, L M; Witorsch, R J

    1985-07-01

    An immunohistochemical study of 15 minor salivary gland tumors was initiated to determine if prolactin binding occurred in these tissues. Eight benign mixed tumors (BMT) and 7 adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were selected at random from the surgical biopsy service of the MCV/VCU School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology. The specimens were cut and mounted on slides along with sections of rat pituitary and rat ventral prostate which served as methodologic controls. Experimental specimens were incubated for 24 hours with varying concentrations of highly purified (iodination grade) rat prolactin; controls were incubated with vehicle. Following incubation the specimens were stained according to the Sternberger peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Results showed dose-dependent staining for prolactin binding sites in 7 of 8 BMTs and 5 of 7 ACCs. The staining was wider in distribution than we observed in normal human minor salivary gland tissue. Binding was confined primarily to cells of duct origin in both types of tumor. In individual cells, staining was observed in diffuse cytoplasmic and perinuclear locations as well as in nuclei and apical regions. We conclude that two minor salivary gland neoplasms (BMT and ACC) exhibit prolactin binding at different cellular locations and in a more widespread pattern than was observed in normal minor salivary gland.

  19. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kun; Duan, Zejun; Bian, Yu; Wang, Mengyang; Qi, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4) resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  20. Sialography and scanning of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Gates, G A

    1977-06-01

    This discussion is a brief review of the current status of sialography and salivary gland scanning in the diagnosis of salivary disorders. Both techniques are in current use; the contrast sialogram is most useful in evaluating recurrent inflammatory disorders, and the radiosialogram finds its greatest value in evaluating patients with suspected neoplasms. These examinations should not be used in lieu of a histologic diagnosis in tumor cases except when a smooth margined radiopositive lesion corresponding with a clinically evident Warthin tumor is noted; in this case a presumptive diagnosis of a benign neoplasm may be established. The utilization of these radiographic techniques depends upon the facilities available, the needs of the particular patient, and the experience and clinical judgment of the salivary gland surgeon.

  1. Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M; Christensen, C; Brightman, V

    1992-07-01

    There is considerable difficulty in the making of initial clinical decisions as to whether a given patient has salivary gland hypofunction, and hence requires additional salivary gland evaluation. This study identified a set of four clinical measures that, together, successfully predicted the presence or absence of salivary gland hypofunction. The four measures were: dryness of lips, dryness of buccal mucosa, absence of saliva produced by gland palpation, and total DMFT; they were derived from discriminant analysis of data collected from 71 individuals with normal and low salivary flow rates. These measures are proposed as criteria for clinical decision-making, as well as for classification of patients in studies of salivary gland dysfunction syndromes. This study also identified unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.12-0.16 mL/min as the critical range separating individuals with salivary gland hypofunction from those with normal gland function.

  2. Gene amplification in Rhynchosciara salivary gland chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Glover, D M; Zaha, A; Stocker, A J; Santelli, R V; Pueyo, M T; De Toledo, S M; Lara, F J

    1982-01-01

    Late in the fourth larval instar, several regions of the Rhynchosciara americana salivary gland chromosomes undergo "DNA puffing." We have constructed a library of cloned cDNAs synthesized from poly(A)+RNA isolated from salivary glands during the period of development when the DNA puffs are active. From this library we have studied clones representative of three genes active during this period but not active at earlier developmental periods of the gland. One of these genes is not amplified during the developmental process and encodes a 0.6-kilobase RNA molecule. The other two genes are located within the DNA-puff sites C3 and C8 and encode 1.25-kilobase and 1.95-kilobase RNA molecules, respectively. We estimate from the quantitation of transfer hybridization experiments that each of these genes undergoes 16-fold amplification during DNA puffing. Images PMID:6953439

  3. "Clear cell" oncocytoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G L

    1988-07-01

    For the most part, clear cell neoplasms of the salivary glands are adenocarcinomas of at least low-grade malignant potential. However, a rare benign clear cell tumor of major salivary glands can be distinguished as a histologic variant of oncocytoma and oncocytosis. Ten such cases have been identified in the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (Washington, DC). Eight patients were women, and nine of the lesions involved the parotid gland. All of the patients were middle-aged or older adults. The light-microscopic morphology and the phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin (PTAH), PAS, and mucicarmine staining patterns were consistent with oncocytoma and oncocytosis. Transitions from typical eosinophilic oncocytes to clear cells were evident. Electron microscopy and histochemistry demonstrated that the clear cytoplasm seen by light microscopy was primarily due to artifact and intracytoplasmic glycogen. Mitochondria were the preponderant cytoplasmic organelles. Two patients were known to have experienced recurrent lesions.

  4. Pleomorphic adenoma of the minor salivary gland of the cheek.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arpit; Deshmukh, Shraddha; Shaikh, Ahmed; Dabholkar, Jyoti

    2013-09-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common tumour of the salivary gland. While the majority arises from the parotid gland, only a small percentage arises from the minor salivary glands. The cheek, however, is a rarely affected site with respect to pleomorphic adenomas of the minor salivary glands. Herein, we report a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the cheek, which presented with intraoral swelling, and conclude that complete surgical excision can be a curative treatment for this benign tumour.

  5. Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Harris, N L

    1999-01-01

    Lymphoid proliferations of the salivary glands can be either reactive or neoplastic. Reactive lesions include cystic lymphoid hyperplasia--a multicystic ductal proliferation with reactive germinal centers, seen most often in intravenous drug users infected with HIV--and the lymphoepithelial sialadenitis of Sjögren's syndrome (so-called benign lymphoepithelial lesion [BLEL] or myoepithelial sialadenitis [MESA]). This lymphoid proliferation involves infiltration of ductal epithelium by lymphocytes of marginal zone or monocytoid B-cell type, forming lymphoepithelial lesions (epimyoepithelial islands). Patients with lymphoepithelial sialadenitis have a 44-fold increased risk of developing salivary gland or extrasalivary lymphoma, of which 80% are marginal zone/MALT type. Broad strands of marginal zone or monocytoid B cells around lymphoepithelial lesions and monotypic immunoglobulin detection by immunohistochemistry are considered diagnostic of MALT lymphoma. B-cell clones are detected in over 50% of cases of MESA by molecular genetic methods, but this does not correlate with overlymphoma. "Nodal" type B-cell lymphomas of the salivary glands are either follicular lymphoma (35%), which may arise in intrasalivary gland lymph nodes and behave similarly to follicular lymphoma in other sites, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (30%), which may arise de novo or secondary to either MALT or follicular lymphomas.

  6. Aquaporins in Salivary Glands: From Basic Research to Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Christine; Bryla, Angélic; Perret, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Salivary glands are involved in saliva secretion that ensures proper oral health. Aquaporins are expressed in salivary glands and play a major role in saliva secretion. This review will provide an overview of the salivary gland morphology and physiology of saliva secretion, and focus on the expression, subcellular localization and role of aquaporins under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, as well as clinical applications involving aquaporins. This review is highlighting expression and localization of aquaporins in human, rat and mouse, the most studied species and is pointing out possible difference between major salivary glands, i.e., parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands. PMID:26828482

  7. Tumors of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, E M; Friedman, M; Becker, S; Sisson, G A; Keyes, G A

    1977-06-01

    Tumors of the major salivary glands are reviewed according to classification, location, surgical procedure and end results. Our data of the incidence of benign and malignant tumors show that the most commonly involved area is the parotid gland and the most frequent is of the mixed variety. In the parotid region 80 percent are benign and 20 percent are malignant; whereas, in the submandibular gland, the malignant and benign tumors are equally distributed. The need for an extensive surgical attack and inclusion of contiguous structure is dictated by the nature of the malignant disease. The role of postoperative irradiation is discussed as is the indication for neck dissection. Management of the facial nerve, relative to malignant tumors of the parotid gland, is considered in detail.

  8. [Salivary gland stem cells : Can they restore radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction?].

    PubMed

    Rotter, N; Schwarz, S; Jakob, M; Brandau, S; Wollenberg, B; Lang, S

    2010-06-01

    Adult stem cells are actively investigated in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as they exhibit specific characteristics that make them promising candidates for cellular therapies. Depending on their tissue of origin these characteristics include long-term proliferation and the capacity to differentiate into various cell types. To date adult stem cells have been isolated from a multitude of tissues. Non-embryogenic adult tissues contain only small numbers of such stem cells and the derivation of such tissues can cause comorbidities. Therefore, there is ongoing interest in the identification and characterisation of novel cell sources for stem cell isolation and characterisation.Recently, salivary gland tissue has also been explored as a possible source of stem cells, first in animals and later in humans. Such salivary gland-derived stem cells might be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced salivary gland hypofunction, and possibly also in other diseases with loss of acinar cells, such as sequelae of radio iodine treatment or Sjögren's disease.In this paper we review the current status of salivary gland stem cell biology and application and discuss the possible role of stem cells in the development of novel therapies for salivary gland dysfunctions such as postradiogenic xerostomia.

  9. Carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G; Tortoledo, M E; del Junco, G W

    1989-08-01

    A clinicopathological analysis of eight examples of carcinomas arising from salivary gland monomorphic adenomas, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma, is presented. These uncommon to rare neoplasms have a predilection for the parotid glands, are diagnosed about a decade later than their benign precursors, and most often arise from the dermal analogue type of monomorphic adenoma. As judged by follow-up periods of two to 16 years, carcinomas ex monomorphic adenoma are locally aggressive neoplasms with the clinical course marred by recurrences but without regional or distant metastases.

  10. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Baker, Olga J

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  11. [Ultrasound diagnosis of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, A; Gutiérrez-Cabello, F; Jiménez-Alonso, J; Aranegui, P; Castro, J; Hernández-Hernández, L

    1997-03-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of salivary gland tumors can give a more accurate information than clinical data alone. For example, it will help differentiate intraglandular from extraglandular tumors and benign from malignant processes. We conducted a prospective study in 39 patients with parotidal or submaxillary tumors. Patients were evaluated with a physical exam and a with ultrasound. Results indicate that only 53.86% of the physical examinations were correct in their diagnosis compared to 87.18% of the those done by ultrasound. Specificity and sensibility for malignancy was 96.43% and 81.81% respectively. These results were similar to those reported by other authors. We conclude that the use of ultrasound techniques in the study of salivary gland pathology is well justified, due to its capacity to provide high resolution, improving clinical diagnosis.

  12. Basaloid tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, David C; Paulino, Augusto F

    2002-12-01

    Basaloid tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions characterized by small tumor cells with round or ovoid nuclei surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. Primary salivary gland tumors with this predominant morphology include basal cell adenoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, cellular pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and small cell undifferentiated carcinoma. Certain metastatic lesions and nonepithelial neoplasms can also demonstrate a basaloid appearance. Histologic diagnosis based on resected tumors is usually straightforward when the architecture can be adequately assessed. However, in limited biopsies and particularly in cytologic samples, the evaluation can be quite challenging. A systematic approach aided by immunohistochemistry is essential to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.

  13. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    PubMed

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  14. Salivary gland malignant neoplasms: treatment and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Borthne, A.; Kjellevold, K.; Kaalhus, O.; Vermund, H.

    1986-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of 183 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors treated between 1955 and 1978 is presented. The analysis showed that radiation therapy lowered the recurrence rates after surgery and controlled approximately one-third of the inoperable tumors. A dose-response relationship exists and the data suggest that the radiation dose should not be less than that corresponding to a CRE-value of 1950 reu (70 Gy/7 weeks). Histology, location and clinical stage are important prognostic factors.

  15. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Shintani, S; Matsuura, H; Hasegawa, Y

    1997-08-01

    The usefulness of fine needle aspiration (FNA) as a preoperative diagnostic procedure was studied in 43 patients with salivary gland tumors. Nine of the tumors were malignant and 34 benign. The diagnostic sensitivity of FNA was 88.9% (8/9), the specificity 94.1% (32/34) and the accuracy 93.0% (40/43). These results indicate that FNA is a highly sensitive and specific screening procedure.

  16. [Differential echographic diagnosis of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Bleier, R; Rochels, R

    1988-05-01

    76 patients with tumorous swellings of the salivary glands were examined by means of standardized A-scan and B-scan sonography. B-scan echography allowed a differentiation between benign and malignant tumours in all cases. Analysis of the various A-scan criteria (internal structure, reflectivity, borders, consistency and sound attenuation) provided a pathognomonic combination of these criteria for each lesion, enabling further histological diagnosis.

  17. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Mischke, R E; Brackmann, D E; Gruskin, P

    1977-07-01

    We discuss the eighth reported case of a benign salivary gland tumor in the middle ear. The lesion was a smooth lobulated mass and was found to be intimately associated with the tympanic portion of the facial nerve. Recommended treatment is biopsy without attempting removal. This concept of management is supported by a report of a similar case with a 15-year follow-up.

  18. Inverted ductal papilloma of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, D J; Hopper, C; Speight, P M

    1994-08-01

    Inverted ductal papillomas are rare tumours of minor salivary glands. A case is reported on the lower lip of a 50-year-old man. The tumour showed a characteristic endophytic growth pattern and was composed of bulbous papillary projections of basaloid cells dilating and filling the superficial portion of the excretory duct. Histologically, inverted ductal papillomas resemble the inverted papilloma of the nose and paranasal sinuses, but are completely benign and are not associated with malignant change.

  19. [Myoepithelial differentiation markers in salivary gland neoplasia].

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, F; Marucci, G; Foschini, M P

    2001-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors frequently present myoepithelial cell differentiation that is not always easily identified on routinely stained sections. Recently novel markers of myoepithelium have been studied, such as calponin (CALP), caldesmon (CALD), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. These markers, together with smooth muscle actin may be useful tools for identifying myoepithelial cells. We immunohistochemically studied a series of 23 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors using antibodies to these four markers. The tumors were classified as follows: pleomorphic adenoma (n = 8), basal cell adenoma (n = 3), myoepithelioma with plasmacytoid cells (n = 2), epithelial-myoepithelial cell carcinoma (n = 6) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 4). All tumors were positive for at least one of the four markers. CALP and smooth muscle actin were the markers more frequently expressed. Positivity was mostly located in the myoepithelial cells that constitute the external layer of the glandular or tubular neoplastic structures. In poorly differentiated epithelial myoepithelial carcinomas, composed of solid sheets of neoplastic cells and sometimes of clear cells, immunohistochemical staining for myoepithelial markers evidenced rudimentary glandular structures. CALP and smooth muscle actin were positive in the two cases of myoepithelioma with plasmacytoid cells. In conclusion, the combined staining with four markers helps to disclose myoepithelial cell differentiation and can be a useful tool for the correct histopathological diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. Among the four markers studied, CALP and smooth muscle actin were the most useful to identify myoepithelial cell differentiation.

  20. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum.

  1. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alcure, Monica Leal; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Graner, Edgard; Di Hipolito, Oswaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2005-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of particular major salivary glands. It is caused by sialolith within the ducts or parenchyma of particularly major salivary glands. Although sialolithasis is not uncommon, it often is clinically misdiagnosed when minor salivary glands are affected. This article describes the clinical and microscopic findings of nine cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands. The lesions frequently appeared as single and asymptomatic nodules in middle-aged patients. Only three sites were affected: four lesions were found in the upper lip, three in the buccal mucosa, and two in the lower lip. The most common clinical hypotheses for diagnosis were mucocele, sialoadenitis, and benign salivary gland tumor. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands was misdiagnosed frequently. It should be considered as a possible diagnosis when swelling of the oral tissues is observed. PMID:16158797

  2. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands: a clinical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Alcure, Monica Leal; Della Coletta, Ricardo; Graner, Edgard; Di Hipolito, Oswaldo; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte

    2005-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of particular major salivary glands. It is caused by sialolith within the ducts or parenchyma of particularly major salivary glands. Although sialolithasis is not uncommon, it often is clinically misdiagnosed when minor salivary glands are affected. This article describes the clinical and microscopic findings of nine cases of sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands. The lesions frequently appeared as single and asymptomatic nodules in middle-aged patients. Only three sites were affected: four lesions were found in the upper lip, three in the buccal mucosa, and two in the lower lip. The most common clinical hypotheses for diagnosis were mucocele, sialoadenitis, and benign salivary gland tumor. Sialolithiasis of minor salivary glands was misdiagnosed frequently. It should be considered as a possible diagnosis when swelling of the oral tissues is observed.

  3. Warthin's tumor of the parotid salivary gland. A case report.

    PubMed

    Patel, B; Mandel, L

    1999-10-01

    Neoplasms of the salivary glands are not uncommon. The dentist is in the unique position to make an early diagnosis and refer the patient for definitive treatment. This article will review the clinical appearance, pathology, treatment and potential complications of Warthin's tumor, a benign salivary gland tumor. It describes a case presented at the Salivary Gland Center. Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital-Columbia Campus.

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of retinoblastoma pathway proteins in normal salivary glands and in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Etges, A; Nunes, F D; Ribeiro, K C B; Araújo, V C

    2004-03-01

    The expression of G1-phase cell-cycle regulators is commonly deregulated in human malignancies. In the present study, we investigate components of the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway in normal salivary glands (NSG) and in salivary gland tumours (SGT). Samples of NSG, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), malignant myoepithelioma (MEM), carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA), and polymorphous, low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies to cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK-4), retinoblastoma protein (pRb), CDK inhibitor p16 and transcription factor E2F-1. In normal salivary glands, cyclin D1 and cdk-4 were not expressed in any case while p16 was positively expressed. pRb was abundant and E2F-1 moderately expressed. In tumors, cdk-4 was overexpressed in half of the cases. Most tumour cases showed decreased pRb immunoexpression compared to normal salivary glands. In contrast, expression of p16 and E2F-1 increased. pRb expression was absent in three cases of PA, two of EMC and one of CEPA. One case of MEM and one of PLGA showed no E2F-1 expression. Statistical analyses revealed positive correlations between cyclin D1 and cdk-4, cyclin D1 and E2F-1, cdk-4 and E2F-1, and p16 and E2F-1. The benign and malignant tumours expressed retinoblastoma pathway proteins differently form the normal salivary gland. Our findings suggest that, pRb pathway deregulation in salivary gland neoplasms is unrelated to their biological behaviour.

  5. Warthin tumor arising from the minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Toshinori; Baba, Junichi; Murata, Shogo; Mitsudo, Kenji; Maegawa, Jiro; Nagahama, Kiyotaka; Tohnai, Iwai

    2012-09-01

    Warthin tumor (WT) accounts for 4% to 13% of all salivary gland tumors. This benign tumor, which commonly arises in the parotid gland, is the second most common tumor of the salivary gland. WT is multicentric in 12% to 20% of patients and is bilateral in 5% to 14%. The mean age at diagnosis is 62 years (range, 12-92 years), and it rarely presents (<6%) before age 40 years. Extraparotid WT, arising from the submandibular gland or cervical lymph node for example, is very infrequent, with corresponding incidences of 0.4% to 6.9% and 8%, respectively. Moreover, WT arising from the minor salivary gland is extremely rare, with a reported incidence of merely 0.1% to 1.2%. We report here WT arising from the minor salivary gland in the buccal mucosa in a 66-year-old woman and review cases of WT of the minor salivary gland reported in the English literature.

  6. Salivary gland neoplasms: an analysis of 74 cases.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Deepika; Sharma, Rohit; Sinha, Ramen; Suresh Menon, P

    2009-06-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, 74 cases of salivary gland neoplasms were analyzed retrospectively, of which 44 (60%) were benign and 30 (40%) malignant. 61 % percent of neoplasms were in the parotid gland, 22% in the minor salivary glands including sublingual salivary glands, and 17% in the submandibular glands. The most common benign neoplasm was pleomorphic adenoma (64%), and the most common malignant neoplasm were adenoid cystic carcinoma (17%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (23%). We analyze the incidence and distribution of all types of salivary gland neoplasms in our series, and provide data for comparison with other epidemiological studies from different geographical sites and races. Demographic data from these studies help us to a better understanding of the biological and clinical characteristics of the disease. Further epidemiological surveys should be encouraged for better understanding of the disease and to provide early and better treatment of salivary gland neoplasms.

  7. Minor salivary gland neoplasm in children.

    PubMed

    Spuntarelli, Giorgio; Santecchia, Luigino; Urbani, Urbano; Zama, Mario

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present a review of the literature, and we focus on 2 particular cases of cancer of the salivary glands accessory in pediatric patients The accessory parotid is the site of congenital and acquired lesions. In adults, the acquired lesions are often neoplastic and are usually similar to those seen in the main parotid gland. The disorders in children are less well defined, as only a few cases have been reported.The accessory parotid gland, or accessory parotid, is a nodule of normal salivary tissue separated from the main parotid gland, located on the masseter muscle, to which it is bound by an extension of the masseteric fascia and connected to the Stensen duct at that level. In contrast to the extensive literature on acquired lesions of the accessory parotid in adults, very few cases of malignant or benign lesions of the accessory parotid in children could be found in the literature. A review of several articles reporting lesions of the accessory parotid in adult patients, reporting 3 or more cases each for a total of 71 patients, showed 24 malignant neoplasms, 39 benign neoplasms, and 8 nonneoplastic lesions. Lesions of the accessory parotid are quite rare in children but should be considered when facing mass located in the cheek.

  8. Salivary gland neoplasms in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arotiba, G T

    1996-01-01

    This 14 year retrospective clinico-statistical analysis of 237 salivary gland neoplasms in Lagos, Nigeria, was undertaken with a view to providing further insights into the presentation of this disease in Africans. These neoplasms constituted 10.0% of all head and neck neoplasms, and were most frequently situated at the parotid gland (32.1%), the palate (24.9%) and the submandibular gland (19.4%). While parotid squamous cell carcinoma affected more males (41.2%) than females (4.7%) (P = 0.03); parotid mucoepidermoid carcinoma affected more females (53.3%) than males (11.8%) (P = 0.0149). Furthermore, labial salivary gland tumours affected more females (6.8%) than males (1.7%) (P = 0.05). At presentation, patients with palatal tumours were relatively more advanced in age (Peak = 6th decade) than those with parotid and submandibular tumours (Peak = 3rd decade). Males presenting with pleomorphic adenoma were relatively younger than their female counterparts. This is especially true of palatal pleomorphic adenoma. The recurrence rate for benign tumours was 4.8%. Majority of patients with malignant tumours (83.9%) had significant local extension, regional or distant metastasis at presentation. In twenty-nine percent of these patients with cancer, the disease was controlled for 1-5 years of follow-ups. However, a quarter of these patients with cancer defaulted the planned treatment regime because they could not afford the cost of treatment or they opted for traditional medical care.

  9. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a minor salivary gland in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, H; Dahlqvist, A; Anniko, M; Carlsöö, B

    1987-12-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms in childhood and adolescence are rare, especially in the minor salivary glands. Vasoformative tumours and pleomorphic adenomas appear to be the most common benign neoplastic salivary gland lesions in the pediatric age group. The distribution of various malignant histological types is not always consistent with that in the adult population, and they appear more often in girls than in boys. Only 17 cases have previously been documented. The clinical and histological picture of a case of palatal mucoepidermoid carcinoma in a 13-year-old girl is presented as well as a review of the literature on malignant salivary gland tumours in childhood.

  10. Radiation-induced salivary gland tumors: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Smith, S A

    1976-09-01

    I discuss radiation-induced salivary gland tumors, with special emphasis on those tumors thought to be secondary to childhood head and neck irradiation for benign diseases. I report such a case and review the literature. Statistically, 77.6% of irradiation-induced tumors occur in the parotid gland and 22.4% in the submaxillary and minor salivary glands. A greater proportion of malignant tumors are noted in the submaxillary and minor salivary glands. At present, there is no demonstrable relationship between tumor occurrence and the amount of radiation recieved. Young children are more susceptible to irradiation-induced salivary tumors than older individuals.

  11. Quality of Life after Salivary Gland Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wax, Mark K; Talmi, Yoav P

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has been recognized as an important endpoint in addition to disease-related and global survival. It is particularly important for patients with salivary gland neoplastic disease. For patients who are undergoing benign salivary gland tumor surgery, cosmetic and functional outcomes are extremely important, as these patients' psychological well-being and ability to function in society can be severely impacted. The following issues related to surgical treatment are discussed: incision, loss of local tissue sensation, development of Frey's syndrome, facial nerve function, and cosmesis. Improvements in the placement of the incision combined with additional minimally invasive procedures have improved QoL. The ultimate goal of benign parotid neoplastic surgery is complete tumor excision while avoiding cosmetic and functional damage, which includes preservation of the function of the facial nerve and its branches; this is the key to maintaining preoperative levels of QoL. There are many measures available to improve cosmesis that have minimal morbidity and that, when used, can provide significant improvements in patient outcomes. The treatment of malignant salivary gland neoplasms is primarily directed at treating the malignancy. When surgical treatment affects important neighboring structures, such as the lingual or hypoglossal nerves, as in submandibular/sublingual cancer, there is a tremendous effect on QoL if postoperative dysfunction of these structures results. Often, this treatment involves using ancillary surgical procedures, such as neck dissection, or nonsurgical treatment, such as radiation therapy. The effect of such multi-modality treatment on QoL is significant. The treatment of underlying salivary disease is often overshadowed by these adjunctive treatments. PMID:27092786

  12. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  13. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  14. Salivary gland calculi – contemporary methods of imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rzymska-Grala, Iwona; Stopa, Zygmunt; Grala, Bartłomiej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Wanyura, Hubert; Zuchowska, Anna; Sawicka, Monika; Zmorzyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Summary Sialolithiasis is the most common disorder of major salivary glands. The main site of salivary stones’ formation is submandibular gland, followed by parotid and sublingual gland. The aim of this article was to present current diagnostic imaging modalities carried out in patients suspected with salivary stones on the basis of own material and review of literature. Current diagnostic imaging tools used in the imaging of salivary stones were described and illustrated in this paper. These are: conventional radiography, sialography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance sialography and sialoendoscopy. Digital subtraction sialography and ultrasonography are the methods of choice in the imaging of salivary gland calculi. Although sialography is a very old diagnostic method, still it is the best diagnostic tool in the imaging of subtle anatomy of salivary gland duct system. Digital subtraction sialography can show the exact location of salivary stone and enables imaging of salivary ducts’ pathology (e.g. stenoses), which is especially important when sialoendoscopy is planned. Sialography is also used as the treatment method, i.e. interventional sialography. Nonenhanced computed tomography is recommended when multiple and tiny salivary stones are suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the evolving alternative diagnostic method. In this diagnostic modality there is no need for salivary ducts’ cannulation and administration of contrast material. Thus magnetic resonance sialography can also be carried out in the acute sialoadenitis. In the future, sialoendoscopy may become one of the main diagnostic and treatment procedures for salivary duct disorders, especially in salivary stone cases. PMID:22802788

  15. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  16. Salivary Gland Epithelial- Myoepithelial Carcinoma: behaviour, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Senis-Segarra, L; Sahuquillo-Arce, E; Davo, R; Hamad-Arcis, P; Floria-Garcia, L M; Baquero, M C

    2002-01-01

    Across the whole spectrum of the tumoral pathology in the maxillo-facial and cervical areas, we can find those tumours where the aetieology is in the salivary glands. The tumours in the salivary glands are subdivided in benign and malignant tumours whenever this theorical subdivision is possible. The Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma represents about the 1% of the malignant neoplasms in the salivary glands and also affect other anatomical areas where there are glands: lung, kidney, uterus and so on. We start from a clinical case of a Epithelial-Myoepithelial of salivary minor gland carcinoma doing a bibliographic review of this unusual histological lineage. So we present a case of Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of a minor salivary gland in the right cheek. We'll review the clinical and histological features of this uncommon tumour. And we'll discuss about the best way for diagnosis, treatment and the differential diagnosis to similar clinical injuries.

  17. Contemporary management of tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Scianna, Joseph M; Petruzzelli, Guy J

    2007-03-01

    Management of tumors of the salivary glands requires a detailed understanding of the anatomy and pathologic processes affecting these glands. Salivary glands give rise to benign and malignant neoplasms and are affected by a variety of systemic diseases. CT remains the most common primary imaging study; magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have also been explored. Fine-needle aspiration as part of the diagnostic evaluation remains controversial due to varying sensitivities and specificities. Surgical extirpation is the primary modality for management of tumors of the salivary glands. Parotid surgery carries a potentially high morbidity with possible unsightly scarring and facial nerve damage. Nontraditional surgical approaches and instrumentation, as well as facial nerve monitoring, can decrease the morbidity of a parotidectomy. In specific instances, malignant salivary gland tumors warrant cervical lymphadenectomy. Adjuvant therapy is primarily accomplished with radiation. Chemotherapy continues to play a palliative role in salivary gland malignancies; however, newer trials are investigating the therapeutic role of chemotherapy.

  18. Tumours of minor salivary glands--a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Nag, Dipanwita; Biswas, Pranab Kumar; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Nirmal Kumar; Gautam, Dibyendu; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2012-08-01

    The salivary gland system comprises 3 pairs of major glands ie, parotid, submandibular and sublingual and also thousands of lobules of minor salivary glands dispersed in oral cavity, nasal cavity, maxillary sinuses and upper airways. Most of the studies on salivary gland tumours included both major and minor salivary glands. Objectives of this study were to see the age, sex and site distribution of minor salivary gland tumours as well as cytohistologic correlation during their diagnosis. The study is a retrospective one and done in the pathology department of Medical College, Kolkata taking the cases referred from ENT and Surgery departments in the period from April 2008 to March 2011. There were 123 cases of salivary gland tumours including both major and minor salivary glands in this study. Out of these, 21 cases of minor salivary gland tumours were selected and further analysed. There were 9 cases of benign and 12 cases of malignant tumours. Most benign cases were pleomorphic adenoma and most of malignant were adenoid cystic carcinoma affecting maximally males above 40 years of age. For malignant cases the cytohistologic correlation was 100% whereas in benign it was 70%. We had no need of using immunohistochemistry as histologic diagnosis were clear-cut. Pathologic staging were done in most of malignant cases thus helping the clinicians to adopt better treatment protocol.

  19. [Salivary gland tumors. Clinical aspects and therapy].

    PubMed

    Swoboda, H; Franz, P

    1994-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors are rare. One-fifth are malignant. The parotid is the gland most often affected, particularly in adenomas. Adenomas and carcinomas are tumors that occur in adulthood; angiomas are the tumors that occur most frequently in childhood. Other than their localization, salivary gland tumors have few specific signs. In the clinical examination the locoregional and functional presentation is evaluated. Imaging studies refine or correct the clinical diagnosis, primarily by visualizing the deeper planes. Morphological diagnosis in benign lesions depends on resection results; in malignant lesions additional intraoperative frozen section is needed, and in questionable cases incisional biopsy. Fine-needle aspiration cytology may provide valuable knowledge when planning therapy. Limited parotid tumors are resected by lateral or subtotal parotidectomy. Carcinomas are resected as needed, with neck dissection added in case of lymph-node involvement. Small adenoid cystic carcinomas can be treated curatively by very wide resection. Aggressive and extensive tumors are irradiated postoperatively. Malignancies not operated upon are irradiated primarily. Facial nerve paralysis can be rehabilitated by different nerve repair or static surgical techniques.

  20. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vandana; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Pooja; Sharma, Preeti; Reddy, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  1. Current concepts in diagnosis of unusual salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ajay Kumar; Bindal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Charu; Vaidya, Sharad; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2012-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively uncommon and account for approximately 3-6% of all neoplasms of the head and neck. Tumors mostly involve the major salivary glands, 42.9-90% of which occur in the parotid glands and 8-19.5% in the sub-mandibular glands; tumors in the sub-lingual glands being uncommon. Despite the plethora of different malignant salivary gland tumor presented to pathologists for diagnosis, there is consensus on a limited number of pathologic observations that determine treatment and outcome. There are few absolutes in salivary gland tumor diagnosis given the marked spectrum and overlap of differentiated cell types that participate in the numerous benign and malignant tumors. Thus, there are enumerating antibodies that may be helpful in resolving difficult differential diagnoses when applied with astute morphologic correlation. In general, immunohistochemistry as an ancillary diagnostic tool should be used sparingly and wisely as a morphologic adjunct because of the lack of specificity of many markers for specific histologic tumor types. The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular profiling of salivary gland neoplasms and correlate this with histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms. We have elected to discuss and illustrate some of the unusual salivary gland tumors that the practicing pathologist find difficult to diagnose. These have been selected because they readily simulate each other but have very different clinical therapies and, therefore, should be included routinely in differential diagnosis.

  2. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-09-22

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  3. Genomic landscape of salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Shumei; Elkin, Sheryl K.; Schwaederle, Maria; Tomson, Brett N.; Helsten, Teresa; Carter, Jennifer L.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment options for advanced salivary gland tumors are lacking. To better understand these tumors, we report their genomic landscape. We studied the molecular aberrations in 117 patients with salivary gland tumors that were, on physician request, tested in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) laboratory (Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA) using next-generation sequencing (182 or 236 genes), and analyzed by N-of-One, Inc. (Lexington, MA). There were 354 total aberrations, with 240 distinct aberrations identified in this patient population. Only 10 individuals (8.5%) had a molecular portfolio that was identical to any other patient (with four different portfolios amongst the ten patients). The most common abnormalities involved the TP53 gene (36/117 [30.8% of patients]), cyclin pathway (CCND1, CDK4/6 or CDKN2A/B) (31/117 [26.5%]) and PI3K pathway (PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN or AKT1/3) (28/117 [23.9%]). In multivariate analysis, statistically significant co-existing aberrations were observed as follows: TP53 and ERBB2 (p = 0.01), cyclin pathway and MDM2 (p = 0.03), and PI3K pathway and HRAS (p = 0.0001). We were able to identify possible cognate targeted therapies in most of the patients (107/117 [91.5%]), including FDA-approved drugs in 80/117 [68.4%]. In conclusion, salivary gland tumors were characterized by multiple distinct aberrations that mostly differed from patient to patient. Significant associations between aberrations in TP53 and ERBB2, the cyclin pathway and MDM2, and HRAS and the PI3K pathway were identified. Most patients had actionable alterations. These results provide a framework for tailored combinations of matched therapies. PMID:26247885

  4. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  5. Benign lymphoepithelial lesions of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D R; Spiegel, J C; Maves, M

    1975-01-01

    The benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary glands has been labeled with multiple, confusing terms. We recommend the abandonment of the vague term of Mikulicz disease. The histopathologic findings of lymphoid infiltration, intraductal proliferation, epimyoepithelial islands, and acinar atrophy are presented. The relationship between this lesion and autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren syndrome, is noted. Difficulty of histopathologic differentiation between this lesion and malignant lymphoma can occur. The association of the benign lymphoepithelial lesion with the simultaneous presence or future development of lymphoma is discussed.

  6. Primary malignant lymphomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nime, F A; Cooper, H S; Eggleston, J C

    1976-02-01

    Primary malignant lymphomas of the salivary glands are rare, and only 43 possible cases have been reported. Four new cases from the Johns Hopkins Hospital are described, including clinical presentation, histologic findings, and subsequent course. The literature on this subject is reviewed, including cases arising in preexisting benign lymphoepithelial lesion with or without Sjögren's syndrome. Although the number of reported cases with complete documentation and follow-up information is too small for significant statistical analysis, these patients appear to have a better prognosis than the usual lymphoma patient. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  7. Malignant fibrous histiocytomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, E; Wells, S; Fox, H; Reeve, N L; Knox, F

    1982-09-01

    The light microscopic, immunohistological and ultrastructural findings in two cases of malignant fibrous histiocytoma arising in salivary glands are presented and the features of seven previously reported cases are reviewed. This neoplasm is extremely rare in this site and may pose problems in diagnosis. It has to be distinguished from other spindled cell tumours, in particular from epithelial tumours of predominantly spindled cell pattern; immunohistological markers for histiocytic cells may be of value. The histogenesis of this neoplasm is controversial but our electron microscopic findings support an origin from mesenchymal cells which differentiate along a broad fibrohistiocytic spectrum.

  8. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Bottrill, I D; Chawla, O P; Ramsay, A D

    1992-07-01

    A salivary gland choristoma is an extremely uncommon tumour in the middle ear space. It appears to be a developmental abnormality and may be associated with abnormalities of adjacent structures. It usually presents with unilateral conductive deafness which may be long-standing and the tumour often pursues a benign, slow growing course. It is usually possible to excise it, but problems may arise as there may be variable associated anatomical abnormalities of the middle ear. We present the nineteenth recorded case, review the literature and discuss the management of this condition.

  9. Human kallikrein 13 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-01-01

    The human kallikrein 13 protein (hK13) is expressed in many normal tissues. Petraki et al have previously described presence of hK13 in salivary gland tissue, localized to duct epithelia and some acinar cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK13 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (PLGA), acinic cell carcinomas (ACI), mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified (ANOS) of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors show high levels of expression of hK13. Overall, staining in PA was significantly less than that seen in normal salivary gland tissue. PLGA, ACC and ANOS each stained significantly more than normal salivary gland tissue while MEC and ACI did not. Ductal cells and cells lining duct-like structures showed a higher intensity of staining than non-ductal cells in most tumors. Tumors which exhibited only non-ductal cells also exhibited cytoplasmic staining. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high expression of hK13 in several common salivary gland tumors.

  10. Rare Malignant and Benign Salivary Gland Epithelial Tumors.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R; Barnes, E Leon

    2011-12-01

    Although at least 24 distinct histologic salivary gland carcinomas exist, many of them are rare, comprising only 1% to 2% of all salivary gland tumors. These include epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, (hyalinizing) clear cell carcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, cystadenocarcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma), oncocytic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified. Few tumors (clear cell carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma) have unique molecular correlates. Benign tumors, although histologically less diverse, are far more common, with pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumor the most common salivary gland tumors. Many benign tumors have malignant counterparts for which histologic distinction can pose diagnostic challenge.

  11. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Albin; Pascual, Aurélie; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  12. Papillary cystadenoma: a rare tumor of the minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mahler, V; Schell, H

    1999-01-01

    Papillary cystadenoma of the minor salivary glands is a rare benign neoplasm that clinically resembles mucous cysts. Characteristic histological features are diagnostic. However, salivary gland histology is particularly difficult to interpret. Primarily, as further clinical and histological differential diagnoses have to take into account the well-differentiated cystic mucoepidermoid carcinoma and the papillary cystic type of acinic cell carcinoma, both malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands. We report on a 39 year old female with a bluish cystic lesion at the buccal mucosa, which occurred 14 years after the excision of a similar appearing, histologically proven mucous retention cyst at the same location. The histology of this tumor, however, revealed a papillary cystadenoma. Although rare, benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms occur in minor salivary glands, and are clinically indistinguishable from mucous retention cysts. The dermatologist should be familiar with these differential diagnoses, since different therapeutic consequences result from an early diagnosis obtained by excision and histological examination of oral cystic tumors.

  13. Human kallikrein 8 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, Mark R; Tsai, Sam; Jackson-Boeters, Linda; Daley, Thomas D; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2008-09-01

    The human kallikrein 8 protein (KLK8) is expressed in many normal tissues including esophagus, skin, testis, tonsil, kidney, breast, and salivary gland, and is found in biological fluids including breast milk, amniotic fluid, seminal fluid and serum. It has also been shown to be a biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether KLK8 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas NOS of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors show high levels of expression of KLK8.

  14. Human salivary gland stem cells ameliorate hyposalivation of radiation-damaged rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaemin; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Youngwook; Lee, Heekyung; Lee, Eunju; Kim, Eun Sook; Hah, Jeong Hun; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Ik Joon; Kwon, Heechung

    2013-11-15

    Salivary function in mammals may be defective for various reasons, such as aging, Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Recently, tissue-specific stem cell therapy has attracted public attention as a next-generation therapeutic reagent. In the present study, we isolated tissue-specific stem cells from the human submandibular salivary gland (hSGSCs). To efficiently isolate and amplify hSGSCs in large amounts, we developed a culture system (lasting 4-5 weeks) without any selection. After five passages, we obtained adherent cells that expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD44, CD49f, CD90 and CD105, but not the hematopoietic stem cell markers, CD34 and CD45, and that were able to undergo adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. In addition, hSGSCs were differentiated into amylase-expressing cells by using a two-step differentiation method. Transplantation of hSGSCs to radiation-damaged rat salivary glands rescued hyposalivation and body weight loss, restored acinar and duct cell structure, and decreased the amount of apoptotic cells. These data suggest that the isolated hSGSCs, which may have characteristics of mesenchymal-like stem cells, could be used as a cell therapy agent for the damaged salivary gland.

  15. Sialolipoma of the parotid gland: Case report with literature review comparing major and minor salivary gland sialolipomas.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Sohail; Meacham, Ryan; Sebelik, Merry; Zafar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Sialolipoma is a rare tumor found within both major and minor salivary glands. Here we discuss sialolipoma of the parotid gland and briefly review the English literature. Including our case, a total of 35 sialolipomas have been reported, 18 within major salivary glands and 17 within minor salivary glands. Major gland sialolipomas most often are presented in the parotid gland (77%) and those from minor glands were most often seen in the palate (41%). All lesions were well circumscribed and contained mature adipose tissue intimately admixed with benign salivary gland components. Ductal dilatation was found in 100% of minor salivary gland sialolipomas but in only 28% of major salivary gland tumors. Nerve entrapment has also rarely been noted in major salivary glands (14%) whereas myxoid degeneration has been identified in rare minor salivary glands tumors (13%). Treatment is surgical excision and is curative with no reports of recurrence.

  16. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Veras, Emanuela F T; Sturgis, Erich; Luna, Mario A

    2007-12-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) comprises approximately 30% of all salivary gland malignancies, making it the most common malignant tumor of the salivary glands. Multiple histologic variants with a wide range of differentiation have been described. Sclerosing MEC (SMEC) is a rare subtype that may be misdiagnosed as a benign reactive condition or low-grade non-SMEC malignancy. We report 4 cases of SMEC and evaluated them with Her-2/neu and MIB-1 to determine whether an association exists between the histologic grade and immunohistochemical findings. In 3 cases, histologic examination demonstrated relatively well-circumscribed, nonencapsulated tumors composed of extensive central sclerosis with keloid-like stroma and scattered epithelial islands of low-grade MEC. In the fourth case, the tumor showed similar sclerotic stroma; but the epithelial component was of intermediate grade. In all 4 cases, eosinophils and neutrophils were part of the inflammatory infiltrate; and the edges were surrounded by lymphoid tissue, with germinal center formation and residual epithelial islands. A Mayer mucicarmine stain revealed abundant intracytoplasmic mucin. We found MIB-1 labeling indices of 5% or less in cases 1, 2, and 3 and 12% in case 4, suggesting an association between MIB-1 index and tumor grade. The tumors were negative for Her-2/neu in all 4 cases. The latter seems to bear no relationship to tumor grade.

  17. [Cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Frade González, C; García-Caballero, T; Lozano Ramírez, A; Labella Caballero, T

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on cell proliferation in salivary gland tumors have shown the utility of immunostain with MIB1 in the differential diagnosis and prognosis of these neoplasms. We have carried out a study of 39 salivary gland tumors (17 benign), from different histological lineages. The immunocytochemical method used was the streptavidin--biotin--peroxidase complex which used the MIB1 monoclonal antibody. Benign tumors showed a low cell proliferation rates, below 5% with an overall average of 1.9%. The malignant tumors presented higher rates, with a middle value of 17.85%. Epidermoid carcinomas had the higher cell proliferation rates, with an average of 43%. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, we have observed that proliferation was greater at the peripheral level of tumor nests and cell surrounding the cystic structures. Neoplasms of low grade of malignancy presented lower cell proliferation rates. The MIB1 immunostain allowed to reach a differential diagnosis between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, specially in those cases in which there could be any doubt.

  18. Incidence, diagnosis, and classification of salivary gland tumors. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Johns, M E; Goldsmith, M M

    1989-02-01

    The diagnosis of salivary gland tumors is complicated by their relative infrequency, the limited amount of pretreatment information usually available, and the wide range of biologic behaviors seen with different histopathologic types. Most salivary gland neoplasms originate in the parotid, 10-15% arise from the submandibular glands, and the rest occur in the sublingual and minor salivary glands. The probability of a salivary gland neoplasm being malignant is inversely proportional to the size of the gland. The authors discuss two major theories of histogenesis, itemize the various benign and malignant varieties of tumor, discuss the presentation and prognosis for each type, and present a list of factors that influence survival. They also discuss the newest staging system.

  19. Needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R; Webber, C; DiMaio, T; Jaffe, B M

    1990-10-01

    The value of needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation and management of salivary gland pathology is controversial. The major reasons for this controversy are the difficulty in cytologic evaluation and the fact that the extent of surgery can be easily defined based on clinical judgement. However, a preoperative diagnosis is helpful in discussions with patients regarding the extent and type of surgery. Apart from the fact that needle biopsy can distinguish benign from malignant conditions, it is also very useful in distinguishing between salivary and other nonsalivary pathology. Over the past 7 1/2 years, we have performed 160 needle aspirations of parotid, submandibular, and submucosal lesions. Adequate specimens for cytologic evaluation were obtained in 155 patients (97%). A total of 84 parotid lesions, 70 submandibular lumps, and 6 submucosal abnormalities were detected. A cytologic diagnosis of benign pathology was made in 120 patients. Twelve patients had lymphoma and the diagnosis was suspected based on needle aspiration. There were 10 patients with tuberculosis and 30 patients with hyperplastic lymph nodes or benign lymphoepithelial disease of the parotid. There were three false-positive and two false-negative reports. No complications such as hematoma, nerve injury, or infection developed. The major difficulty was in distinguishing between malignancy and obstructive sialadenitis in the submandibular region. Needle aspiration was helpful in evaluating lesions in the tail of the parotid and submandibular area. The cytologic distinction between salivary and nonsalivary pathology was useful in planning the appropriate surgery and the extent of surgical resection. From a clinical standpoint, the distinction between benign and malignant salivary and nonsalivary pathology was very helpful. Preoperative diagnosis of Warthin's tumor, lymphoma, or benign lymphoepithelial disease was essential to the correct management of these patients.

  20. Immunohistochemical localization of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, M; Carrozza, M

    1990-04-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was first isolated from colonic carcinoma and has been used as a diagnostic marker. CEA has also been observed in a variety of epithelial tumors and normal tissues. In this study, CEA was localized by means of immunohistochemical procedures in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, as well as in normal parotid gland, indicating that CEA is not a reliable marker for differentiation between benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms.

  1. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  2. Epidemiological study of salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Frade Gonzalez, C; Lozano Ramirez, A; Garcia Caballero, T; Labella Caballero, T

    1999-01-01

    Tumours located in the salivary glands form the most heterogeneous group in all human oncological pathology. They show various epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary characteristics which separate them from other neoplasms of the head and neck. In this paper, we have carried out a study on their epidemiological aspects, collecting 80 cases diagnosed in the ENT Service of the University Hospital Complex of Santiago over 17 years. The incidence was 1.22 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The frequency was higher in males (58.75%) and in the 7th decade of age. A predominance was noticed in females under 40 years of age and in males over this age, but the differences were not statistically significant. The most frequent site was the parotid gland, and we could not find any case in the sublingual gland. In 52.5% of cases the tumour was benign, pleomorphic adenoma being the most prevalent. Among malignant tumours, the epidermoid carcinoma stood out in our series. The prevalence of benign tumours in females and of malignant tumours in males was clear, with significant differences. We compare our results with the data published in the literature.

  3. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    PubMed

    Tessmer, Marlowe S; Reilly, Emma C; Brossay, Laurent

    2011-01-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells and CD8(+) T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg) cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  4. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  5. Maspin as a Tumour Suppressor in Salivary Gland Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Nipun; Sheirawan, Mohammad Kinan; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Alenzi, Faris; Azzeghaiby, Saleh Nasser; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    Maspin is a protein that belongs to serin protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The purpose of this study was to review the literature concerning the expression of maspin in salivary gland tumours. A literature search was done using MEDLINE, accessed via the National Library of Medicine PubMed interface. Statistical analysis was not done because only seven studies were available in literature, the collected data were different and the results could not be compared. Expression of maspin was down regulated in more aggressive salivary gland tumours. Maspin may function as a tumour suppressor in salivary gland tumours. PMID:25654053

  6. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion

    PubMed Central

    Senthilkumar, B.; Mahabob, M. Nazargi

    2012-01-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  7. Mucocele: An unusual presentation of the minor salivary gland lesion.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, B; Mahabob, M Nazargi

    2012-08-01

    A mucocele is a benign, mucus-containing cystic lesion of the minor salivary gland. This type of lesion is most commonly referred to as mucocele. The more common is a mucus extravasation cyst; the other is a mucus retention cyst. Other three clinical variants are: Superficial mucocele that is located directly under the mucosa, classic variant located in the upper submucosa, and deep mucocele located in the lower cornium. Mucocele occurs either due to rupture of salivary gland duct or by blockade of salivary gland duct. The common site of occurrence of mucocele is lower lip followed by tongue, floor of mouth (ranula), and the buccal mucosa. PMID:23066247

  8. Chromosomal aberrations in adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Manor, Esther; Sinelnikov, Igor; Brennan, Peter A; Bodner, Lipa

    2013-03-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of minor salivary glands is rare, idiopathic, and benign, and typically presents as a tumour-like mass in the hard or soft palate. Its exact nature is not clear and histological examination usually shows an excess of normal-appearing minor salivary glands. To our knowledge, cytogenetic analysis of it in a minor salivary gland of the palate has not previously been reported. We present the cytogenetic analysis of adenomatoid hyperplasia in the hard palate of a 52-year-old woman.

  9. Salivary gland tumours in Zimbabwe: report of 282 cases.

    PubMed

    Chidzonga, M M; Lopez Perez, V M; Portilla-Alvarez, A L

    1995-08-01

    Tumours of the salivary glands are relatively uncommon. In a review of 282 black patients seen at Harare Central Hospital, Zimbabwe, the relative incidence of various tumour types and the age and sex distribution were similar to those reported in other series. There were more tumours of the minor salivary glands than in reported Western series. There were more tumours of the minor salivary glands than in reported Western series. Pain and rapid growth were significant in distinguishing malignant from benign tumours. Malignant tumours were more common in elderly than in young patients.

  10. [Quantitative study on nucleolar organizer regions in salivary gland tumours].

    PubMed

    Wang, S Z

    1992-03-01

    The argyrophil staining technique for nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) had been applied to a series of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. We have studied 38 salivary gland tumours, 16 benign and 22 malignant. In all specimens clearly defined silver-stained intranuclear AgNOR dots were visible. The differences between the numbers of AgNORs in the benign and malignant groups, notably pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, were highly significant. This result suggested that the AgNOR technique is of diagnostic help in distinguishing between these salivary gland tumours.

  11. Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Manucha, Varsha; Ioffe, Olga B

    2008-09-01

    Metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands is a group of rare tumors that are histologically identical to benign mixed tumors and that inexplicably metastasize. A review of the literature revealed that it usually occurs after multiple local recurrences, and the interval between diagnosis of primary pleomorphic adenoma and metastases ranges between 3 and 52 years. The most common site for metastasis is bone, followed by the head and neck and lung. No histologic or molecular parameters exist at the present time that could predict the development of metastasis in these neoplasms. Metastasectomy confers significant survival advantage over nonoperative treatment for localized and accessible metastases, but there is no definite treatment protocol available in cases of widespread metastases.

  12. Acinic cell tumors of salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Clemis, J D; Bland, J; Fung, C

    1977-09-01

    The acinic cell tumor of salivary gland origin, once thought to be benign, is now known to be an incidiously slow growing malignant neoplasm with lethal potential. While the degree of malignant behavior of individual acinic cell tumors is notably variable, all must be treated with aggression. Traditional and current methods of treatment are reviewed; and, in conjunction with the tumors herein reported, guidelines for managment of this uncommon malignancy are suggested. Four cases have been reviewed in detail and critically analyzed. The pathology, including features of both light and electron microscopy, in included--particularly in relation to the oncocytoid areas identified in from 10% to 40% of the parenchymal cells of our tumors. Since an accurate histopathologic diagnosis is the first step in the establishment of a proper treatment plan, pitfalls in histologic diagnosis have been stressed.

  13. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands. PMID:27347918

  14. The Effect of Capsaicin on Salivary Gland Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Kyungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanilyl-6-nonenamide) is a unique alkaloid isolated from hot chili peppers of the capsicum family. Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), which is expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons and a range of secretory epithelia, including salivary glands. Capsaicin has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in sensory neurons. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that capsaicin also affects saliva secretion and inflammation in salivary glands. Applying capsaicin increases salivary secretion in human and animal models. Capsaicin appears to increase salivation mainly by modulating the paracellular pathway in salivary glands. Capsaicin activates TRPV1, which modulates the permeability of tight junctions (TJ) by regulating the expression and function of putative intercellular adhesion molecules in an ERK (extracelluar signal-regulated kinase) -dependent manner. Capsaicin also improved dysfunction in transplanted salivary glands. Aside from the secretory effects of capsaicin, it has anti-inflammatory effects in salivary glands. The anti-inflammatory effect of capsaicin is, however, not mediated by TRPV1, but by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, capsaicin might be a potential drug for alleviating dry mouth symptoms and inflammation of salivary glands.

  15. Osteoradionecrosis in patients with salivary gland malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J Rhet; Xu, Li; Sturgis, Erich M.; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Chambers, Mark S.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Fuller, Clifton David; Beadle, Beth; Gunn, G. Brandon; Hutcheson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The present study was undertaken to evaluate osteoradionecrosis (ORN) in patients with salivary gland malignancies (SGM) after treatment with radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The medical records of 172 patients treated with radiation therapy for SGM during a 12-year period (August 2001 to November 2013) were reviewed. Incidence, time to event, staging and management of ORN were analyzed. RESULTS Of the 172 patients, 7 patients (4%) developed ORN (median latency: 19 months, range: 4–72 months). Of those 7 patients, 4 required major surgery, 1 required hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO), one required minor debridement, and one required conservative management. Total prescribed radiation dose varied from 50 Gy (1 case) to 70 Gy (1 case) among those patients who developed ORN, and radiotherapy was delivered postoperatively after osseous resection in 4 of 7 cases. Three of the 7 cases of ORN occurred after traumatic injury to the bone. Of the 7 patients who developed ORN, 3 had SGM of the major glands, 3 had other sites of the oral cavity, and 1 had a sinonasal location. CONCLUSION While the rate of ORN after radiotherapy for SGM was somewhat lower (4%) than previously published data on patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with radiation therapy (8% to 14%), ORN necessitating major surgery remains a rare, but clinically significant, possible late effect of radiotherapy in SGM survivors. Location is very important, with all cases that developed ORN having primary disease arising in the oral cavity. PMID:27208837

  16. Malignant lymphoepithelial lesion of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Saw, D; Lau, W H; Ho, J H; Chan, J K; Ng, C S

    1986-09-01

    Eight cases of malignant lymphoepithelial lesion (MLEL) of major salivary glands, seven of which occurred in Southern Chinese patients, are reported. All but two of the patients were older than 40 years of age; there were five male and three female patients. The parotid and submandibular glands were the sites of origin in equal numbers of cases. Six patients had elevated titers of serum IgA against Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen. Seven remained well after surgery and local radiation therapy, and one died of miliary tuberculosis without evidence of residual neoplasm. Histologically, MLELs were characterized by syncytial clumps of large cells with vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, admixed with abundant small lymphocytes and plasma cells. Two features not emphasized previously in the literature were the presence of reactive histiocytes in some epithelial islands, producing a starry sky pattern, and perineural invasion, which was identified in four cases. The tumor cells showed strong immunostaining for cytokeratin. The literature concerning this rare tumor is reviewed, and the differential diagnosis between MLEL and benign lymphoepithelial lesion, metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma, and malignant lymphoma is discussed.

  17. Retroauricular Pleomorphic Adenoma Arising from Heterotopic Salivary Gland Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bacaj, Patrick; Borah, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 38-year-old woman is described who presented with a slowly growing mass on the posterior aspect of the left ear. Excision and histopathologic evaluation revealed a pleomorphic adenoma (PA) originating from heterotopic salivary gland tissue. Many authors have presented cases of PAs originating from ceruminous glands in the external auditory canal or of so-called chondroid syringoma originating from apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. This is the only case in the recent literature of a PA originating from a heterotopic rest of salivary gland tissue in the retroauricular region. The 3 main sources of PAs, their embryologic derivation, and treatment are described.

  18. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Mysorekar, V V; Dandekar, C P; Sreevathsa, M R

    2004-09-01

    Benign ectopic thyroid tissue within the parotid salivary gland is very rare. A 32-year-old woman presented with a slowly-growing, painless mass in the parotid region. The mass, which was clinically diagnosed as a parotid tumour, was found at surgery to be cystic in nature. Histological examination showed thyroid tissue with secondary changes in the cyst wall and colloid in the lumen. On iodine isotope scan, the thyroid gland was found in its normal location. The possible origin of the ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland could be due to a common evolution of the thyroid and parotid glands, a heteroplasia or a metaplasia.

  19. Spectrum of Salivary Gland Lesions in a Tertiary Level Hospital.

    PubMed

    Begum, A; Baten, M A; Alam, M M; Huq, M H; Ahsan, M M; Khan, M K; Saleh, F M; Talukder, S I

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively infrequent and account for less than 2% of all human tumors. This study was conducted to see the prevalence of patterns of non neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of salivary glands in greater Mymensingh. It was a retrospective study carried out in the department of Pathology, Community Based Medical College Bangladesh from January 2010 to December 2012. Heamatoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied in all cases. Total 98 cases of salivary gland lesions were retrieved and evaluated. Out of them 55 cases were female and 43 were male. Mean age of the cases were 42 years. Among the salivary gland lesions non-neoplastic lesions 24.48% and neoplastic lesions 75.51%. Among neoplastic lesions benign tumor comprises 91.89% and malignant tumor comprises 8.10%.

  20. Salivary Glands: Stem Cells, Self-duplication, or Both?

    PubMed

    Aure, M H; Arany, S; Ovitt, C E

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intrinsic potential for renewal and regeneration within a tissue is critical for the rational design of reparative strategies. Maintenance of the salivary glands is widely thought to depend on the differentiation of stem cells. However, there is also new evidence that homeostasis of the salivary glands, like that of the liver and pancreas, relies on self-renewal of differentiated cells rather than a stem cell pool. Here, we review the evidence for both modes of turnover and consider the implications for the process of regeneration. We propose that the view of salivary glands as postmitotic and dependent on stem cells for renewal be revised to reflect the proliferative activity of acinar cells and their role in salivary gland homeostasis.

  1. Histochemical, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic markers in salivary gland tumor pathology.

    PubMed

    Vered, Marilena; Dayan, Dan

    2007-02-01

    Evaluation of: Adeyemi BF, Kolude BM, Akang EE, Lawoyin JO: A study of silver nucleolar organizer regions in categorization and prognosis of salivary gland tumors. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. Oral Radiol. Endod. 102, 513-520 (2006). In this study, various confirmed benign and malignant salivary gland tumors underwent a known histochemical silver staining method involving nuclear-associated proteins with diagnostic and prognostic capacity in other malignant tumors. The study examined the methods' ability to differentiate between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and between different histopathological grades of malignant tumors, and sought correlations between the staining results and staging, metastatic disease and survival. The staining method proved inadequate, confirming many previously published results. This article highlights the growing awareness of pathologists and oral pathologists in developing countries to the uniqueness of salivary gland tumors, and demonstrates their understanding of the importance of both early detection and appropriate treatment.

  2. Benign solid oncocytoma of intraoral minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Damm, D D; White, D K; Geissler, R H; Drummond, J F; Henry, B B

    1989-01-01

    We present an example of an intraoral benign solid oncocytoma of minor salivary gland origin. A review of intraoral benign solid oncocytomas reported in the English-language literature and discussion of the clinical behavior of these tumors are included.

  3. Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Swanson, P E; Pettinato, G; Lillemoe, T J; Wick, M R

    1991-02-01

    Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) is a 15-kd glycoprotein that is expressed by normal apocrine epithelia and in a majority of breast carcinomas. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this substance is also present in tumors of the salivary glands, sweat glands, and prostate gland. To determine whether the expression of CGDFP-15 might aid in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, the anti-GCDFP-15 monoclonal antibody D6 was applied to paraffin sections of 133 such neoplasms. Benign tumors (76% reactive) were more often labeled than malignant lesions (28% reactive) by this antibody; overall, 53 (41%) of 133 cases were positive for GCDFP-15. Notably, the tubuloglandular components in 17 (81%) of 21 pleomorphic adenomas were reactive, but no example of either adenoid cystic carcinoma or polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma were labeled. In contrast, 24% of adenocarcinomas stained with this antibody. The apparent expression of GCDFP-15 by a spectrum of salivary gland tumors supports their biologic relationship to lesions of the cutaneous apocrine glands and breast. Furthermore, the demonstration of this determinant may be of use in suggesting the salivary gland nature of poorly differentiated carcinomas of the head and neck, and it may facilitate the separation of pleomorphic adenoma from histologically similar malignant neoplasms in the salivary glands themselves.

  4. Pleomorphic adenoma--unusual presentation of a salivary gland tumor in the neck of a child.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, K V; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bansal, Vishal; Saxena, Susmita; Elhence, Poonam

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic salivary gland tumors are rare in children. When salivary gland tumors do develop, they preferentially affect major salivary glands and then minor salivary glands. Pleomorphic adenoma, also referred to as a benign mixed tumor, is the most common tumor of the salivary glands. Approximately 90% of these tumors occur in the parotid gland, while the remaining 10% affect the minor salivary glands. However, it is uncommon to find them elsewhere in the head and neck region. We report a rare case of pleomorphic adenoma in the upper neck, an unusual site in an 8-year-old boy.

  5. Minor salivary gland carcinoma: a review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Haymerle, Georg; Schneider, Sven; Harris, Luke; Häupl, Theresia; Schopper, Christian; Pammer, Johannes; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch; Erovic, Boban M

    2016-09-01

    Minor salivary gland carcinomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with broad variation in clinical appearance and histopathology. Clinical data of patients with small salivary gland malignancies were collected from the medical records. Tissue microarray was constructed to determine the expression pattern of 24 proteins in 35 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. The choice of markers was based on involvement in neoangiogenesis, cell-to-cell contact, cell-cycle regulation and carcinogenesis. Protein expression data were correlated to patients' clinical data. Overexpression of patched (p = 0.046) and Smo (p = 0.032) was linked to a better overall survival and Glutathione S-transferase π overexpression was linked to prolonged disease-free survival (p = 0.005). Cox-1 (p = 0.035) and VEGFR2 (p = 0.009) were significantly linked to decreased survival for recurrent disease. Bcl-x (84 %), β-catenin (87 %) and Cox-2 (87 %) were significantly overexpressed in minor salivary gland carcinomas. We have shown that Smo resulted in a better overall survival, whereas Gstπ in improved disease-free survival. VEGFR2 was a prognostic factor for survival after recurrence in patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and anti-Wnt-1 antibodies might be a potential therapeutic option in an adjuvant setting or for patients with unresectable tumors of the minor salivary glands.

  6. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  7. Diagnostic challenges in aspiration cytology of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Nayar, R; Dutra, J; Bedrossian, C W

    2001-05-01

    The main goal of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of salivary gland lesions is to assist the clinician in the management of patients who present with a mass lesion. Cytologic examination aims to determine, if a process is inflammatory and/or reactive, benign or malignant neoplasm and if possible renders a specific diagnosis. It has been argued that in the area of salivary gland tumors, surgical management relies less heavily on a specific preoperative diagnosis, because almost all neoplastic salivary gland lesions will undergo surgical excision. However, knowing beforehand if a lesion is malignant or benign, will aid in planning surgery and may prompt or postpone decisions for surgical intervention. The salivary glands are unique in their histologic complexity and morphological variability of tumors, which is reflected in the cytologic material. In addition to the overlapping morphologic patterns of salivary gland tumors, they also represent relatively rare lesions, thus making it more difficult to acquire diagnostic expertise in FNA. Other than approaching salivary gland tumors by a description of single entities in their benign and malignant categories, we favor a more practical approach to diagnosis based on the key morphologic features noted in FNAs. This article addresses differential diagnoses according to the predominant cytologic presentation with attention to the cell type and size, nature of the cytoplasm, and the smear background.

  8. Human kallikrein 6 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-03-01

    Human kallikrein 6 (hK6), also known as zyme/protease M/neurosin), is expressed in many normal glandular tissues. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK6 is expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), using an immunohistochemical method. Pleomorphic adenomas (PA), adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. Cells lining duct-like structures and non-duct-like cells were scored. Only in PA of minor salivary gland origin was overall staining higher in duct-like than in non-duct-like cells. In all other tumors exhibiting both types of cells, hK6 staining was similar in both duct-like and non-duct-like cells. Tumors that exhibited non-duct-like cells only also exhibited cytoplasmic staining. Results of this study show that salivary gland tumors express hK6, apparently downregulated in comparison with normal salivary gland tissue, and that this expression is not specific for any of the tumors studied.

  9. [Differential diagnosis of squamous epithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K

    1998-05-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the salivary glands are localized predominantly in the major salivary glands and must be distinguished from metastases of extraglandular SCC of the skin, especially the head and neck area. Squamous cell metaplasia in non-tumourous diseases of the salivary gland (e.g. necrotizing sialometaplasia) as well as in benign or malignant salivary gland tumours (e.g. metaplastic Warthin tumour) can simulate SCC. Other differential diagnostic problems are the structural variants of SCC which develop predominantly in the minor salivary glands, but not in the major salivary glands. Special types include the very rare adenoid SCC with pseudoglandular structures as the result of acantholysis, the biphasic adenosquamous carcinoma with differentiation as SCC and adenocarcinoma, the biphasic basaloid squamous carcinoma with a structure as SCC and solid basaloid carcinoma (analogous to the solid type of adenoid-cystic carcinoma) and the poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma (grade III) with biphasic structure of undifferentiated epidermoid and intermediate cells as well as inclusion of small groups of mucous-producing goblet cells. The differential diagnostic criteria are analysed concerning prognosis and treatment.

  10. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  11. Salivary gland tumours: an analysis of 62 cases.

    PubMed

    Sousa, J; De Sa, O

    2001-03-01

    Salivary gland tumors are rare entities among the patients with head and neck neoplastic lesions. Between January 1987 to August 1997, 62 patients with salivary gland tumors presented to the surgical department of Goa Medical College, which is a tertiary referral center for the region. These patients were analyzed with an aim to study the clinical and histopathological correlation. While no age predisposition for the malignancy was found, the parotid gland was the most common site for both malignant & benign tumors (69.35%), and the minor glands (4.8%) the least common. Apart from the presence of facial nerve involvement, pain and rapid growth were also the indicators of malignancy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) proved to be a reliable method for management of these tumors. All the patients underwent surgery with minimal morbidity and no mortality. There was no identifiable association between smoking, alcohol intake and the occurrence of the salivary glands tumors.

  12. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  13. Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland. An unusual glossal presentation of a minor salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Ruby, S G; Kish, J K

    1996-08-01

    A case of an unusual oncocytic variant of minor salivary gland adenocarcinoma presenting in the base of the tongue in a 79 year old male with a remote history of regional radiotherapy is presented. The tumor had a striking morphologic similarity to the more common granular cell tumor, with which it could have been easily confused, leading to significant misdiagnosis. The light microscopic, cytologic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic features are presented, with a discussion of the differentiating features of this lesion compared to other more common benign and malignant glossal tumors.

  14. Synchronous benign epithelial tumors arising in the palatal minor salivary gland. First report of an unusual minor salivary gland lesion.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Kuroda, M; Suzuki, A

    1990-02-01

    A review of the literature shows that unilateral benign salivary gland tumors of different histologic types in a single gland are so rare as to be curiosities, and all of such reported tumors have arisen in the parotid gland. The present paper reports a case of synchronous benign epithelial tumors of different histologic type arising in the palatal minor salivary gland of a 57-year-old woman who had first noted palatal swelling about 20 years previously. Pathologically, the lesion was composed of two distinct tumors, pleomorphic adenoma and lumenless trabecular adenoma, which were sharply demarcated from each other by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissue. Foci of tumor cells with cellular atypia were seen in some areas of the pleomorphic adenoma. The present case is thought to represent a previously undescribed component within the spectrum of minor salivary gland tumors.

  15. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis by lip biopsy of minor salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Hyman; Anderson, Larry G.; Rosenberg, Earle H.; Sheffer, Albert L.

    1974-01-01

    In two patients with bilateral parotid gland swelling of unknown etiology the diagnosis of sarcoidosis was established by lip biopsy of the minor salivary glands. This simple, innocuous biopsy procedure may prove useful in tissue documentation of sarcoidosis. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4442017

  16. Signs and symptoms in patients with salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed Central

    Longman, L. P.; Higham, S. M.; Bucknall, R.; Kaye, S. B.; Edgar, W. M.; Field, E. A.

    1997-01-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction can have a devastating effect on oral health and may be an indicator of systemic disease such as Sjögren's syndrome. This prospective study investigates the oral and non-oral signs and symptoms in 120 patients with objective evidence of salivary gland hypofunction (ie, an unstimulated whole salivary flow of < 0.2 ml/min). Patients were questioned about symptoms associated with decreased oral function; non-oral symptoms were also noted. The underlying cause of salivary gland hypofunction was established on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and further investigations. Eighty-five per cent of patients reported symptoms of decreased oral function in addition to oral dryness. Non-oral signs and symptoms were reported by 106 patients. Fifty-three per cent of patients were diagnosed as having Sjögren's syndrome. The prevalence of the following non-oral signs and symptoms were significantly higher in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, than in those without; a history of dry/irritated eyes, salivary gland swelling, dry skin and reduced lacrimal flow. Salivary gland hypofunction is associated with a wide range of oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. Several of these are of potential value as triggers for the clinician to identify patients with Sjögren's syndrome, and should serve to prompt referral for specialist investigation. PMID:9122105

  17. Salivary gland lesions: recent advances and evolving concepts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruta; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Clark, Jonathan R

    2015-06-01

    Recently, there have been significant developments in our understanding of salivary gland pathology, and new entities, such as mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, have been described. Attempts are being made to identify effective therapeutic agents for salivary duct carcinomas by using molecular diagnostic techniques. Concepts such as high-grade transformation have been described, which not only influence macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of a specimen but, given the high incidence of metastases and morbidity, also carry significant treatment implications. Specific chromosomal translocations, which can be detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization, can augment diagnostic accuracy and carry prognostic implications. The landscape of benign salivary gland lesions is changing with better understanding of chronic sclerosing sialadenitis related to IgG4. This multiorgan inflammatory condition may primarily present as a salivary gland lesion and clinically and radiologically mimic a salivary gland malignancy. Histology and immunohistochemistry play a critical role in its accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to review these changes, with an emphasis on their effect on patient management. Given their diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications, it is critical that surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, and those involved in caring for patients with salivary gland tumors are aware of these changes while considering management options.

  18. Warthin tumor of the upper lip: an unusual location of a benign salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Almeida, Aroldo; Costa Hanemann, João Adolfo; Tostes Oliveira, Denise

    2011-06-01

    Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum) is a benign salivary gland tumor involving almost exclusively the parotid gland. The lip is a very unusual location for this type of tumor, which develops only rarely in minor salivary glands. The case of 42-year-old woman with Warthin tumor arising in minor salivary glands of the upper lip is reported.

  19. Salivary Gland Neoplasms in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; Eisele, David W

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) in children are uncommon. Epithelial SGNs (ESGNs) comprise the majority (95%), with the remaining being mesenchymal SGNs (MeSGNs). Pleomorphic adenoma is the most frequently encountered benign neoplasm, mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most frequent malignant ESGN, and rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent malignant MeSGN. ESGN presents in the second decade, whereas MeSGN presents in the first and second decades. Swelling without pain or neurological signs is the main presentation of both benign and malignant neoplasms. Making an accurate preoperative histological diagnosis is important, so a needle biopsy or a perioperative frozen section is useful when there is doubt about the disease status of the patient; the excised tumour margin is also important. Surgical excision should aim to achieve clear margin excision in benign and malignant ESGNs, minimising the need for adjuvant radiotherapy and maximising the long-term likelihood of patient cure. Benign ESGNs are uncommon, and excision is curative, whereas malignant ESGN and MeSGN should be managed by a multidisciplinary paediatric oncology team.

  20. Cytogenetic analysis of salivary gland type tumors.

    PubMed

    Mark, H F; Hanna, I; Gnepp, D R

    1996-08-01

    Fourteen salivary gland type tumors were analyzed with a combination of conventional cytogenetics via GTG-banding, molecular cytogenetics via fluorescent in situ hybridization, and chromosome morphometry. Nine tumors were benign (eight pleomorphic adenomas and one Warthin tumor) five tumors were malignant (one carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, two adenoid cystic carcinomas including one from the breast, a basal cell adenocarcinoma, and an acinic cell carcinoma). Thirteen specimens grew in tissue culture; the basal cell adenocarcinoma did not grow. The Warthin tumor had a normal karyotype, one pleomorphic adenoma was normal, one had a clone with a missing Y chromosome, and the other pleomorphic adenomas had structural chromosomal abnormalities including the following: translocations between chromosomes 3 and 8, chromosomes 6 and 16, chromosomes 8 and 9, chromosomes 8 and 12, chromosomes 8 and 14, and chromosomes 8 and 21. Of the four malignant tumors with karyotypes, the acinic cell carcinoma and one adenoid cystic carcinoma were normal, the second adenoid cystic carcinoma showed a normal polymorphic variant, whereas the carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma demonstrated the following karyotype: 46,XX,dir ins(8;5)(q12;q12q35), add(12)(p13)/46,XX. In conclusion, 66% of the benign tumors and 25% of the malignant tumors demonstrated abnormal karyotypes.

  1. [Nuclear morphometry and DNA cytometry in the grading of malignant tumors of the salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W Z

    1992-05-01

    Nuclear morphometry and DNA cytometry were performed in 6 normal salivary glands and 37 malignant tumors of the salivary gland. Multivariate discrimination analysis was used to grade the malignant salivary gland tumors. The discrimination rate was 100% for normal salivary gland, benign tumor, high malignant carcinoma and low malignant carcinoma. It was 66.7% for borderline malignancies. These results indicate that quantitative cytological analysis is effective and reproducible in the grading of salivary gland tumors. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that there was a very complicated correlation between DNA content and nuclear morphometric parameters of salivary gland tumors.

  2. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  3. Tumors of the major and minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    McKenna, R J

    1984-01-01

    Surgery for salivary gland tumors requires technical skill, competence in head and neck anatomy, and a familiarity with a variety of tumors. Benign salivary tumors at all sites should be 100 percent curable, with a local recurrence rate of less than five percent; these local failures should be curable with further surgery. The majority of parotid tumors are benign. Sixty-two percent of patients with malignant parotid tumors will be alive at five years, 54 percent at 10 years, and 47 percent at 15 years. These survival rates for malignant parotid tumors are better than those for malignant tumors in the submaxillary and minor salivary glands and may be explained in part by the presence of a higher percentage of low-grade malignant tumors in the parotid gland. Since most submaxillary gland tumors are malignant, they are more dangerous than parotid tumors. A total of 80 percent of patients with submaxillary gland tumors die as a result of cancer. Almost all minor salivary gland tumors are malignant; curability relates to size, local extension, histology, and nodal metastases. Forty-five percent are alive at five years, and 21 percent at 15 years. Wide-field radical surgical excision is needed for malignant salivary tumors to minimize local recurrences and treatment failures. Future improvement in treatment results will be made possible by increased awareness of this group of tumors, earlier diagnosis when tumors are still small, more radical extirpation, and greater use of postoperative radiation therapy.

  4. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    SciTech Connect

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2010-03-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than {approx}20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than {approx}25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk.

  5. Radiotherapy Dose-Volume Effects on Salivary Gland Function

    PubMed Central

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali; Marks, Lawrence; Chao, K. S. Clifford; Nam, Jiho; Eilsbruch, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Publications relating parotid dose-volume characteristics to radiotherapy-induced salivary toxicity were reviewed. Late salivary dysfunction has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia (defined as long-term salivary function of <25% of baseline) is usually avoided if at least one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than ≈20 Gy or if both glands are spared to less than ≈25 Gy (mean dose). For complex, partial-volume RT patterns (e.g., intensity-modulated radiotherapy), each parotid mean dose should be kept as low as possible, consistent with the desired clinical target volume coverage. A lower parotid mean dose usually results in better function. Submandibular gland sparing also significantly decreases the risk of xerostomia. The currently available predictive models are imprecise, and additional study is required to identify more accurate models of xerostomia risk. PMID:20171519

  6. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in a Minor Salivary Gland in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Sera; Cakur, Binali

    2013-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), one of the most common salivary gland malignancies, is rare in children. MEC mainly occurs in the parotid gland, along with minor glands being the second common site, particularly in palate. Clinical, histological, and radiological findings of palatal MEC in a 12-year-old girl are presented with three-year follow-up. Pathologic lesions must be considered in differential diagnoses of intraoral asymptomatic lesions, and their detailed inspection should be taken into consideration. PMID:23970980

  7. Clock Genes Show Circadian Rhythms in Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, L.; Seon, Y.J.; McHugh, J.; Papagerakis, S.; Papagerakis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous self-sustained oscillations with 24-hour periods that regulate diverse physiological and metabolic processes through complex gene regulation by “clock” transcription factors. The oral cavity is bathed by saliva, and its amount and content are modified within regular daily intervals. The clock mechanisms that control salivary production remain unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the expression and periodicity of clock genes in salivary glands. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were performed to show circadian mRNA and protein expression and localization of key clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Per1, and Per2), ion and aqua channel genes (Ae2a, Car2, and Aqp5), and salivary gland markers. Clock gene mRNAs and clock proteins were found differentially expressed in the serous acini and duct cells of all major salivary glands. The expression levels of clock genes and Aqp5 showed regular oscillatory patterns under both light/dark and complete-dark conditions. Bmla1 overexpression resulted in increased Aqp5 expression levels. Analysis of our data suggests that salivary glands have a peripheral clock mechanism that functions both in normal light/dark conditions and in the absence of light. This finding may increase our understanding of the control mechanisms of salivary content and flow. PMID:22699207

  8. Oral mucosal status and major salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, A.; Fox, P.C.; Ship, J.A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Baum, B.J. )

    1990-07-01

    Normal salivary function is considered to be critical for the maintenance of healthy oral mucosa. However, few studies have examined mucosal changes in patients with objectively documented salivary gland performance. In the present report, the mucosal status of 298 subjects being evaluated in a dry mouth clinic was assessed. A complete oral examination was performed and unstimulated and stimulated salivary samples were collected separately from the parotid and submandibular/sublingual glands. Data were analyzed according to diagnosis and salivary output after the assignment of an oral mucosal rating to each subject. In general, the mucosal surfaces were well preserved and infections were not seen. Patients evaluated for Sjoegren's syndrome and radiation-induced xerostomia had the lowest salivary gland performance but displayed a mucosal status similar to denture-wearing healthy subjects or patients with normal salivary flow who had idiopathic xerostomia. However, those patients with a total lack of salivary flow rarely had normal-appearing oral mucosa. These results confirm a role for saliva in oral mucosal preservation and also suggest that other factors may act to maintain oral mucosal integrity.

  9. Clinical implication of CD166 expression in salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadi, Shahab

    2015-04-01

    CD166 is a glycoprotein of immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules which is overexpressed in many tumors. However, no published literature was found concerning CD166 expression in salivary gland tumor. The purpose of this study was to examine the CD166 expression in the salivary gland tumor by an immunohistochemical approach, to examine the clinical implication of this marker in the prognosis and diagnosis of the salivary gland tumor. In this study, 45 samples of salivary tumors from Khalili Hospital archive including 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 16 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 14 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, and 15 normal salivary glands were selected for immunohistochemistry (IHC) method staining for CD166. CD166 immunoreactivity in malignant tumors (adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC)) (56.7 ± 14.05) was significantly higher than that of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) (34.3 ± 17.07) (P < 0.000) and higher in the PA than normal salivary gland (13.2 ± 12.1) (P = 0.001). CD166 expression was significantly higher in the high-grade tumors (90.3 ± 11.07) compared to low-grade (65.11 ± 27.08) malignant tumors (P = 0.002). CD166 expression showed a significant association with tumor size and the clinical stage (P < 0.001). In conclusion, an overexpression of CD166 was detected in the benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and its expression in the malignant tumor was associated with the aggressive behavior and tumor progression. For this reason, CD166 may be one of the potential biomarkers for predicting tumor behavior in the prognosis of this disease.

  10. Immunopathological study of neuropeptide expression in human salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Deguchi, H; Nakahata, A; Kurashima, C; Hirokawa, K

    1990-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of anti-neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and anti-Leu-7 on formalin-fixed sections of human salivary gland neoplasms was determined by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. In addition, neuropeptides, such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, and substance P, in human salivary gland neoplasms were expressed, whereas other polypeptides, including glucagon, cholecystokinin, leu-enkephalin and calcitonin, were absent. When 182 paraffin-embedded examples of human salivary gland tumors, including 112 benign and 70 malignant neoplasms, were examined immunohistochemically, positive immunoreactivity was observed in: 51 cases with NSE (59%) and 46 cases with Leu-7 (54%) of 86 pleomorphic adenomas; 11 cases with Leu-7 (61%) of 18 Warthin's tumors; 7 cases with Leu-7 (58%) of 12 acinic cell carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (31%) of 16 adenoid cystic carcinomas; 5 cases with NSE (42%) and 4 cases with Leu-7 (33%) of 12 adenocarcinomas; 4 cases with NSE (25%) and 6 cases with Leu-7 (38%) of 16 undifferentiated carcinomas. The other tumors, such as oxyphilic adenomas, basal cell adenomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, were nonreactive. Neuropeptides were observed in the neoplastic epithelial cells of certain tumors such as Warthin's tumors, acinic cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. These findings suggest the possibility that cells of neuroendocrine origin, present in certain neoplastic salivary gland epithelia may play a significant role in the histogenesis of human salivary gland neoplasms.

  11. Giant presentation of pleomorphic adenoma in major salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manish; Chaudhary, Neena; Gupta, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign salivary gland tumour, accounting for as many as 80% of all such tumours. Although PA most commonly occurs in the parotid gland (85% cases), it may involve submandibular (8%), lingual and minor salivary glands. It is a benign tumour with a slow and continuous growth and without treatment can assume enormous dimensions. This paper describes a giant PA's arising in the submandibular gland and treated by complete surgical excision without sequel. In our case, a male patient presented with a tumour history of more than 4 years and weight of the resected mass was 2.24 kg. Giant PA's of the submandibular gland are very rare in medical literature.

  12. Anorexia/bulimia-related sialadenosis of palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mignogna, M D; Fedele, S; Lo Russo, L

    2004-08-01

    In patients affected by alimentary disorders sialadenosis is frequently observed. This non-inflammatory condition is described to affect major salivary glands, leading to the characteristic parotid and/or submandibular swelling. Thus fine-needle aspiration cytology or parotid open biopsy are generally required to diagnose histologically the disorder. We report the case of a 28-year-old patient affected by bulimia/anorexia nervosa who presented, in addition to parotid enlargement, a bilateral symmetric painless soft swelling of the hard palate. The lesion was biopsied and histopathological examination showed the classical features of sialadenosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of sialadenosis affecting palatal minor salivary glands. It underlines that when sialadenosis is clinically suspected, clinicians could check also patients' oral cavity for minor salivary glands involvement, in order to potentially avoid invasive extra-oral procedures and to easily confirm diagnosis with an intra-oral biopsy.

  13. Incidence of salivary gland neoplasms in a defined UK population.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J; McGurk, Mark

    2013-07-01

    To establish a true prevalence of salivary gland tumours in a fixed population in the United Kingdom (UK), we searched the unified computerised pathology records of two teaching hospitals, including two private hospitals, for all salivary gland neoplasms (benign and malignant) over two 10-year periods (January 1988-December 1997, and January 1998-December 2007). Reports included needle biopsy, open biopsy, or excision biopsy. Equivocal results were checked by review of the medical notes. Patients referred from outside the catchment area were excluded. Both series combined showed that all neoplasms confirmed the 10:1:1 rule of distribution, but the benign to malignant ratio did not conform to standard teaching. The data suggest that 70-75 benign, and 8-14 malignant neoplasms present annually/million population, which is consistent with established patterns. However, this points towards a lower incidence of cancer in the major salivary glands than was traditionally thought.

  14. Fine needle aspiration and frozen section of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Gansler, T S; Morris, R C

    1990-03-01

    This report examines the role of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and frozen section (FS) examination in the management of salivary gland lesions, and is based on a review of 58 cases. FNA specimens were first classified as nonneoplastic, or as benign or malignant neoplasms. Identification of specific morphologic type of neoplastic lesions was attempted. Overall accuracy for assigning cases was 86%. Specific accuracy (histologic type of neoplasms predicted by FNA) was 72%. No inflammatory lesion was incorrectly diagnosed as neoplasm. Eight patients with histologically documented neoplasm had aspirates classified as nonneoplastic because the sample obtained was not representative. These data indicate that FNA is a highly specific method for identifying benign and malignant neoplasms. Applications of salivary gland FNA include (1) identification of nonneoplastic lesions that may respond to nonsurgical management, (2) identification of neoplasms that represent lymph node metastases rather than primary lesions of the salivary gland, (3) preliminary identification of lymphomas, and (4) preliminary separation of benign and malignant neoplasms.

  15. Needle aspiration biopsy of major salivary gland tumors. Its value.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, P; Farrar, W B; James, A G; Finkelmeier, W; McCabe, D P

    1986-02-01

    Three hundred forty-one needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of major salivary gland tumors were performed over a 32-year period. Eighty percent of tumors were benign, and 20% were malignant. Preoperative NAB findings were compared with pathologic diagnosis of the surgically resected specimen in all cases. Forty-six of 63 aspirates from malignant tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a sensitivity at 73%. Two hundred forty-nine of 265 aspirates from benign tumors were correctly diagnosed by NAB, establishing a specificity at 94%. Overall accuracy was 90%. Diagnostic error or difficulty in clinically localizing the tumor to the salivary gland was encountered in 64 patients with parotid tumors and 12 patients with submandibular tumors. NAB correctly localized over 85% of these tumors to the salivary gland, thus enabling both immediate and correct decision-making concerning subsequent management to be undertaken.

  16. [The value of sonography in salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Klein, K; Türk, R; Gritzmann, N; Traxler, M

    1989-02-01

    In a prospective study, 178 patients with tumours of the salivary glands were examined both clinically and by ultrasound. All patients have since been operated upon, and the diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination is compared with that of ultrasound. Every tumour of the salivary glands could be diagnosed by ultrasound. In the benign group, an exact diagnosis of the tumour type was possible in 83% of cases. In the malignant group an exact diagnosis was only possible in 57% of cases. Furthermore, it is possible with ultrasound to recognise multiple and bilateral tumours, to determine whether a tumour is intra- or extraglandular, and to show the nature of the tumour (cyst, abscess, central necrosis) to a much greater extent than with clinical examination alone. In addition, a fairly good assessment of the cervical and intraglandular lymph nodes is obtained. We believe that ultrasound is of great importance in the diagnosis of tumours of the salivary glands.

  17. Experimental rabies in skunks: immune response and salivary gland infection.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A; Campbell, J B

    1987-01-01

    Groups of striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were inoculated intramuscularly with graded doses of street rabies virus. At various intervals after inoculation, saliva and sera were tested for rabies virus and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Skunks that developed rabies were killed in terminal stages of the disease and the following examinations were made: titers of virus and antibody in submandibular salivary glands and brain, extent of immunofluorescence in submandibular salivary glands, and histologic examination of various tissues. Skunks that received inocula containing 4 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(5) mouse intracerebral lethal dose50 (MICLD50) had detectable serum neutralizing antibodies by 7-12 days postinoculation; however, most of the skunks that received lower doses (40 to 4 x 10(3) MICLD50) did not have detectable serum neutralizing antibodies until clinical signs began. In the salivary glands, slight and extensive immunofluorescence corresponded to high and low titers of tissue neutralizing antibody. Also low viral titers were associated with high tissue neutralizing antibody titers. There was a close correlation between viral titers in right and left submandibular salivary glands. The results suggest that the immune response can impede the process of infection of the salivary glands resulting in lack of antigen or low amounts of antigen in this tissue. This could occur through interference with centrifugal neural transport of virus and/or neutralization of virus during transfer from neural elements to epithelial cells. Lack of infectious virus or low viral titers in salivary glands containing antigen and high levels of tissue neutralizing antibodies can be caused partly by postmortem virus neutralization (during viral titration).

  18. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    PubMed

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  19. Analysis of the Salivary Gland Transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A.; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R.; Whitfield, Anna E.; Ullman, Diane E.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E−6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Brown, Gwen; Ship, Jonathan A

    2004-02-01

    The keystone of the architecture of the oral cavity is saliva; however, it is rarely acknowledged as a vital physiologic secretion. Saliva plays three major roles in oral and systemic health. It provides host protection, assists in the initiation of food and fluid intake, and enables communication through speech. Without adequate salivary output augmented by a rich assortment of salivary proteins and electrolytes, oral and pharyngeal health declines as well as a person's quality of life. This article will provide a brief summary of the function of saliva, oral and systemic etiologies of salivary dysfunction, and methods to treat and prevent salivary disorders. Oral health care professionals can play a vital role in identifying patients at risk for developing salivary dysfunction and should provide appropriate preventive and interventive techniques that will help preserve oral health and function.

  1. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation.

    PubMed

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-03-27

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands.

  2. Disorders and tumors of the salivary glands in children.

    PubMed

    Lennon, Paul; Silvera, V Michelle; Perez-Atayde, Antonio; Cunningham, Michael J; Rahbar, Reza

    2015-02-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are rare in children. In infants most tumors are benign hemangiomas, with some notable exceptions, such as sialoblastomas. An asymptomatic swelling in the periauricular region is the most common presenting complaint in older children. Approximately 50% of these lesions are malignant, which dictates a thorough diagnostic evaluation by a head and neck surgeon. Surgical excision is the primary treatment modality. Prognosis is primarily determined by histopathologic findings. This review discusses neoplastic lesions of the salivary glands in children, and malignant epithelial tumors in particular.

  3. [Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands. Report of 3 cases].

    PubMed

    BenJelloun, H; Jouhadi, H; Maazouzi, A; Benchakroun, N; Acharki, A; Tawfiq, N; Sahraoui, S; Benider, A

    2005-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is rare. Tumours develop mostly in children and young patients but can be diagnosed in older people. We report three new cases in women 7, 14 and 75 years old. Tumefaction of the parotid region and facial paralysis were the principle clinical symptoms. Two patients underwent a total parotidectomy and radiotherapy. The third patient had a locally advanced tumour and received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Loco-regional recurrence was observed in all cases and median survival was 12 months. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the salivary glands is locally aggressive. Treatments include surgery and radiotherapy. The role of chemotherapy remains to be discussed. PMID:15953749

  4. Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Dani, A A; Kotwal, M N; Kherdekar, M S

    1994-07-01

    FNAC of the major salivary glands was performed on 72 patients during a period of two and a half years. In 64 patients samples were satisfactory. The cytologic diagnosis was correlated with histology available in 36 cases. 21 out of 22 benign lesions and 12 out 4 malignant lesions were correctly identified rendering a diagnostic accuracy of 91 percent. The pitfalls of FNAC of salivary gland lesions are reflected by the overall false positive rate of 5.5 percent of false negative rate of 2.7 percent. Diagnostic pitfalls are due to variability of tumor morphology which makes sampling & interpretation difficult. Multiple sampling and increasing experience help to minimize errors.

  5. Lymphoid lesions of salivary glands: malignant and benign.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Gary L

    2007-12-01

    Lesions of salivary glands with a prominent lymphoid component are a heterogeneous group of diseases that include benign reactive lesions and malignant neoplasms. Occasionally, these pathologic entities present difficulties in the clinical and pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Lymphoepithelial sialadenitis, HIV-associated salivary gland disease, chronic sclerosing sialadenitis, Warthin tumor, and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma are examples of this pathology that are sometimes problematic to differentiate from one another. In this paper the author reviewed the main clinical, pathological and prognostic features of these lesions.

  6. [DNA ploidy and proliferative activity in salivary gland tumours].

    PubMed

    Driemel, Oliver; Kraft, Klaus; Hemmer, Jörg

    2007-08-01

    DNA ploidy and S-Phase fraction (SPF) of 279 salivary gland tumours were analysed using high-resolution DNA flow cytometry. All 229 benign neoplasms were diploid while 12 of 50 malignant tumours showed cell populations with aneuploid DNA content. The SPF values of diploid malignancies were significantly higher if compared with pleomorphic adenomas but did not differ from that of the zystadenolymphoma (Warthin tumour) group. While aneuploidy represents a distinct indicator of malignancy SPF values are of minor relevance for dignity assessment in salivary gland tumours.

  7. [Cytologic diagnosis of salivary gland lesions by fine needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Fu, X W

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology was used in diagnosis of 504 major and minor salivary gland lesions. In 180 cases with satisfactory specimens, cytologic diagnosis was contrasted with pathohistologic findings. There were 150 benign lesions (including 124 tumors and 26 cases of other lesions) and 30 malignant tumors. The total correspondence rate was 94.5%. The rate of misdiagnosis was 5.5%. Cytologic appearance of various salivary gland tumors is described and the significance of distribution of mucus is discussed. The misdiagnosed cases were mainly in the early stage.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Verma, A K; Sood, N; Khurana, N

    1994-07-01

    247 salivary gland lesions were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; 179 were designated as neoplastic lesions and 68 as non-neoplastic. Based on cytomorphologic features, the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were subcategorised. All but 36 of the neoplastic lesions were subjected to histopathologic study. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for neoplastic lesions was 91%. The sensitivity rate for detecting malignant tumours was 87.8% and the specificity 98.0%. There was 100% sensitivity for cytodiagnosis of benign tumours. The high sensitivity and specificity of cytodiagnosis makes FNA cytology a valuable diagnostic modality in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

  9. Lipofuscin in salivary glands in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Buchner, A; David, R

    1978-07-01

    Lipofuscin granules were observed in normal salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and minor salivary glands). The pigment was confined mainly to the epithelial cells of the intralobular ducts, but isolated granules were also found in acinar cells and myoepithelial cells. In chronic sialadenitis pigment granules were found in the intralobular epithelial cells and in macrophages in the surrounding ionnective tissue. In benign epithelial tumors pigment granules were observed within neoplastic epithelial cells and in macrophages in the stroma, while malignant tumors displayed pigmented granules only in macrophages in the stroma.

  10. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor of the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Tinsa, Faten; Boussetta, Khadija; Bousnina, Souad; Menif, Khaled; Nouira, Faouzi; Haouet, Slim; Sahtout, Samia

    2010-01-01

    Nasal and upper respiratory tract obstruction in the neonatal period can result from a variety of conditions, and may be present with variable symptoms. Salivary gland anlage tumor, also referred as congenital pleomorphic adenoma, is a very rare benign congenital tumor of the nasopharynx, which may produce nasal obstruction and other associated, nonspecific symptoms. We report a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor causing a severe neonatal respiratory distress with pulmonary hypertension. The tumor was removed and the outcome was favourable without recurrence at five years of the follow up.

  11. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Lim, Foong-Yen; Elluru, Ravindhra G; Koch, Bernadette L

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful.

  12. Functional salivary gland regeneration as the next generation of organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    Oral health is maintained by the coordinated function of many organs including the teeth and salivary glands. Dysfunction of these organs causes many problems, such as dental caries, swallowing dysfunction and periodontal disease. Regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole-salivary gland replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept that may have potential for the full recovery of salivary gland function. Salivary gland tissue stem cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for salivary gland tissue repair therapies. In addition, whole-salivary gland replacement therapy may become a novel next-generation organ regenerative therapy. Almost all organs arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions of the germ layers. We developed a novel bioengineering method, an organ germ method that can reproduce organogenesis through the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. A bioengineered salivary gland germ can regenerate a structurally correct salivary gland in vitro, and bioengineered salivary glands successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity from ducts in the recipient through the reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary gland can also improve the symptoms of xerostomia, such as bacterial infection and swallowing dysfunction. In this review, we describe recent findings and technological developments of salivary gland regenerative therapy.

  13. [Mixed tumour of submandibular salivary gland. Case report].

    PubMed

    Trandafirescu, Mioara-Florentina; Miron, Ingrith; Mihăilă, Doina

    2004-01-01

    The authors present the case of 14 years male child with tumour located on submandibular salivary glands. It was proceeded the biopsy and tumour excision, the tissue fragments being further processed at paraffin, sectioned and than stained HE, PAS, Alcian-Blue, Van Gieson and Gordon-Sweet. The first biopsy performed from the latero-cervical ganglion revealed the presence of an benign tumour of salivary gland. Totally excision of the tumour emphasized the presence of a salivary gland encapsulated tumour, sized 2.5/2.5/2 cm, nodule shaped, white colored, hard consistency. Histopathologic examination revealed the existence of a proliferating encapsulated tumor, well separated from the normal adjacent tissue. The small sized tumour cells with moderate cytoplasm induce formation of glandular lumens, some of them with cystic dilatation, with mucous content. Other tumour cells form small cords or nests. The tumour stroma forms mucoid areas, some with osteoid appearance. We have presented a case of a 14 years aged child with pleomorphic adenoma with rare location within the submandibular salivary gland. The post biopsy rapid increase of the tumour imposed the totally surgical gland excision.

  14. Is salivary gland function altered in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and obesity-insulin resistance?

    PubMed

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2016-04-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction in several systemic diseases has been shown to decrease the quality of life in patients. In non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), inadequate salivary gland function has been evidenced to closely associate with this abnormal glycemic control condition. Although several studies demonstrated that NIDDM has a positive correlation with impaired salivary gland function, including decreased salivary flow rate, some studies demonstrated contradictory findings. Moreover, the changes of the salivary gland function in pre-diabetic stage known as insulin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current evidence from in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies regarding the relationship between NIDDM and salivary gland function, as well as the correlation between obesity and salivary gland function. Consistent findings as well as controversial reports and the mechanistic insights regarding the effect of NIDDM and obesity-insulin resistance on salivary gland function are also presented and discussed.

  15. The innervation of salivary glands as revealed by morphological methods.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J R; Kidd, A

    1993-09-01

    Salivary secretion is nerve mediated. The salivary glands are supplied by parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent nerves which travel to the glands by separate routes. Once in the glands the axons from each type of nerve intermingle and travel together in association with Schwann cells, forming Schwann-axon bundles. Two types of neuro-effector relationships exist with salivary parenchymal and myoepithelial cells: epilemmal (outside the parenchymal basement membrane) and hypolemmal (within the parenchymal basement membrane). Their relative frequencies with either type of nerve differ greatly between glands and species. Salivary blood vessels receive epilemmal innervations by both sympathetic and parasympathetic axons. The classical transmitters--acetylcholine in parasympathetic and noradrenaline in sympathetic axons--are stored in small vesicles. A variety of non-conventional neuropeptide transmitters have also been found in salivary nerves by immunohistochemistry, and they occur in large dense-cored vesicles. Prolonged high frequency stimulation has been found to cause depletion of large dense-cored vesicles from glandular nerves. In recent years afferent nerves have started to be identified and are found in greatest numbers around the main salivary ducts, where they may form a hypolemmal association with the epithelial cells. Functional studies demonstrate complex interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Morphological assessments of changes in the parenchymal cells after nerve stimulations or denervations add greatly to our understanding of the nerve functions. At least four types of influence can be exerted on salivary parenchymal cells by the nerves: hydrokinetic (water mobilizing), proteokinetic (protein secreting), synthetic (inducing synthesis), and trophic (maintaining normal functional size and state). In respect to each role, wide glandular and species differences exist between the relative contributions made by each type of nerve.

  16. The innervation of salivary glands as revealed by morphological methods.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J R; Kidd, A

    1993-09-01

    Salivary secretion is nerve mediated. The salivary glands are supplied by parasympathetic and sympathetic efferent nerves which travel to the glands by separate routes. Once in the glands the axons from each type of nerve intermingle and travel together in association with Schwann cells, forming Schwann-axon bundles. Two types of neuro-effector relationships exist with salivary parenchymal and myoepithelial cells: epilemmal (outside the parenchymal basement membrane) and hypolemmal (within the parenchymal basement membrane). Their relative frequencies with either type of nerve differ greatly between glands and species. Salivary blood vessels receive epilemmal innervations by both sympathetic and parasympathetic axons. The classical transmitters--acetylcholine in parasympathetic and noradrenaline in sympathetic axons--are stored in small vesicles. A variety of non-conventional neuropeptide transmitters have also been found in salivary nerves by immunohistochemistry, and they occur in large dense-cored vesicles. Prolonged high frequency stimulation has been found to cause depletion of large dense-cored vesicles from glandular nerves. In recent years afferent nerves have started to be identified and are found in greatest numbers around the main salivary ducts, where they may form a hypolemmal association with the epithelial cells. Functional studies demonstrate complex interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves. Morphological assessments of changes in the parenchymal cells after nerve stimulations or denervations add greatly to our understanding of the nerve functions. At least four types of influence can be exerted on salivary parenchymal cells by the nerves: hydrokinetic (water mobilizing), proteokinetic (protein secreting), synthetic (inducing synthesis), and trophic (maintaining normal functional size and state). In respect to each role, wide glandular and species differences exist between the relative contributions made by each type of nerve

  17. Tumour-like lesions of the salivary glands. The new WHO classification.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1992-10-01

    Tumour-like lesions must be distinguished from true tumours of the salivary glands. In the new WHO classification of salivary gland tumours seven entities were considered: sialadenosis, oncocytosis (diffuse oncocytosis and focal adenomatous oncocytic hyperplasia), necrotizing sialometaplasia (salivary gland infarction), benign lymphoepithelial lesion (chronic myoepithelial sialadenitis), salivary duct cysts (mucoceles of the minor salivary glands of extravasation or retention type, cysts of the major salivary glands, ranula and dysgenetic polycystic disease of the parotid gland), chronic sclerosing sialadenitis of the submandibular gland (Küttner tumour), and cystic lymphoid hyperplasia in AIDS. The main topics of clinical data and pathohistology were described and documented by the results of the Salivary Gland Register in Hamburg (1965-1989).

  18. [Major salivary gland disorders in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Przewoźny, Tomasz; Stodulski, Dominik; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was a review of 67 children treated for salivary gland tumors in the ENT Department Medical University of Gdańsk since 1974 to 2008. In that group we observed 52 children with tumor of the parotid gland, 13 with tumor of submandibular gland and 2 with subligual gland tumors. Tumor-like lesions were stated the largest group of tumors and were observed in 33 (49%) of children, mainly of chronic sialadenitis (17 cases). Predominant number of tumors was observed in scholarship children. The most common symptoms were slow enlargement of tumor and swelling of the salivary gland. In the group of benign tumors most common was pleomorphic adenoma (19 cases) and in the group of malignant tumors most common was clear cell carcinoma (2 cases) and rhabdomyosarcoma (2 cases). In this report the authors describe basic epidemiological and clinical data (age, sex, duration of symptoms, histological structure of tumor, diagnostic methods, methods and results of treatment) and observations connected with differences of salivary gland tumors in that group of patients.

  19. Epidemiological and histopathological patterns of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sando, Zacharie; Fokouo, Jean Valentin; Mebada, Arlette Onomo; Djomou, François; NDjolo, Alexis; Oyono, Jean Louis Essame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tumors of salivary glands are rare. According to Johns and Goldsmith in 1989, their annual incidence is less than 1/100000 without noteworthy geographical gap. But other authors suggest that their distribution may vary according to the race and geographical location. In Cameroon, existing studies give incomplete data. Hence, we underwent this study in order to draw the general profile of salivary gland tumors in Cameroon. Methods A retrospective study was carried out on the period spanning from January 2000 to December 2010 (11 years). It was done in nine Pathology services of different hospitals in Yaoundé, Douala and Bamenda. We consulted the archive registers of those services, retaining any patient with salivary gland tumor, whatever the histological type or location. Information gathered was the year of diagnosis, the service, the age and sex, the site of the tumor (gland) the histological type and the benign/ malignant character. Results We recruited a total of 275 files. Women were 56% (154/275) and men 44% (121/275) of the sample. Fifty eight tumors were malignant (21.9%) while 217 were benign (78.1%). The overall mean age was 37.44 years, with extremes between 1 and 84 years. Pleomorphic adenoma (60.36%) was the most common benign tumor. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (31%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (22.4%) and adenocarcinoma (19%) were the most common malignant tumors. Palate (66.7%), cheek (30%) and lips (3.3%) were the sites were the minor salivary glands were mostly involved. Conclusion The differences with western world authors suggest a geographical variability of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27217890

  20. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    PubMed Central

    Ochal-Choińska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings. PMID:27446602

  1. Fine-needle aspiration of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zarka, M A

    1996-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration is increasingly used in community practices for the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions, and it often renders an unequivocal diagnosis. This chapter discusses in detail the technical considerations of FNA, non-neoplastic and inflammatory conditions, benign neoplasms, common malignant neoplasms, and rare malignant neoplasms.

  2. [Fine-needle puncture of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Hustin, J; Lejuste, P

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of major salivary glands is easy to perform at a low cost. Its predictive value is 100% for malignancy. Its main indications are: the diagnosis of inflammatory lesions, of malignant growths (either epithelial or lymphoma or metastases) and the follow-up of benign lesions which are not immediately amenable to surgery.

  3. First case of salivary mucocele originating from the minor salivary gland of the soft palate in a dog.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Miyawaki, Shingo; Kanayama, Muneki; Takagi, Mitsuru; Murakami, Mami; Sugikata, Yasuki; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    We found a case of salivary mucocele that originated in the minor salivary gland (palatine gland) of the soft palate in a dog. At first admission, the soft palate swelled remarkably. Computed tomography (CT) revealed cystic radiolucency inside a large quantity of liquid in the soft palate, and most of the airway was occupied. Marsupialization was performed, but since a recurrence was observed one month later, the salivary mucocele was removed. There has been no report of salivary mucocele arising from the minor salivary gland of the soft palate in dogs. To our knowledge, this case is the first. Complete removal, including minor salivary glands surrounding the lesion, is necessary for treatment of salivary mucocele in dogs.

  4. Exposure to Aedes aegypti Bites Induces a Mixed-Type Allergic Response following Salivary Antigens Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Michele S.; Gomes, Eliane; Gueroni, Daniele I.; Ramos, Anderson D.; Mirotti, Luciana; Florsheim, Esther; Bizzarro, Bruna; Lino, Ciro N. R.; Maciel, Ceres; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Tavares-de-Lima, Wothan; Capurro, Margareth L.; Russo, Momtchilo

    2016-01-01

    Classical studies have shown that Aedes aegypti salivary secretion is responsible for the sensitization to mosquito bites and many of the components present in saliva are immunogenic and capable of inducing an intense immune response. Therefore, we have characterized a murine model of adjuvant-free systemic allergy induced by natural exposure to mosquito bites. BALB/c mice were sensitized by exposure to A. aegypti mosquito bites and intranasally challenged with phosphate-buffered saline only or the mosquito’s salivary gland extract (SGE). Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung were collected and evaluated for cellularity, histopathological analyses, cytokines and antibody determination. Respiratory pattern was analyzed by Penh measurements and tracheal segments were obtained to study in vitro reactivity to methacholine. BAL recovered from sensitized mice following challenge with SGE showed an increased number of eosinophils and Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. Peribronchoalveolar eosinophil infiltration, mucus and collagen were also observed in lung parenchyma of sensitized mice, suggesting the development of a typical Th2 response. However, the antibody profile in serum of these mice evidenced a mixed-type response with presence of both, IgG1/IgE (Th2-related) and IgG2a (Th1-related) isotypes. In addition, changes in breathing pattern and tracheal reactivity to methacholine were not found. Taken together, our results show that A. aegypti bites trigger an atypical allergic reaction, with some classical cellular and soluble Th2 components in the lung, but also systemic Th1 and Th2 antibody isotypes and no change in either the respiratory pattern or the trachea responsiveness to agonist. PMID:27203689

  5. Classification of the pathohistology of diseases of the salivary glands - review of 2,600 cases in the Salivary Gland Register.

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K

    1976-10-01

    Three major disease groups emerge from a classification of the pathohistology of 2,600 salivary gland preparations in the salivary gland register (from 1965 to 1974): salivary gland tumors (41%), salivary gland inflammations (26%), and sialadenosis (6%). Mucoceles (2%) and salivary gland cysts (1.5%) are seen less often. It is diagnostically important that lymph node changes in the area of the salivary glands (lymphadenitis, lymphomas, etc.) are worked up under suspicion of a primary salivary gland disease. Sialadenosis involves a primary, vegetative neuropathy, which is accompanied by enlargement of acinar cells. Under the heading of chronic sialdenitis, we fine 50% socalled Küttner tumors of the submandibular gland, 21% chronic relapsing parotitis, 14% chronic inflammations of the minor salivary glands and the sublingual gland, and 12% immune sialadenitis (myoepithelial sialadenitis in Sjögren's syndrome and epitheloid cell sialadenitis in Heerfordts syndrome). A more than average number of immune sialadenitis cases develop into malignant lymphomas (4 cases in the salivary gland register). The 1,067 tumor cases containing of 929 epithelial tumors (87%), 89 mesenchymal tumors (hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, lipomas, neurofibromas, sarcomas) and 49 metastases or periglandular tumors. Epithelial tumors were grouped on the basis of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Benign tumors (71.5%) consisted of pleomorphic adenomas (51.5%) and monomorphic adenomas (50%). After the pleomorphic adenomas, cystadenolymphomas (over 10%) represented the most frequent benign salivary gland tumor. On the basis of epithelial and stromal differentiation, pleomorphic adenomas were subdividied into four subtypes (stroma-rich and stroma-poor adenomas). The malignant tumors consisted of acinar cell tumors (2.5%), mucoepidermoid tumors (6%), and carcinomas at various levels of differentiation (adenoid-cystic carcinomas, 6.5%; adenocarcinomas, 2%; squamous cell carcinomas, 2

  6. Surgical treatment of benign tumours of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R; Misset, M; Ysebaert, D; Van de Heyning, P; Koekelkoren, E; Claes, L; Van Laer, C; Peeters, L; Hintjens, J; Van Elst, F; Van Marck, E; Bultinck, J

    1996-01-01

    In this multicentre retrospective study 30 patients with benign salivary gland tumours are reviewed. Initial operation consisted of total parotidectomy in 6 patients, superficial lobectomy in 13 and tumour enucleation in 11. There were 5 recurrences, treated by enucleation in 1, superficial lobectomy in 2 and extensive total resection in 2 patients. In 18 cases a typical facial nerve dissection was performed. The resected specimens showed a pleiomorph adenoma in 24 cases and monomorph adenoma's in 6 cases. Complications were haematoma formation, Frey syndrome and facial nerve paresis. Recurrences were related to incomplete resection or fragmentation during operation. In this study benign tumours of the salivary glands proved to have a good prognosis, provided a total tumour excision with nerve dissection is performed; the excision should consist of a superficial lobectomy or total parotidectomy depending on the location of the tumour in the lateral or medial part of the gland.

  7. [Mesenchymal (non-epithelial) salivary gland tumors. Analysis of 167 tumor cases of the salivary gland register].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Oehne, H

    1986-09-01

    The total material of the Salivary Gland Register (1965-1985) contained 167 mesenchymal tumours with an intra- or paraglandular localisation. This corresponds to 1.5% of all cases of the Salivary Gland Register or to 5% of all salivary gland tumours. Periglandular tumours without relation to the salivary gland tissue, metastatic tumours or malignant lymphomas were not considered in this study. With respect to the localisation, the age and sex distribution and the histopathological classification the following results were obtained: 90% of all mesenchymal tumours were localised in the parotid gland and 10% in the submandibular gland. In lipomas, the percentage of the parotid gland was even 95%; in lymphangiomas, however, it was only 80%. Angiomas occur preferably in the first and second decades and represent in this age period nearly 90% of all mesenchymal tumours. The age peak of lipomas lies in the fifth to sixth decades, whereas neurogenic tumours are distributed relatively equal over the fourth to seventh decades. A sex disposition was seen in lipomas (85% in males), neurinomas (65% in females) and neurofibromas (75% in males). 90% were benign mesenchymal tumours, 10% sarcomas. Within the benign tumours 47.5% were angiomas, 22.5% lipomas, 16% neurogenic tumours and 4% rare benign tumours. In angiomas (79 cases) haemangiomas (50 cases), lymphangiomas (17 cases), mixed haemangiomas and lymphangiomas (9 cases) and haemangiopericytomas (3 cases) could be seen, in neurogenic tumours (27 cases) neurinomas (12 cases), neurofibromas (12 cases) and neurofibromatoses (3 cases), in sarcomas (17 cases) malignant fibrous histiocytomas (5 cases), malignant schwannomas (5 cases), embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas (4 cases) and other rare sarcomas (one case each myxoid liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, malignant haemangioendothelioma).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Lithium Induces Glycogen Accumulation in Salivary Glands of the Rat.

    PubMed

    Souza, D N; Mendes, F M; Nogueira, F N; Simões, A; Nicolau, J

    2016-02-01

    Lithium is administered for the treatment of mood and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to verify whether treatment with different concentrations of lithium may affect the glycogen metabolism in the salivary glands of the rats when compared with the liver. Mobilization of glycogen in salivary glands is important for the process of secretion. Two sets of experiments were carried out, that is, in the first, the rats received drinking water supplemented with LiCl (38,25 and 12 mM of LiCl for 15 days) and the second experiment was carried out by intraperitoneal injection of LiCl solution (12 mg/kg and 45 mg LiCl/kg body weight) for 3 days. The active form of glycogen phosphorylase was not affected by treatment with LiCl considering the two experiments. The active form of glycogen synthase presented higher activity in the submandibular glands of rats treated with 25 and 38 mM LiCl and in the liver, with 25 mM LiCl. Glycogen level was higher than that of control in the submandibular glands of rats receiving 38 and 12 mM LiCl, in the parotid of rats receiving 25 and 38 mM, and in the liver of rats receiving 12 mM LiCl. The absolute value of glycogen for the submandibular treated with 25 mM LiCl, and the liver treated with 38 mM LiCl, was higher than the control value, although not statistically significant for these tissues. No statistically significant difference was found in the submandibular and parotid salivary glands for protein concentration when comparing experimental and control groups. We concluded that LiCl administered to rats influences the metabolism of glycogen in salivary glands.

  9. Multiple reciprocal translocations in salivary gland mucoepidermoid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Tonon, Giovanni; Gehlhaus, Kristen Stover; Yonescu, Raluca; Kaye, Frederic J; Kirsch, Ilan R

    2004-07-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the most common human malignant salivary gland tumor, can arise from both major and minor salivary glands, including sites within the pulmonary tracheobronchial tree. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) on two tumor cell lines: H3118, derived from tumor originating in the parotid gland, and H292, from tumor in the lung. In both cell lines, CGH showed a partial gain within the short arm of chromosome 7 and SKY revealed the presence of the previously reported reciprocal translocation t(11;19)(q21;p12). Additional chromosomal rearrangements were found in both cell lines, including three more reciprocal translocations in cell line H292 [t(1;16), t(6;8)x2] and three other reciprocal translocations in cell line H3118 [t(1;7), t(3;15), and t(7;15)]. A review of the literature of other reported cases of mucoepidermoid carcinomas analyzed with standard G-banding techniques, as well as distinct benign salivary gland tumors, such as pleomorphic adenomas and Warthin tumor, confirmed the presence of a karyotype dominated by reciprocal translocations. Four chromosomal bands were involved in chromosomal translocations in both cell lines: 1q32, 5p15, 7q22, and 15q22. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies showed that the breakpoints in these four bands were often within a few megabases of each other. The involvement of similar chromosomal bands in breakpoints in these two cell lines suggests that these regions may be predisposed or selected for chromosomal rearrangements in this tumor type. The presence of multiple reciprocal translocations in both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors may also suggest a particular mechanism within mucous or serous glands mediating chromosomal rearrangements.

  10. Association of human immune response to Aedes aegypti salivary proteins with dengue disease severity.

    PubMed

    Machain-Williams, C; Mammen, M P; Zeidner, N S; Beaty, B J; Prenni, J E; Nisalak, A; Blair, C D

    2012-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and can cause dengue fever (DF), a relatively benign disease, or more severe dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Arthropod saliva contains proteins delivered into the bite wound that can modulate the host haemostatic and immune responses to facilitate the intake of a blood meal. The potential effects on DENV infection of previous exposure to Ae. aegypti salivary proteins have not been investigated. We collected Ae. aegypti saliva, concentrated the proteins and fractionated them by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). By the use of immunoblots, we analysed reactivity with the mosquito salivary proteins (MSP) of sera from 96 Thai children diagnosed with secondary DENV infections leading either to DF or DHF, or with no DENV infection, and found that different proportions of each patient group had serum antibodies reactive to specific Ae. aegypti salivary proteins. Our results suggest that prior exposure to MSP might play a role in the outcome of DENV infection in humans.

  11. Different Wnt signals act through the Frizzled and RYK receptors during Drosophila salivary gland migration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Katherine E; Beckendorf, Steven K

    2007-06-01

    Guided cell migration is necessary for the proper function and development of many tissues, one of which is the Drosophila embryonic salivary gland. Here we show that two distinct Wnt signaling pathways regulate salivary gland migration. Early in migration, the salivary gland responds to a WNT4-Frizzled signal for proper positioning within the embryo. Disruption of this signal, through mutations in Wnt4, frizzled or frizzled 2, results in misguided salivary glands that curve ventrally. Furthermore, disruption of downstream components of the canonical Wnt pathway, such as dishevelled or Tcf, also results in ventrally curved salivary glands. Analysis of a second Wnt signal, which acts through the atypical Wnt receptor Derailed, indicates a requirement for Wnt5 signaling late in salivary gland migration. WNT5 is expressed in the central nervous system and acts as a repulsive signal, needed to keep the migrating salivary gland on course. The receptor for WNT5, Derailed, is expressed in the actively migrating tip of the salivary glands. In embryos mutant for derailed or Wnt5, salivary gland migration is disrupted; the tip of the gland migrates abnormally toward the central nervous system. Our results suggest that both the Wnt4-frizzled pathway and a separate Wnt5-derailed pathway are needed for proper salivary gland migration. PMID:17507403

  12. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland in a cow.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Grandi, Fabrizio; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2012-09-01

    A 6-year-old Girolando dairy cow was presented for evaluation of a large subcutaneous facial mass. Fine-needle aspirates of the mass contained many neoplastic cells with high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios arranged in sheets and loosely cohesive clusters with streaming erythrocytes and neutrophils in the background. Neoplastic cells were 13-25 μm in diameter and were round to cuboidal with variably distinct borders. Based on the signalment, anatomic location, and cytologic findings, differential diagnoses included salivary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The cow was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. The primary neoplasm arose from the left parotid salivary gland and meastatic tumor was found in the regional lymph nodes and lung. Histologically, the tumor was composed of anastomosing and irregular solid islets surrounded by scant stroma. Cells were negative for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), PAS-diastase, and Alcian blue pH 2.5 stains, used to detect mucin. On immunohistochemical analysis, neoplastic luminal salivary gland cells expressed cytokeratin, but not S100, α-smooth muscle actin, or vimentin. Peripheral cells of neoplastic islets were immunoreactive for p63. The final diagnosis was nonsecretory adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland. PMID:22954300

  13. Mitochondrial Mutations in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Marietta; Smith, Ian M.; Califano, Joseph A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The MitoChip v2.0 resequencing array is an array-based technique allowing for accurate and complete sequencing of the mitochondrial genome. No studies have investigated mitochondrial mutation in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas. Methodology The entire mitochondrial genome of 22 salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of salivary glands and matched leukocyte DNA was sequenced to determine the frequency and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in ACC tumors. Principal Findings Seventeen of 22 ACCs (77%) carried mitochondrial mutations, ranging in number from 1 to 37 mutations. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Twelve of 17 tumors (70.6%) carried mutations resulting in amino acid changes of translated proteins. Nine of 17 tumors (52.9%) with a mutation carried an amino acid changing mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) complex. Conclusions/Significance Mitochondrial mutation is frequent in salivary ACCs. The high incidence of amino acid changing mutations implicates alterations in aerobic respiration in ACC carcinogenesis. D-loop mutations are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication. PMID:20041111

  14. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liping; Yang, Xi; Chen, Jiayan; Ge, Xiaolin; Qin, Qin; Zhu, Hongcheng; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Xinchen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM) in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR) (Group I), SIM + sham IR (Group II), IR + solvent (Group III), and IR + SIM (Group IV). SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week) was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome), and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. PMID:27471375

  15. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J H; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P

    2016-03-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) stem/progenitor cells and demonstrate at the single cell level in vitro self-renewal and differentiation into multilineage organoids. We also show in vivo functionality, long-term engraftment, and functional restoration in a xenotransplantation model. Indeed, transplanted human salisphere-derived cells restored saliva production and greatly improved the regenerative potential of irradiated SGs. Further selection for c-Kit expression enriched for cells with enhanced regenerative potencies. Interestingly, interaction of transplanted cells with the recipient SG may also be involved in functional recovery. Thus, we show for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia. PMID:26887347

  16. Salivary gland dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    PubMed Central

    Aitken-Saavedra, Juan; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Escobar-Álvarez, Alejandro; Cortes-Coloma, Andrea; Reyes-Rojas, Montserrat; Viera -Sapiain, Valentina; Villablanca-Martínez, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease of the carbohydrate metabolism that, when not rigorously controlled, compromises systemic and organ integrity, thereby causing renal diseases, blindness, neuropathy, arteriosclerosis, infections, and glandular dysfunction, including the salivary glands. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the qualitative and quantitative parameters of salivary alteration, which are indicators of salivary gland dysfunction, and the level of metabolic control of type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods A convenience sample of 74 voluntary patients with type 2 DM was selected, each of whom donated a sample of unstimulated saliva. Salivary parameters such as salivary flow rate, protein concentration, pH, and xerostomia were studied. Results There is a positive relationship between the level of metabolic control measured with HbA1 and the protein concentration in saliva (Spearman rho = 0.329 and p = 0.004). The same assay showed an inverse correlation between HbA1 and pH (Spearman rho = -0.225 and p = 0.05). Conclusions The protein concentration in saliva and, to a lesser extent, the pH may be useful as glandular dysfunction indicators in DM2 patients. Key words:Saliva, type 2 diabetes mellitus, pH, protein concentration, xerostomia. PMID:26535097

  17. Epithelial salivary gland tumors in children and adolescents. Analysis of 80 cases (Salivary Gland Register 1965-1984).

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Okabe, H; Caselitz, J

    1986-01-01

    In the Salivary Gland Register (University of Hamburg), 9883 cases were recorded from 1965 to 1984. Among these cases there were 3,326 neoplasms, of which 3,017 were epithelial in origin. In this latter group, 80 neoplasms arose in children and adolescents. Among these 80 persons, there was a slight predominance of females; 57 tumors (71%) were localized in the parotid gland, and only 6 (8%) in the submandibular gland. The incidence of the tumor types was different in children and adolescents as compared to the incidence in adults: monomorphic adenomas were virtually absent in children (only 1 patient), and benign tumors were also less common (65%). The incidence of mucoepidermoid tumors was remarkable (12 cases, 15%). Acinic cell tumors occurred more frequently (5 cases, 6%). The neoplasms have been analyzed histologically. Two very rare tumors, a monomorphic salivary duct adenoma and an embryonal carcinoma, were also studied by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry.

  18. Frequency and Histopathology by Site, Major Pathologies, Symptoms and Signs of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) is, in decreasing order, parotid neoplasms, submandibular gland neoplasms, minor SGNs, and sublingual gland neoplasms. The larger the salivary gland (e.g. parotid), the more likely a neoplasm is benign, and the smaller the gland (e.g. minor salivary gland), the more likely the neoplasm is malignant. The majority of SGNs, benign and/or malignant, irrespective of site, present as a painless swelling or mass. Definitive symptoms and signs of salivary gland malignancy are the presence of named nerve palsy in anatomical proximity to the gland and/or the presence of cervical lymphadenopathy. All discrete major salivary gland masses and non-ulcerated submucosal masses presenting in the head and neck region, irrespective of age, should be investigated, with the aim of excluding an SGN.

  19. Salivary gland disease in dogs and cats: 245 cases (1985-1988).

    PubMed

    Spangler, W L; Culbertson, M R

    1991-02-01

    Diagnostic pathology records spanning 41 months (July 1985 through November 1988) were searched for diagnoses of salivary gland disease in dogs and cats. Review of 87,392 records from that period revealed 245 cases (0.3%) in which salivary gland tissue had been evaluated. During that period, salivary gland tissue was submitted to the laboratory almost twice as often from dogs (160 cases) as from cats (85 cases). On the basis of histologic examination, 89% of salivary gland submissions from small animal practices were allotted to 1 of 5 major categories: malignant neoplasms (30%; 74/245), sialadenitis (26%; 64/245), normal salivary gland (16%; 40/245), sialocele (9%; 21/245), and salivary gland infarction (8%; 20/245). The remaining 11% of submissions included various degenerative or fibrotic lesions, ductal ectasia, sialolithiasis, edema, benign neoplasia, and secondary salivary involvement with systemic or cervical lymphosarcoma or with fibrosarcoma in the head and neck.

  20. Interleukin-18 expression in pig salivary glands and salivary content changes during acute immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Muneta, Y; Minagawa, Y; Nakane, T; Shibahara, T; Yoshikawa, T; Omata, Y

    2011-09-01

    Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has recently been considered a promising marker of stress responses. In this study, to evaluate IL-18 as a noninvasive stress marker in pigs, we investigated the expression of IL-18 in porcine salivary glands and its presence in saliva, and its dynamics during acute immobilization stress in pigs. IL-18 mRNA was detected robustly in the pig salivary glands by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of IL-18 protein expression revealed that the expression patterns differed among the three types of salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland). IL-18 was also detected in pig saliva by ELISA, and a diurnal rhythm with a peak in the afternoon was observed. The IL-18 concentration in saliva was significantly increased during a 60-min acute immobilization stress in thirteen 5-month-old pigs. These results are the first evidence of a stress-related change of IL-18 in pig saliva. Salivary IL-18 may thus become a useful noninvasive marker for the evaluation of acute stress in pigs.

  1. Rosai Dorfman disease of the parotid and submandibular glands: salivary gland scintigraphy and oral findings in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Güven, G; Ilgan, S; Altun, C; Gerek, M; Gunhan, O

    2007-10-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is an unusual clinical entity characterized by benign pseudolymphomatous proliferation with significant histiocytic infiltration. In the present paper, extranodal RDD of the major salivary glands causing salivary hypofunction and the results of salivary gland scintigraphy and ultrasound are presented in two siblings. Case 1: a 10-year-old boy with bilateral painless masses around the parotid and submandibular glands was referred. Ultrasound examination showed bilateral, well-defined, hypoechoic solid mass lesions within both parotid glands with minimal normal parenchyma in the upper poles. Both submandibular glands were markedly hypoechoic and heterogeneous. Mass lesions within the parotid glands appeared as cold lesions with regular contours on scintigraphy. Dynamic images showed normal uptake and normal response to secretion in the upper poles of the parotid glands, corresponding with ultrasonographically normal parenchyma. Both submandibular glands showed markedly diminished uptake and secretion. Case 2: a 9-year-old boy presented with mass lesions around the submandibular glands. Ultrasound examination showed normal parotid glands and markedly hypoechoic and heterogeneous submandibular glands. Salivary gland scintigraphy showed normal uptake and secretion of parotid glands with markedly diminished uptake and secretion in both submandibular glands. There were severe carious lesions in both patients due to salivary hypofunction. Treatments of the two patients' teeth were performed. Major salivary gland involvement of RDD is important for dentists as it may cause xerostomia and can mimic dental abscess. Functional evaluation of salivary glands with scintigraphy, besides radiological and pathological techniques, will help to explain whether salivary glands are affected or not and improve the diagnostic effectiveness.

  2. [Sonographic analyses of obstructive diseases of the salivary gland using intraductal applications of contrast agent].

    PubMed

    Zengel, P; Berghaus, A; Paprottka, P; Clevert, D A; Clevert, D M

    2011-04-01

    Obstructive diseases of the salivary glands are a common problem of the salivary glands; often based on Sialolithiasis, duct stenosis, or other rarer reasons. There exist several diagnostic features to classify the disease; however, ultrasound or conventional radiological imaging does not provide a diagnosis in 5-10% of all cases. The intraductal applied contrast-enhanced ultrasound (IA-CEUS) improves the visualization of obstructive diseases of the salivary glands; simultaneously an evaluation of the parenchyma of the glands is possible. We think IA-CEUS is a promising tool, which improved the diagnostic assessment capabilities of ultrasound and results in a better treatment for patients with obstructive salivary gland diseases.

  3. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C; Manisali, M; Barrett, A W

    1996-02-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of palatal minor mucous glands is rare but significant because the clinical appearance mimics malignant disease. The typical history of a painless, indolent palatal swelling, together with the histological picture of benign glandular hyperplasia and hypertrophy, are illustrated in this report.

  4. Salivary Gland Pathology in Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Campos, Joana; Hillen, Maarten R; Barone, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) can be considered a systemic autoimmune disease with a strong organ bias. The involvement of the exocrine glands is prevalent and drives the pathognomonic manifestations of dryness that define the sicca syndrome. The salivary glands also represent the hub of pSS pathology. Elements belonging to both innate and acquired immune responses have been described at this site that contribute to disease establishment and progression. The interaction between those elements and their relative contributions to the clinical manifestations and lymphoma progression largely remain to be addressed. PMID:27431349

  5. Oncocytic myoepithelioma and pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Skálová, A; Michal, M; Ryska, A; Simpson, R H; Kinkor, Z; Walter, J; Leivo, I

    1999-06-01

    Twenty oncocytic myoepitheliomas (MEs) and pleomorphic adenomas (PAs) were composed of interlacing fascicles of swollen spindle-shaped or/and epithelioid oncocytic myoepithelial cells showing intense finely granular immunoreactivity with anti-mitochondrial antibody. Focal vacuolation of the cytoplasm of oncocytic myoepithelial cells and their gradual transition into sebaceous metaplasia were observed in 3 cases. Another unusual feature found in 5 cases was the presence of slit-like adenomatoid spaces lined with double-layered oncocytic myoepithelium closely resembling Warthin's tumour. The nuclei of oncocytic cells were characterized by enlargement, hyperchromasia and polymorphism, which should not be confused with malignancy. Oncocytic change in myoepithelial cells in MEs and PAs can cause pitfalls in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumours. We describe some unusual histological features associated with onococytic metaplasia in benign myoepithelial cell-derived salivary gland tumours, hoping to help to avoid the overdiagnosis of malignancy.

  6. Accuracy of frozen section diagnosis of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Gnepp, D R; Rader, W R; Cramer, S F; Cook, L L; Sciubba, J

    1987-04-01

    Three hundred and one salivary gland lesions (162 benign, 72 malignant, and 67 benign non-neoplastic) of 677 cases were evaluated by use of intraoperative frozen sections by 66 pathologists. In seven patients, the diagnosis was deferred for permanent sections. In four cases (1.3%), the diagnosis at permanent section changed from one category of benign tumor to another, and in five cases (1.7%), from one category of malignant tumor to another. In four tumors, a frozen section diagnosis of benign was changed to malignant on permanent sectioning; all four involved acinic cell carcinomas. Only two tumors were incorrectly diagnosed as malignant. We conclude that diagnoses of most salivary gland lesions based on frozen section examination are reliable and accurate. However, the literature does indicate that caution should be exercised when malignant tumors are dealt with.

  7. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Lau, T; Balle, V H; Bretlau, P

    1986-04-01

    Of 105 tumours of the major salivary glands, 90 were benign and 15 malignant. In benign tumours a correct preoperative diagnosis was made by fine needle aspiration biopsy in 84%, and none were falsely classed as malignant. In the malignant tumours, only 8 out of 15 (53%) were correctly diagnosed as malignant while 7 were misdiagnosed as benign. It is concluded that in benign salivary gland tumours there is good accordance between fine needle aspiration biopsy and the final histological report, in contrast to the malignant tumours where this is less convincing. Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a valuable diagnostic tool, but the result should be carefully evaluated, regarded as only part of the clinical picture and not solely relied on.

  8. Accuracy of frozen-section diagnosis in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rigual, N R; Milley, P; Loré, J M; Kaufman, S

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective review of 100 patients with major or minor salivary gland neoplasms was conducted to ascertain the accuracy and effect on therapy of frozen-section diagnosis. Of these patients, 23% had malignant and 77% benign neoplasms. Twelve patients benefited by further surgery during the initial operation, and no treatment delay occurred as a result of frozen-section diagnosis. There were four incorrect diagnoses of clinical significance, two false positives (benign tumor called malignant on frozen section) and two false negatives (malignant tumor called benign on frozen section). The accuracy of frozen section for specific pathologic diagnosis was 92%. No unnecessary radical surgery was performed. Frozen-section diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasms in our institution was found to be accurate and useful.

  9. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qizilbash, A H; Sianos, J; Young, J E; Archibald, S D

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the major salivary glands was performed on 160 patients. In 146 patients with satisfactory samples, the cytologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical follow-up and histologic findings. There were 122 benign lesions, including 47 tumors. There were 24 malignant lesions, 10 of which were primary and 14 metastatic. The overall accuracy was 98%. The sensitivity of the technique was 87.5%. There was no false-positive diagnosis. There were three false-negative diagnoses due to sampling errors and inexperience during the initial period of the study. This study documents that needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary glands is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless to the patient.

  10. Matrigel improves functional properties of primary human salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Maria, Ola M; Zeitouni, Anthony; Gologan, Olga; Tran, Simon D

    2011-05-01

    Currently, there is no effective treatment available to patients with irreversible loss of functional salivary acini caused by Sjogren's syndrome or after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. A tissue-engineered artificial salivary gland would help these patients. The graft cells for this device must establish tight junctions in addition to being of fluid-secretory nature. This study analyzed a graft source from human salivary glands (huSG) cultured on Matrigel. Cells were obtained from parotid and submandibular glands, expanded in vitro, and then plated on either Matrigel-coated (2 mg/mL) or uncoated culture dish. Immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and transepithelial electrical resistance were employed. On Matrigel, huSG cells adopted an acinar phenotype by forming three-dimensional acinar-like units (within 24 h of plating) as well as a monolayer of cells. On uncoated surfaces (plastic), huSG cells only formed monolayers of ductal cells. Both types of culture conditions allowed huSG cells to express tight junction proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4; occludin; JAM-A; and ZO-1) and adequate transepithelial electrical resistance. Importantly, 99% of huSG cells on Matrigel expressed α-amylase and the water channel protein Aquaporin-5, as compared to <5% of huSG cells on plastic. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed an acinar phenotype with many secretory granules. Matrigel increased the secretion of α-amylase two to five folds into the media, downregulated certain salivary genes, and regulated the translation of acinar proteins. This three-dimensional in vitro serum-free cell culture method allows the organization and differentiation of huSG cells into salivary cells with an acinar phenotype.

  11. Effect of HAART on Salivary Gland Function in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)

    PubMed Central

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R; Karim, R; Mack, WJ; Ram, S; Seirawan, H; Greenspan, J; Greenspan, D; Phelan, J; Alves, M

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on salivary gland function in HIV positive women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Design Longitudinal cohort study. Subjects and Methods A total of 668 HIV positive women from the WIHS cohort with an initial and at least 1 follow-up oral sub-study visit contributed 5358 visits. Salivary gland function was assessed based on a dry mouth questionnaire, whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates, salivary gland enlargement or tenderness and lack of saliva on palpation of the major salivary glands. Main Outcome Measures Changes in unstimulated and stimulated flow rates at any given visit from that of the immediate prior visit (continuous variables). The development of self-reported dry mouth (present/absent), enlargement or tenderness of salivary glands (present/absent), and absence of secretion on palpation of the salivary glands were binary outcomes (yes/no). Results Protease Inhibitor (PI) based HAART was a significant risk factor for developing decreased unstimulated (p=0.01) and stimulated (p=0.0004) salivary flow rates as well as salivary gland enlargement (p=0.006) as compared with non-PI based HAART. Conclusions PI-based HAART therapy is a significant risk factor for developing reduced salivary flow rates and salivary gland enlargement in HIV positive patients. PMID:19017280

  12. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Evaluate Major Salivary Gland Function Before and After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet Keyzer, Frederik de; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Stroobants, Sigrid; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI as a noninvasive tool to investigate major salivary gland function before and after radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: DW-MRI was performed in 8 HNC patients before and after parotid-sparing RT (mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland <26 Gy). A DW sequence was performed once at rest and then repeated continuously during salivary stimulation. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for both parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Findings were compared with salivary gland scintigraphy. Results: Before RT, the mean ADC value at rest was significantly lower in the parotid than in the submandibular glands. During the first 5 min of stimulation, the ADC value of the salivary glands showed a decrease, followed by a steady increase until a peak ADC, significantly higher than the baseline value, was reached after a median of 17 min. The baseline ADC value at rest was significantly higher after RT than before RT in the nonspared salivary glands but not in the spared parotid glands. In the contralateral parotid glands, the same response was seen as before RT. This pattern was completely lost in the nonspared glands. These results corresponded with remaining or loss of salivary function, respectively, as confirmed by salivary gland scintigraphy. Conclusions: Diffusion-weighted-MRI allows noninvasive evaluation of functional changes in the major salivary glands after RT and is a promising tool for investigating radiation-induced xerostomia.

  13. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  14. Kuttner tumour: an unusual cause of enlargement of a minor salivary gland in the lip.

    PubMed

    Paul, R; Shekar, K; Singh, M

    2010-03-01

    Kuttner tumour is benign, chronic, sclerosing sialadenitis that usually occurs in the submandibular gland and is regarded as a salivary gland neoplasm because of its clinical features. We describe a tumour arising from a minor salivary gland of the upper lip. To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases.

  15. Salivary gland determination in Drosophila: a salivary-specific, fork head enhancer integrates spatial pattern and allows fork head autoregulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, B; Bagri, A; Beckendorf, S K

    2001-09-01

    In the early Drosophila embryo, a system of coordinates is laid down by segmentation genes and dorsoventral patterning genes. Subsequently, these coordinates must be interpreted to define particular tissues and organs. To begin understanding this process for a single organ, we have studied how one of the first salivary gland genes, fork head (fkh), is turned on in the primordium of this organ, the salivary placode. A placode-specific fkh enhancer was identified 10 kb from the coding sequence. Dissection of this enhancer showed that the apparently homogeneous placode is actually composed of at least four overlapping domains. These domains appear to be developmentally important because they predict the order of salivary invagination, are evolutionarily conserved, and are regulated by patterning genes that are important for salivary development. Three dorsoventral domains are defined by EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling, while stripes located at the anterior and posterior edges of the placode depend on wingless signaling. Further analysis identified sites in the enhancer that respond either positively to the primary activator of salivary gland genes, SEX COMBS REDUCED (SCR), or negatively to EGFR signaling. These results show that fkh integrates spatial pattern directly, without reference to other early salivary gland genes. In addition, we identified a binding site for FKH protein that appears to act in fkh autoregulation, keeping the gene active after SCR has disappeared from the placode. This autoregulation may explain how the salivary gland maintains its identity after the organ is established. Although the fkh enhancer integrates information needed to define the salivary placode, and although fkh mutants have the most extreme effects on salivary gland development thus far described, we argue that fkh is not a selector gene for salivary gland development and that there is no master, salivary gland selector gene. Instead, several genes independently sense spatial

  16. Salivary gland monomorphic adenoma. Ultrastructural, immunoperoxidase, and histogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Kahn, H. J.; Van Nostrand, A. W.; Baumal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Monomorphic adenoma of basal cell type is a salivary gland tumor believed to result from a proliferation of a single type of cell. However, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigations of 6 monomorphic adenomas (5 from parotid and 1 from intraoral minor salivary gland) indicate that there are two classes of these lesions, one composed of two types of tumor cells and the other wholly or predominantly made up of one type of cell (isomorphic). In the former group, the organization of the tumor cells closely mimicked that of normal and hyperplastic salivary gland intercalated ducts. Aggregates of tumor cells were arranged as an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells which were surrounded by an outer layer of cells that, in some cases, had ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features indicating myoepithelial cell differentiation. In some adenomas formed by two types of tumor cells, basal-lamina-lined extracellular spaces were identified ultrastructurally in relation to modified myoepithelial cells; such spaces had the same fine-structural features as those reported in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Predominantly isomorphic adenomas were composed exclusively of luminal epithelial cells. These results indicate that despite the varied histologic patterns in the numerous subtypes of monomorphic adenoma, there is a central theme of differentiation and organization in this type of neoplasm which recapitulates the ductoacinar unit of normal salivary gland parenchyma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6375388

  17. Adenomatosis of minor salivary glands. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Khullar, S M; Best, P V

    1992-12-01

    An account is given of a patient who had multiple canalicular adenomas in the upper lip and adjacent oral mucosa. A few months after these had been excised, several more tumors of the same type developed. Microscopic examination also revealed numerous tiny foci of adenomatous proliferation within otherwise normal salivary gland lobules. We suggest that this phenomenon represents a field neoplastic change although it appears to be benign.

  18. True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J; Batsakis, J G; Luna, M A; von der Heyden, U; Byers, R M

    1986-06-01

    True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary glands are of a high grade of malignancy and are distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma. Having a putative origin from a benign pleomorphic adenoma, the true malignant mixed tumor is an aggressive, often rapidly lethal neoplasm in which the sarcomatous element is most often a chondrosarcoma and the epithelial element is most often a ductal carcinoma. The twelve cases in this report represent the largest recorded series to date.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Young, J A; Smallman, L A; Thompson, H; Proops, D W; Johnson, A P

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight fine needle aspirates from 79 salivary gland lesions in 77 patients were examined. The overall diagnostic sensitivity was 84% and the specificity 98.41%. When the 14 unsatisfactory specimens were excluded the sensitivity rose to 95.45%. Correct identification of the disease process was possible in nearly 80% of cases with a final benign diagnosis. The histological tumour type was correctly predicted in 75% of the malignancies. In the others the cytological diagnosis was anaplastic malignant neoplasm.

  20. Patient with amyloidoma of the ulnar nerve and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Johnny; Baran, Johanna L; Tick Chong, Peter Siao

    2009-12-01

    Amyloidomas of the peripheral nervous system have been reported rarely. We describe a patient with a history of localized amyloidosis of the salivary glands who presented a few years later with paresthesias of her left medial arm, forearm, and fifth digit. A mass affecting the left ulnar nerve was confirmed by MRI studies. It was excised and proven on pathological examination to be an amyloidoma. The benign course of this patient's illness is consistent with localized amyloidosis affecting two different organs.

  1. Adenomatoid hyperplasia of mucous salivary glands. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Brown, F H; Houston, G D; Lubow, R M; Sagan, M A

    1987-02-01

    Adenomatoid hyperplasia of the mucous salivary glands is an uncommon benign tumor of the oral cavity. Two cases of palatal involvement are presented. Since clinical differentiation between benign and malignant growth of the palate cannot be established, microscopic examination is necessary. The palate is the most common location of this lesion, and as such it is useful for the periodontist to be aware of this tumor.

  2. Immunolocalization of interleukin-6 in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Gandour-Edwards, R; Kapadia, S B; Gumerlock, P H; Barnes, L

    1995-05-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates immune responses and acute phase reactions. It has demonstrated a growth factor function in several tumors, including those of salivary, plasma cell, and renal origin. We performed immunohistochemical staining for IL-6 localization on 57 salivary tumors. Reactivity was scored by intensity (0 to 4+) and percentage of cells staining, and the tumors were classified into three groups representing low (0 to 1+, 0% to 30%), moderate (2 to 3+, 31% to 75%), or high (> 3 to 4+, 76% to 100%) reactors. High reactivity was found in all primary pleomorphic adenomas (N = 10), five of eight recurrent pleomorphic adenomas, and all polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas (N = 4). Moderate reactivity was observed in four of seven basal cell adenomas and three of five myoepitheliomas. Low reactivity characterized all acinic cell carcinomas (N = 3) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (N = 3) as well as six of nine primary adenoid cystic carcinomas and all metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas (N = 3). Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (N = 5) had three low and two moderate reactors. A pattern emerged in which the benign and low grade malignant tumors showed stronger reactivity than the metastatic or high grade malignant tumors. This suggests an inverse relationship between the presence of IL-6 and the biological aggressiveness of salivary gland tumors. The function of IL-6 in salivary gland neoplasia awaits further study and elucidation.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the salivary glands of Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Hattori, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    The green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps, is one of the most important pests of rice in temperate Asian countries. GRH, a vascular feeder, secretes watery and gelling saliva in the process of feeding on phloem and xylem sap. It is known that GRH saliva contains several bioactive proteins, including enzymes such as laccase and beta-glucosidase. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of GRH using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Of 51,788 assembled contigs, 16,017 (30.9%) showed significant similarity to known proteins in the NCBI nr database, while 34,978 (67.5%) could not be annotated by similarity search, Pfam, or gene ontology (GO). Contigs (905) with predicted signal peptides and no putative transmembrane domains are suggested to represent secreted protein coding genes. Among the 76 most highly expressed putative secretory protein contigs, 68 transcripts were found to be salivary gland-specific or at least -dominant, but not expressed in stomach or Malpighian tubules. However, 45 of the 68 transcripts were unknown proteins. These findings suggest that most of the GRH transcripts encoding secreted proteins expressed in salivary glands are species and/or tissue specific. Our results provide a fundamental list of genes involved in GRH-Poaceae host plant interactions including successful feeding and plant pathogen transmission.

  4. Low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma of palatal salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Mills, S E; Garland, T A; Allen, M S

    1984-05-01

    The clinicopathologic features of five low-grade papillary adenocarcinomas of palatal salivary gland origin are presented and seven well-documented cases from the literature are reviewed. Patients in our series ranged in age from 30 to 77 years (median 48). Symptoms were nonspecific and related to a mass present for a long duration. Histologically, these were complex cystic, papillary, focally solid tumors that were partially encapsulated. Cytologically, they were composed of bland, predominantly cuboidal cells with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm. Four tumors were initially considered to be benign mixed tumors, but long-term follow-up indicates that these are slowly growing, malignant neoplasms. Three patients developed solitary cervical lymph node metastases from 2 to 21 years after initial presentation. One tumor underwent an anaplastic transformation to solid adenocarcinoma, and this was from the only patient in our series who died with tumor. Low-grade papillary adenocarcinoma is a clinicopathologically distinctive salivary gland neoplasm, with histologic features unlike those of other papillary salivary gland tumors.

  5. Flow cytometric DNA ploidy in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Driemel, Oliver; Maier, Heinz; Kraft, Klaus; Haase, Stephan; Hemmer, Joerg

    2005-01-01

    This study on 279 tumours of the salivary glands was conducted to analyse whether the assessment of DNA ploidy by flow cytometry may assist histopathology in discriminating benign from malignant types of tumours. The group of benign tumours included 164 pleomorphic adenomas, 51 Warthin's tumours, 7 basal cell adenomas, 2 lipomas as well as 5 other different tumours. All of the 229 benign tumours were diploid. The malignant tumours consisted of 18 adenoid cystic adenomas, 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 5 acinic cell carcinomas, 5 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma as well as of 12 other malignancies belonging to 7 different tumour entities. Twelve of 50 malignant salivary gland tumours were aneuploid. There was no significant relationship between the DNA ploidy status and histopathological grading, lymph node metastasis and local recurrence development, respectively. In three cases which initially were taken for pleomorphic adenomas by routine histological examination, aneuploid cell populations exposed by DNA flow cytometric analysis gave rise to a closer inspection of the suspect lesions. Examination of consecutive slides actually revealed small assemblies of carcinoma cells that required a final diagnosis as non-invasive carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma. The most obvious value of DNA flow cytometry in salivary gland tumours is thus its contribution to assist histopathology in identifying potentially malignant lesions.

  6. Fine needle aspiration in the diagnosis of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Nettle, W J; Orell, S R

    1989-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of salivary glands was performed in 187 patients. In 106 patients with satisfactory FNAB smears who proceeded to surgery, the original cytologic diagnosis was compared with subsequent histopathology. There were 74 benign tumours and 25 malignant tumours. Nineteen of the latter were primary malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands, and 6 were metastatic. The cytologic diagnosis by FNAB correlated exactly with the histologic diagnosis in 95% of benign neoplasms and in 68% of malignant neoplasms, with an overall accuracy of 88%. A false negative diagnosis for malignancy was made in five cases and a false positive diagnosis in one case. Hence the sensitivity for malignancy was 80% and the specificity was 99%. The most frequently misdiagnosed lesions were pleomorphic adenoma and muco-epidermoid carcinoma. FNAB of salivary gland lesions is easy to perform and free of complications, but the cytologic patterns may be difficult to interpret, and considerable experience is necessary in order to achieve a high diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the parotid gland associated with salivary calculi: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; Kamath, M Panduranga; Sreedharan, Suja; Suhas, S S

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) of the head and neck are relatively rare tumors, consisting of approximately 10-15% of all salivary gland neoplasms. ACC, a slow-growing aggressive malignant tumor of salivary gland commonly seen in the submandibular, sublingual, minor salivary glands is seldom found in the parotid. Calculus, the common cause of salivary gland dysfunction is usually identified in submandibular salivary gland because of its duct anatomy and physiochemical characteristic serous secretion. We report an unusual case of co-existent presentation of ACC with salivary calculi in the parotid gland which is never been reported in the literature. Co-existence of ductal calculi and ACC is rare. Presence of parotid calculus could be due to long standing ductal obstruction by the slow-growing ACC of the parotid or other possibility is that the malignancy could have developed because of chronic irritation by parotid calculi. Confirmatory studies are required to understand its mutual pathological association. PMID:26458630

  8. Basement membrane proteins in salivary gland tumours. Distribution of type IV collagen and laminin.

    PubMed

    Skalova, A; Leivo, I

    1992-01-01

    Immunohistochemical localization of type IV collagen and laminin in normal salivary glands and in salivary gland tumours of various types was studied using rabbit antisera. In normal salivary glands, type IV collagen and laminin were co-localized in basement membranes surrounding acini, ducts, fat cells and peripheral nerves. In salivary gland tumours, three main patterns of co-expression of these basement membrane proteins were distinguished. Linear basement membrane-like staining was detected in duct-cell-derived benign salivary gland tumours and in acinic cell carcinomas. In invasive lesions, however, these basement membrane proteins were distributed in an irregular, interrupted manner, and in many cases they were completely absent. Both benign and malignant salivary gland tumours which have a prominent myoepithelial cell component display a particular deposition of basement membrane molecules adjacent to the modified myoepithelial cells, and at the margins of extracellular matrix deposits within these tumours.

  9. Aging and secretory reserve capacity of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, E M; Ship, J A

    2003-10-01

    A loss of acinar cells occurs with aging, while salivary production remains age-stable in healthy adults. It is hypothesized that a secretory reserve exists to preserve function despite a loss of acinar cells in normal aging. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was to determine age-related differences in salivary response to an anti-sialogogue (glycopyrrolate). Thirty-six healthy subjects (18 young--20-38 yrs; 18 older--60-77 yrs) received 4.0 microg/kg i.v. glycopyrrolate. Parotid and submandibular/sublingual saliva samples and xerostomia questionnaire responses were collected. Variables calculated for each subject were: times to initial and maximum suppression and xerostomic complaint; time to recovery; and durations of suppression and complaint. Salivary function was more adversely affected in older persons. There were no consistent age-associated questionnaire response differences. These findings suggest that salivary gland output is more adversely affected by an anti-sialogogue in healthy older vs. younger adults, supporting the secretory reserve hypothesis of salivary function. PMID:14514768

  10. The Role of Autophagy in Salivary Gland Homeostasis and Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, M.; Lin, H.H.; Ann, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process that has been shown to have a role in many cellular processes including the removal of excessive or damaged proteins and protein aggregates. The salivary glands play a critical role in oral health, and their secretory capacity may be critically intertwined with the autophagic process. This review describes the role of autophagy activation in normal salivary gland homeostasis and during the glandular stress responses of therapeutic radiation, ductal ligation, autoimmunity, and salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma. PMID:26092378

  11. Chikungunya Virus Replication in Salivary Glands of the Mosquito Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Schmitt, Christine; Bonne, Isabelle; Krijnse Locker, Jacomine; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2015-11-17

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes such as Aedes albopictus. To be transmitted, CHIKV must replicate in the mosquito midgut, then disseminate in the hemocele and infect the salivary glands before being released in saliva. We have developed a standardized protocol to visualize viral particles in the mosquito salivary glands using transmission electron microscopy. Here we provide direct evidence for CHIKV replication and storage in Ae. albopictus salivary glands.

  12. Are gingival and periodontal conditions related to salivary gland flow rates in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Crow, H C; Ship, J A

    1995-11-01

    Some have suggested that gingival and periodontal health is related to salivary gland function; however, there are few data to support this hypothesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if correlations existed between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in people of different ages. The results suggest that there is no consistent relationship between major salivary gland flow rates and gingival and periodontal conditions in healthy people. PMID:7499648

  13. Salivary gland and associated complications in head and neck cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish; Ram, Saravanan; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are two of the most common and significant complications of head and neck cancer therapy in the head and neck region. This article will provide a brief overview of salivary gland hypofunction and associated complications in head and neck cancer therapy, mainly in radiation therapy. The discussion will include quality of life issues as well as current advances in cancer therapy to reduce xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

  14. [The value of fine needle biopsy in the diagnosis of tumors of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Fière, A; Cartier, E; Breton, P; Faucon, M; Freidel, M

    1990-01-01

    Aspiration biopsy by fine needle from the major salivary glands has been studied. To evaluate this form of biopsy, 34 patients with salivary gland enlargement were examined. By this technic, 29 has confirmative histology. The method proved complication free and accurate. The safety of this biopsy form has been proven. The accuracy of this method may be high, particularly, for the most common benign mixed tumor. Thus this procedure is suggested for initial examination of all lesions of the salivary gland.

  15. HLA-DR antigens in normal, inflammatory, and neoplastic salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Zarbo, R J; Regezi, J A; Lloyd, R V; Crissman, J D; Batsakis, J G

    1987-11-01

    A monoclonal antibody to HLA-DR antigens that is reactive in formalin-fixed tissues was used with the immunoperoxidase method to evaluate 212 salivary gland lesions (normal, nonspecific, and autoimmune inflammatory, benign, and malignant tumors). Results of immunostaining showed that (1) intercalated ducts, myoepithelial cells, and acinous cells of normal salivary glands express HLA-DR antigens, (2) autoimmune salivary gland disease results in greater HLA-DR expression than that seen in nonspecific inflammatory lesions or normal glands, (3) stromal cells associated with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors express HLA-DR antigens, and (4) numerous benign and malignant salivary gland tumors express HLA-DR antigens. It was of interest that lymphocyte-rich Warthin's tumors displayed epithelial immunoreactivity, whereas oncocytomas devoid of a lymphocytic component were invariably negative. This suggests a lymphocyte-mediated role in salivary epithelial HLA-DR expression. It appears that HLA-DR expression is both a normal and an inducible phenomenon in salivary glands, salivary gland neoplasia, and the desmoplastic host response. There is no discriminatory role in the immunologic detection of HLA-DR for differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors.

  16. Pleomorphic adenoma of an accessory submandibular salivary gland: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajiv S; Meshram, Deepashree; Jangam, Sagar S; Singh, Jatinder S

    2015-10-01

    An accessory submandibular salivary gland is a rare anatomical variant, and a tumour within one is even rarer. We describe a 54-year-old man who presented with a slowly-enlarging mass in the right submandibular region which on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) seemed to be close to, but not arising from, the right submandibular salivary gland. This was found to be a benign pleomorphic adenoma arising from an accessory submandibular salivary gland. To our knowledge it is only the second report of a pleomorphic adenoma that developed within an accessory submandibular salivary gland.

  17. Pitfalls in the staging of cancer of the major salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Elliott R; Saindane, Amit M

    2013-02-01

    The major salivary glands consist of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. Most neoplasms in other subsites in the head and neck are squamous cell carcinoma, but tumors of the salivary glands may be benign or malignant. Surgical treatment differs if the lesion is benign, and therefore preoperative fine needle aspiration is important in salivary neoplasms. The role of imaging is to attempt to determine histology, predict likelihood of a lesion being malignant, and report an imaging stage. This article reviews the various histologies, imaging features, and staging of major salivary gland neoplasms.

  18. [Salivary gland-type lung tumor: An update].

    PubMed

    Gibault, Laure; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    "Salivary gland-type" tumors arising from the bronchi and lung are rare but not exceptional entities. They are mostly represented by malignant entities such as cystic adenoid carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and epithelial/myoepithelial carcinoma. Benign tumors are rare, mainly encompassing pleomorphic adenomas, which are to differentiate from mucous gland adenomas, another entity arising specifically from the peri-bronchial glands. These tumours develop in the proximal bronchi and are not associated with smoke abuse. Their main treatment is surgery. It is important to differentiate them from other broncho-pulmonary tumours as they do not share the same prognosis and therapeutic. This article will review the WHO 2015 classification of these tumours as well as recent updates from the literature to help define diagnosis criteria for these uncommon entities. PMID:26774826

  19. Enlargement of salivary glands in bulimia.

    PubMed

    Vavrina, J; Müller, W; Gebbers, J O

    1994-06-01

    We report a unusual case of bulimia nervosa with bilateral swelling of parotid and submandibular glands as the only symptom of the underlying behavioural disorder. Histologically, sialadenosis was diagnosed in a parotid biopsy. The parotomegaly in bulimia may be a diagnostic primer as these patients often deny their eating disorder. B-scan ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool to assess the nature of the parotid enlargement. Hyperamylasaemia occurs commonly in bulimic patients and may help to confirm the diagnosis. All patients with suspected bulimia should have a thorough medical history and physical examination to rule out other aetiologies of asymptomatic parotid swelling. As the enlargement is usually transient surgical intervention is only rarely required.

  20. Mena, a new available marker in tumors of salivary glands?

    PubMed

    Gurzu, S; Krause, M; Ember, I; Azamfirei, L; Gobel, G; Feher, K; Jung, I

    2012-01-01

    Mena (mammalian Ena) is an actin regulatory protein involved in cell motility and adhesion. Based on its potential role in malignant transformation revealed in other organs, we analyzed the Mena expression in normal salivary glands (SG) and salivary tumors. Mena expression was determined in normal SG (n=10) and also benign (n=20) and malignant (n=35) lesions of SG. For the immunohistochemical staining we used the anti-Mena antibody. All normal SG and the benign lesions (10 pleomorphic adenomas, 10 Warthin's tumors) were Mena negative. Salivary duct carcinomas (n=5), carcinomas in pleomorphic adenoma (n=5), acinic cell carcinomas (n=5), squamous cell carcinomas (n=10) and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=2) were positive. The lymphomas (n=5) and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas (n=1) were Mena negative. In one case the lymphoblastic cells stained positive for Mena. Some of the endothelial cells, in the peritumoral vessels, were Mena positive. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the literature about Mena expression in salivary tumors. Our study suggests that Mena protein seems to play a role in malignant transformation and its intensity is correlated with the type and grade of tumor and also with vascular invasion. Its positivity in endothelial cells may suggest its potential role in tumor angiogenesis.

  1. Papillary cystoadenoma lymphomatosum (Warthin-like) of minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Párraga-Linares, Laura; Aguirre-Urízar, Jose-María; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2009-11-01

    Papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum is a benign salivary gland tumor most frequently located in the parotid gland (Warthin's tumor). Its presentation in other major, or in minor, salivary glands is rare. Clinically, it manifests as a slow growing tumor, fluctuant on palpation due to its cystic morphology. The treatment of choice is complete excision with wide tumor-free margins. We present a 73-year-old female patient with an asymptomatic tumor of 8 years evolution in the right posterior area of the hard palate. We performed surgical excision and a biopsy, which was reported as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum. During the post-operative examination carried out after 3 weeks, it was observed that the lesion had recurred. The lesion was re-operated, performing the excision with CO2 laser and including the periosteum to ensure complete resection of the tumor. At 10 months follow-up, there was no recurrence of the lesion. This article includes a review of this condition and discusses its most important clinical and pathologic features and therapeutic approaches.

  2. Basal cell adenocarcinomas of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ellis, G L; Wiscovitch, J G

    1990-04-01

    Basal cell adenoma of salivary gland has become an established variant of monomorphic adenoma since its segregation from pleomorphic adenoma in 1967. Although there have been many comprehensive reports about benign basal cell adenomas, only rare case reports of malignant basal cell type neoplasms have appeared in the literature. Described in this report are the clinicopathologic features of 29 cases labeled basal cell adenocarcinomas that had morphologic characteristics of basal cell adenomas but infiltrative, perineural, and intravascular growth features that indicated a malignant potential. With limited follow-up, seven tumors are known to have recurred, and three of these metastasized to lymph nodes and lung. One patient died with extensive local spread of the tumor. All patients were adults. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade of life, and there was no gender predilection. The parotid gland was the predominant site. A solid type growth configuration was most frequent; membranous, trabecular, and tubular types were less frequent, in that order. Three patients also had dermal cylindromas, perhaps indicative of a salivary gland-skin adnexal diathesis that has been previously reported.

  3. Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Hotze, H J; Laskawi, R; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1999-06-01

    The cytomorphologic features in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from 31 primary and 33 recurrent adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were investigated. The correct FNA diagnosis was established in 24 of 31 primary ACC (77%). The diagnostic clue in aspirates from ACC are large globules of extracellular matrix, partially surrounded by basaloid tumor cells. In FNAs with predominance of basaloid tumor cells, but lacking characteristic globules, all other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors of epithelial-myoepithelial differentiation should be considered in the cytologic diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most frequently confused with ACC, and therefore, the cytologic findings in FNAs from 50 pleomorphic adenomas were compared with those diagnosed as ACC. Furthermore, rare neoplasms of salivary glands with epithelial-myoepithelial cell differentiation, including basal-cell adenoma and carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, as well as some nonsalivary gland neoplasms presenting an adenoid cystic pattern, must be considered. The cytologic features of these entities are discussed in detail with respect to the cytologic diagnostic criteria of ACC.

  4. Expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumors. Frequent expression of androgen receptor in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Selim M; Faquin, William C; Dayal, Yogeshwar

    2003-06-01

    The expression of sex hormone receptors in some tumors suggests a role for these receptors in tumor pathogenesis and therapy. Previous studies of the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumors have reported conflicting results. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors (AR, ER, and PR) in a series of 78 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded salivary gland tumors. Immunoreactivity for AR was seen in 14 of 14 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 6 of 6 salivary duct carcinomas, and 2 of 2 basal cell adenocarcinomas but in only 2 of 10 acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas each. AR expression was distributed evenly between the sexes. ER and PR were expressed in only a few cases of salivary gland tumors. All 26 benign salivary gland tumors were negative for AR, ER, and PR. The uniform expression of AR exclusively in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors suggests a possible role for AR in the histogenesis and possibly in the clinical management of these malignant salivary gland tumors.

  5. Salivary gland lymph nodes. The site of lymphadenopathies and lymphomas associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Ryan, J R; Blaugrund, S M

    1988-12-01

    Normally, lymph nodes are intimately associated with the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland. Several lymph nodes are embedded in the parotid gland, other lymph nodes are adjacent to the submaxillary gland, and ectopic salivary gland acini and ducts are commonly present in cervical lymph nodes. These salivary gland lymph nodes may become the primary site of the benign lymphadenopathy and the malignant lymphomas characteristically associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This report of a series of HIV-associated lymphatic lesions originating in salivary gland lymph nodes comprises nine cases of salivary gland masses that were surgically excised, it includes six cases of lymphadenitides and three cases of lymphoma--all originating in salivary gland lymph nodes and showing the histologic lesions known to occur in association with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV-related infections and neoplasias located in the salivary gland lymph nodes raise interesting questions about the possible etiologic role of an oral portal of entry and of the virus-infected saliva. The recognition of their clinical and pathologic features is indispensable to enable correct diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I

  7. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  8. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  9. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland carcinomas and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SHIGEISHI, HIDEO; OHTA, KOUJI; OKUI, GAKU; SEINO, SAYAKA; HASHIKATA, MIHO; YAMAMOTO, KAZUHIRO; ISHIDA, YOKO; SASAKI, KAZUKI; NARUSE, TAKAKO; RAHMAN, MOHAMMAD ZESHAAN; UETSUKI, RYO; NIMIYA, AKIKO; ONO, SHIGEHIRO; SHIMASUE, HIROSHI; HIGASHIKAWA, KOICHIRO; SUGIYAMA, MASARU; TAKECHI, MASAAKI

    2015-01-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare and exhibit a broad spectrum of phenotypic heterogeneity. The objective of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in patients with salivary gland carcinomas and review the results in light of other reports. We retrospectively reviewed 40 patients with primary salivary gland carcinomas who were diagnosed and treated at our institution between 1991 and 2014. Of the 40 tumors, 19 (47.5%) were mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 11 (27.5%) were adenoid cystic carcinomas, 7 (17.5%) were acinic cell carcinomas, 2 (5.0%) were myoepithelial carcinomas and 1 (2.5%) was a squamous cell carcinoma. Clinically positive lymph nodes were present in 4 patients (10.0%). As regards clinical stage, 15 cases (37.5%) were stage I, 13 (32.5%) were stage II, 1 (2.5%) was stage III and 11 (27.5%) were stage IVA. The majority of the patients (97.5%) were treated with surgery, of whom 25 (62.5%) received surgery alone and 14 (35.0%) underwent surgery in combination with chemotherapy or chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median follow-up time for all the patients was 48 months. The disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 87.1%. We identified a significant correlation between poor survival rate and histological grade (intermediate/high), tumor size (T3/T4), lymph node metastasis (node-positive) and clinical stage (III/IV) using the Kaplan-Meier method (P<0.05 for each). In addition, the Cox proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed that lymph node metastasis and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 18.7 and 15.1, respectively; P=0.023 and 0.037, respectively). Furthermore, tumor size was found to be a predictive factor regarding recurrence in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 8.35; P=0.025). Our results suggest that lymph node metastasis and tumor size are significant prognostic factors for patients with salivary gland carcinomas. PMID:25469295

  10. Vasoconstriction induced by salivary gland extracts from ixodid ticks.

    PubMed

    Pekáriková, Danica; Rajská, Petra; Kazimírová, Mária; Pecháňová, Olga; Takáč, Peter; Nuttall, Patricia A

    2015-12-01

    In their quest for blood, most haematophagous parasites secrete vasodilators in their saliva to counter the host haemostatic response of vasoconstriction. Surprisingly, salivary gland extracts from adult female Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks induced constriction in a rat femoral artery model; males induced vasoconstriction or vasodilation depending on the time of feeding. Based on comparative HPLC fractionation, the active compounds inducing vasoconstriction do not appear to be prostaglandins (which ticks normally use as vasodilators). Vasoconstriction may be unique to ixodid ticks, helping them control blood flow during their prolonged blood-feeding of up to 10 days or more.

  11. Functional Histology of Salivary Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma: An Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, Asterios; Thompson, Lester D R; Devaney, Kenneth O; Bell, Diana; Hunt, Jennifer L; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Ferlito, Alfio

    2015-09-01

    The complex microstructure of salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma is examined in relation to function. Events related to secretion of macromolecules and absorption, responses to the altered microenvironment and controversies concerning epithelial-mesenchymal transition versus modified myoepithelial differentiation are explored. Their effects on tumor cell phenotypes and arrangements are emphasized. Heterotopic differentiation and attempts at organogenesis are also considered. The approach allows interpreting microstructure independently of histogenetic perceptions, envisaging the tumor cells as a continuum, endorsing luminal structures as the principal components, and defining pleomorphic adenoma as a benign epithelial tumour characterized by variable epithelial-mesenchymal transition, secretion/differentiation and metaplasia.

  12. Diagnosis of salivary gland tumors by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Sismanis, A; Merriam, J M; Kline, T S; Davis, R K; Shapshay, S M; Strong, M S

    1981-01-01

    The cytologic findings of 51 smears obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy from salivary gland masses were compared with the histologic findings of permanent sections. The overall concurrence rate between cytologic and histologic findings for being and malignant lesions was 91%. The diagnostic accuracy (exact histologic diagnosis) for the benign lesions was 87% and for the malignant tumors 60%. One case showed false-positive results and 1 case false-negative results. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has been found to be safe, free of complications, and helpful in the planning of treatment.

  13. Immunocompetent cells in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V J; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    1996-10-01

    IgA-, IgG, and IgM-producing plasma cells as well as 3- and T-lymphocytes were immunophenotyped and quantitated in a series of 216 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, with special emphasis placed on the clinical behavior of the tumors. Highest number of plasma cells were found in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, where IgG-plasma cells were the sole Ig-class secreted. No IgA-immunoreactivity was found in adenoid cystic, undifferentiated, acinic cell, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In squamous cell carcinomas, the number of IgM-plasma cells was higher than that in other salivary gland tumors. Basal cell adenomas contained only IgM-positive plasma cells. In logistic regression analysis, IgG- and IgM-producing plasma cells in malignant salivary gland tumors were related to an increased tumor diameter (p = 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). In benign tumors, neither clinical nor prognostic value could be attributed to the distribution of plasma cells. T-cells and B-cells were present in 63.9% and 33.8% of all tumors, found in 63.8% and 26.7% (p = 0.0048) of the benign tumors, and in 64.1% and 41.7% (not significant) of the malignant tumors, respectively. The presence of T- of B-lymphocytes was of no prognostic significance in malignant tumors. In benign tumors, however, the mean age of the patients was significantly higher (p = 0.010) and the mean time to recurrence significantly shorter (p = 0.018) in patients with tumors containing T-cells than in those devoid of these cells. In conclusion, the cell-mediated immunity (T-cells and their subsets) seems to play a more important role in pathogenesis and prognostication of salivary gland neoplasms than do the cells of the B-cell lineage, and, clearly, further studies are needed to elucidate these issues.

  14. Salivary gland anlage tumor: a clinicopathological study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gauchotte, Guillaume; Coffinet, Laurent; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Bressenot, Aude; Hennequin, Virginie; Champigneulle, Jacqueline; Vignaud, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    We report two cases of salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT), a nasopharyngeal lesion that affects newborns. The first case concerned a male newborn, presenting respiratory distress secondary to a nasopharyngeal mass. The second case was diagnosed in a 6-week-old girl, suffering from respiratory difficulties due to a nasal cavity mass. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the second case revealed the presence of several small round and linear fluid-like areas. Histologically, both lesions were suggestive of SGAT, characterized by epithelial structures that blended with spindle-cells, drawing highly cellular nodules. Connective tissue between nodules contained squamous cystic nests and ducts.

  15. Salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sotorra-Figuerola, Dídac; Almendros-Marqués, Nieves; Espana-Tost, Antonio-Jesús; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland choristoma (SGCh) is defined as the presence of normal salivary tissue in an abnormal location. It is a rare entity in oral and maxillofacial region and its ethiology is unknown. The typical presentation of salivary gland heterotopia is an asymptomatic mass that may or may not produce saliva. Some examples of ectopic salivary tissue in the pituitary gland, in the lymph nodes, in the middle ear, in the neck, in the jaw, in the thyroid gland, in the mediastinum and in the rectum have been documented in literature. We report the case of a 61-year-old male presented with a bilateral tumorlike mass in the cheek. The mass was painless, of fibrous consistency and had size change with time. The histological diagnosis was salivary gland choristoma in the buccinator muscle. In this article, we will revise the characteristic of salivary gland heterotopias and we present a report case that has not been described in literature: a bilateral choristoma of salivary gland in the buccinator muscle, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of head and neck masses. Key words:Choristoma, heterotopias, ectopic tissue, salivary gland, buccinator muscle. PMID:26535104

  16. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome with heterotopic salivary gland tissue and absence of internal carotid artery.

    PubMed

    Akçam, Timur; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Gerek, Mustafa; Birkent, Hakan; Ozkaptan, Yalçin; Tayfun, Cem

    2003-08-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS), heterotopic salivary gland and hypoplasia of internal carotid artery (ICA) are all rare entities. We have reported a case of all these three conditions included in a patient. We have postulated that the heterotopic salivary gland tissue might have caused the hypoplasia of ICA and also triggered the THS. PMID:12927303

  17. Hotspot activating PRKD1 somatic mutations in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, Ilan; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Martelotto, Luciano G; Waggott, Daryl; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Harding, Nicholas J; Alfaro, Javier; Chu, Kenneth C; Viale, Agnes; Fusco, Nicola; da Cruz Paula, Arnaud; Marchio, Caterina; Sakr, Rita A; Lim, Raymond; Thompson, Lester D R; Chiosea, Simion I; Seethala, Raja R; Skalova, Alena; Stelow, Edward B; Fonseca, Isabel; Assaad, Adel; How, Christine; Wang, Jianxin; de Borja, Richard; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; Howlett, Christopher J; Nichols, Anthony C; Wen, Y Hannah; Katabi, Nora; Buchner, Nicholas; Mullen, Laura; Kislinger, Thomas; Wouters, Bradly G; Liu, Fei-Fei; Norton, Larry; McPherson, John D; Rubin, Brian P; Clarke, Blaise A; Weigelt, Britta; Boutros, Paul C; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) is the second most frequent type of malignant tumor of the minor salivary glands. We identified PRKD1 hotspot mutations encoding p.Glu710Asp in 72.9% of PLGAs but not in other salivary gland tumors. Functional studies demonstrated that this kinase-activating alteration likely constitutes a driver of PLGA.

  18. Clinicopathologic evaluation of salivary gland neoplasms: a 38-year retrospective study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Saba, Mojdeh

    2013-12-01

    We present a 38-year retrospective study of 165 patients with salivary gland tumors that were diagnosed from 1971 to 2009 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad, Iran. The histologic diagnoses were reevaluated according to the 2005 World Health Organization classification. A total of 165 tumors were identified in 79 male and 86 female patients. The mean age was 43.41 ± 18.59 for male patients and 40.06 ± 15.91 for female patients. Although benign salivary gland tumors are usually more common than the malignant counterpart in previous studies, neoplasms showed an almost equal frequency of benign and malignant tumors in the present study. The frequency of major salivary gland tumors was 15.8%, and that of minor salivary gland tumors was 83%. The mean age of patients with major salivary gland tumors (44.30 years) was slightly higher than patients with minor ones (41.15 years). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common histologic type of benign tumor identified, whereas mucoepidermoid was the most common malignant tumor. In contrast to some previous studies that have been reported parotid gland as the most common site for salivary tumors, in the current study, the palate was the most frequent location for salivary gland tumors and tumors have a propensity to occur at the palate than any other sites. Therefore, any lesion arising from the palate should be considered as a possible salivary gland tumor.

  19. [Diagnostic and therapy of salivary gland diseases: relevant aspects for the pathologist from the clinical perspective].

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, C; Burmeister, H P; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2009-11-01

    Significant progress in the diagnosis and therapy of salivary gland diseases has been made in recent years. The new technique of diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopy has made an important contribution and is indicated in every case of obstructive sialadenitis. The number of open resections of salivary glands due to stones will clearly decrease in the future in favor of endoscopic removal. Due to recent publications on the appropriate extent of salivary gland resection in benign tumors, more and more specimens with reduced cuffs of healthy salivary gland tissue will be sent to the pathologists. Ultrasound will stay the procedure of first choice for imaging of salivary gland diseases in Germany. In combination with fine-needle aspiration cytology high sensitivity and specificity for the assessment of salivary gland tumors can be achieved. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new imaging tool and the power of distinction of pleomorphic adenoma from malignant tumors is promising. The use of botulinum toxin for salivary glands diseases is increasing. Intraglandular injections have been shown to induce salivary gland atrophy in animal experiments. The availability of biologicals is currently yielding new aspects for the treatment of Sjögren's disease.

  20. [Benign tumors of epithelial origin of the salivary glands. The authors' own experience and cases].

    PubMed

    Pomatto, E; Corradi, L; Carbone, V; Fornaseri, C

    1993-04-30

    Following a review of the most recent literature on benign tumours of the salivary glands of epithelial origin, the paper illustrates an up-to-date classification of these tumours in anatomical and pathological terms. The author's personal clinical experience in 50 cases of major and minor salivary glands operated during the period between 1985 and 1991.

  1. Pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland: magnetic resonance imaging findings with differential diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-08-01

    The majority of minor salivary gland tumors are malignant. Of the benign tumors, pleomorphic adenomas are most common. The cheeks, lips, and gingiva are rarely sites of occurrence. A case of pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal salivary gland is presented here with a discussion of the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in demonstrating the extent of the lesion and establishing a differential diagnoses.

  2. Sclerosing Polycystic Adenosis: A Rare Tumor of the Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Christopher G; Fong, Justin B; Axelsson, Karen L; Gurushanthaiah, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Case Presentation: A 74-year-old woman presented to the Head and Neck Surgery clinic with a 4-year history of a slowly growing, painful, left-sided neck mass in the tail of the parotid gland. Fine-needle aspiration suggested well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Discussion and Results: The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy and super-selective neck dissection (level 2). Pathology revealed a tumor consistent with sclerosing polycystic adenosis. Conclusion: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis is a rare inflammatory process that causes fibrocystic changes in the salivary gland. Apocrine-like metaplasia and epithelial atypia are common pathologic features. To our knowledge, a total of 51 cases have been described in the English-language literature. PMID:27043832

  3. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland mycoses.

    PubMed

    Raab, S S; Thomas, P A; Cohen, M B

    1994-01-01

    This report details the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytomorphologic features of two cases of salivary gland mycosis. Both patients had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and presented with parotid gland masses. The first patient had Histoplasmosis with secondary infection by Candida. Cytopathologically, the FNAB smears showed classic features of a deep-seated mycosis characterized by necrosis and scattered fungal forms. The second patient had a colonizing sialadenitis caused by either Asperigillus or Fusarium. Cytopathologically, the findings were similar to those seen in aspergillomas of the lung or paranasal sinuses with numerous hyphal forms and an absence of an inflammatory response. Because mycotic disease can induce a wide spectrum of pathogenic change, other benign or malignant, solid or cystic lesions enter into the differential diagnosis.

  4. Carcinosarcoma of the submandibular salivary gland. Immunohistochemical findings.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, I J; Huvos, A G; Lara, J; Strong, E W

    1992-04-15

    Carcinosarcomas of the salivary glands are rare lesions that generally have been associated with benign mixed tumors. The authors report a case of a submandibular gland lesion, which occurred in a 64-year-old man, that was composed of intermingled ductal type adenocarcinoma and osteogenic sarcoma with a large component of osteoclast-like giant cells. The local recurrence of the tumor was entirely sarcomatous with no epithelial component observed. There was no histologic evidence of a preexisting or coexisting pleomorphic adenoma. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed two separate populations of tumor cells, corresponding to the histologic growth pattern. The authors review the literature and discuss histogenetic implications of distinction between de novo carcinosarcoma and carcinosarcoma in association with pleomorphic adenoma.

  5. Oncocytoma of minor salivary gland involving the retromolar region: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Palakshappa, Suhasini Gotur; Bansal, Vishal; Reddy, Vandana; Kamarthi, Nagaraju

    2014-01-01

    Oncocytic neoplasms comprise a group of rare tumors of salivary glands. Histologically, World Health Organization (WHO) (1991) classified them into three distinct types: Oncocytosis, oncocytoma and oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytoma is also known by the more descriptive and less confusing terms of oxyphilic adenoma and oxyphilic granular cell adenoma. Oncocytoma is a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm composed of large epithelial cells with characteristic bright eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (oncocytic cells). It accounts for approximately 0.4-1% of all salivary gland neoplasms, occurring primarily in parotid glands, with only a small percentage occurring in minor salivary glands of palate, tonsillar fossi, larynx, nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and the lacrimal gland. It occurs primarily in persons older than 50 years of age. According to some authors, the biologic behavior of oncocytomas arising from minor salivary glands is that of an aggressive nature and should be considered as low-grade malignancies. Only 17 cases of histologically verified oncocytoma of an intraoral minor salivary gland are reported in literature, the current case being the 18th. Owing to the lack of large series, assiduous study of the cases reported in the literature may lead to better understanding of this rare entity. We herein describe a rare and probably the first case of minor salivary gland oncocytoma involving retromolar area in a 32-year-old female patient with a brief review of literature.

  6. Salivary gland homeostasis is maintained through acinar cell self-duplication.

    PubMed

    Aure, Marit H; Konieczny, Stephen F; Ovitt, Catherine E

    2015-04-20

    Current dogma suggests that salivary gland homeostasis is stem cell dependent. However, the extent of stem cell contribution to salivary gland maintenance has not been determined. We investigated acinar cell replacement during homeostasis, growth, and regeneration, using an inducible CreER(T2) expressed under the control of the Mist1 gene locus. Genetic labeling, followed by a chase period, showed that acinar cell replacement is not driven by the differentiation of unlabeled stem cells. Analysis using R26(Brainbow2.1) reporter revealed continued proliferation and clonal expansion of terminally differentiated acinar cells in all major salivary glands. Induced injury also demonstrated the regenerative potential of pre-labeled acinar cells. Our results support a revised model for salivary gland homeostasis based predominantly on self-duplication of acinar cells, rather than on differentiation of stem cells. The proliferative capacity of differentiated acinar cells may prove critical in the implementation of cell-based strategies to restore the salivary glands.

  7. [Skin adnexal and salivary gland neoplasms. Similarities and differences of selected patients].

    PubMed

    Mentzel, T

    2004-02-01

    Benign and malignant skin adnexal neoplasms, especially glandular lesions, show morphologically striking similarities to salivary gland tumors. On the other hand, histological and clinical differences are evident, and knowledge of their existence is important for adequate treatment and reliable prognostication. In this review similarities and differences of selected entities are briefly described and discussed. The following entities are reviewed: cylindroma (vs. membranous variant of basal cell adenoma), sebaceoma (vs. sebaceous adenoma), syringocystadenoma papilliferum (vs. sialadenoma papilliferum), chondroid syringoma (vs. pleomorphic adenoma), cutaneous myoepithelioma (vs. myoepithelioma of salivary glands), cutaneous malignant myoepithelioma (vs. malignant myoepithelioma of salivary glands), cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (vs. adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands), and mucinous eccrine carcinoma (vs. mucous carcinoma of salivary glands).

  8. Characterization of the myoepithelial cells in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Hernández, Julio; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bats constitute one of the most numerous mammalian species. Bats have a wide range of dietary habits and include carnivorous, haematophagous, insectivorous, frugivorous and nectivorous species. The salivary glands of these species have been of particular research interest due to their structural variability among chiropterans with different types of diets. Myoepithelial cells (MECs), which support and facilitate the expulsion of saliva from the secretory portions of salivary glands, are very important for their function; however, this cell type has not been extensively studied in the salivary glands of bats. In this study, we characterized the MECs in the major salivary glands of the fruit bat Artibeus jamaicensis. Herein, we describe the morphology of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands of A. jamaicensis at the light- and electro-microscopic level and the distribution of MECs in these glands, as defined by their expression of smooth-muscle markers such as α-smooth muscle actin (SMAα) and desmin, and of epithelial cell markers, such as KRT14. We found that the anatomical locations of the major salivary glands in this bat species are similar to those of humans, except that the bat sublingual gland appears to be unique, extending to join the contralateral homologous gland. Morphologically, the parotid gland has the characteristics of a mixed-secretory gland, whereas the submandibular and sublingual glands were identified as mucous-secretory glands. MECs positive for SMAα, KRT14 and desmin were found in all of the structural components of the three glands, except in their excretory ducts. Desmin is expressed at a lower level in the parotid gland than in the other glands. Our results suggest that the major salivary glands of A. jamaicensis, although anatomically and structurally similar to those of humans, play different physiological roles that can be attributed to the dietary habits of this species. PMID:27168421

  9. Anion exchanger immunoreactivity in human salivary glands in health and Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, J. J.; Vázquez, M.; Idoate, M. A.; Montuenga, L.; Martínez-Ansó, E.; Castillo, J. E.; García, N.; Medina, J. F.; Prieto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Salivary gland ducts play a relevant role in saliva secretion through transport processes. Na(+)-independent chloride-bicarbonate anion exchangers (AE) may be involved in these processes by generating ion fluxes into the salivary secretion. In Sjögren's syndrome, a disorder with gland dysfunction, there might be an impaired expression of AE proteins. Here we study AE immunoreactivities in human salivary glands, both in health and in Sjögren's syndrome. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on salivary glands from normal subjects and patients with Sjögren's syndrome, using two monoclonal antibodies against AE1 and AE2. Normal salivary glands showed AE2 immunoreactivity, which was restricted to the epithelium of the ducts, with no staining at the acini. A strong positivity was seen in the basolateral portion of the striated ducts, while interlobular duct cells showed a discrete positivity at their apical pole. In salivary glands from most of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome, AE2 immunoreactivity was absent in the ducts as well as in the acini. In both normal and diseased salivary glands, AE1 immunoreactivity was only located at the erythrocyte membrane. The recently reported AE0 was discarded because no AE0 message was found in salivary glands by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, AE2 immunoreactivity is observed in the ducts of normal salivary glands, particularly in the striated ducts. AE2 immunoreactivity is virtually absent in salivary glands from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, which may reflect either a loss of AE2 after inflammatory atrophy, or a primary defect occurring in the disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7778681

  10. Association of hepatocyte growth factor expression with salivary gland tumor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Yasuda, Masanori; Asano, Shigeyuki; Karakida, Kazunari; Ota, Yoshihide; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Yoshihisa

    2003-12-01

    To clarify the significance of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression in salivary gland tumors, HGF distribution in tissue sections and HGF concentrations in saliva and serum were examined. Sixty salivary gland adenomas, 61 salivary gland carcinomas and three autopsy fetuses were studied. Hepatocyte growth factor expression was observed in the duct-type luminal cells by immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization. However, HGF failed to be expressed in acinar cells and myoepithelium of normal salivary gland tissue. Hepatocyte growth factor tended to be expressed more intensely in benign salivary gland tumors than in malignant salivary gland tumors (P < 0.0001). In highly malignant tumors, the expression was limited in some cases. Salivary and serological HGF concentrations of 18 patients, comprised of 12 benign cases and six malignant cases, were analyzed before and after operation by an ELISA system. The concentrations were distinctly elevated after operation, in both saliva and serum, compared to before operation (P < 0.0005). However, there were no significant relationships between HGF concentration and histology, age, gender, size or location. Our findings suggest that HGF may play an important role in the development of salivary ducts of normal salivary tissues and differentiation of ductal structures of their neoplasms, while HGF kinetics in saliva and serum would be less likely to reflect the neoplastic character, benign or malignant.

  11. WISP-2 expression in human salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kouzu, Yukinao; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Kato, Masaki; Higo, Morihiro; Nimura, Yoshinori; Harada, Koji; Numata, Tsutomu; Seki, Naohiko; Sato, Mitsunobu; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to disclose detailed genetic mechanisms in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) for development of novel independent marker. We constructed an in-house cDNA microarray carrying 2,201 cDNA clones derived from SGT and oral squamous cell carcinoma cDNA libraries. Four cell lines that originated from the SGT-derived cell lines were analyzed using this microarray system. The genes identified by our microarray system were further analyzed at the mRNA or protein expression level in other types of human cancer cell lines and clinical samples (ten normal salivary glands [NSGs], eleven pleomorphic adenomas, ten adenoid cystic carcinomas and three adenocarcinomas). Two up-regulated genes and six down-regulated genes were identified in common when compared with the control RNA. Of the up-regulated genes, WISP-2, which plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis, was selected for further analyses. We found a higher expression of the WISP-2 gene in the SGT-derived cell lines compared with other types of human cancer cell lines. Furthermore, WISP-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in NSGs were significantly higher than those in SGTs. These results suggest that WISP-2 could be a reliable independent marker and that down-regulation or loss of the WISP-2 gene may be associated with the development of SGTs.

  12. Characteristics of salivary gland tumours in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al Sarraj, Yasir; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar; Al Siraj, Ammar; AlShayeb, Maher

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours (SGT) are relatively rare cancers characterised by striking morphological diversity and wide variation in the global distribution of SGT incidence. Given the proximity to the head and neck structures, management of SGT has been clinically difficult. To the best of our knowledge, there are no epidemiological studies on SGT from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) or the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries (GCC). Patient charts (N = 314) and associated pathological records were systematically reviewed between the years 1998-2014. Predominance of benign (74%) compared with malignant (26%) SGT was observed. Among the 83 malignant SGT identified, frequency was higher in males (61%) than in females (39%) and peak occurrence was in the fifth decade of life. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common type of tumour (35%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (18.1%) and acinar cell carcinoma (10.8%). A similar pattern of tumour distribution was seen in patients from GCC, Asian, and Middle East countries. This is the first report to address the distribution of salivary gland tumours in a multiethnic, multicultural population of the Gulf. The results suggest that the development of an SGT registry will help clinicians and researchers to better understand, manage, and treat this rare disease.

  13. [Toxicity and tetramine contents of salivary glands from carnivorous gastropods].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yoko; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    Salivary glands from 29 species of marine carnivorous gastropods in nine families were examined for lethal activity against mice and tetramine content. Mouse lethality was assayed by intravenous injection of buffer extracts into mice, and was detected in 14 species. Heat-stability tests confirmed that toxins in four species were thermolabile, while those in eight species were thermostable. Based on the tetramine contents determined by the colorimetric method using methanolic extracts, the thermostable toxins in seven species (Neptunea eulimatalamellosa, N. vinosa, N. arthritica, N. bulbacea, N. intersculpta f. pribiloffensis, N. intersculpta f. frater pilsbry and Hemifusus tuba) were considered to be tetramine contained at high levels (more than 900 micrograms/g salivary gland), but that in one species (Buccinum opisthoplectum) appeared to be a low-molecular-weight compound differing from tetramine. It is interesting that one (Hemifusus tuba) of the seven species containing high amounts of tetramine belongs to the family Melongenidae, although the other six Neptunea species are members of the family Buccinidae, as expected from previous studies.

  14. Infiltrative angiolipoma of the parotid salivary gland in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kitshoff, A M; Millward, I R; Williams, J H; Clift, S J; Kirberger, R M

    2010-12-01

    Solitary benign angiolipoma and infiltrative angiolipoma are rare tumours in dogs. Angiolipomata can be distinguished histologically from lipomata by the large number of tightly packed blood vessels seen between the adipocytes with multiple fibrin thrombi occupying some of the vessels' lumens. The dog presented with a solitary slow-growing mass in the cervical region. Histopathology revealed multifocal to coalescing single or clusters of blood-filled vessels lined by flattened endothelial cells with narrow, elongated, basophilic nuclei. These regions were embedded in adipose tissue with multifocal areas of intervascular remnants of differentiated serous salivary glandular tissue with multifocal small ducts. Fibrin thrombi occupied a few of the vessel lumens. A histological diagnosis of infiltrative angiolipoma was made. On computed tomography, the mass was bilobed with a suspected primary component involving the right parotid gland which was grossly enlarged. The mass had a slightly hypoattenuating mottled to lobulated appearance with a few hyperattenuating mineralised specks throughout. Hounsfield units of the mass ranged between 40 and 45, which was less than the 60-65 of the contralateral salivary glands and cranial musculature. Post contrast images showed no contrast enhancement of 90% of the mass with only a band of peripheral contrast uptake of the affected lateral lobe.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis of myoepithelial cell carcinoma of salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Elisabetta; Pragliola, Antonella; Farnedi, Anna; Betts, Christine M; Cocchi, Roberto; Foschini, Maria P

    2004-01-01

    Myoepithelial cell carcinoma (MCC) of the salivary gland is a rare entity. Here, we describe the karyotype of MCC. The patient was a 53-year-old man, with a rapidly growing lesion of the palate. Despite complete surgical excision, radio- and chemotherapy, the lesion rapidly harboured local and distant metastases leading to the death of the patient, 4 months after the diagnosis. On histological and ultrastructural examination, the primary tumour and the related metastases were composed of oval and spindle cells, with features of myoepithelial cell differentiation reported in the literature. Cytogenetic analysis showed a composite karyotype in the primary tumour: 45-46,XY, +3[cp3]/ 44-45,XY, -17[cp4]/ 46,XY[5]. The lymph-node metastasis was near-triploid and showed a complex karyotype. Our cytogenetic data differ from those described in benign or slowly growing salivary gland tumours showing myoepithelial cell differentiation. It is suggested that highly aggressive tumours might follow a different pathway of malignant transformation.

  16. Heterogeneity of salivary gland tumors studied by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Tytor, M; Gemryd, P; Wingren, S; Grenko, R T; Lundgren, J; Lundquist, P G; Nordenskjöld, B

    1993-01-01

    Intratumor DNA heterogeneity was investigated by flow cytometric analysis of multiple samples taken from different sites of 8 benign and 16 malignant primarily resected salivary gland tumors. All benign tumors had diploid DNA content. The overall incidence of DNA diploidy in 16 malignant cases examined was 50%. Intratumor differences in DNA ploidy were observed in four malignant tumors (25%); 2 of these 4 heterogeneous tumors contained both aneuploid and diploid cell clones. The remaining 12 tumors showed a homogeneous DNA content in the different specimens; 8 were diploid, 3 aneuploid, and 1 was polypoid. The DNA nondiploid tumors were clinically more advanced than the DNA diploid ones (p < 0.01). The tumor proliferation rate (fraction of cells in S-phase) was higher in DNA nondiploid samples than in diploid ones (p < 0.01). The DNA nondiploid tumors seemed to recur more often than DNA diploid ones did. The data emphasize the usefulness of DNA measurements for the characterization of malignant salivary gland tumors but also the importance of adequate sampling in assessing their DNA ploidy.

  17. Unraveling dual feeding associated molecular complexity of salivary glands in the mosquito Anopheles culicifacies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Punita; Sharma, Swati; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Thomas, Tina; Das De, Tanwee; Rohilla, Suman Lata; Singh, Namita; Pandey, Kailash C.; Valecha, Neena; Dixit, Rajnikant

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mosquito salivary glands are well known to facilitate meal acquisition, however the fundamental question on how adult female salivary gland manages molecular responses during sugar versus blood meal uptake remains unanswered. To investigate these responses, we analyzed a total of 58.5 million raw reads generated from two independent RNAseq libraries of the salivary glands collected from 3–4 day-old sugar and blood fed Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. Comprehensive functional annotation analysis of 10,931 contigs unraveled that salivary glands may encode diverse nature of proteins in response to distinct physiological feeding status. Digital gene expression analysis and PCR validation indicated that first blood meal significantly alters the molecular architecture of the salivary glands. Comparative microscopic analysis also revealed that first blood meal uptake not only causes an alteration of at least 12–22% of morphological features of the salivary glands but also results in cellular changes e.g. apoptosis, confirming together that adult female salivary glands are specialized organs to manage meal specific responses. Unraveling the underlying mechanism of mosquito salivary gene expression, controlling dual feeding associated responses may provide a new opportunity to control vector borne diseases. PMID:26163527

  18. Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Dysfunction Results From p53-Dependent Apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, Jennifer L.; Grundmann, Oliver; Burd, Randy; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer causes adverse secondary side effects in the salivary glands and results in diminished quality of life for the patient. A previous in vivo study in parotid salivary glands demonstrated that targeted head-and-neck irradiation resulted in marked increases in phosphorylated p53 (serine{sup 18}) and apoptosis, which was suppressed in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Methods and Materials: Transgenic and knockout mouse models were exposed to irradiation, and p53-mediated transcription, apoptosis, and salivary gland dysfunction were analyzed. Results: The proapoptotic p53 target genes PUMA and Bax were induced in parotid salivary glands of mice at early time points after therapeutic radiation. This dose-dependent induction requires expression of p53 because no radiation-induced expression of PUMA and Bax was observed in p53-/- mice. Radiation also induced apoptosis in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner, which was p53 dependent. Furthermore, expression of p53 was required for the acute and chronic loss of salivary function after irradiation. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced in p53-/- mice, and their salivary function was preserved after radiation exposure. Conclusions: Apoptosis in the salivary glands after therapeutic head-and-neck irradiation is mediated by p53 and corresponds to salivary gland dysfunction in vivo.

  19. Dynamic uptake of radioactive substance in rat salivary gland following /sup 3/H-melatonin administration

    SciTech Connect

    Withyachumnarnkul, B.; Wongprapairot, P.; Trakulrungsi, W.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamics of radioactive accumulation in rat greater salivary gland following systemic administration of /sup 3/H-melatonin was studied to determine a possible action of the hormone in the gland. Progressive decline of /sup 3/H-melatonin concentrations was found in the serum, lung, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, and salivary gland during 60 min following the administration. On the contrary, there was a progressive accumulation of radioactive substance other than /sup 3/H-melatonin in the salivary gland but not in other tissues mentioned. The radioactivity was also progressively and preferentially localized in the nuclear fraction of the gland cells. These results suggest a possible direct action of melatonin derivative in rat salivary gland.

  20. Ascl3 marks adult progenitor cells of the mouse salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Rugel-Stahl, Anastasia; Elliott, Marilyn E; Ovitt, Catherine E

    2012-05-01

    The Ascl3 transcription factor marks a subset of salivary gland duct cells present in the three major salivary glands of the mouse. In vivo, these cells generate both duct and secretory acinar cell descendants. Here, we have analyzed whether Ascl3-expressing cells retain this multipotent lineage potential in adult glands. Cells isolated from mouse salivary glands were cultured in vitro as non-adherent spheres. Lineage tracing of the Ascl3-expressing cells within the spheres demonstrates that Ascl3+ cells isolated from adult glands remain multipotent, generating both duct and acinar cell types in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the progenitor cells characterized by Keratin 5 expression are an independent population from Ascl3+ progenitor cells. We conclude that the Ascl3+ cells are intermediate lineage-restricted progenitor cells of the adult salivary glands.

  1. Chronic stress affects the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Saruta, Juri; Lee, Taeki; Shirasu, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Takeshi; Sato, Chikatoshi; Sato, Sadao; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are associated with several neural disorders. Previously, we reported that BDNF is produced from salivary glands under acute immobilization stress. Additionally, salivary glands are the origin of plasma BDNF during stress; however, the association between the expression of BDNF by the salivary glands under chronic stress conditions is not known. In the present study, we investigated whether plasma BDNF levels in chronic stress depend on the salivary glands. Expression of BDNF mRNA and protein were identified in the submandibular glands when male rats were exposed to chronic restraint stress (12 h daily for 22 days). Chronic stress significantly increased plasma BDNF concentration, as well as adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone levels, but was not altered under chronic stress in bilaterally sialoadenectomized rats. Since chronic stress increases plasma BDNF levels in the sialoadenectomized rat model, the plasma BDNF level was not dependent on BDNF from the salivary glands. Although the salivary glands were the source of plasma BDNF in acute stress conditions in our previous study, it seems that that the increased BDNF expression in the salivary glands in chronic stress does not contribute importantly to the increased circulating BDNF level. The increased plasma BDNF levels may play important roles in homeostasis under stress conditions.

  2. HIV lymphadenitis of the salivary gland: A case with cytological and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Avani; Kini, Hema; Pai, Radha R; Rau, Aarathi R

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection associated lymphadenitis of the salivary glands (HIVLSG) and benign lymphoepithelial cysts are described as early events in HIV patients. The diagnosis is not usually made clinically as it mimics a salivary gland tumor. We present here a patient with two painless nodules in the right parotid and submandibular glands. The cytological diagnosis was florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. Histopathology revealed features of HIVLSG with multiple, small, cystic, benign lymphoepithelial lesions.

  3. Benign cystic teratoma of the parotid salivary gland: report of the first case in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ayudhya, N S; Parichatikanond, P; Chinda, K

    1991-10-01

    An extremely rare case of benign cystic teratoma of the parotid salivary gland is presented with a review of the literature. It was found in a 35-year-old Thai woman farmer who had had a history of a movable mass at the left parotid gland region for about 20 years. The microscopic examination revealed benign cystic teratoma of the parotid salivary gland. There is only one reported case in the literature, so, this is the second reported case.

  4. A pilot study comparing three salivary collection methods in an adult population with salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, R; Navazesh, M; Wood, G J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the reliability of three collection methods (draining, chewing of gum base, and the Saxon test) for whole saliva using a sample of middle-aged and older ambulatory adults (n = 18) with proven salivary gland hypofunction. The results demonstrated high reliability (r values ranging from 0.91 to 0.80, p < 0.001) for all three methods. MANOVA analysis revealed significant (p < 0.001) differences in flow rates among the draining, chewing-stimulated, and Saxon methods.

  5. Expression and localization of cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase in major salivary glands of male mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengnan; Liu, Ying; Ma, Qiwang; Cui, Sheng; Liu, Jiali

    2015-04-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is the most abundant free amino acid in mammalian cells. It plays a significant role in cell development, nutrition, and survival, such as in the regulation of ion transport and osmoregulation. Cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) is the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme of taurine. Recently, the synthesis of taurine has been observed in the central nervous system, kidney, liver, and muscle. However, the synthesis of taurine in the salivary glands has still not been described in detail. We have detected CSD expression in the major salivary glands of adult male mice by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunofluorescence. In addition, we determined the content of taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that taurine is present in high concentrations in the major salivary glands of male mice. CSD messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein are expressed in the major salivary glands of male mice. The relative levels of CSD mRNA increase from the submandibular gland (SMG) to the sublingual gland (SLG) and parotid gland (PG), but the levels of the CSD protein are the opposite. The immunofluorescence results indicate that CSD is mainly located in the excretory ducts (EDs) and interlobular duct (IL) of SMG and ED in SLG, respectively. These results suggest that the major salivary glands of male mice produce taurine through the CSD pathway, and the synthesis of taurine might be related to sodium reabsorption in the salivary glands. PMID:25645459

  6. Salivary gland tumors in atomic bomb survivors, hiroshima, japan. II. Pathologic study and supplementary epidemiologic observations.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, N; Hirose, F; Yamamoto, H; Ezaki, H; Fujikura, T

    1983-07-15

    A pathological investigation was undertaken in Hiroshima on cases seen between 1945 and 1971 to determine the relationship between salivary gland tumors and exposure to atomic (A) bomb radiation. Of the 208 cases of histologically confirmed salivary gland tumors, 62 were A-bomb survivors and 146 were nonexposed. The relative risk based on the rate in the nonexposed for malignant tumors of salivary glands among the exposed in Hiroshima Prefecture was 11.0, while that of the submaxillary gland was 13.8 and that of the parotid gland was 9.8. They were all highly significant by X2 test (P less than 0.001). The latent period of malignant salivary gland tumors was shorter in the exposed than in the nonexposed. Four cases of benign salivary gland tumor, all being benign mixed tumors of the parotid gland, were observed in children whose parents had been exposed. The incidence of mixed tumors of the salivary gland among the exposed in Hiroshima City was 2.0 times higher than that among the nonexposed and showed a tendency to increase with proximity to the hypocenter (P less than 0.01).

  7. An analysis of salivary gland neoplasms: a 12-year, single-institution experience in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Etit, Demet; Ekinci, Nese; Tan, Ayca; Altinel, Deniz; Dag, Filiz

    2012-03-01

    The epidemiology of salivary gland tumors worldwide is not very well defined. Although many studies on this subject have been undertaken, the data are generally focused on specific topics such as parotid gland neoplasms or tumors of the major salivary glands. We conducted a study to establish the prevalence and distribution of benign and malignant neoplasms of both the major and minor salivary glands at a single institution. We reviewed 244,204 cases that had come through our pathology department from January 1994 through December 2005 and found 235 cases of a salivary gland neoplasm (0.09%). The female-to-male ratio was 1.04:1, and the mean age of the patients was 47 years. Of the 235 neoplasms, 159 (67.66%) were located in the parotid gland, 34 (14.47%) in the submandibular gland, and 42 (17.87%) in the minor salivary glands. A total of 146 tumors (62.13%) were benign and 89 (37.87%) were malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common neoplasm, occurring in 98 cases (41.70%). The most common malignancy was mucoepidermoid carcinoma, with 27 cases (11.49%). Our data demonstrate that the characteristics of salivary gland tumors in a Turkish population at a single institution are similar to those reported in the literature worldwide.

  8. Biocompatible tissue scaffold compliance promotes salivary gland morphogenesis and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sarah B; Naim, Nyla; Nelson, Deirdre A; Mosier, Aaron P; Cady, Nathaniel C; Larsen, Melinda

    2014-06-01

    Substrate compliance is reported to alter cell phenotype, but little is known about the effects of compliance on cell development within the context of a complex tissue. In this study, we used 0.48 and 19.66 kPa polyacrylamide gels to test the effects of the substrate modulus on submandibular salivary gland development in culture and found a significant decrease in branching morphogenesis in explants grown on the stiff 19.66 kPa gels relative to those grown on the more physiologically compliant 0.48 kPa gels. While proliferation and apoptosis were not affected by the substrate modulus, tissue architecture and epithelial acinar cell differentiation were profoundly perturbed by aberrant, high stiffness. The glands cultured on 0.48 kPa gels were similar to developing glands in morphology and expression of the differentiation markers smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM α-actin) in developing myoepithelial cells and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in proacinar cells. At 19.66 kPa, however, tissue morphology and the expression and distribution of SM α-actin and AQP5 were disrupted. Significantly, aberrant gland development at 19.66 kPa could be rescued by both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Transfer of glands from 19.66 to 0.48 kPa gels resulted in substantial recovery of acinar structure and differentiation, and addition of exogenous transforming growth factor beta 1 at 19.66 kPa resulted in a partial rescue of morphology and differentiation within the proacinar buds. These results indicate that environmental compliance is critical for organogenesis, and suggest that both mechanical and chemical stimuli can be exploited to promote organ development in the contexts of tissue engineering and organ regeneration.

  9. Unusual neck mass in an adolescent: benign basal cell adenoma of the minor salivary glands of the piriform sinus.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Koretz, K; Verse, T

    2001-05-11

    With an incidence of less than 3%, salivary gland tumors are rare in the head and neck. The percentage of basal cell adenomas within the group of salivary gland tumors is even less (0.2-2%). Salivary gland tumors occur very rarely in adolescents. The basal cell adenoma commonly affects older persons and occurs most frequently in the major salivary glands. We present the unusual case of a benign basal cell adenoma of the minor salivary glands of the piriform sinus in a 14 year old male patient. Unusual are the age of the patient, the histological type, size and localisation of the tumor.

  10. Prevention of irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by rapamycin in swine parotid glands

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhao; Pang, Baoxing; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Wu, Xiaoshan; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Silvio Gutkind, J; Wang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers, usually resulting in irreversible salivary hypofunction. Currently management of radiation damage to salivary glands still remains a great challenge. Recent studies show that activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) occurs in salivary gland lesions, making it possible to apply mTOR inhibitor for treatment. Our results indicate inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin significantly alleviated irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction by restoring 46% salivary flow rate and protecting histological structures in swine. Furthermore, rapamycin protected human submandibular gland cell line (HSG) from irradiation-induced cell depletion and loss of cell proliferation capacity. These findings lay the foundation for a new clinical application of rapamycin to prevent irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. PMID:26958808

  11. Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    PubMed

    Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

    2012-06-01

    In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association.

  12. Reduced salivary gland size and increased presence of epithelial progenitor cells in DLK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gallastegui, P; Luzuriaga, J; Aurrekoetxea, M; Baladrón, V; Ruiz-Hidalgo, M J; García-Ramírez, J J; Laborda, J; Unda, F; Ibarretxe, G

    2016-06-01

    DLK1 (PREF1, pG2, or FA1) is a transmembrane and secreted protein containing epidermal growth factor-like repeats. Dlk1 expression is abundant in many tissues during embryonic and fetal development and is believed to play an important role in the regulation of tissue differentiation and fetal growth. After birth, Dlk1 expression is abolished in most tissues but is possibly reactivated to regulate stem cell activation and responses to injury. We have recently reported that DLK1 regulates many aspects of salivary gland organogenesis. Here, we have extended our studies of the salivary gland phenotype of Dlk1 knock-out mice. We have observed that salivary glands are smaller and weigh significantly less in both Dlk1 knock-out males and females compared with gender and age-matched wild-type mice and regardless of the natural sexual dimorphism in rodent salivary glands. This reduced size correlates with a reduced capacity of Dlk1-deficient mice to secrete saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine. However, histological and ultrastructural analyses of both adult and developing salivary gland tissues have revealed no defects in Dlk1 ((-/-)) mice, indicating that genetic compensation accounts for the relatively mild salivary phenotype in these animals. Finally, despite their lack of severe anomalies, we have found that salivary glands from Dlk1-deficient mice present a higher amount of CK14-positive epithelial progenitors at various developmental stages, suggesting a role for DLK1 in the regulation of salivary epithelial stem cell balance.

  13. Nicotine induces DNA damage in human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Kampfinger, Katja; Friehs, Gudrun; Köhler, Christian; Hagen, Rudolf; Richter, Elmar; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2009-01-10

    The tobacco alkaloid nicotine is responsible for addiction to tobacco and supposed to contribute to tobacco carcinogensis, too. Recently, genotoxic effects of nicotine have been reported in human cells from blood and upper aerodigestive tract. Because of nicotine accumulation in saliva, the study of possible in vitro genotoxic effects of nicotine have been extended to human salivary gland cells. Specimens of parotid glands of 10 tumor patients were obtained from tumor-free tissue. Single cells were prepared by enzymatic digestion immediately after surgery and exposed for 1h to 0.125-4.0mM of nicotine. Possible genotoxic effects were determined by the Comet assay using the % DNA in tail (DT) as a reliable indicator of DNA damage. Nicotine induced a significant dose-dependent increase of DNA migration in parotid gland single-cells. The mean DT was 1.12-fold (0.125mM) to 2.24-fold (4.0mM) higher compared to control. The lowest concentration eliciting significant DNA damage within 1h, 0.25mM nicotine, is only 10-fold higher than maximal concentrations of nicotine reported in saliva after unrestricted smoking. Although conclusive evidence for a carcinogenic potential of nicotine is still lacking, the safety of long-term nicotine replacement therapy should be carefully monitored. PMID:18852035

  14. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report.

    PubMed

    Ismı, Onur; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature.

  15. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma originating from ectopic salivary gland in the neck region: case report

    PubMed Central

    Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Eti, Can; Pütürgeli, Tuğçe; Gorur, Kemal; Ozcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CEPA) is the malignant salivary gland tumor originating from primary (de novo) or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Although parotid gland is the most common site, it can also be seen in submandibular gland or minor salivary glands. It can be seen rarely in head and neck region, such as oral cavity, trachea, nasal cavity and lacrimal gland. Although pleomorphic adenoma cases originating from ectopic salivary gland tissue in the neck region are present in the English literature, there is no published pleomorphic adenoma ex carcinoma case. In this case report we presented a CEPA as a 7.5 cm long neck mass in a 72-year-old woman originating from the submandibular region apart from submandibular gland. Difficulties in diagnosis and way to appropriate treatment are discussed with current literature. PMID:26645012

  16. Transcriptomic and Expression Analysis of the Salivary Glands in White-Backed Planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; An, Xing-Kui; Liu, Yu-Di; Hou, Mao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the serious rice pests because of its destructive feeding. The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in the feeding behaviour. Currently, however, very little is known about the salivary glands at the molecular level. We sequenced the salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscripome) of adult WBPHs using the Illumina sequencing. A total of 65,595 transcripts and 51,842 unigenes were obtained from salivary glands. According to annotations against the Nr database, many of the unigenes identified were associated with the most studied enzymes in hemipteran saliva. In the present study, we identified 32 salivary protein genes from the WBPH sialotranscripome, which were categorized as those involved in sugar metabolism, detoxification, suppression of plant defense responses, immunity-related responses, general digestion, and other phytophagy processes. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that four of 32 salivary protein genes (multicopper oxidase 4, multicopper oxidase 6, carboxylesterase and uridine phosphorylase 1 isform X2) were primarily expressed in the salivary gland, suggesting that they played putative role in insect-rice interactions. 13 of 32 salivary protein genes were primarily expressed in gut, which might play putative role in digestive and detoxify mechanism. Development expression profiles analysis revealed that the expression level of 26 of 32 salivary protein genes had no significant difference, suggesting that they may play roles in every developmental stages of salivary gland of WBPH. The other six genes have a high expression level in the salivary gland of adult. 31 of 32 genes (except putative acetylcholinesterase 1) have no significant difference in male and female adult, suggesting that their expression level have no difference between sexes. This report analysis of the sialotranscripome for the WBPH, and the transcriptome provides a foundational

  17. Update in salivary gland cytopathology: Recent molecular advances and diagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Faquin, William C

    2015-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are notorious for their extraordinary diversity and for the morphological overlap that exists between many of these entities. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has a well-established role in the evaluation of patients with a salivary gland lesion, helping to guide clinical management. However, salivary gland FNAB has several limitations and does not allow for a specific diagnosis in some cases. For these reasons, salivary gland FNAB is considered one of the most challenging areas in cytopathology. Over the last decade, new salivary gland entities have been recognized, enlarging SGT diversity and complexity even more. In addition, a subset of SGT, including common entities such as pleomorphic adenoma and uncommon new entities such as mammary analog secretory carcinoma, have been characterized cytogenetically by the presence of specific translocations. The molecular consequences of these translocations and their potential prognostic and therapeutic values are not yet well characterized. However, these translocations and their resulting fusion oncogenes and oncoproteins can be used as diagnostic clues in salivary gland FNAB material in order to overcome the limitations of cytomorphological evaluation alone. In this review, we focus on SGTs currently known to harbor translocations and fusion genes, including uncommon and recently recognized entities, and discuss their potential application to salivary gland FNAB.

  18. Detection of C-KIT (CD117) molecule in benign and malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Dimitrios; Epivatianos, Apostolos; Poulopoulos, Athanasios; Nomikos, Alexandros; Papazoglou, Georgios; Antoniades, Demetrios; Barbatis, Calypso

    2006-01-01

    C-KIT (CD117), a tyrosine kinase receptor, is involved in the growth and development of normal tissues and some types of neoplasms. In the present study we analysed the expression of this molecule in salivary gland tumours. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of 40 benign and 57 malignant salivary gland tumours were retrieved and retrospectively studied immunohistochemically using a polyclonal C-KIT antibody in an Envision/HRP technique. In addition five samples of chronic submandibular sialadenitis, five normal minor salivary glands and parotid or submandibular gland tissue adjacent to benign tumour were also studied. C-KIT expression was observed in cases of adenoid cystic, acinic cell polymorphous low grade, epithelial-myoepithelial, carcinosarcoma and basal cell adenocarcinomas, as in luminal cells of pleomorphic adenomas, in serous acinar and only in intercalated and a small number of striated ductal cells of inflammatory salivary gland tissue, whereas normal salivary lobules were generally negative except a weak positivity of intercalated cells. Contrary to other reports, this study suggests that, C-KIT protein does not appear to be an exclusively specific marker for benign or malignant salivary gland neoplasms, but may be useful in differential diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma. Furthermore its expression in serous acinar cells in sialadenitis and intercalated ductal cells in normal and inflammatory lesions may indicate a possible participation in pathogenesis of both neoplastic and non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases.

  19. Pattern of salivary gland tumors in Ethiopia and non-western countries.

    PubMed

    Ergicho, Bahiru; Ergisho, Bahiru

    2003-07-01

    Report from various parts of the world indicate that there are differences in the total incidence of salivary gland tumors as well as in the frequency of particular histologic types and in the frequency with which major and minor salivary glands are involved; Moreover reports from African series have suggested a pattern of presentation that significantly differs from that of western countries. The purpose of this study is to clarify knowledge of salivary gland tumors in Ethiopia on the light of the experience gained form African and western countries. The study was based on the biopsy material collected in the Department of Pathology, Addis Ababa University (AAU), over a period of ten years from 1990-1999 inclusive. This study confirmed that patterns of salivary gland tumors in Ethiopia closely follow the pattern seen in other African countries. Of all salivary gland tumors, parotid gland accounts for 43.2% submandibular gland for 25% and the rest of all minor salivary glands contribute for 31.9%. Out of 176 tumors, 117 were reported to be benign and 59 were malignant. Plemorphic Adenoma forms 58.5% of all tumors. Since "Variations" are of great interest in the geographical study of diseases, discrepancies observed in the two worlds of Africa and western countries are discussed. We recommend that any future plan should stand from the observed disparity between the two worlds and address the problem through better methodology to draw firm conclusion.

  20. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Knaś, M; Maciejczyk, M; Daniszewska, I; Klimiuk, A; Matczuk, J; Kołodziej, U; Waszkiel, D; Ładny, J R; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M; Zalewska, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions. PMID:27478848

  1. Oxidative Damage to the Salivary Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes-Temporal Study: Oxidative Stress and Diabetic Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Knaś, M.; Daniszewska, I.; Klimiuk, A.; Kołodziej, U.; Waszkiel, D.; Ładny, J. R.; Żendzian-Piotrowska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated oxidative damage caused to the salivary glands in streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM). Materials and Methods. Rats were divided into 4 groups: groups 1 and 2, control rats, and groups 3 and 4, DM rats. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyl (PC), 4-hydroxynonenal protein adduct (4-HNE), oxidized and/or MDA-modified LDL-cholesterol (oxy-LDL/MDA), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoP), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured at 7 (groups 1 and 3) and 14 (groups 2 and 4) days of experiment. Results. The unstimulated salivary flow in DM rats was reduced in the 2nd week, while the stimulated flow was decreased throughout the duration of the experiment versus control. OSI was elevated in both diabetic glands in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas 8-isoP and 8-OHdG were higher only in the parotid gland in the second week. PC and 4-HNE were increased in the 1st and 2nd week, whereas oxy-LDL/MDA was increased in the 2nd week in the diabetic parotid glands. Conclusions. Diabetes induces oxidative damage of the salivary glands, which seems to be caused by processes taking place in the salivary glands, independently of general oxidative stress. The parotid glands are more vulnerable to oxidative damage in these conditions. PMID:27478848

  2. Aberrant Activation of the RANK Signaling Receptor Induces Murine Salivary Gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Allison P.; Dougall, William C.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Lydon, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Unlike cancers of related exocrine tissues such as the mammary and prostate gland, diagnosis and treatment of aggressive salivary gland malignancies have not markedly advanced in decades. Effective clinical management of malignant salivary gland cancers is undercut by our limited knowledge concerning the key molecular signals that underpin the etiopathogenesis of this rare and heterogeneous head and neck cancer. Without knowledge of the critical signals that drive salivary gland tumorigenesis, tumor vulnerabilities cannot be exploited that allow for targeted molecular therapies. This knowledge insufficiency is further exacerbated by a paucity of preclinical mouse models (as compared to other cancer fields) with which to both study salivary gland pathobiology and test novel intervention strategies. Using a mouse transgenic approach, we demonstrate that deregulation of the Receptor Activator of NFkB Ligand (RANKL)/RANK signaling axis results in rapid tumor development in all three major salivary glands. In line with its established role in other exocrine gland cancers (i.e., breast cancer), the RANKL/RANK signaling axis elicits an aggressive salivary gland tumor phenotype both at the histologic and molecular level. Despite the ability of this cytokine signaling axis to drive advanced stage disease within a short latency period, early blockade of RANKL/RANK signaling markedly attenuates the development of malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Together, our findings have uncovered a tumorigenic role for RANKL/RANK in the salivary gland and suggest that targeting this pathway may represent a novel therapeutic intervention approach in the prevention and/or treatment of this understudied head and neck cancer. PMID:26061636

  3. Systemic therapy in the management of metastatic or advanced salivary gland cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Salivary gland cancers are very rare tumors. They are characterized by a histologic heterogeneity and a poor outcome. According to this rarity, few prospective data are available to date. No standard recommendations could be held for the use of systemic therapy in these tumors. Several case reports and small studies have investigated the contribution of different agents of chemotherapy. With the extension of molecular biology approach in oncology several signaling pathways have been discovered in different cancers including salivary gland cancers; thus a number of targeted therapies have been investigated. This paper reviewed exhaustively the studies investigating the role of systemic therapies (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, hormone therapy) in salivary gland cancers. PMID:22558945

  4. Histological reclassification of 101 intraoral salivary gland tumours (new WHO classification).

    PubMed

    van der Wal, J E; Snow, G B; van der Waal, I

    1992-09-01

    The epithelial salivary gland tumours have for many years been categorised according to the 1972 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification. In 1990 a proposed revision of this classification was elaborated. In this study 101 intraoral salivary gland tumours were reclassified accordingly. In 29 of the cases the original histological diagnosis was changed, which in most cases, occurred in the benign or malignant tumour groups. In seven cases the diagnosis was changed from benign to malignant or vice versa. The results of this study show that the histological classification of intraoral salivary gland tumours remains difficult, even when applying the new WHO classification.

  5. No Epstein Barr and cytomegalovirus DNA found in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V; Syrjänen, K; Syrjänen, S

    1997-01-01

    A series of 219 (106 malignant and 113 benign) salivary gland tumours was investigated by in situ hybridisation (ISH) to detect Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA. Normal salivary gland did not show hybridisation signals for these viruses. Tumours presenting hybridisation signals in ductal and myoepithelial cells and 17 Warthin's tumours were further studied by PCR, but none of these tumours contained EBV or CMV DNA. Our series did not contain lymphoepithelial carcinomas, which are EBV-associated tumours. The results suggest that factors other than EBV or CMV are involved in carcinogenesis of primary salivary gland tumours.

  6. Tumors of the salivary glands. Comparison of frozen-section diagnosis with final pathologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wheelis, R F; Yarington, C T

    1984-02-01

    Of the 256 cases of salivary gland tumors subjected to frozen-section diagnosis, the error rate in diagnosis for malignant disease was one of four cases, and in benign disease, it was one of ten cases. Six of the 52 malignant tumors were erroneously labeled as benign, while four of the 204 benign tumors were diagnosed as malignant neoplasms. The occurrence of concurrent benign and malignant disease, nonneoplastic alterations of salivary gland tissue, and sampling errors militated against total reliance on frozen-section diagnosis in the management of salivary gland neoplasms.

  7. Histological re-evaluation of 101 intraoral salivary gland tumors by an EORTC-study group.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, J E; Carter, R L; Klijanienko, J; Micheau, C; Rilke, F; Seifert, G; van der Waal, I

    1993-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions of great morphologic variation and for this reason present many difficulties in histologic classification. The histologic slides of 101 consecutive intraoral salivary gland tumors of the Department of Oral Pathology of the Free University in Amsterdam were reviewed, retrospectively, by an EORTC-study group on salivary gland tumors. Complete concurrence of diagnosis was reached in 54 cases. In 33 cases there were minor disagreements, mostly related to subclassification. Major disagreements, relating to benign versus malignant, occurred in eight cases (7.9 per cent).

  8. True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of palatal minor salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1991-01-01

    True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of salivary gland origin is exceedingly rare and is distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. This paper reports a case of true malignant mixed tumor originating from a palatal minor salivary gland of a 55-year-old male. Histologically, nests of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma were scattered in a sarcomatous background which partially showed an unequivocal chondrosarcoma. Clinical course of the present patient suggested that a pre-existing benign minor salivary gland lesion developed to a carcinosarcoma.

  9. Oncocytic and oncocytoid tumors of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Paulino, A F; Huvos, A G

    1999-05-01

    Primary pink cell tumors of the salivary glands constitute a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant lesions characterized by tumor cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. These tumors are composed predominantly of oncocytic, epidermoid, or myoepithelial cells. Tumors with a significant oncocytic component include Warthin's tumor, oncocytoma, and oncocytic carcinoma. An epidermoid component can be seen as a metaplastic change or as a true cellular constituent of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Myoepithelial cells may have an epithelioid character and as a consequence may impart a pink cell appearance in pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, and myoepithelial carcinoma. Usually most of these tumors are fairly distinct morphologically and do not present diagnostic dilemmas. In select circumstances, especially when dealing with a limited tissue sample, a systematic approach with an appropriate immunohistochemical panel should be used in order to arrive at a correct diagnosis. Accurate assessment is the key in the subsequent management and follow-up of these patients.

  10. Cytologic diagnosis of acinic-cell carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Laskawi, R; Büter, J J; Schröder, M; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1997-05-01

    The cytologic findings in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies obtained from 40 primary and 18 recurrent acinic-cell carcinomas (ACC) were retrospectively analyzed. Cytomorphologically, ACC is characterized by acinar differentiated tumor cells. In addition to these diagnostic clue cells, other types of neoplastic cells including vacuolated cells, cells resembling oncocytes, and nonspecific glandular cells are encountered. A pronounced lymphocytic reaction is a hallmark in 10% of ACC aspirates. Both the variety of tumor cell differentiation and the pronounced lymphocytic reaction observed in ACC aspirates may result in confusion with other salivary gland lesions. The differential diagnosis of ACC encompasses adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, sebaceous lymphadenoma, benign lymphoepithelial lesion, sialoadenosis, sialadenitis caused by radiotherapy, and lymphadenitis. Primary ACCs were correctly diagnosed in 68%; additionally, ACC was suspected or included in the differential diagnosis in 15%. Increased familiarity with the spectrum of cytomorphologic findings and the potential diagnostic pitfalls in ACC will improve the cytodiagnosis of this neoplasm.

  11. Expression and mutations of p53 in salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V J; Syrjänen, K J; Kurvinen, A K; Syrjänen, S M

    1997-05-01

    A series of 219 salivary gland tumours (103 carcinomas and 116 benign tumours) were analysed for p53 protein expression using immunohistochemistry, and for mutations in p53 gene using non-radioactive single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). p53 expression was present in 36% (42/116) of the benign tumours and in 54% (56/103) of the carcinomas. The highest prevalence of p53 expression was found in adenoid cystic carcinomas (69%), followed by mucoepidermoid carcinomas (67%). Of the benign tumours, pleomorphic adenomas showed the highest prevalence of p53 positivity (41%). In malignant tumours, expression of p53 bore no correlation to local recurrence, metastatic disease or survival of the patients. Exons 5 through 9 were analysed and four mutations were found in 20 cases of p53-immunopositive tumours and two in 20 p53-negative tumours. Each of the exons 5, 6 and 8/9 had two mutations, whereas no mutations were detected in exon 7.

  12. Advances in diagnosis and management of salivary gland diseases.

    PubMed

    Rice, D H

    1984-02-01

    Salivary glands may be involved in a wide variety of diseases, which may be broadly grouped into (1) inflammatory, (2) noninflammatory, nonneoplastic and (3) neoplastic categories. Most inflammatory and noninflammatory, nonneoplastic diseases should be managed conservatively and symptomatically. The common exceptions are first-arch branchialcleft cysts and calculi. Neoplastic lesions always require resection if that is feasible. For benign tumors, simple excision with a cuff of normal tissue around it will usually suffice. The prevailing trend for treatment of malignant neoplasms is conservatism. No longer is the facial nerve routinely sacrificed. The resection done is dictated by the tumor size and the facial nerve is spared unless directly invaded. Postoperative radiation therapy is increasingly used.

  13. Intraoral salivary gland tumors: a retrospective study of 201 cases.

    PubMed

    Isacsson, G; Shear, M

    1983-02-01

    Two hundred and one cases of intraoral salivary gland tumors were studied from the files of the School of Pathology, University of the Witwaterstrand and South African Institute for Medical Research. 145 cases (72.5%) were classified as benign, comprising 140 pleomorphic adenomas and 5 monomorphic adenomas. The other 56 cases were classified as malignant or potentially malignant tumors, represented by 21 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 mucoepidermoid tumors, 5 carcinoma in pleomorphic adenomas and 2 epidermoid carcinomas. The patients in the malignant/potentially malignant group were significantly older than those in the benign group and a smaller proportion of their tumors were palatal, the difference being statistically significant. The high frequency of pleomorphic adenoma might result from a relatively higher number of black than white patients in this sample.

  14. Cytogenetic analysis of a primary salivary gland myoepithelioma.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, A K; Lovell, M; Callender, D L; Ordonez, N G; Killary, A M

    1999-08-01

    Myoepithelioma, a rare benign salivary gland neoplasm, is a tumor composed entirely of myoepithelial cells. Unlike pleomorphic adenoma, these tumors lack any ductal epithelial differentiation, and manifest a minor stromal element. Previous cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies have mainly investigated pleomorphic adenomas and reported recurring specific chromosomal alterations at 8q12 and 12q13-q15 regions. The cell origin of these alterations, however, remains speculative. We report the cytogenetic analysis of a parotid myoepithelioma and discuss the putative origin for the cells with cytogenetic alterations. Our analysis shows 12q12 involved in a translocation with a previously unreported partner (1q), and nonrandom del(9)(q22.1q22.3) and del(13)(q12q22). Our results indicate that the myoepithelial cell is the source of those cells with chromosomal alterations, and that myoepithelioma shares 12q alterations reported in a subset of pleomorphic adenomas.

  15. Molecular characterization of tick salivary gland glutaminyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Steven W; Browning, Rebecca E; Chao, Chien-Chung; Bateman, Robert C; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2013-09-01

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) catalyzes the cyclization of N-terminal glutamine residues into pyroglutamate. This post-translational modification extends the half-life of peptides and, in some cases, is essential in binding to their cognate receptor. Due to its potential role in the post-translational modification of tick neuropeptides, we report the molecular, biochemical and physiological characterization of salivary gland QC during the prolonged blood feeding of the black-legged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the gulf-coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum). QC sequences from I. scapularis and A. maculatum showed a high degree of amino acid identity to each other and other arthropods and residues critical for zinc binding/catalysis (D159, E202, and H330) or intermediate stabilization (E201, W207, D248, D305, F325, and W329) are conserved. Analysis of QC transcriptional gene expression kinetics depicts an upregulation during the bloodmeal of adult female ticks prior to fast-feeding phases in both I. scapularis and A. maculatum suggesting a functional link with bloodmeal uptake. QC enzymatic activity was detected in saliva and extracts of tick salivary glands and midguts. Recombinant QC was shown to be catalytically active. Furthermore, knockdown of QC transcript by RNA interference resulted in lower enzymatic activity, and small, unviable egg masses in both studied tick species as well as lower engorged tick weights for I. scapularis. These results suggest that the post-translational modification of neurotransmitters and other bioactive peptides by QC is critical to oviposition and potentially other physiological processes. Moreover, these data suggest that tick-specific QC-modified neurotransmitters/hormones or other relevant parts of this system could potentially be used as novel physiological targets for tick control. PMID:23770496

  16. Fatty acid acylation of salivary mucin in rat submandibular glands

    SciTech Connect

    Slomiany, B.L.; Murty, V.L.; Takagi, A.; Tsukada, H.; Kosmala, M.; Slomiany, A.

    1985-11-01

    The acylation of salivary mucin with fatty acids and its biosynthesis was investigated by incubating rat submandibular salivary gland cells with (/sup 3/H)palmitic acid and (/sup 3/H)proline. The elaborated extracellular and intracellular mucus glycoproteins following delipidation, Bio-Gel P-100 chromatography, and CsCl equilibrium density gradient centrifugation were analyzed for the distribution of the labeled tracers. The incorporation of both markers into mucus glycoprotein increased steadily with time up to 4 h, at which time about 65% of (/sup 3/H)palmitate and (/sup 3/H)proline were found in the extracellular glycoprotein and 35% in the intracellular glycoprotein. The incorporation ratio of proline/palmitate, while showing an increase with incubation time in the extracellular glycoprotein, remained essentially unchanged with time in the intracellular glycoprotein and at 4 h reached respective values of 0.14 and 1.12. The fact that the proline/palmitate incorporation ratio in the intracellular glycoprotein at 1 h of incubation was 22 times higher than in the extracellular and 8 times higher after 4 h suggests that acylation occurs intracellularly and that fatty acids are added after apomucin polypeptide synthesis. As the incorporation of palmitate within the intracellular mucin was greater in the mucus glycoprotein subunit, it would appear that fatty acid acylation of mucin subunits preceeds their assembly into the mucus glycoprotein polymer.

  17. Nucleolar organizer regions in malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Takahashi, H; Okabe, H

    1992-10-01

    Proliferative activity of carcinomas arising from salivary glands was analyzed by enumeration of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). The mean numbers of AgNORs in the various tumors were as follows: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 2.20; acinic cell carcinoma, 2.51; adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), 2.57; carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, 1.00 (benign component) and 3.99 (cancer-bearing area); salivary duct carcinoma, 4.49; polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, 3.37; sebaceous carcinoma, 2.57; oncocytic carcinoma, 4.63; adenocarcinoma, 4.53. Cells of most tumors showed heterogeneous activity within the same tumor. In mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the mucous cells had suppressed activity in comparison with the epidermoid cells and intermediate cells. In ACC, the activity of the tumor cells increased according to growth pattern in the order tubular, glandular and solid. In carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, vigorous proliferative activity was observed in the malignant component, whereas less active cells were seen in the myxoid or chondroid matrix. AgNOR staining was useful for distinguishing benign from malignant regions in carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma. Our results suggest that mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma and ACC, except for that with a solid growth pattern, may be considered as low-grade malignancies, whereas solid-type ACC, the cancer component in carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma and some of the other carcinomas have high-grade malignant behavior.

  18. The range and demographics of salivary gland tumours diagnosed in a UK population.

    PubMed

    Jones, A V; Craig, G T; Speight, P M; Franklin, C D

    2008-04-01

    Salivary gland tumours are relatively rare and comprise a diverse range of neoplasms. The aim of this study was to determine the range and demographics of all histologically diagnosed salivary tumours in a European population. All entries for salivary gland tumours from 1974 to 2005 inclusive were retrieved and analysed for each diagnosis including number of specimens, male:female ratio and age range. These data were then analysed for the distribution of benign and malignant salivary tumours in major and minor salivary glands. 58,880 specimens were received; of these, 741 cases (1.3% of all specimens) were diagnosed as salivary gland tumours with a male to female ratio of 0.7:1. There were 481 (64.9%) benign and 260 (35.1%) malignant neoplasms, with the most common tumours being pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma, respectively. Our study provides demographic data on a large series of salivary gland tumours in a European population. Accurate diagnosis is essential as salivary lesions have diverse clinical and prognostic outcomes. This study has confirmed that some tumours have a predilection for certain sites and that the risk of malignant disease is also greater at specific sites within the oral cavity.

  19. Salivary gland tumors in Turkey: demographic features and histopathological distribution of 510 patients.

    PubMed

    Kızıl, Yusuf; Aydil, Utku; Ekinci, Ozgür; Dilci, Alper; Köybaşıoğlu, Ahmet; Düzlü, Mehmet; Inal, Erdoğan

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic and clinicopathologic data of salivary gland tumors managed at a tertiary referral medical center in Turkey. The data of 510 patients with salivary gland tumors managed during the period of January 1984 to May 2012, were reviewed. Only primary neoplasms derived from salivary glands were included. Out of 510 neoplasms, 352 (69.0 %) were classified as benign and 158 (31.0 %) were classified as malignant. There was a male predominance and male:female ratio was 1.23 (281/229). The most common location was parotid gland (372/510, 72.9 %) followed by minor salivary glands (97/510, 19.0 %) and submandibular gland (40/510, 7.9 %). The malignancy rates were 21.5, 40.0, and 56.7 % in parotid, submandibular, and minor salivary glands locations, respectively. The most common location for minor salivary gland neoplasms was oral cavity (61/97, 62.9 %). Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) was the most common histopathological type (45.3 %) in the whole study group and also among pediatric patients. The most common malignant neoplasms were adenoid cystic carcinoma (39/510, 7.6 %) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (5.7 %). Salivary gland tumors are more common in men. The malignancy rate is almost three times higher in neoplasms derived from minor glands when compared to parotid gland. PA is the most common histopathological tumor type in all locations and in all age groups.

  20. Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands: pathology, biology and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    DiGiuseppe, J A; Corio, R L; Westra, W H

    1996-05-01

    Lymphoid infiltrates of the salivary glands are common to a variety of pathologic conditions including autoimmune disorders, malignant lymphomas, and immunoregulatory responses to parenchymal neoplasms. Clearly, the correct identification of these salivary gland lymphoid infiltrates has important implications regarding patient prognosis and management. Immunophenotypic and molecular analyses have demonstrated that many lesions formerly regarded as myoepithelial sialadentis or benign lymphoepithelial lesion in fact represent neoplastic lymphoid proliferations with the potential for extrasalivary dissemination. In the most recent classification scheme of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, these neoplasms fall within the spectrum of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the early stages of HIV infection, patients may develop salivary gland enlargement resulting from cystic lymphoepithelial lesions. These lesions are thought to reflect a localized manifestation of persistent generalized lymphadenopathy. Although HIV-associated salivary gland disease is regarded as a benign condition, malignant lymphoma has been described in association with some of these lesions, and further work is required to define more precisely the risk of salivary gland lymphoma in HIV-infected patients. Tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation refers to a prominent lymphoid reaction accompanying certain epithelial tumors of the salivary glands. Although tumor-associated lymphoid proliferation has not received as much attention as other types of salivary lymphoid infiltrates, it is a common phenomenon that is sometimes mistaken for an intraparotid lymph node harboring metastatic carcinoma.

  1. Glycoinositolphospholipids from Trypanosomatids Subvert Nitric Oxide Production in Rhodnius prolixus Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Mesquita, Rafael Dias; Silva-Cardoso, Lívia; Senna, Raquel; Silveira, Alan Barbosa; Jablonka, Willy; Cudischevitch, Cecília Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Machado, Ednildo Alcantara; Lima, Luize G.; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Nussenzveig, Roberto Henrique; Folly, Evelize; Romeiro, Alexandre; Vanbeselaere, Jorick; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Previato, José Osvaldo; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, José Marcos Chaves; Atella, Georgia Correa; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-sucking bug vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. T. cruzi is transmitted by vector feces deposited close to the wound produced by insect mouthparts, whereas T. rangeli invades salivary glands and is inoculated into the host skin. Bug saliva contains a set of nitric oxide-binding proteins, called nitrophorins, which deliver NO to host vessels and ensure vasodilation and blood feeding. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS) present in the epithelium of bug salivary glands. Thus, T. rangeli is in close contact with NO while in the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show by immunohistochemical, biochemical and molecular techniques that inositolphosphate-containing glycolipids from trypanosomatids downregulate NO synthesis in the salivary glands of R. prolixus. Injecting insects with T. rangeli-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tr GIPL) or T. cruzi-derived glycoinositolphospholipids (Tc GIPL) specifically decreased NO production. Salivary gland treatment with Tc GIPL blocks NO production without greatly affecting NOS mRNA levels. NOS protein is virtually absent from either Tr GIPL- or Tc GIPL-treated salivary glands. Evaluation of NO synthesis by using a fluorescent NO probe showed that T. rangeli-infected or Tc GIPL-treated glands do not show extensive labeling. The same effect is readily obtained by treatment of salivary glands with the classical protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SO). This suggests that parasite GIPLs induce the inhibition of a salivary gland PTP. GIPLs specifically suppressed NO production and did not affect other anti-hemostatic properties of saliva, such as the anti-clotting and anti-platelet activities. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these data suggest that trypanosomatids have overcome NO generation using their surface GIPLs. Therefore, these molecules ensure parasite survival and may ultimately enhance parasite transmission

  2. Ascl3 knockout and cell ablation models reveal complexity of salivary gland maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Arany, Szilvia; Catalán, Marcelo A; Roztocil, Elisa; Ovitt, Catherine E

    2011-05-15

    Expression of the transcription factor, Ascl3, marks a population of adult progenitor cells, which can give rise to both acinar and duct cell types in the murine salivary glands. Using a previously reported Ascl3(EGFP-Cre/+) knock-in strain, we demonstrate that Ascl3-expressing cells represent a molecularly distinct, and proliferating population of progenitor cells located in salivary gland ducts. To investigate both the role of the Ascl3 transcription factor, and the role of the cells in which it is expressed, we generated knockout and cell-specific ablation models. Ascl3 knockout mice develop smaller salivary glands than wild type littermates, but secrete saliva normally. They display a lower level of cell proliferation, consistent with their smaller size. In the absence of Ascl3, the cells maintain their progenitor function and continue to generate both acinar and duct cells. To directly test the role of the progenitor cells, themselves, in salivary gland development and regeneration, we used Cre-activated expression of diphtheria toxin (DTA) in the Ascl3-expressing (Ascl3+) cell population, resulting in specific cell ablation of Ascl3+ cells. In the absence of the Ascl3+ progenitor cells, the mice developed morphologically normal, albeit smaller, salivary glands able to secrete saliva. Furthermore, in a ductal ligation model of salivary gland injury, the glands of these mice were able to regenerate acinar cells. Our results indicate that Ascl3+ cells are active proliferating progenitors, but they are not the only precursors for salivary gland development or regeneration. We conclude that maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the salivary gland must involve more than one progenitor cell population.

  3. US of the major salivary glands: anatomy and spatial relationships, pathologic conditions, and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bialek, Ewa J; Jakubowski, Wieslaw; Zajkowski, Piotr; Szopinski, Kazimierz T; Osmolski, Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is useful for differential diagnosis of diseases of the salivary glands. In acute inflammation, salivary glands are enlarged and hypoechoic with increased blood flow; they may contain multiple small, oval, hypoechoic areas. In chronic inflammation, salivary glands are normal sized or smaller, hypoechoic, and inhomogeneous. Sialolithiasis appears as markedly hyperechoic lines or points with distal acoustic shadowing. Sialosis appears as enlarged hyperechoic glands without focal lesions or increased blood flow. The US features of advanced Sjögren syndrome include inhomogeneous salivary glands with scattered small, oval, hypoechoic or anechoic areas, usually well defined, and increased parenchymal blood flow. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined, lobulated lesions with posterior acoustic enhancement that may contain calcifications; Warthin tumors are usually oval, hypoechoic, well-defined lesions that often contain anechoic areas and are often hypervascularized. Malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands may have irregular shapes, irregular borders, blurred margins, and a hypoechoic inhomogeneous structure or may have a benign appearance. Salivary gland cysts have well-defined margins, anechoic contents, posterior acoustic enhancement, and no internal blood flow. However, US appearances of some diseases may overlap, thus producing diagnostic pitfalls.

  4. Evaluation of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary glands: an analysis of 141 cases.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Dashini, M

    2001-12-01

    141 salivary gland lesions that were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, from January 1993 to October 2000 were reviewed with a view to assess the sensitivity and utility of cytological diagnosis in diseases of salivary glands. The highest number of cases was seen in the sixth decade of life. There was no gender preponderance in salivary gland neoplasms except in Warthin's tumours that occurred predominantly in males. The parotid gland was the most frequent salivary gland needled. Seven cases (5%) presented with bilateral salivary gland enlargement. Cytological study yielded a neoplastic diagnosis in 74.5% cases. Of the neoplastic lesions, 71.4% could be definitely designated as benign and 25.7% as clearly malignant. Pleomorphic adenoma and acinic cell carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant neoplasms diagnosed respectively. 53 cases had histological correlation; of these, 49 (92.5%) were neoplastic. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytological diagnosis in salivary gland lesions was found to be 73.6%.

  5. Salivary gland tumours: profile and management at a tertiary cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Nootan K; Hazarika, Sidhartha; Deo, Suryanarayana; Kar, Madhabananda; Kumar, Sunil; Samaiya, Atul; Sharan, Rajeev; Rath, Goura K

    2011-06-01

    Salivary gland tumours comprise a varied group of benign and malignant neoplastic lesions posing a challenge to surgeon. To review the profile of salivary gland tumours presenting to a referral cancer centre and their overall management, a retrospective analysis of prospective head and neck cancer database of the surgical oncology department of Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) was performed. Forty patients of salivary gland tumours treated between 1995 and 2003 were analysed. All computations including recurrences and survival were carried out using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) for windows software (SPSS Inc, USA). The profile of salivary gland tumours presenting to a cancer centre setting was found to be different - 77.5% being malignant tumours and the remaining 22.5% werebenign tumours. Most common site of involvement was the parotid gland (72.5%). Muco-epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinomas were the most common histological types. Conservative resection was adequate for benign tumours. For primary malignant tumours, radical surgery with or without neck dissection and appropriate reconstruction, combined with postoperative radiotherapy was effective in achieving good locoregional control. Optimal management of primary tumour along with appropriate neck dissection including resection of the involved salivary gland is necessary for the management of metastatic salivary gland tumours.

  6. Human kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) and human kallikrein 5 expression in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Darling, M R; Tsai, S; Jackson-Boeters, L; Daley, T D; Diamandis, E P

    2006-01-01

    The human kallikrein 5 protein (hK5) is expressed in many normal tissues, most notably in skin, breast, salivary gland and esophagus. It has also been shown to be a potential biomarker for breast, ovarian and testicular cancer. Human kallikrein 3 (hK3; prostate-specific antigen) is the most useful marker for adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to determine whether hK3 and hK5 are expressed in salivary gland tissues and salivary gland tumors (both benign and malignant), in order to compare normal with tumor tissues. Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified of both minor and major salivary glands were examined. The results of this study indicate that most salivary gland tumors do not show high levels of expression of hK5. Staining was most prominent in keratinizing epithelia in pleomorphic adenomas. hK3 is not expressed in salivary gland tumors.

  7. Tumors of the major salivary glands in children.

    PubMed

    Shikhani, A H; Johns, M E

    1988-01-01

    During the 30-year period 1955-1985, 21 children with neoplasms of the major salivary glands were treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. A thorough review of the English literature revealed an additional 472 cases. The cases were studied as to age, sex, site, histopathologic characteristics, mode of treatment, and results. The majority of the patients were between 8 and 20 years of age. There was a female preponderance of 1.42:1. The parotid gland was the site of origin in 85.1%, the submandibular in 11.7%, and the sublingual in 3.2%. An equal incidence of benign (50.1%) and malignant (49.9%) lesions is noted. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign neoplasm and mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant neoplasm. The final prognosis seems to be similar with superficial or total parotidectomy, provided the tumor has been completely removed at the initial surgery. Re-excision is recommended for tumor recurrence, and the use of radiation therapy should be individually determined in cases of aggressive malignancies.

  8. [Salivary gland tumors. Apropos of 48 surgical cases].

    PubMed

    Ouoba, K; Dao, M; Sakandé, B; Kabré, M; Cissé, R; Ouédraogo, I; Sanou, A

    1998-01-01

    The interest of tumors of salivary gland has increased according to the nosology, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects. This study object to appreciate the frequency of this pathology at the ENT Department of the University Hospital Center of Ouagadougou and to report our experience in their diagnostic and therapeutic management. We have collected 48 cases, representing 2% of the department surgery activity and 7% of the tumors operated between 1985 and 1996. This report has concerned 32 parotid tumors (66.7%), 10 submaxillary tumors (20.8%), 6 minor gland tumors (12.5%). This series was composed of 28 women and 20 men with an average age of 41 years. Diagnosis management was based on clinical, radiologic and echographic examination. The correlation between preoperative and histological diagnosis was correct in 88.7% cases. Benign tumors represented 83.3% of the cases with essentially pleomorphic adenomas, and the malignant tumors 16.7% cases. Post operative evolution was simple in 85.4% cases. After 3 years, local recurrence occurred in 4 cases. The prognosis of malignant tumors has been unsatisfactory: the survival rate at 3 years has been 20%.

  9. Oncocytic lesions of the thyroid, kidney, salivary glands, adrenal cortex, and parathyroid glands.

    PubMed

    Máximo, Valdemar; Rios, Elisabete; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Oncocytic cell represents a special phenotype of neoplastic cells reflecting a unique biologic process characterized by the huge proliferation of morphologically abnormal mitochondria in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells. This phenotype is driven by quite specific molecular mechanisms that interfere with mitochondrial function and metabolism. The oncocytic phenotype is more common in tumors arising in tissues presenting low proliferative rate, such as thyroid, kidney, salivary glands, adrenal cortex, and parathyroid glands, and it is superimposed on the genotypic and conventional histologic features of the tumors. In this short review, we address the similarity of the molecular alterations and of the biological features of the neoplastic cells in the oncocytic tumors of the different organs. We also discuss the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant oncocytic tumors as well as the prognosis of the malignant ones. We conclude that this rather unique phenotype, which is observed in tumors from different organs, indicates common metabolic alterations that may represent a useful target for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland for treatment of a traumatic mucocele in a dog.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Kathleen M; Hardie, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    A 3 yr old spayed female mixed-breed German shepherd dog was presented with a right facial swelling that developed after fighting with another dog. A parotid salivary mucocele was diagnosed via physical examination, fine-needle aspirate, and sialography of the parotid and mandibular salivary glands. Surgical excision of the right parotid salivary gland and duct was performed along with drainage of the mucocele. Neither intraoperative nor postoperative complications occurred, and follow-up examination 4 mo later revealed no evidence of recurrence. Case outcome was considered excellent. Sialography was useful for confirming the parotid gland as the source of the mucocele. Surgical excision of the parotid salivary gland is technically challenging, but an effective treatment option for traumatic mucoceles in the dog.

  11. Scintigraphy of the salivary glands in Sjögen's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Arrago, J P; Rain, J D; Brocheriou, C; Rocher, F

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy of the salivary glands with technetium-sodium pertechnetate (99mTc) was undertaken on 320 patients with oral dryness or connective tissue disease using a computer assisted method that gave quantitative results about the major salivary gland function. Compared with clinical and histological data, scintigraphy provides a sensitive method, even though it is not specific, for detecting minimal injuries to salivary glands in patients suspected of having Sjögen's syndrome. Moreover, it might differentiate between the Sjögen-like syndrome and the sequelae of radiotherapy in patients with bone marrow graft. Scintigraphy of the major salivary glands could therefore form part of the routine investigation of patients with Sjögen's syndrome. PMID:2828435

  12. Lip salivary-gland hamartoma in a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Morton, Daniel G

    2014-02-01

    An incidental, asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, solitary, submucosal nodular mass was detected on the mucosal surface of the inner lower lip in a female cynomolgus macaque (age, approximately 2.4 y) during a juvenile chronic toxicology study. Grossly, the nodule was soft with brown to tan discoloration and measured approximately 4 mm in diameter. Microscopically, the nodule was covered by normal stratified squamous epithelium and composed of well-circumscribed irregular lobules containing hyperplastic and normal-appearing mucinous salivary gland acini and ducts, which were separated by thick connective tissue septae. In light of the gross pathology and results of microscopic examination, salivary gland hamartoma was diagnosed. This lesion resembles adenomatoid hyperplasia of mucous salivary glands in humans, which is a rare nonneoplastic swelling. To our knowledge, this case description is the first report of a cynomolgus macaque with the rare entity of lip salivary gland hamartoma, which likely represents adenomatous hyperplasia in humans.

  13. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of Palatal Minor Salivary Glands with Intracranial Extension: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Akbarian-Tefaghi, Hesam; Lemonnier, Lori; Mehta, Vikas; Jacobsohn, Jamie A.; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is one of the most common malignant tumors of both major and minor salivary glands. Although there are reports of parotid MEC tumors extending intracranially via the facial nerve, intracranial extension from MEC originating from minor salivary glands in the palate has not previously been reported. This report presents a case of MEC arising from the minor salivary glands of the palate and extending into the middle fossa via the foramen rotundum with perineural invasion of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. The patient received surgical intervention via a combined otolaryngology and neurosurgery approach to achieve gross total resection of the tumor. This was followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. The epidemiology, histopathology, and treatment of MEC originating from salivary glands are discussed. PMID:27781194

  14. Intraductal papilloma arising from sublingual minor salivary gland: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Tomonao; Tomonao, Aikawa; Kishino, Mitsunobu; Masuda, Tomotake; Isomura, Emiko T; Tanaka, Susumu; Namikawa, Mari; Iida, Seiji

    2009-05-01

    Intraductal papilloma is a rare benign salivary gland tumor. This lesion is commonly observed in the duct of the minor salivary gland, predominantly in lip and buccal mucosa, but the case in the sublingual region is quite rare. This report shows a first case of intraductal papilloma developed in minor salivary gland of sublingual region. A 47-year-old Japanese male was referred to our hospital with painless submucosal nodule in the right sublingual region beside Wharton's duct orifice. The excised specimen was histologically diagnosed as intraductal papilloma of minor salivary gland, according to the microscopic finding of the papillary growth of ductal epithelium into the ductal space with fibrovascular core. Immunohistochemical study showed the tumor cells originated from ductal luminal cells because of positive Cytokeratin 18 and 7 staining in both types of cells.

  15. The ultrastructural aspects of neoplastic myoepithelial cell in pleomorphic adenomas of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Margaritescu, C; Raica, M; Florescu, Maria; Simionescu, Cristiana; Surpateanu, M; Jaubert, F; Bogdan, F

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study has been to establish the major ultrastructural aspects of the myoepithelial cell and the myoepithelial-like cells proliferated in the pleomorphic adenomas of salivary glands. Thus, twelve benign pleomorphic adenomas of salivary glands have been studied by electron-microscopy transmission techniques. Our analysis has proved the proliferation of two major cellular populations, one of ductal type and one of myoepithelial type, which tried to reproduce the tubulo-acinar cytoarchitecture from the normal salivary glands. We have also noticed the key role of the so-called 'modified' myoepithelial cells from the periphery of the proliferating epithelial units in the genesis of the myxoid and chondromyxoid tumoral stromal areas. All these ultrastructural aspects have explained the great histological diversity of these salivary gland neoplasms as well as the key role of the myoepithelial cell in its histogenesis.

  16. [Pleo-morphic adenoma of the salivary glands: clinico-pathological study of 175 cases].

    PubMed

    García-Pola Vallejo, M J; Bagán Sebastián, J V; García Martín, J M; López Arranz, J S

    1990-10-01

    In this report we analyzed 175 benign pleomorphic adenomas from the salivary glands. We described epidemiologic, clinical aspects and light microscopic features. We connected the sized, evolution time and their microscopically findings.

  17. The nucleolar organizer regions associated protein (Ag-NORs) in salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, K; Sasaki, K; Tsuji, T; Shinozaki, F

    1989-04-01

    A silver colloid technique used to identify nucleolar organizer regions associated protein (Ag-NORs) has been applied to 20 salivary gland tumors. The method was readily applicable to the preparations of paraffin-embedded sections and the Ag-NORs were enumerated with ease. A significant difference was found between the numbers of Ag-NORs in the nuclei of malignant salivary gland tumors, such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid tumor and adenocarcinoma (with a mean of from 2.05 to 2.78 per nucleus) and those of benign salivary gland, such as pleomorphic adenoma, adenolymphoma (Wartin tumor) and clear cell adenoma (with a mean of from 1.47 to 1.72 per nucleus). It is proposed that the Ag-NORs technique, which is rapid, simple, and inexpensive, may be useful in the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign salivary gland tumors.

  18. Salivary gland tumours studied by means of the AgNOR technique.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D W; Crocker, J; Watts, A; Shenoi, P M

    1988-11-01

    Difficulty is sometimes encountered in distinguishing between pleomorphic adenoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, especially in small biopsies from salivary glands. The argyrophil (AgNOR) staining technique for nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) has been applied to a series of benign and malignant salivary gland tumours. We studied 35 salivary gland tumours, 13 benign and 22 malignant. In all specimens clearly defined silver-stained intranuclear AgNOR dots were visible. The differences between the numbers of AgNORs in the benign and malignant groups, notably pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, were highly significant. In view of this difference we propose that the AgNOR staining technique is of diagnostic help in distinguishing between these salivary gland tumours.

  19. [Report of a spindle cell myoepithelialioma of the minor salivary glands with extensive lipomatous component].

    PubMed

    Kern, M A; Kasper, H U; Drebber, U; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Veelken, F; Ortmann, M

    2005-06-01

    Myoepitheliomas of the salivary glands are rare benign tumors composed of spindle-shaped myoepithelial cells, but may show plasmacytoid, epitheloid and clear cell-types that principally exhibit myoepithelial but not ductal differentiation. These tumors are mainly located in the major salivary glands and have sometimes abundant, acellular, mucoid or hyaline stroma but lack chondroid and myxochondroid foci, probably representing the one end of the spectrum of pleomorphic adenoma. Lipomatosis in the form of isolated small islands or scattered single lipocytes, is quite uncommon, and a large amount of adipose tissue in a pleomorphic adenoma and myoepithelioma is a rarity and only described in major salivary glands. We present the case report of a 38-year old man with a myoepithelioma of the minor palatinal salivary glands with extensive lipomatosis as an example of this rare phenomena.

  20. Salivary gland anlage tumor: cytologic features in a case examined by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, L; Andreasson, L; Olsson, M; Rausing, A

    1997-06-01

    The cytologic features in fine-needle aspirates from a rare benign nasopharyngeal salivary gland anlage tumor in a newborn boy are described and commented on, regarding therapeutically important differential diagnoses.

  1. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Preserves Salivary Gland Function After Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Limesand, Kirsten H.; Avila, Jennifer L.; Victory, Kerton; Chang, Hui-Hua; Shin, Yoon Joo; Grundmann, Oliver; Klein, Rob R.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer consists of fractionated radiation treatments that cause significant damage to salivary glands leading to chronic salivary gland dysfunction with only limited prevention and treatment options currently available. This study examines the feasibility of IGF-1 in preserving salivary gland function following a fractionated radiation treatment regimen in a pre-clinical model. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to fractionated radiation, and salivary gland function and histological analyses of structure, apoptosis, and proliferation were evaluated. Results: In this study, we report that treatment with fractionated doses of radiation results in a significant level of apoptotic cells in FVB mice after each fraction, which is significantly decreased in transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active mutant of Akt1 (myr-Akt1). Salivary gland function is significantly reduced in FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation; however, myr-Akt1 transgenic mice maintain salivary function under the same treatment conditions. Injection into FVB mice of recombinant insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which activates endogenous Akt, suppressed acute apoptosis and preserved salivary gland function after fractionated doses of radiation 30 to 90 days after treatment. FVB mice exposed to fractionated radiation had significantly lower levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive salivary acinar cells 90 days after treatment, which correlated with a chronic loss of function. In contrast, FVB mice injected with IGF-1 before each radiation treatment exhibited acinar cell proliferation rates similar to those of untreated controls. Conclusion: These studies suggest that activation of IGF-1-mediated pathways before head-and-neck radiation could modulate radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction and maintain glandular homeostasis.

  2. Minimally Invasive Techniques for the Treatment of Benign Salivary Gland Obstruction: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jackie E.

    2002-10-15

    This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland obstruction. Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These techniques are described, their advantages and disadvantages discussed and their success rates compared. Recommendations are made on the most appropriate application of each technique.

  3. Benign pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland showing perineural invasion: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Rahul; Patel, Dipen; Santhanam, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Perineural invasion is a rare and sporadically reported histological finding in relation to benign lesions. We present a case of a benign pleomorphic adenoma of a minor salivary gland of the cheek, exhibiting perineural involvement. There have been no previously reported cases of minor salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas exhibiting this phenomenon. This is also the first report of this rare feature in surgical literature pertaining to the head and neck region.

  4. Signet ring cell tumor of the minor salivary gland exhibiting benign behavior.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Baldovini, Chiara; Pennesi, Maria G; Cocchi, Roberto; Simpson, Roderick H W

    2012-02-01

    Signet ring cell (SRC) carcinomas are usually aggressive malignancies, arising most frequently in the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, but also, although less often, in other organs such as the breast, bladder, and lungs. They are particularly unusual in the salivary glands, and the aim of the present study is to report a case of a tumor of the minor salivary glands of the lower lip composed largely of SRCs but which displayed benign clinical behavior.

  5. [Mucinous cystadenoma of a minor salivary gland of the nasal fossa].

    PubMed

    Cano Cuenca, B; Giménez Vaillo, F; Pérez Climent, F; García Roig, J

    2000-01-01

    Tumors of minor nasal salivary glands are relatively sparse. The case reported is a monomorph adenoma of benign character, which first clinical diagnosis mimicked a naso-sinusal polyposis. Examination of the removed piece by functional endoscopic surgery firstly was considered as an adenocarcinoma of low malignity degree but afterwards resulted as a mucinous cysto-adenoma of minor salivary glands with favorable clinical behaviour.

  6. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in the management of salivary gland tumors: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Stow, Nicholas; Veivers, David; Poole, Alan

    2004-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 104 cases of salivary gland tumors that were initially assessed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Based on subsequent histopathologic analysis of excised specimens, we found that preoperative FNAB was highly sensitive and specific for both benign and malignant tumors-including the most common, pleomorphic adenomas and squamous cell carcinomas, respectively. Despite its possible drawbacks, we conclude that preoperative FNAB is a useful tool in the management of salivary gland tumors.

  7. Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of benign salivary gland obstruction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jackie E

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature published on minimally invasive techniques developed to treat benign salivary gland obstruction. Techniques reported include extracorporeal and intracorporeal salivary gland lithotripsy, endoscopy and radiologically guided techniques for the extraction of calculi and dilatation of duct strictures. These techniques are described, their advantages and disadvantages discussed and their success rates compared. Recommendations are made on the most appropriate application of each technique.

  8. Cytogenetic and molecular observations in human and experimental salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sandros, J; Stenman, G; Mark, J

    1990-02-01

    The chromosomal banding patterns in 189 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors are reviewed. For comparison, karyotypic data from a recent series of polyoma virus-induced salivary gland tumors in the mouse are discussed. Special interest is focused on the relationships between the highly specific patterns of translocations and deletions in these tumors and different genes involved in neoplasia, in particular oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes.

  9. Label-Retaining Cells in the Adult Murine Salivary Glands Possess Characteristics of Adult Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chibly, Alejandro M.; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:25238060

  10. Label-retaining cells in the adult murine salivary glands possess characteristics of adult progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chibly, Alejandro M; Querin, Lauren; Harris, Zoey; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the primary treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, which account for roughly 500,000 annual cases worldwide. Dysfunction of the salivary glands and associated conditions like xerostomia and dysphagia are often developed by these patients, greatly diminishing their life quality. Current preventative and palliative care fail to deliver an improvement in the quality of life, thus accentuating the need for regenerative therapies. In this study, a model of label retaining cells (LRCs) in murine salivary glands was developed, in which LRCs demonstrated proliferative potential and possessed markers of putative salivary progenitors. Mice were labeled with 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) at postnatal day 10 and chased for 8 weeks. Tissue sections from salivary glands obtained at the end of chase demonstrated co-localization between LRCs and the salivary progenitor markers keratin 5 and keratin 14, as well as kit mRNA, indicating that LRCs encompass a heterogeneous population of salivary progenitors. Proliferative potential of LRCs was demonstrated by a sphere assay, in which LRCs were found in primary and secondary spheres and they co-localized with the proliferation marker Ki67 throughout sphere formation. Surprisingly, LRCs were shown to be radio-resistant and evade apoptosis following radiation treatment. The clinical significance of these findings lie in the potential of this model to study the mechanisms that prevent salivary progenitors from maintaining homeostasis upon exposure to radiation, which will in turn facilitate the development of regenerative therapies for salivary gland dysfunction.

  11. Evaluation of PAX2 and PAX8 expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Randall T; Alderman, Megan A; Thompson, Lester D R; McHugh, Jonathan B

    2015-03-01

    PAX2 and PAX8 are transcription factors involved in embryogenesis that have been utilized as immunohistochemical indicators of tumor origin. Specifically, PAX2 is a marker of neoplasms of renal and müllerian origin, while PAX8 is expressed by renal, müllerian, and thyroid tumors. While studies examining these transcription factors in a variety of tumors have been published, data regarding their expression in salivary gland neoplasms are limited. The goal of this study was to assess expression of PAX2 and PAX8 in a large cohort of salivary gland tumors. Utilizing tissue microarrays, samples of normal salivary glands (n = 68) and benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms (n = 442) were evaluated for nuclear immunoreactivity with PAX2 and PAX8. No expression was observed with either marker in the normal salivary glands, and PAX8 was negative in all neoplasms. Focal expression of PAX2 was observed in one example each of oncocytoma and acinic cell carcinoma. These results indicate that evaluation of PAX2 and/or PAX8 expression would be valuable in differentiating primary salivary gland tumors from metastases known to express PAX2 and/or PAX8.

  12. Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 is expressed in cultured benign and malignant salivary gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Queimado, L; Lopes, C; Du, F; Martins, C; Bowcock, A M; Soares, J; Lovett, M

    1999-05-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is activated by reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving 8q12 in a subset of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. PLAG1 encodes a zinc finger protein and was initially reported to be expressed in placenta and fetal tissues, with no detectable expression in other normal adult tissues. By Northern blotting we have detected PLAG1 expression in a wide set of normal adult tissues, including heart, placenta, spleen, prostate, testis, ovary, and small intestine. We have performed reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blot analyses to study the expression of PLAG1 in normal salivary gland tissues and in primary cultures and cell lines derived from salivary gland tumors. PLAG1 was expressed in all tumor-derived primary cultures and cell lines, irrespective of their histological type or the presence of genomic rearrangements involving PLAG1, but was not detected by our assays in normal salivary glands. Our data indicate that the presence or absence of PLAG1 expression is not an unequivocal marker for the differential diagnosis of benign versus malignant salivary gland tumors, and that a simple de novo activation of this gene does not fully explain the involvement of this gene in salivary gland tumors.

  13. Review of fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland neoplasms, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunyadzi, Perkins

    2002-12-01

    The widespread use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of salivary gland lesions in many centers is testimony to its usefulness and acceptance as a diagnostic technique. Many pertinent questions concerning a mass arising in the salivary gland can be answered by evaluation of FNA cytologic material, and these include whether the mass is truly of salivary gland origin, whether the lesion is inflammatory or neoplastic, and if neoplastic, whether benign or malignant. On diagnosis of a neoplastic salivary gland lesion, the next important issue is to correctly classify the tumor, particularly if malignant. Specific cytologic diagnoses can be achieved in the majority of cases, thus enabling the clinician and patient to make appropriate informed decisions. The cytologic evaluation of salivary gland tumors, however, is limited by the wide range and heterogeneous nature of benign and malignant tumors arising in this area, many of which share similar or show overlapping cytologic features, making the diagnosis of rare tumors problematic. In this review, the cytologic features of the major salivary gland neoplasms, the differential diagnoses, and the salient points that, if examined carefully, help achieve a specific diagnosis are discussed.

  14. Low p53 protein expression in salivary gland tumours compared with lung carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soini, Y; Kamel, D; Nuorva, K; Lane, D P; Vähäkangas, K; Pääkkö, P

    1992-01-01

    Fifty-one salivary gland tumours (23 pleomorphic adenomas, 5 Warthin's tumours, 12 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 7 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 3 undifferentiated carcinomas and 1 acinic cell tumour) and 27 lung carcinomas (18 squamous cell carcinomas) were analysed immunohistochemically for the expression of p53 nuclear phosphoprotein. Eight out of 51 (16%) salivary gland tumours were p53 positive. Three of these were benign and 5 malignant. All 3 benign salivary gland tumours were pleomorphic adenomas and expressed only occasional nuclear positivity with less than 1% of tumour cells positive. Of the 5 p53-positive malignant tumours, 3 were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 2 undifferentiated carcinomas. The malignant salivary gland tumours expressed more than 1% of positive nuclei in every case. Seventeen lung carcinomas were p53 positive (63%). Thirteen of these were squamous cell carcinomas, 3 were adenocarcinomas and 1 small cell lung carcinoma. The results show that mutations of the p53 gene may be infrequent in salivary gland tumours when compared with lung carcinomas. The relatively indolent course of some histological types of malignant salivary gland tumours could be associated with the preservation of the non-mutated p53 gene in most of these tumours. The presence of p53 positivity in some pleomorphic adenomas might, on one hand, suggest that p53 gene alterations are also present in these tumours; on the other hand, the accumulation of the p53 protein in these tumours might also be due to some unknown mechanism, not necessarily related to p53 gene mutation.

  15. Benign mixed tumour of heterotopic salivary gland tissue in upper neck. Report of a case with a review of the literature on heterotopic salivary gland tissue.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, G; Ferlito, A

    1976-06-01

    A case of benign mixed tumour arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue of the mucous type is described. The tumour was located at the angle of the right mandible, in the upper middle third of the neck, along the anterior border of the sternomastoid muscle. This observation is substantiated by a pathomorphological study. A comprehensive review of the world literature on heteroptic salivary gland tissue has also been carried out, together with a search of the possible pathogenesis which seems to be connected with an anomalous embryonic development within the branchial apparatus.

  16. Salivary gland-like tumours of the breast: surgical and molecular pathology.

    PubMed

    Pia-Foschini, M; Reis-Filho, J S; Eusebi, V; Lakhani, S R

    2003-07-01

    Breast glands and salivary glands are tubulo-acinar exocrine glands that can manifest as tumours with similar morphological features, but that differ in incidence and clinical behaviour depending on whether they are primary in breast or salivary glands. Salivary gland-like tumours of the breast are of two types: tumours with myoepithelial differentiation and those devoid of myoepithelial differentiation. The first and more numerous group comprises a spectrum of lesions ranging from "bona fide" benign (such as benign myoepithelioma and pleomorphic adenoma), to low grade malignant (such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, low grade adenosquamous carcinoma, and adenomyoepithelioma), to high grade malignant lesions (malignant myoepithelioma). The second group comprises lesions that have only recently been recognised, such as acinic cell carcinoma, oncocytic carcinoma of the breast, and the rare mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  17. Salivary gland neoplasms: a 21year review of cases seen at University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Kolude, B; Lawoyin, J O; Akang, E E

    2001-01-01

    The present study updates the experience of salivary gland tumours in Ibadan. All cases of benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms histologically diagnosed between 1975 and 1995 in the Oral Pathology Department and Cancer Registry of the University College Hospital, Ibadan were reviewed. Salivary gland neoplasms accounted for 3.5% of head and neck neoplasms, the majority (46.5%) occurring in the parotid, followed by the submandibular (18.1%) and palatal glands (10.7%). The ratio of benign to malignant neoplasms was 1.1 to 1. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant neoplasms. There was a predilection of adenoid cystic carcinoma for the submandibular gland.

  18. Ultrastructure and cytochemistry of salivary glands of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fialho, Maria do Carmo Queiroz; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Podisus nigrispinus Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a zoophytophagous insect with a potential for use as a biological control agent in agriculture because nymphs and adults actively prey on various insects by inserting mouthparts and regurgitating the contents of the salivary glands inside the prey, causing rapid paralysis and death. However, the substances found in saliva of P. nigrispinus that causes the death of the prey are unknown. As a first step to identify the component of the saliva of P. nigrispinus, this study evaluated the ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the salivary glands of P. nigrispinus. The salivary system of P. nigrispinus has a pair of principal salivary glands, which are bilobed with a short anterior lobe and a long posterior lobe, and a pair of tubular accessory glands. The principal gland epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells enclosing a large lumen. Epithelial cells of the principal salivary gland vary from cubic to columnar shape, with one or two spherical and well-developed nuclei. Cells of the anterior lobe of the principal salivary gland have an apical surface with narrow, short, and irregular plasma membrane foldings; apical and perinuclear cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum; and mitochondria with tubular cristae. The basal portion of the secretory cells has mitochondria associated with many basal plasma membrane infoldings that are short but form large extracellular canals. Secretory granules with electron-dense core and electron-transparent peripheral are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Cells of the posterior lobe of the principal salivary gland are similar to those of the anterior lobe, except for the presence of mitochondria with transverse cristae. The accessory salivary gland cells are columnar with apical microvilli, have well-developed nucleus and cytoplasm rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum, and have secretory granules. Cytochemical tests showed positive reactions for carbohydrate, protein

  19. PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 expressions in submandibular salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Alves, F A; Pires, F R; De Almeida, O P; Lopes, M A; Kowalski, L P

    2004-09-01

    Salivary gland tumours are uncommon with a broad heterogeneity. The most common benign tumour is the pleomorphic adenoma, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma predominate among the malignancies. Most salivary gland tumours occur in the parotid, and consequently clinical and biological data are normally derived from this site. This work describes the expressions of PCNA, Ki-67 and p53 in 15 pleomorphic adenomas, 15 mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 15 adenoid cystic carcinomas of the submandibular gland. Our results showed that all pleomorphic adenomas were negative for p53 and Ki-67 with 66.6% being positive for PCNA. Conversely, p53 was positive in 53% of the mucoepidermoid carcinomas and in 20% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas. Ki-67 was expressed in 47.7% of the mucoepidermoid carcinomas and 40% of the adenoid cystic carcinomas. All malignant tumours were positive for PCNA. These results indicate that the proliferative rate analysed with PCNA and Ki-67 and the expression of p53 in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland were similar to those described in the parotid and minor salivary glands. However, mucoepidermoid carcinomas showed higher expression of these markers than those of other salivary glands. This work is the first describing the expression of these immunohistochemical markers exclusively in submandibular salivary gland tumours.

  20. [A Clinical Study of a Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of Salivary Glands].

    PubMed

    Mada, Yusuke; Koshitsuka, Keiichi; Ihara, Fumie; Ueki, Yuji; Konno, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma involving the salivary glands is a rare entity that accounts for only 1 to 4% of all salivary gland tumors. We have analyzed the clinical features of MALT lymphoma of the salivary glands in 7 patients whom we have treated in the past 10 years, including data from 43 patients in the literature. The most common symptom was persistent or progressive swelling of the salivary glands without pain or facial palsy. The affected glands were the unilateral parotid in 62%, the unilateral submandibular gland in 6.8%, and the bilateral parotid or submandibular gland in 6.8%. The salivary gland swelling as evaluated by MRI or ultrasonography consisted of a localized solitary tumor in 68.9%, multiple tumors in 10.3%, and diffuse swelling of the gland in 26.1%. In 24 out of 50 patients, MALT lymphoma developed on the basis of Sjögren's syndrome. As for diagnosis, malignant lymphoma was suspected only in 4 cases out of 11 (36.7%) based on the fine needle aspiration cytology. In all patients, a definitive diagnosis was obtained based on histopathological study of the localized tumor or the biopsy specimens. When patients with Sjögren's syndrome have developed persistent swelling of the salivary glands, it is necessary to rule out malignant lymphomas, especially MALT lymphoma, by combination of ultrasonography, MRI, FNA, and biopsy or open surgery depending on image findings. The treatment of MALT lymphoma has not yet been standardized because MALT lymphoma is a rare entity. The choice of initial treatment is important because it is related to its prognosis. If MALT lymphoma remains in a local site, we should undertake an operation or radiotherapy. If MALT lymphoma has dissemineated systemically, we should choose chemotherapy. PMID:26333269

  1. The occurrence of blood group substances (A, B, H, Le-a, Le-b) in salivary glands and salivary gland tumors. An immunohistochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Hamper, K; Caselitz, J; Seifert, G; Seitz, R; Poschmann, A

    1986-07-01

    The distribution of blood group substances A, B, H, Le-a and Le-b in normal and neoplastic salivary gland tissue was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry. The serological ABH blood group status of one third of the patients was known. Lewis blood group and secretory status were not known. In normal tissue, expression of blood group antigens corresponded to the serological blood group. Blood group substance H was present in almost every gland, regardless of the serological blood group. In submandibular glands, Le-b was rather selective for mucous acini. In tumors, a relationship of blood group expression to a glandular pattern and a high differentiation could be observed. Blood group substances were expressed at a high level in benign and highly differentiated malignant tumors. In poorly differentiated malignant tumors, they were mostly absent. Blood group expression evaluation could be of value in establishing the level of functional differentiation in salivary gland tumors.

  2. Technetium-99m pertechnetate and gallium-67 imaging in salivary gland disease.

    PubMed

    Higashi, T; Shindo, J; Everhart, F R; Mori, Y; Kasai, H; Kogure, S; Wakao, H

    1989-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with salivary gland tumors or sialadenitis were studied with Tc-99m pertechnetate and Ga-67 imaging and, in some instances, sialography. The diagnostic algorithm presented allows the correct categorization of the salivary gland pathology in the vast majority of patients. The patients were studied serially with Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 and in certain situations sialography (or CT-sialography). Use of the algorithm can distinguish benign salivary tumors from malignant tumors and malignant tumors from inflammatory disease. The limitations and pitfalls of interpretation are discussed.

  3. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory.

  4. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory. PMID:27327192

  5. An update on recent advances in the understanding of non-neoplastic diseases of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Scully, C

    1992-08-01

    The recent advances in the understanding of the non-neoplastic disorders of salivary glands are summarised in this paper. The common infections are discussed and newer aspects of juvenile recurrent parotitis outlined. The benign lympho-epithelial lesion is reviewed in relation to Sjogren's syndrome and the salivary gland pathology seen in relation to infection with human immunodeficiency virus. A range of unusual conditions that may affect the minor salivary glands in particular, and can cause diagnosis dilemmas, is summarised.

  6. [Immunohistochemistry: another criterion for typing oncocytomas of the salivary gland. A case report].

    PubMed

    Gálvez, J; Bernet, E; Sanabria, J; Cervantes, J; Conde, I

    1995-01-01

    Oncocytoma of the salivary gland is uncommon and its histogenesis and pattern of evolution are debated. The criteria for malignancy are not well established. We report a morphologically benign oncocytoma of the parotid gland that was studied using various cell proliferation and tumor markers. These markers may have prognostic value and correlate with the aggressiveness of the tumor.

  7. [Tumors of different histological type in unilateral salivary glands: a case report].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Da-Min; He, Hua-Wei; Liu, Mei-Yan; He, Zhi-Xiu

    2010-12-01

    Tumors of synchronous benign and malignant in unilateral salivary glands have rarely been reported. A case of 21-year-old girl who was diagnosed as synchronously adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left parotid and pleomorphic adenoma of the left submandibular gland. The classification, clinic pathology, diagnosis, possible mechanism were discussed based on similar literatures.

  8. [Noncontrast computed tomography in the diagnosis of tumors of the major salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Koblikov, V V; Sapozhkova, L P; Kondrashin, S A; Bykova, A A

    2011-01-01

    Non-contrast computed tomography (CT) of the major salivary glands was made in 127 patients, which revealed 95 space-occupying lesions (88 intraglandular and 7 extraglandular ones). Pleomorphic tumors of the parotid glands are solitary, round, high-density (29.6 +/- 4.2 HU) masses with well-defined, smooth margins. Salivary cysts were characterized by the presence of a dense capsule; the density of cyst contents was 8.0 +/- 2.0 HU. Salivary lipomas had a characteristic tomographic pattern due to the presence of adipose tissue; the lipoma density was -108.3 +/- 7.8 HU. Malignant parotid tumors were characterized by the presence of higher-density masses with irregular shapes and ill-defined, indistinct margins. Benign submandibular gland tumors had no well-defined margins that separated the tumor from the gland; the density of a tumor matched that of the parenchyma; the mean tumor size was 3.6 +/- 1.3 cm; there was an increase in the sizes of the gland as compared to those of the contralateral gland, as well as a displacement of the adjacent soft tissues. Malignant submandibular gland neoplasms tumors were characterized by the presence of inhomogenous lower-density masses with irregular shapes. Enlarged paraglandular lymph nodes were observed. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of native CT in diagnosing space-occupying lesions of the salivary glands were 97.6, 96.4, and 97.6%, respectively.

  9. [The value of sialo-MRI in the study of salivary gland duct pathology].

    PubMed

    Alamdari, A; Pierucci, F; Leclerc, J C; Chassagne, S; Stricker, C; Fyad, J P; Chassagne, J F

    1999-10-01

    Usual imaging diagnostic for salivary glands is sialography. Sialography is not stripped of disadvantages and failures. The MRI-sialography is an examination which is carried out without any injection of contrast's product (without catheterization or intravenous injection). It is thus noninvasive and painless. The complete study of salivary gland and its ducts is always possible and could not be blocked by local or loco-regional conditions. It allows exploration of several salivary glands in the same time. We think that the MRI-sialography must find its place in the diagnosis arsenal for salivary pathology in spite of its current handicaps represented by its cost and the difficulty of access to the apparatuses.

  10. Major salivary gland flow rates in young and old, generally healthy African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Jones, R E; Ship, J A

    1995-02-01

    Saliva is essential to maintain and preserve oral health. Previous studies of primarily white populations demonstrated that salivary gland flow rates are age-stable in healthy adults, but there are little data on African Americans of different ages. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between age, gender, and race in unstimulated and stimulated parotid and submandibular salivary gland flow rates and to evaluate subjective responses to questions regarding salivary dysfunction. Sixty generally healthy, middle socioeconomic class African Americans and whites between the ages of 20 to 40 and 60 to 80 years were evaluated. The results indicate, in general, that objective and subjective measurements of major salivary gland flow rates are independent of age, gender, and race. Further studies are required using larger populations. These results suggest that signs and symptoms of dry mouth in the elderly regardless of race or gender should not be considered a normal sequela of aging. PMID:7897685

  11. Effects of Ricinus communis oil esters on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2011-02-01

    This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.

  12. [Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the accessory salivary glands--a case report].

    PubMed

    Chadli-Debbiche, A; Ben Brahim, E; Dougaz, A; Mansouri, D; Fraoua-Abdelmoula, F; Mbarek, A; Mamouri, M; Mzabi-Regaya, S

    2000-10-01

    A case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland is reported. This tumor was first described in two clinical case series in 1983. Before that time most of these neoplasms were diagnosed as benign salivary gland neoplasms (pleomorphic adenomas) or salivary malignant conditions (malignant pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas and adenocarcinoma not otherwise stated). This neoplasm, with few exceptions, originates in minor salivary gland tissues of the palates or buccal mucosa. It is characteristically slow to enlarge. Clinical reports show the neoplasm present for many years before diagnosis. The tumor have a variety of morphological patterns, a cytological uniformity and an infiltration into adjacent structures. The treatment is a wide local excision. Recurrences and lymph node metastases are rare.

  13. Salivary gland tumors studied by means of the AgNOR technique.

    PubMed

    Epivatianos, A; Trigonidis, G

    1994-01-01

    Silver-binding nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) were counted in sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of 14 benign and 17 malignant tumors of minor salivary glands. The difference in the mean number of AgNORs count per nucleus between benign and malignant tumors was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). A positive correlation between the AgNORs count and the degree of malignancy of the malignant salivary gland tumors was generally observed. The AgNORs technique can be used as a diagnostic aid in differentiating between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, and possibly the salivary duct carcinoma from the acinic cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

  14. Primary Pulmonary Salivary Gland-type Tumors: A Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nadja; Weissferdt, Annikka; Kalhor, Neda; Moran, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary salivary gland-type tumors (SGT) comprise a very small proportion of primary lung neoplasms. The most common tumors among this group are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Contrary to the head and neck region, benign SGT such as pleomorphic adenomas are exceedingly rare in the pulmonary system. More recently, 2 additional SGT, namely hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma and salivary duct-like carcinoma were recognized as primary lung tumors expanding the spectrum of SGT that have been described to originate in the tracheobronchial system. Primary pulmonary SGT must be clinically excluded from metastatic salivary gland neoplasms as their morphology is indistinguishable from that of their salivary gland counterparts. Little is known about the clinical behavior and best treatment approach for these unusual tumors. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of primary pulmonary SGT with particular emphasis on morphologic characteristics and latest developments in terms of immunohistochemical and molecular techniques.

  15. Functional differences in the acinar cells of the murine major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Jaramillo, Y; Choi, S; Catalan, M A; Melvin, J E

    2015-05-01

    In humans, approximately 90% of saliva is secreted by the 3 major salivary glands: the parotid (PG), the submandibular (SMG), and the sublingual glands (SLG). Even though it is known that all 3 major salivary glands secrete saliva by a Cl(-)-dependent mechanism, salivary secretion rates differ greatly among these glands. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the properties of the ion-transporting pathways in acinar cells that might account for the differences among the major salivary glands. Pilocarpine-induced saliva was simultaneously collected in vivo from the 3 major salivary glands of mice. When normalized by gland weight, the amount of saliva secreted by the PG was more than 2-fold larger than that obtained from the SMG and SLG. At the cellular level, carbachol induced an increase in the intracellular [Ca(2+)] that was more than 2-fold larger in PG and SMG than in SLG acinar cells. Carbachol-stimulated Cl(-) efflux and the protein levels of the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel TMEM16A, the major apical Cl(-) efflux pathway in salivary acinar cells, were significantly greater in PG compared with SMG and SLG. In addition, we evaluated the transporter activity of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters (NKCC1) and anion exchangers (AE), the 2 primary basolateral Cl(-) uptake mechanisms in acinar cells. The SMG NKCC1 activity was about twice that of the PG and more than 12-fold greater than that of the SLG. AE activity was similar in PG and SLG, and both PG and SLG AE activity was about 2-fold larger than that of SMG. In summary, the salivation kinetics of the 3 major glands are distinct, and these differences can be explained by the unique functional properties of each gland related to Cl(-) movement, including the transporter activities of the Cl(-) uptake and efflux pathways, and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization.

  16. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands

    PubMed Central

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings. PMID:25550873

  17. RNA TRANSPORT FROM NUCLEUS TO CYTOPLASM IN CHIRONOMUS SALIVARY GLANDS

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Barbara J.; Swift, Hewson

    1966-01-01

    The fine structure and cytochemistry of the extremely large RNA puffs, or Balbiani rings, in salivary gland nuclei of midge, Chironomus thummi, larvae have been investigated. The Balbiani rings are composed of a diffuse mass of electron-opaque 400 to 500 A granules, short threads about 180 to 220 A in diameter and associated fine chromatin fibrils. These components appear to be organized into brushlike elements which form the ring. Electron microscope cytochemistry has shown that the granules and short threads contain RNA. After ribonuclease digestion, only 50 to 100 A chromatin fibrils were apparent in the Balbiani ring, and the granules were no longer demonstrable. Deoxyribonuclease digestion had no apparent effect on these structures. Observations indicate that the granules are formed from the short threads and released into the nucleoplasm in which they are evenly distributed. At the nuclear envelope, many granules have been observed partially or completely within the nuclear pores. These granules become elongated and are shown to penetrate the center of the pore in a rodlike form, about 200 A in diameter. The Balbiani ring granules are not normally visible within the cytoplasm adjacent to the nuclear envelope, but have been rarely found in this region. It is suggested that the granules represent the product of the Balbiani ring, possibly a messenger RNA bound to protein, and that they regularly pass into the cytoplasm through a narrow central channel in the pores of the nuclear envelope. PMID:5971975

  18. Salivary Gland. Photon beam and particle radiotherapy: Present and future.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Ester; Iacovelli, Nicola Alessandro; Bonora, Maria; Cavallo, Anna; Fossati, Piero

    2016-09-01

    Salivary gland cancers (SGCs) are rare diseases and their treatment depends upon histology, stage and site of origin. Radical surgery is the mainstay of treatment but radiotherapy (RT) plays a key role in both the postoperative and the inoperable setting, as well as in recurrent disease. In the absence of prospective randomized trials, a wide retrospective literature suggests postoperative RT (PORT) in patients with high risk pathological features. SGCs, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) in particular, are known to be radio-resistant tumors and should therefore respond well to particle beam therapy. Recently, excellent outcome has been reported with radical carbon ion RT (CIRT) in particular for ACC. Both modern photon- and hadron-based treatments are effective and are characterized by a favourable toxicity profile. But it is not clear whether one modality is superior to the other for disease control, due to the differences in patients' selection, techniques, fractionation schedules and outcome measurements among clinical experiences. In this paper, we review the role of photon and particle RT for malignant SGCs, discussing the difference between modalities in terms of biological and technical characteristics. RT dose and target volumes for different histologies (ACC versus non-ACC) have also been taken into consideration. PMID:27394087

  19. Benign myoepithelioma of the salivary glands: a true entity?

    PubMed

    Simpson, R H; Jones, H; Beasley, P

    1995-07-01

    Myoepithelioma is a rare neoplasm of the salivary glands which is now recognized as an individual entity in the revised WHO classification. In this study, eleven benign tumours are presented. Most patients gave a history of a slowly enlarging mass, which was cured by surgical excision. However, one case recurred several times over 50 years, and another still has residual tumour and removal is not possible. The histological appearances included solid, myxoid and reticular growth patterns, composed predominantly of spindle shaped or plasmacytoid (hyaline) cells. Many of the tumours also contained occasional small ducts. All 11 tumours were positive for S-100 protein, variable reactions being seen for various other antigens--keratins, human milk fat globulin, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha smooth muscle actin and vimentin. It is probable that myoepithelioma constitutes one end of a biological spectrum which also includes pleomorphic adenoma and some (non-membranous) basal cell adenomas. In practice, however, we still advocate retention of myoepithelioma as a separate diagnostic category, on the grounds that it has a range of distinctive microscopic appearances and poses its own unique problems in correct identification.

  20. A clinicopathologic study of 196 intraoral minor salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M A; Kowalski, L P; da Cunha Santos, G; Paes de Almeida, O

    1999-07-01

    We present a retrospective study of 196 patients with intraoral minor salivary gland tumours, 128 malignant and 68 benign, diagnosed from 1954 to 1993 in the A. C. Camargo Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Sixty-five percent of the cases occurred in the palate, followed by tongue (9.7%) and retromolar area (6.1%). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was predominant among the malignant tumours. Surgery was the main treatment method and postoperative radiotherapy and radiotherapy alone were used in 40 and 15 patients, respectively. Local recurrence was observed in two patients with pleomorphic adenoma and in eight patients with malignant tumours. Regional lymph node metastases occurred in four cases and distant metastases in five. Forty-six of 47 patients with benign tumours who were followed up from 1 to 7 years were alive without disease. Twenty-four of 79 patients with malignant tumours who were followed up for at least 5 years died due the tumour and 47 were alive without disease.

  1. Multifocal canalicular adenoma of the minor labial salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Samar, María Elena; Avila, Rodolfo Esteban; Fonseca, Ismael Bernardo; Anderson, William; Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Canalicular adenoma (CA) is an uncommon benign neoplasia of salivary glands which is clinically difficult to recognise. Despite having an excellent prognosis, the histological diagnosis and clinical management of this entity can be troublesome. While the main differential diagnosis to consider is basal cell adenoma (BCA), similar histological patterns and multifocality have been observed in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), both locally-aggressive malignancies which require radically different treatment to CA. An emphasis has been placed on the value of immunohistochemistry in avoiding diagnostic and surgical errors. CA is positive for AE1/AE3, CD117 and S-100 protein, and negative for p63, α-SMA, Ki 67 and vimentin. Here we discuss the case of a 61-year-old female with CA in her right upper lip, showing multifocal growth histologically. The differential diagnosis with other adenomas is discussed in addition to the role of immunohistochemical studies that can confirm the clinical and surgical findings.

  2. Classification of salivary gland tumours--a brief histopathological review.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R H

    1995-07-01

    Tumours of the salivary glands display a wide variety of histological appearances, and vary in behaviour from totally benign to high grade and usually fatal malignancies. Over the past 40 years several classification schemes have been proposed, of which the most comprehensive and accurate are those of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) which were both revised in 1991. They are readily applicable by practising surgical pathologists, and encompass most of the range of tumours likely to be encountered. If I have a slight preference, it is for the WHO classification which is more concise. This paper briefly discusses each tumour, and highlights the changes from previous classifications, including the proper recognition of several newly described tumours which are distinct clinico-pathological entities. Neither of the new schemes solves every problem, and brief attention is drawn to defects. These are minor, and do not significantly detract from the advantages of both new classifications, which represent a major advance in our ability to understand these often perplexing tumours.

  3. Reduced salivary gland size and increased presence of epithelial progenitor cells in DLK1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    García-Gallastegui, P; Luzuriaga, J; Aurrekoetxea, M; Baladrón, V; Ruiz-Hidalgo, M J; García-Ramírez, J J; Laborda, J; Unda, F; Ibarretxe, G

    2016-06-01

    DLK1 (PREF1, pG2, or FA1) is a transmembrane and secreted protein containing epidermal growth factor-like repeats. Dlk1 expression is abundant in many tissues during embryonic and fetal development and is believed to play an important role in the regulation of tissue differentiation and fetal growth. After birth, Dlk1 expression is abolished in most tissues but is possibly reactivated to regulate stem cell activation and responses to injury. We have recently reported that DLK1 regulates many aspects of salivary gland organogenesis. Here, we have extended our studies of the salivary gland phenotype of Dlk1 knock-out mice. We have observed that salivary glands are smaller and weigh significantly less in both Dlk1 knock-out males and females compared with gender and age-matched wild-type mice and regardless of the natural sexual dimorphism in rodent salivary glands. This reduced size correlates with a reduced capacity of Dlk1-deficient mice to secrete saliva after stimulation with pilocarpine. However, histological and ultrastructural analyses of both adult and developing salivary gland tissues have revealed no defects in Dlk1 ((-/-)) mice, indicating that genetic compensation accounts for the relatively mild salivary phenotype in these animals. Finally, despite their lack of severe anomalies, we have found that salivary glands from Dlk1-deficient mice present a higher amount of CK14-positive epithelial progenitors at various developmental stages, suggesting a role for DLK1 in the regulation of salivary epithelial stem cell balance. PMID:26711912

  4. Clinical Management of Salivary Gland Hypofunction and Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients: Successes and Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.; Limesand, Kirsten H.; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C.; Elting, Linda S.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Coppes, Robert P.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2010-11-15

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy.

  5. Perlecan domain IV peptide stimulates salivary gland cell assembly in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Swati; Zhang, Chu; Jia, Xinqiao; Carson, Daniel D; Witt, Robert; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-01

    Treatment of xerostomia would benefit from development of a functional implantable artificial salivary gland. Salivary gland tissue from surgical patients was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry to establish the phenotype of normal salivary gland cells including the native basement membranes. Ductal and acinar cells were identified in tissue and cultured cells from dispersed tissue. High levels of laminin and perlecan/HSPG2 (heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2) were noted in basement membranes, and perlecan also was secreted and organized by cultured acinar populations, which formed lobular structures that mimicked intact glands when cultured on Matrigel or a bioactive peptide derived from domain IV of perlecan. On either matrix, large acini-like lobular structures grew and formed connections between the lobes. alpha-Amylase secretion was confirmed by staining and activity assay. Biomarkers, including tight junction protein E-cadherin and water channel protein aquaporin 5 found in tissue, were expressed in cultured acinar cells. Cells cultured on Matrigel or domain IV of perlecan peptide organized stress fibers and activated focal adhesion kinase. We report a novel technique to isolate acinar cells from human salivary gland and identify a human peptide sequence in perlecan that triggers differentiation of salivary gland cells into self-assembling acini-like structures that express essential biomarkers and which secrete alpha-amylase.

  6. Chitosan facilitates structure formation of the salivary gland by regulating the basement membrane components.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Hsiao, Ya-Chuan

    2015-10-01

    Tissue structure is important for inherent physiological function and should be recapitulated during tissue engineering for regenerative purposes. The salivary gland is a branched organ that is responsible for saliva secretion and regulation. The salivary glands develop from epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and depend on the support of the basement membrane (BM). Chitosan-based biomaterials have been demonstrated to be competent in facilitating the formation of salivary gland tissue structure. However, the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. In the developing submandibular gland (SMG), the chitosan effect was found to diminish when collagen and laminin were removed from cultured SMG explants. Chitosan increased the expression of BM components including collagen, laminin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and also facilitated BM components and the corresponding receptors to be expressed in tissue-specific patterns beneficial for SMG branching. The chitosan effect decreased when either laminin components or receptors were inhibited, as well when the downstream signaling was blocked. Our results revealed that chitosan promotes salivary glands branching through the BM. By regulating BM components and receptors, chitosan efficiently stimulated downstream signaling to facilitate salivary gland branching. The present study revealed the underlying mechanism of the chitosan effect in engineering SMG structure formation.

  7. Basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ arising in salivary gland metaplasia of the breast: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Jeong; Kang, Su Hwan; Bae, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland metaplasia is a newly recognized, adenosis-like lesion which could not be classified according to known categories of adenosis of the breast. We report a case of basaloid ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) arising in a background of salivary gland metaplasia in a 49-year old woman who visited our hospital for a right breast mass. Breast ultrasonography showed a multi-lobulating mixed hypoechoic and isoechoic mass measuring 2.9 cm in size at the periareolar area. Histologically, the lesion showed a well-defined DCIS with basaloid tumor cells and central comedo-type necrosis surrounded by salivary gland metaplasia composed of glands or ducts not specific to the breast, ducts with cribriform proliferation of luminal epithelial cells, and ducts with varying degrees of proliferation of basaloid cells including solid nests of basaloid cells. Salivary gland metaplasia is a most unusual lesion of the breast characterized by salivary gland-type acini and ducts with various proliferations of luminal and basaloid cells, and accompanied by malignant tumor of basal cell type.

  8. Mesenchymal neoplasms of the major salivary glands: clinicopathological features of 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ja; Ro, Jae Y; Choi, Jene; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2008-07-01

    Non-lymphoid mesenchymal neoplasms of salivary gland origin are rare, accounting for 1.9-5% of major salivary gland tumors. We describe the clinico-pathologic features of 18 cases of mesenchymal neoplasms of the major salivary glands experienced at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from 1998 to 2004. Mesenchymal neoplasms accounted for 3.4% of the total of 524 major salivary gland tumors. The parotid gland was the preponderant site (15 cases). Thirteen tumors were benign, constituting 3.5% of the total of 371 benign neoplasms. Schwannomas were the most common benign tumors (six cases), followed by lipomas (three cases), plexiform neurofibroma, hemangioma, desmoid tumor, and solitary fibrous tumor (one each). The malignant tumors consisted of one dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, synovial sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma and desmoplastic small round cell tumor each. Immunohistochemical analysis for the expression of vimentin, actin, desmin, neuron-specific enolase, keratin, CD34, CD99 and bcl-2 contributed to the differential diagnoses. Genetic analysis for fusion transcripts was conclusive in the diagnosis of desmoplastic small round cell tumor, which is extremely rare at this location. Pre-operative imaging study and fine needle aspiration cytology had limitations in prediction of the mesenchymal nature of the tumors, due to either low index of suspicion, similarities to mixed tumors, or specimen inadequacy. Awareness of the development of various mesenchymal tumors in the major salivary glands could increase the accuracy of preoperative and postoperative diagnosis, and therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors: a clinicopathological study of 546 cases.

    PubMed

    Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Pringle, Gordon A; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Chen, Sow-Yeh

    2007-05-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and most reported series include tumors affecting both major and minor glands. Very few series have focused solely on intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study is to report the clinicopathological data of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors in our oral biopsy files during the last 14 years. A total of 546 minor salivary gland tumors, including 305 benign (55.9%) and 241 malignant (44.1%) lesions, were reviewed. The two most common tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (181 cases, 33.2%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (125 cases, 22.9%), and the most commonly affected site was the palate (181 cases, 33.2%). The highest incidence was found in patients in the 5-7th decade of life, and females were more commonly affected than males in the vast majority of various histological types of tumors. Large series of intra-oral minor salivary gland tumors help to understand their clinical and pathological aspects and consequently their proper management and prognosis.

  10. Fine needle aspiration biopsy in a diagnostic workup algorithm of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Ivanová, S; Slobodníková, J; Janská, E; Jozefáková, J

    2003-01-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of salivary gland diseases can give a more accurate information than clinical data alone. In diagnosis of the parotid gland diseases, it is necessary to differentiate clearly tumors from other diseases. When a tumor is suspected, its presence should be confirmed, and determined if it is solitary, multiple, unilateral or bilateral, intra or extraglandular, and benign or malignant. In the period of May 1998 to January 2001 ultrasound examinations were performed in 354 patients, FNAB with ultrasound control were performed in 152 patients with a mean age of 49.7 years. The ultrasound and cytologic findings were correlated with surgical and histologic findings. Results indicate that in patients with solid mass of the salivary gland, ultrasound examination confirmed the finding of salivary gland tumor in all patients (100%). In non-solid diseases of salivary glands the diagnostic accuracy was slightly lower. The use of ultrasound techniques in the study of salivary gland pathology is well justified, due to its capacity to provide high resolution and improving clinical diagnosis. FNAB is a simple quick, accurate and virtually complications free investigative modality. The data on its ability to distinguish between lesions requiring surgery or not are encouraging.

  11. TAT-Mediated Delivery of Tousled Protein to Salivary Glands Protects Against Radiation-Induced Hypofunction

    SciTech Connect

    Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Richardson, Charles; De Benedetti, Arrigo; Schrott, Lisa; Caldito, Gloria

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer invariably suffer its deleterious side effect, xerostomia. Salivary hypofunction ensuing from the irreversible destruction of glands is the most common and debilitating oral complication affecting patients undergoing regional radiotherapy. Given that the current management of xerostomia is palliative and ineffective, efforts are now directed toward preventive measures to preserve gland function. The human homolog of Tousled protein, TLK1B, facilitates chromatin remodeling at DNA repair sites and improves cell survival against ionizing radiation (IR). Therefore, we wanted to determine whether a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to rat salivary glands could protect against IR-induced salivary hypofunction. Methods: The cell-permeable TAT-TLK1B fusion protein was generated. Rat acinar cell line and rat salivary glands were pretreated with TAT peptide or TAT-TLK1B before IR. The acinar cell survival in vitro and salivary function in vivo were assessed after radiation. Results: We demonstrated that rat acinar cells transduced with TAT-TLK1B were more resistant to radiation (D{sub 0} = 4.13 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 0 Gy) compared with cells transduced with the TAT peptide (D{sub 0} = 4.91 {+-} 1.0 Gy; {alpha}/{beta} = 20.2 Gy). Correspondingly, retroductal instillation of TAT-TLK1B in rat submandibular glands better preserved salivary flow after IR (89%) compared with animals pretreated with Opti-MEM or TAT peptide (31% and 39%, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The results demonstrate that a direct transfer of TLK1B protein to the salivary glands effectively attenuates radiation-mediated gland dysfunction. Prophylactic TLK1B-protein therapy could benefit patients undergoing radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer.

  12. Potential role for inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor in salivary gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Routila, Johannes; Mäkelä, Juho-Antti; Luukkaa, Heikki; Leivo, Ilmo; Irjala, Heikki; Westermarck, Jukka; Mäkitie, Antti; Ventelä, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of salivary gland malignancies remain unknown. To reveal novel molecular factors behind the development of salivary gland cancer, we performed gene expression analyses from Smgb-Tag mouse salivary gland samples. The overall purpose was to apply these results for clinical use to find new approaches for both possible therapeutic targets and more accurate diagnostic tools. Smgb-Tag mouse strain, in which salivary neoplasms arise through a dysplastic phase in submandibular glands, was investigated using genome-wide microarray expression analysis, ingenuity pathway analysis, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma samples were investigated using immunohistochemistry for validation purposes. Our genome-wide study showed that Ppp2r1b, a PP2A subunit encoding tumor suppressor gene, is underexpressed in submandibular gland tumors of Smgb-Tag mice. mTOR signaling pathway was significantly enriched and mTOR linked PP2A subunit gene B55 gamma was significantly underexpressed in the analyses. Furthermore, parallel immunohistochemical analysis of three PP2A inhibitors demonstrated that two PP2A inhibitors, CIP2A and SET, are highly expressed in both dysplastic and adenocarcinomatous tumors of the Smgb-Tag mice. In addition, all 38 investigated human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma samples stained positively for CIP2A and most for SET. Finally, p-S6 staining showed activation of mTOR pathway in human adenoid cystic carcinoma samples. Our results suggest that PP2A inhibition either via PP2A subunit underexpression or PP2A inhibitor overexpression play an important role in the formation of salivary gland malignancy, potentially due to mTOR signaling activation.

  13. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary and seromucous glands of the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1996-05-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma of salivary glands is an uncommon and recently described entity occurring almost exclusively at the major salivary glands. This report provides an overview of the clinicopathologic profile of this neoplasm by including the personal experience on the clinical features, microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics, proliferation activity, and DNA tumor patterns of 12 lesions occurring at the minor salivary glands of the head and neck region, where basal cell adenocarcinoma is probably an underecognized entity, previously reported under different designations. Basal cell adenocarcinoma predominates at the seventh decade without sex preference. The tumors affecting the minor salivary glands occur most frequently at the oral cavity (jugal mucosa, palate) and the upper respiratory tract. The prevalent histologic tumor pattern is represented by solid neoplastic aggregates with a peripheral cell palisading arrangement frequently delineated by basement membrane-like material. The neoplastic clusters are formed by two cell populations: the small dark cell type (that predominates) and a large cell type. Necrosis, either of the comedo or the apoptotic type, is a frequent finding. Perineural growth occurs in 50% of the cases and vascular permeation in 25%. Immunohistochemistry identifies a dual differentiation with a reactivity pattern indicative of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, which can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The differential diagnosis of the neoplasm includes its benign counterpart, the basal cell adenoma, solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and basaloid squamous carcinoma. The tumors recur more frequently than lesions originating in major salivary glands. Mortality is associated with the anatomic site of the lesion, advanced stage, residual neoplasia at surgery, and tumor recurrence. The importance of recognizing basal cell adenocarcinoma outside major salivary glands is

  14. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  15. Immunohistochemical study of the lymphatic vessels in major salivary glands of the rat.

    PubMed

    Aiyama, Shigeo; Kikuchi, Kenichiro; Takada, Kiyomi; Ikeda, Rie; Sato, Sumie; Kuroki, Jyunya

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to examine whether lymphatic vessels are present in the lobules of major salivary glands in the rat. Immunostaining with an antibody against podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelial cell marker, was performed on sections of the submandibular, sublingual and parotid glands. Light microscopy demonstrated podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels around the interlobular ducts and the interlobular arteries and veins in the interlobular connective tissue in all of the major salivary glands. No podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels were found in the lobules. Electron microscopy also demonstrated lymphatic endothelial cells showing podoplanin expression only in the interlobular connective tissue. These findings suggest that the lymphatic system of the rat major salivary glands originates in the interlobular connective tissue, and not in the lobules.

  16. Cytochemical investigation on lipids in human major salivary glands. A light and electron microscope study.

    PubMed

    Sirigu, P; Diaz, G; Lantini, M S; Del Fiacco, M

    1976-01-01

    The localization of lipids in the secretion of human parotid and submandibular glands has been here investigated. Ultrastructural observations following lipid extraction and histochemical data showed that lipid components are not present in the secretory granules. In fact, while histochemical reactions are completely negative, secretory granules from lipid-depleted glands retain all their morphological characters. These results led us to emphasize that, at least in human seromucous cells, lipids are not directly involved in the salivary secretion. This conclusion, which is supported by the biochemical data concerning the lipid content in human saliva, disagrees with the findings obtained in rat and guinea pig salivary glands. However, this discrepancy may be ascribed to the specific biochemical and ultrastructural differences found in the salivary glands of the various mammalian species. PMID:1023331

  17. Parotid gland is the main source of human salivary epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Thesleff, I.; Viinikka, L.; Saxen, L.; Lehtonen, E.; Perheentupa, J.

    1988-01-01

    To clarify the production of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) by different salivary glands, the authors measured its concentration by radioimmunoassay separately in whole saliva, in parotid gland (PG) saliva and in mixed submandibular (SMG) and sublingual gland (SLG) saliva. Also, they studied the presence of EGF in PG and SMG by immunohistochemistry. The mean concentrations of EDG in PG saliva was higher than in whole saliva, which in turn was higher than in mixed SMG + SLG saliva. No sex difference existed in any salivary gland EGF. Immunohistochemistry revealed EGF in the acinar cells of both PG and SMG, buy only in PG there were prominent EDG deposits in luminal spaces. Their data suggest that EDG is produced by both PG and SMG, but that more of it is secreted from the PG. This result is new and challenges the general view that human salivary EDG is mainly from SMG.

  18. A retrospective study of 60 cases of salivary gland tumors in a Thai population.

    PubMed

    Poomsawat, Sopee; Punyasingh, Jirapa; Weerapradist, Woranut

    2004-01-01

    Sixty cases of salivary gland tumors were diagnosed in the Oral Pathology Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, from 1973 to 2002. Fifty-two cases (86.7%) involved the intraoral minor salivary glands, six cases (10%) were found in the major glands, and two cases (3.3%) were intrabony. The predominance of malignant over benign tumors was evident with 68.3% being malignant and 31.7% benign. Patients ranged in age from 9 to 75 years. The female to male ratio of benign intraoral salivary gland tumors was 1.4 to 1 and of malignant types was 1.1 to 1. The principle site of occurrence was the palate (65.4%), followed by buccal mucosa (13.5%). Pleomorphic adenoma (30%) was the most common benign tumor, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (44.3%) was the most common malignant tumor. Comparing the data from the present study with other series, some discrepancies exist.

  19. [Diagnostic pitfalls in benign and malignant salivary gland diseases. Their significance for prognosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G

    1998-03-01

    Diagnostic pitfalls exist when benign salivary gland diseases are mistakenly classified as malignant, with consequences for treatment and prognosis. Examples are necrotizing sialometaplasia, metaplastic Warthin tumour and sclerosing polycystic sialadenopathy. The proper diagnosis is of eminent importance to distinguish cases of primary tumours that have developed in salivary glands or their lymph nodes from cases of extraglandular tumours with metastases in these glands or their nodes. In these cases clinical data and additional immunocytochemical methods are necessary to clarify the exact diagnosis, especially when the primary salivary gland tumours have a structure largely identical to the metastases (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma). Nasopharyngeal or cervical chordomas can be mistaken for pleomorphic adenoma or mucinous adenocarcinoma. The initial stage of malignant MALT lymphomas in association with Sjögren's syndrome demands identification of clonal rearrangement for therapeutic implication. The diagnostic criteria for proper classification are analysed in detail.

  20. Distribution and properties of arginase in the salivary glands of four species of laboratory mammals.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, N; Moriwaki, K; Furuyama, S

    2004-04-01

    Important progress in arginine metabolism includes the discovery of widespread expression of two isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, not only in hepatic cells but also in non-hepatic cells, and the formation of nitric oxide, a widely distributed signal-transducing molecule, from arginine by nitric oxide synthase. Possible physiological roles of arginase may therefore include regulation of nitric oxide synthesis through arginine availability for nitric oxide synthase. In this paper, arginase was investigated in the submandibular, sublingual, and parotid glands of rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit. From their arginase contents, the salivary glands of these species were divided into two groups. Variable levels of arginase activity were detected in the salivary glands of mouse and rat. However, salivary glands of rabbit and guinea pig had almost no arginase activity. The presence of nitric oxide synthase has been reported in all the salivary glands used in this study. Therefore, one of the important findings was the presence of species specificity in the co-localization of arginase and nitric oxide synthase in the salivary glands of the four species. The highest specific activity of arginase was found in mouse parotid gland. In rat, considerable arginase activity was detected in all three glands, at 3.6-7.3% of that in rat liver. In rat submandibular gland, arginase was detected in both cytosolic and particulate fractions. In addition, arginase was detected in isolated acinar cells, but not in duct cells. Experiments on the intracellular distribution and the effects of the arginase inhibitors ornithine and N(omega)-hydroxy-L-arginine (NOHA), suggested the presence of both arginase I and arginase II in rat submandibular gland. PMID:14712329

  1. Two malignant salivary gland tumours of different type in one patient.

    PubMed

    Hosni, A; Fisher, C; Rhŷs-Evans, P

    1994-09-01

    The synchronous or metachronous occurrence of two tumours of the salivary glands in one patient is rare. These are mainly benign and of the same histological type. Here we report a 56-year-old man who developed a mucoepidermoid tumour of the left parotid gland four years after diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the right submandibular gland. This combination of neoplasms has not to our knowledge been reported before.

  2. Tumors of the salivary gland in Mexicans. A retrospective study of 360 cases

    PubMed Central

    Durán-Padilla, Marco A.; Gómez-Apo, Erick; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish distribution frequency and demographic characteristics of salivary gland tumours (SGT) i6n order to identify possible risk profiles. Design of study: The present report constitutes an eight year retrospective study (January 2000-August 2007). The archives of the Clinical and Experimental Pathology Laboratory (Graduate and Research Division, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico) as well as archives of the Surgical Pathology Service (General Hospital, Mexico City) were subject to revision in order to select all cases where SGT tumour diagnoses were emitted. Age and gender of patients as well as SGT topography were obtained from medical records. Selected cases were classified according to location of the lesion, histological lineage and biological behaviour. Results: 360 cases of SGT were included, 227 (67%) cases were benign tumours, while 83 cases (23%) were malignant tumours. SGT were most frequent in women with ages ranging from their 3rd to 5th decades of life. 275 tumours were located in major salivary glands, 78.9% of them were identified in the parotid gland. The most frequent location of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (33 cases, 38%) was found in the palatine glands. Tumours of epithelial lineage were the predominant histological type. The most frequent benign tumours were pleomorphic adenomas (86.1%) and papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum (7.3%). The most frequent malignant tumours were adenoid cystic carcinomas (25%) and mucoepidermoid carcinomas (23.6%) Conclusions: Salivary gland tumours in Mexican population appear principally in major salivary glands of women in their 3rd to 5th decade of life. Key words: Salivary glands tumours, epithelial tumours, pleomorphic adenoma, papillary cistadenoma lymphomatosum, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma. PMID:22143697

  3. Clinical analysis of salivary gland tumor cases in West China in past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Jiang; Li, Yi; Wen, Yu-Ming; Liu, Hua; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2008-02-01

    In our study, 3461 cases of salivary gland tumor treated between 1955 and 2002 at West China Stomatology Hospital of Sichuan University were retrospectively analyzed, and compared with the previous reports. Measures such as age, tumor location, tumor histological type, and the nature of the growth (benign or malignant) were recorded at the same time. The findings are as follows: the average ages of salivary gland tumor patients were 41.38 years for the benign cases and 45.20 for the malignant ones; the male:female ratio was 0. 99:1 in the benign cases and 1.34:1 in the malignant ones; primary tumors were mostly in the parotid gland, palate and submandibular gland in sequence. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent benign tumor followed by Warthin's tumor and basal cell adenoma, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified were the most frequent malignant tumors. The incidence of salivary gland tumors increased with age. The male:female ratio of malignant tumors was higher than that of benign ones. The parotid gland and palate were the most common locations of salivary gland tumors. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most frequent benign and malignant tumors, respectively.

  4. MTA1 regulation of ERβ pathway in salivary gland carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshiro, Kazufumi Kumar, Rakesh

    2015-09-04

    Abstracts: Although Metastatic-tumor antigen 1 (MTA1) is differentially expressed in metastatic cancer and coregulates the status and activity of nuclear receptors, its role upon estrogen receptor β (ERβ) – a potent tumor suppressor, remains poorly understood. Here we investigated whether MTA1 regulates the expression and functions of ERβ, an ER isoform predominantly expressed in salivary gland cancer cells. We found that the depletion of the endogenous MTA1 in the HSG and HSY salivary duct carcinoma cell lines enhances the expression of ERβ while MTA1 overexpression augmented the expression of ERβ in salivary duct carcinoma cells. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown inhibited the proliferations and invasion of HSG and HSY cells. The noted ERβ downregulation by MTA1 overexpression involves the process of proteasomal degradation, as a proteasome inhibitor could block it. In addition, both MTA1 knockdown and ERβ overexpression attenuated the cell migration and inhibited the ERK1/2 signaling in the both cell lines. These findings imply that MTA1 dysregulation in a subset of salivary gland cancer might promote aggressive phenotypes by compromising the tumor suppressor activity of ERβ, and hence, MTA1-ERβ axis might serve a new therapeutic target for the salivary gland cancer. - Highlights: • MTA1 silencing upregulates ERβ expression in salivary gland carcinoma cells. • MTA1 overexpression downregulates ERβ expression via proteasomal degradation. • Upregulation of ERβ expression inhibits cell migration and ERK signaling. • MTA1 knockdown inhibits cell proliferation and invasion.

  5. Dopamine, vesicular transporters, and dopamine receptor expression in rat major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Mancini, Manuele; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Mahdi, Syed Sarosh; Amenta, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The localization of dopamine stores and the expression and localization of dopamine (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT) type-1 and -2 and of dopamine D1-like and D2-like receptor subtypes were investigated in rat submandibular, sublingual, and parotid salivary glands by HPLC with electrochemical detection, as well as immunochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Male Wistar rats of 2 mo of age were used. The highest dopamine levels were measured in the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and sublingual glands. Western blot analysis revealed DAT, VMAT-1, VMAT-2, and dopamine receptors immunoreactivity in membrane preparations obtained from the three glands investigated. Immunostaining for dopamine and transporters was developed within striated ducts. Salivary glands processed for dopamine receptors immunohistochemistry developed an immunoreaction primarily in striated and excretory ducts. In the submandibular gland, acinar cells displayed strong immunoreactivity for the D2 receptor, while cells of the convoluted granular tubules were negative for both D1-like and D2-like receptors. Parotid glands acinar cells displayed the highest immunoreactivity for both D1 and D2 receptors compared with other salivary glands. The above localization of dopamine and dopaminergic markers investigated did not correspond closely with neuron-specific enolase (NSE) localization. This indicates that at least in part, catecholamine stores and dopaminergic markers are independent from glandular innervation. These findings suggest that rat major salivary glands express a dopaminergic system probably involved in salivary secretion. The stronger immunoreactivity for dopamine transporters and receptors in striated duct cells suggests that the dopaminergic system could regulate not only quality, but also volume and ionic concentration of saliva.

  6. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report

    PubMed Central

    GOULART, Maria Carolina Vaz; FREITAS-FARIA, Patrícia; GOULART, Gláuter Rodrigues; de OLIVEIRA, Adriano Macedo; CARLOS-BREGNI, Roman; SOARES, Cleverson Teixeira; LARA, Vanessa Soares

    2011-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-filled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation. PMID:21552721

  7. Pleomorphic adenoma with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in minor salivary gland: a case report.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Maria Carolina Vaz; Freitas-Faria, Patrícia; Goulart, Gláuter Rodrigues; Oliveira, Adriano Macedo de; Carlos-Bregni, Roman; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2011-04-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common salivary gland tumor, accounts for 54 to 65% of all salivary gland neoplasias and 80% of the benign salivary gland tumors. It most frequently affects the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. Microscopically, mucous, sebaceous, oncocytic and squamous metaplasia, sometimes with the formation of keratin pearls, may be present, but the latter rarely results in the formation of extensive keratin-filled cysts lined by squamous epithelium. Extensive squamous metaplasia can be mistaken for malignancy, including mucoepidermoid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin cyst formations in a minor salivary gland, and discuss its microscopic features, including the immunohistochemical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of this uncommon presentation.

  8. Isolation and molecular cloning of a secreted immunosuppressant protein from Dermacentor andersoni salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Bergman, D K; Palmer, M J; Caimano, M J; Radolf, J D; Wikel, S K

    2000-06-01

    A 36-kDa immunosuppressant protein (Da-p36) was isolated from salivary glands of feeding female ixodid ticks Dermacentor andersoni, using its affinity for UltraLink Biosupport Medium (Pierce, Rockford, Illinois)/protein complexes. Using a nested set of forward degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to Da-p36 N-terminal amino acids, a cDNA encoding the immunosuppressant protein was isolated by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The resulting 772-base pair cDNA encodes a novel protein with predicted molecular weight of 24.9 kDa. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 5 potential glycosylation sites and 1 myristylation site. Immunoblot analyses showed native Da-p36 is present in salivary glands and saliva from both male and female D. andersoni but not in salivary glands or saliva from Amblyomma americanum or Ixodes scapularis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed that Da-p36 expression is temporally regulated in salivary glands with maximum mRNA levels preceding maximum Da-p36 accumulation that occurred at day 6 of feeding. The levels of Da-p36 mRNA and protein were greatly reduced in salivary glands from near-replete females removed from sheep after 8 days of feeding. These data are consistent with a role of Da-p36 in immunosuppression during feeding. PMID:10864249

  9. Interleukin-33 Expression Indicates a Favorable Prognosis in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rössle, Matthias; Cathomas, Gieri; Bonapace, Laura; Sachs, Melanie; Dehler, Silvia; Storz, Martina; Huber, Gerhard; Moch, Holger; Junt, Tobias; Mertz, Kirsten D

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is abundantly expressed in epithelial barrier tissues such as salivary glands. Here, we characterized nuclear IL-33 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and associated it with disease outcome. Most benign salivary gland tumors expressed IL-33, and all Warthin's tumors showed strong and consistent IL-33 expression in the basally oriented cells of their bilayered epithelium. In the malignant group of neoplasms, nuclear IL-33 expression was limited to specific tumor entities-for example, to epithelial-myopepithelial carcinomas (n = 9/11), acinic cell carcinomas (n = 13/27), and oncocytic carcinomas (n = 2/2). IL-33 expression in the combined group of malignant salivary gland neoplasms was significantly associated with favorable histological parameters, lack of metastasis, and longer overall survival, compared with IL-33-negative tumors. We conclude that IL-33 expression is a novel prognostic marker for malignant salivary gland tumors with potential use in clinical diagnostics.

  10. Fine-needle aspiration of secondary neoplasms involving the salivary glands. A report of 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Cohen, J M; Cangiarella, J F; Waisman, J; McKenna, B J; Chhieng, D C

    2000-01-01

    Metastases or secondary deposits account for 16% of the malignant neoplasms involving the major salivary glands. A correct diagnosis of a secondary neoplasm is important to avoid unnecessary radical surgery and to guide further therapy. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is an excellent noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluating salivary gland lesions. We reviewed 36 secondary malignant salivary gland neoplasms evaluated by FNAB. Ancillary studies were performed in selected cases. Follow-up included clinical correlation and review of histologic material. For 4 adenocarcinomas, 4 squamous cell carcinomas, 1 undifferentiated carcinoma, 1 cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, 10 cutaneous melanomas including 1 desmoplastic variant, 3 osteosarcomas, 11 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and 2 multiple myelomas, there was 1 false-negative FNAB result. The desmoplastic melanoma was interpreted as reactive lymphoid hyperplasia. A malignant diagnosis was given in all remaining cases except the secondary basal cell carcinoma, which was diagnosed as a neoplasm with basal cell features. FNAB is a reliable tool to differentiate hematologic malignant neoplasms and melanomas from other salivary gland neoplasms. A complete knowledge of the clinical history, review of previous pathologic materials, and, in some instances, the use of ancillary studies are crucial for recognizing solid malignant neoplasms secondarily involving the salivary glands. PMID:10631854

  11. Gene expression screening of salivary gland neoplasms: molecular markers of potential histogenetic and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Maruya, Shin-Ichiro; Kim, Hyung-Woo; Weber, Randal S; Lee, Jack J; Kies, Merril; Luna, Mario A; Batsakis, John G; El-Naggar, Adel K

    2004-08-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms comprise phenotypically and biologically diverse lesions of uncertain histogenesis. The molecular events associated with their development and clinicopathological heterogeneity remain unknown. To reveal these events, we performed microarray expression analysis using a nylon-filter membrane platform on 18 primary lesions representing the most common benign and malignant types. Our study identified a small set of genes that are differentially altered between normal salivary gland tissues and benign and malignant tumors. Of the 5000 genes arrayed, 136 genes were differentially expressed by normal tissue, benign tumors, and various malignant neoplasms. Hierarchical clustering analysis differentiated between adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) and other malignant subtypes. Non-ACC specimens manifested overlapping patterns of gene expression within and between tumors. Most of the differentially expressed genes share functional similarities with members of the adhesion, proliferation, and signal transduction pathways. Our study identified: 1) a set of genes that differentiate normal tissue from tumor specimens, 2) genes that differentiate pleomorphic adenoma and ACCs from other malignant salivary gland neoplasms, and 3) different patterns of expression between ACCs arising from major and minor salivary gland sites. The differentially expressed genes provide new information on potential genetic events of biological significance in future studies of salivary gland tumorigenesis.

  12. Is fine needle aspiration biopsy of salivary gland masses really necessary?

    PubMed

    Candel, A; Gattuso, P; Reddy, V; Matz, G; Castelli, M

    1993-07-01

    The use of fine needle aspirate biopsies (FNAB's) in the outpatient setting has progressively escalated, particularly in the area of head and neck pathology. An increasing percentage of these are for salivary gland masses. We present our experience with salivary gland FNAB's at our institution for four years, from 1988-1992. One thousand and twenty-two (1,022) FNAB's of superficial masses were performed by two pathologists. One hundred sixty-three (15.9%) were salivary gland biopsies. Of these 163 cases, 21 (12.9%) were normal tissue, 77 (47.2%) were inflammatory processes, 50 (30.7%) were benign tumors, and 15 (9.2%) were malignant tumors. None of the aspirates were unsatisfactory. Tissue correlation was possible in 47 (28.8%) cases. Two false negative cases (4.3%) were identified; these were a Warthin's tumor diagnosed as chronic sialoadenitis by FNAB; and a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by FNAB. There were no false positive cases. Overall sensitivity was 95.7% and specificity was 100%. Our experience indicates that FNAB of salivary glands is an effective screening procedure in evaluating salivary gland masses. The cytologic diagnosis may assist the clinician in allaying patients' anxieties, as well as in further collateral workup prior to definitive therapy.

  13. Diagnostic value of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy in patients with salivary gland masses.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, J; Ridder, G J

    2012-04-01

    The salivary glands are unique in the diversity and complexity of their pathologies. Because fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen section are associated with major diagnostic difficulties, the authors analyzed the use of core needle biopsy (CNB) for the histologic assessment of salivary gland lesions. A systematic observational clinicopathologic quality assessment study was performed over 81 months including 161 CNB procedures in 76 patients with salivary gland pathologies. Adequate samples containing the target tissue were obtained in 73 patients. These samples revealed malignant disease in 45 (62%) patients, benign disease in 26 (36%) patients, and were inconclusive in 2 (3%) patients. Follow-up uncovered no false-positive or false-negative results. On the basis of secondary histologic and clinical follow-up, the statistical parameters were calculated as follows: sensitivity 94%; specificity 100%; accuracy 96%; positive predictive value 100%; negative predictive value 90%. The advantages and potential limitations of CNB in patients with salivary gland masses are discussed. CNB is a reliable biopsy technique for the assessment of salivary gland pathologies, although limitations remain for the subclassification of some neoplastic lesions. The authors recommend CNB as the biopsy technique of choice for a selection of indications.

  14. Upregulation of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Andisheh Tadbir, Azadeh; Khademi, Bijan; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; Mardani, Maryam; Khademi, Bahar

    2013-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis is essential for tumor development, invasion, and dissemination. The most potent of the cytokines associated with angiogenesis is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The aim of the present study was to determine VEGF serum level in patients with salivary gland tumor. Using an ELISA kit, the circulating levels of VEGF in sera from 58 patients with salivary gland tumor and 30 healthy controls were assessed. Mean VEGF levels in sera of patients with salivary gland tumors (574.9 ± 414.3) were significantly higher than those in controls (263.9 ± 310.0) (P = 0.009). Within the salivary gland tumor group, mean serum VEGF concentration in malignant tumors (n = 27) was 727.3 ± 441.8 pg/mL, and that in benign tumors (n = 31) was 442.2 ± 343.3 pg/mL. Mean serum VEGF concentration was significantly higher in malignant tumors than in benign tumors (P = 0.008) and was higher in benign tumors than in controls (P = 0.03). The data in the present study clearly show that VEGF level was consistently upregulated in benign and malignant tumors in comparison to healthy controls. However, the role of VEGF as a prognostic factor in salivary gland tumor and its application in antiangiogenic therapy require further clinical research.

  15. Fine-needle aspiration of spindle cell and mesenchymal lesions of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Chhieng, D C; Cohen, J M; Cangiarella, J F

    2000-10-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy can accurately diagnose epithelial lesions of the salivary gland. Its role in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions containing a significant spindle cell component is less clear. We describe the cytologic features of 25 spindle cell lesions of the salivary gland and discuss the differential diagnosis and potential diagnostic pitfalls. Twenty-five aspiration smears (3.0%) containing a significant spindle cell or mesenchymal component were identified out of 844 salivary gland FNAs performed over a 5-year period. These aspiration smears were from 25 patients. The smears were classified into three categories: 1) reactive or inflammatory conditions, including one granulation tissue and four granulomatous sialoadenitis; 2) benign neoplasms, including one schwannoma, one fibromatosis, four lipomas, and nine pleomorphic adenomas; 3) malignant neoplasms, including one recurrent malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH), two metastatic melanomas, and two metastatic osteosarcomas. There was one false-negative biopsy. The metastatic desmoplastic malignant melanoma was initially interpreted as a reactive lymph node with fibrosis. A specific diagnosis was rendered in 21 (84%) cases. The schwannoma was diagnosed cytologically as benign spindle cell lesion, not otherwise specified (NOS), fibromatosis as an atypical cellular proliferation, and MFH as poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm. Salivary gland lesions with a significant spindle cell component are rarely encountered on FNA and constitute a heterogeneous group. A specific diagnosis can be rendered in the majority of cases by correlating clinical and cytologic findings.

  16. In vitro transformation of cell lines from human salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Queimado, L; Lopes, C; Du, F; Martins, C; Fonseca, I; Bowcock, A M; Soares, J; Lovett, M

    1999-05-31

    Explanted cells from salivary gland tumors are particularly difficult to propagate in vitro and not efficiently immortalized by agents such as simian virus 40. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) has been widely used to transform cells of epithelial origin, but its use for salivary gland cell transformation has not been described. In this study, we employed viral constructs containing the E6/E7 genes of HPV16 to infect and stably transform 9 salivary gland tumor cell cultures. Four of the tumor cell cultures were derived from benign tumors and 5 from malignant tumors. All of the original cell cultures were diploid; however, 6 contained subpopulations of cells with structural abnormalities. All 9 cell cultures were successfully transformed, and 8 were immortalized. The resulting cell lines have decreased serum requirements, exhibit a high proliferation rate, are E6/E7-positive and form colonies in soft agar. Immuno-histochemical and molecular studies confirmed that the transformed cells were indeed epithelial/myoepithelial in origin. All of the transformed cell lines had a diploid or near-diploid karyotype, and 2 contained the original translocated chromosomes in all cells. Our report represents a new application of the E6/E7 system in immortalizing salivary gland cell cultures, resulting in retention of the cellular features found in the native tissue without a general destabilization of the karyotype. These types of tissue culture resources should prove useful for positional cloning and functional studies of genes involved in salivary gland oncogenesis.

  17. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nikpay, Ali; Nabian, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle. Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2) respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA. Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3%) and increased duration of feeding, preoviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%). All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05). Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation. Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B.) annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control. PMID:27308287

  18. Oncocytoma of the salivary glands: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan-Xiang; Gao, Yan

    2009-12-01

    We present a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 21 Chinese patients with oncocytoma of salivary gland origin, a rare benign tumour composed exclusively of large epithelial cells with eosinophilic granular cytoplasm (oncocytes). The median age was 60.1 years with a male predominance (67%). All the tumours occurred in the parotid except one in the palate. A painless mass was the most common feature, although intermittent pain was complained of in four cases. All the patients were treated by superficial parotidectomy, with no recurrence or metastasis. Histologically, most tumours displayed an encapsulated nodular growth pattern, but one case presented with an aggressive growing tendency. Typical oncocytes were observed in all cases, with one clear cell variant found. The oncocytes were arranged in solid sheets, trabecular or duct-like structures. Rarely, small foci of hemorrhage or lymphoid stroma were observed, but germinal centres were always absent. Phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin staining illustrated dark-blue cytoplasmic granules, demonstrated as mitochondria by electron microscopy. All the tumours showed immunoreactivity for CK5/6, CK8/18, CK10/13, CK19 and EMA, but were negative for SMA or S-100. MIB-1 antibody, used to identify the dividing cells by staining of the nucleus, was found to stain the cytoplasm of the oncocytes. In summary, clinical diagnosis for an oncocytoma is challenging for its similar features to other benign tumours. Histopathological diagnosis is reliable with histochemical and electron microscopic conformation of the oncocytes, but differential diagnosis is still challenging. MIB-1 immunostaining might be considered as a diagnostic aid.

  19. Fine needle aspiration of salivary gland masses in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Michelow, Pam; Dezube, Bruce J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Salivary gland disease is an important manifestation of HIV-infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytologic findings of salivary gland fine needle aspiration (FNA) in South African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. A retrospective review was performed on confirmed HIV-positive patients who underwent FNA of various body sites, including salivary glands, over a 5-year period. There were 495 (14.1%) salivary gland FNAs out of a total of 3,501 HIV-positive patients. This included 260 (52.5%) parotid, 226 (45.7%) submandibular, 2 (0.4%) sublingual, and 7 (1.4%) specimens labeled as a salivary gland aspirate, exact site not provided. Patients were of average age 34 years (range 9 months to 63 years) with a female: male ratio of 1:0.6. There were 37 (7.5%) inadequate FNAs and 22 (4.4%) that contained normal gland constituents only. Most diagnoses were benign and comprised 168 (33.9%) reactive lymphadenopathy, 115 (23.2%) benign lymphoepithelial cysts, 62 (12.5%) mycobacterial infections, and 52 (10.5%) abscesses, of which 10 had associated mycobacterial infections. Neoplasms accounted for 31 (6.7%) diagnoses including 11 pleomorphic adenomas, 13 lymphoma, 3 Kaposi sarcoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 metastatic carcinoma, and 1 rhabdomyosarcoma. There were four epidermoid inclusion cysts, three non-specific sialadenitis, one mucocele, and one spindle cell lesion not able to be further characterized. FNA is a useful procedure to evaluate salivary gland lesions in an HIV-infected population, allowing prompt management to be undertaken and obviating the need for surgery in many instances, an important consideration in an underfunded public health care system.

  20. Palliative Care for Salivary Gland Dysfunction Highlights the Need for Regenerative Therapies: A Review on Radiation and Salivary Gland Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chibly, Alejandro Martinez; Nguyen, Thao; Limesand, Kirsten H

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy remains the major course of treatment for Head and Neck cancer patients. A common consequence of radiation treatment is dysfunction of the salivary glands, which leads to a number of oral complications including xerostomia and dysphagia, for which there is no existent cure. Here, we briefly describe the current palliative treatments available for patients undergoing these conditions, such as oral lubricants, saliva substitutes, and saliva stimulants. None of these options achieves restoration of normal quality of life due to their limited effectiveness, and in some cases, adverse side effects of their own. Other therapies under development, such as acupuncture and electrostimulation have also yielded mixed results in clinical trials. Due to the ineffectiveness of palliative care to restore quality of life, it is reasonable to aim for the development of regenerative therapies that allow restoration of function of the salivary epithelium following radiation treatment. Adult stem cells are a necessary component of wound healing, and play important roles in preserving normal function of adult tissues. Thus, the present review mainly focuses on the effects of radiation on adult stem cells in a variety of tissues, which may be at play in the response of salivary glands to radiation treatment. This is of clinical importance because progenitor cells of the salivary glands have shown partial regenerative potential in mouse transplantation assays. Therefore, understanding how these progenitor cells are affected by radiation offers potential for development of new therapies for patients with xerostomia. PMID:26693098

  1. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin receptor in the major salivary glands of horses.

    PubMed

    Dall'Aglio, C; Maranesi, M; Pascucci, L; Mercati, F; Ceccarelli, P

    2012-12-01

    The presence of the leptin receptor (ObR) has already been highlighted in the human major salivary glands and it has been hypothesized that leptin may act by regulating the gland's growth. No data are reported on domestic animals so, considering the important role that these glands play, not only related to food ingestion and digestion, and the important functional role hypothesized to explain the presence of ObR in humans salivary glands, the aim of the present work was to investigate the presence and the distribution of the leptin receptor in horse parotid and mandibular glands, by immunohistochemical techniques. The presence of ObR was evidenced in parotid and mandibular glands, exclusively localized in duct epithelial cells; their positivity was localized in the cytoplasm and was most evident near its apical portion. Immuno-positivity not only affects the intralobular ducts (intercalated and striated) but also the interlobular ones. Our results indicate that horse major salivary glands, like those of humans, are likely targets of leptin actions, suggesting a functional role of leptin on these glands.

  2. The salivary glands of Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae, Lacertilia). A morphological, morphometric and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R A; Costa, J R; Piccolo, A M; Petenusci, S O

    1982-01-01

    The authors studied morphological, morphometric, and histochemically the mucosubstances and proteins in the salivary glands of the lizard Ameiva. Based on the results, the authors concluded: 1. The labial salivary gland is formed by small mucous and mucoserous glands; the sublingual gland by mucoserous cells. 2. Mucous cells show neutral and sulphated mucosubstances and sialic acid. Mucoserous cells of the labial gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid, hyaluronic acid and protein radicals. Mucoserous cells of the sublingual gland show neutral mucosubstance, sialic acid and protein radicals. 3. The average values for acinar area were: 1,198.11 microns 2 for mucoserous acini and 2,105.95 microns 2 for mucous acini of the labial salivary gland. The average values for nucleus volume were: 47.41 microns 3 for mucoserous cells and 38.97 microns 4 for mucous cells. 4. The average values for acinar area and nuclear volume of the mucoserous cells of the subingual gland were respectively: 1,474.62 microns 2 and 67.77 microns 3. PMID:7072972

  3. Expression and cellular localizaion of melatonin-synthesizing enzymes in rat and human salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Shimozuma, Masashi; Tokuyama, Reiko; Tatehara, Seiko; Umeki, Hirochika; Ide, Shinji; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro; Satomura, Kazuhito

    2011-04-01

    Melatonin, discovered in 1958, is secreted by the pineal gland primarily during the night. Its secretion is controlled by the light/dark cycle of the environment. Melatonin is also produced in and secreted by various extrapineal organs, tissues and cells and its synthesizing enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is expressed in various extrapineal organs, tissues and cells. Recently, it was reported that melatonin is present in saliva, but it is not certain where melatonin was synthesized and whether it was secreted into saliva and what function it may have in saliva. The present study was performed to investigate where melatonin was synthesized and whether it was secreted by salivary glands into saliva. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of AANAT in rat parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands and the expression of both AANAT and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in human submandibular glands. We evaluated the expression of AANAT and HIOMT mRNA in rat submandibular glands by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. As a result, we observed expression of AANAT in epithelial cells of striated ducts in rat salivary glands and expression of AANAT, HIOMT and melatonin in epithelial cells of striated ducts in human submandibular glands. In addition, we also confirmed the expression of the most potent melatonin receptor, melatonin 1a receptor, in rat buccal mucosa. Our findings suggest that melatonin might be produced and secreted by salivary glands directly into saliva and that it might play some physiological role in the oral cavity.

  4. Galanin: hydrokinetic action on salivary glands in man.

    PubMed

    Bauer, F E; Ghatei, M A; Zintel, A; Bloom, S R

    1989-12-01

    Galanin was infused intravenously into eight healthy volunteers at a dose of 40 pmol kg-1 min-1 for 1 h to investigate the pharmacological effects of this peptide on the postprandial sialagogical response in man. Galanin significantly increased the salivary volume and the saliva output of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate compared to control saline infusion, but had no effect on the output of potassium and alpha-amylase. An increase in salivary pH was also observed. The increase in salivary volume may indicate a physiological role of galanin in the control of salivary secretion.

  5. Galanin: hydrokinetic action on salivary glands in man.

    PubMed

    Bauer, F E; Ghatei, M A; Zintel, A; Bloom, S R

    1989-12-01

    Galanin was infused intravenously into eight healthy volunteers at a dose of 40 pmol kg-1 min-1 for 1 h to investigate the pharmacological effects of this peptide on the postprandial sialagogical response in man. Galanin significantly increased the salivary volume and the saliva output of sodium, chloride and bicarbonate compared to control saline infusion, but had no effect on the output of potassium and alpha-amylase. An increase in salivary pH was also observed. The increase in salivary volume may indicate a physiological role of galanin in the control of salivary secretion. PMID:2485092

  6. Presence and distribution of leptin and its receptor in the minor salivary glands of the donkey.

    PubMed

    Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Bazzucchi, Cinzia; Mercati, Francesca; Ceccarelli, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Leptin is a hormone widely diffused in the mammalian body in which it plays functions that go far beyond control of appetite and energy metabolism. The finding that it is present in the major salivary glands of various animal species is of interest for the functional implications that it may imply. Since there are no data on the presence of leptin and its receptor in the minor salivary glands, the aim of this study was to demonstrate their presence and distribution in such glands of donkeys. This latter was chosen as species of reference because the monogastric herbivore shows intense salivation during their masticatory activity. Tissue samples were collected from four adult donkeys, of both sexes, following slaughter. Samples were fixed, embedded in paraffin, and processed for immunohistochemical analysis using primary antibodies directed against leptin and its receptor. Controls for non-specific staining were always included. Leptin and its receptor were found in the minor salivary glands. Their distribution was similar to that described in the major salivary glands of animal species that have been investigated to date. We hypothesized that leptin can play a role in regulating gland function, via an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.

  7. Salivary gland tumors in a Brazilian population: a retrospective study of 496 cases.

    PubMed

    Ito, F A; Ito, K; Vargas, P A; de Almeida, O P; Lopes, M A

    2005-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and the microscopical features can be complex. Epidemiological data of these tumors in the various parts of the world can be helpful for a better understanding of its biology and clinical characteristics. In this study, 496 epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of major and minor salivary glands diagnosed at Londrina Cancer Institute during the period from 1972 to 2001 were reviewed. Out of all cases, 335 (67.5%) were classified as benign and 161 (32.5%) as malignant. The majority of the cases occurred in the parotid gland (67.7%), followed by the minor salivary glands (22.8%) and submandibular gland (9.5%). Among the minor salivary gland tumors, the palate was the most frequent location (67%). The tumors affected more commonly adult patients with peak incidence between 40 and 50 years of age and with a slightly predominance in females. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent tumor representing 54.2% of all cases, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma (13.5%), Warthin's tumor (8.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (7.9%).

  8. Fractionated irradiation and early changes in salivary glands. Different effects on potassium efflux, exocytotic amylase release and gland morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, L.; Funegard, U.S.; Sundstroem, S.G.; Gustafsson, H.; Danielsson, A.; Henriksson, R. )

    1991-02-01

    Irradiation is a potent treatment modality of head and neck cancer. However, the irradiation is usually associated with an influence on salivary glands with ensuing dryness and discomfort for the patients. In the present study we used different in vitro secretory models and morphologic characterization of rat parotid gland. Radiation was given to one gland on a 5-day schedule with 6 MV photons (total dose 20, 30, 35, 40, 45 Gy). The contralateral gland served as control, and the analysis of glands were performed 10 days after the last irradiation treatment. The noradrenaline stimulated electrolyte secretion (86rubidium tracer for potassium) was decreased in relation to the irradiation dose and in comparison to contralateral control glands. Noradrenaline stimulated exocytotic amylase release was not affected by irradiation and, there were no signs of obvious quantitative morphologic alterations after irradiation compared with controls. The results suggest that there are differences in the sensitivity to radiation for the two different secretory processes in salivary glands, and, thus, the structures regulating electrolyte and fluid secretion seem to be more vulnerable to irradiation than the process of exocytosis. The results, however, do not allow discrimination between temporary cellular impairment and irreversible damage leading to cell death.

  9. [Epidemiology of non-malignant salivary gland tumours based on 675 cases].

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Kopeć, Tomasz; Szyfter, Witold; Bem, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    Neoplasm of salivary glands constitutes about 3% of all tumours of head and neck. Within the category we can differentiate tumours of a very different histological structure. What lies behind such great differences in the changes within the salivary glands is complex embryogenesis of the glands. About 80% of all tumours of salivary glands is located in parotid gland, from 10 to 20% - in submandibular gland and several percent in sublingual and small salivary gland. This work aims at the assessment of the frequency of occurrence of non-malignant neoplasm in parotid and submandibular gland based on the material collected at the ENT Department of the Medical University in Poznan in the years 1995-2006. In the 12-year period, 778 patients in total suffered from tumours of large salivary glands. The number of non-malignant neoplasm was 675, and the number of malignant neoplasm was 103. With regard to paroid glands, 586 non-malignant tumours and 82 malignant tumours were identified, with regard to submandibular glands the numbers were respectively: 89 and 21. Main aim of this work has been achieved through the execution of partial steps: the analysis of the trends in occurrence of non-malignant neoplasm in the 12-year period, the analysis of the epidemiological differences: sex, age, place of residence - town or country, duration of symptoms, diameter of the tumour at the time the patient reported for treatment, histological structures that were carried on the basis of the comparison of data collected in the two periods of time: period I--the years 1995-2000 and period II--the years 2001-2006. The frequency of operations on non-malignant tumours of salivary glands (as compared to the total number of operations) was 4.11% in the first period and 4.18% in the second. In both periods the most frequent benign tumour was the mixed tumour (54.9% of all tumours) and constituted 60% and 54% of all tumours in the respective periods analyzed. The next most frequently occurring

  10. Identification of Rickettsia felis in the Salivary Glands of Cat Fleas

    PubMed Central

    Pornwiroon, Walairat; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Foil, Lane D.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Rickettsia felis, a flea-associated rickettsial pathogen, has been identified in many tissues, including the digestive and reproductive tissues, within the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. We utilized transmission electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to identify R. felis in the salivary glands of fed fleas and further define the distribution of R. felis within the arthropod host. We identified Rickettsia-like organisms in salivary glands using electron microscopy. Sequence analysis of portions of the Rickettsia genus-specific 17-kDa antigen gene and R. felis plasmid confirmed the morphological identification of R. felis in cat flea salivary glands. This is the first report of R. felis in tissues critical for horizontal transmission of rickettsiae. Key Words: Cat flea—Ctenocephalides felis—Rickettsia felis. PMID:18399779

  11. Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear in a child with situs inversus totalis.

    PubMed

    Toros, Sema Zer; Egeli, Erol; Kiliçarslan, Yasin; Gümrükçü, Gülistan; Gökçeer, Tanju; Noşeri, Hülya

    2010-06-01

    Salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear cavity is an extremely rare entity. It is thought to be a developmental abnormality and may be associated with abnormalities of adjacent structures. We report a case of salivary gland choristoma of the middle ear with prominent Körner's septum in a 7-year-old girl with situs inversus totalis. Situs inversus totalis is the mirror image reversal of the normal position of the internal organs and frequently associated with other congenital anomalies. This patient is the first reported case with situs inversus totalis, having middle ear salivary gland choristoma and prominent bilateral Körner's septae. The management and the differential diagnosis of this condition are discussed with the review of the literature.

  12. [New developments in molecular diagnostics of carcinomas of the salivary glands: "translocation carcinomas"].

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Šteiner, Petr; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The discovery and implications of each fusion will be highlighted and how they have helped to reshape the current classification of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27526014

  13. Innervated ectopic salivary gland associated with Rathke's cleft cyst clinically mimicking pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Stefanits, Harald; Matula, Christian; Frischer, Josa M; Furtner, Julia; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Woehrer, Adelheid

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report an exceptional case of a young female patient with progressive enlargement of a sellar mass, clinically suggestive of pituitary adenoma. Histopathology, however, demonstrated Rathke's cleft cyst associated with salivary gland remnants. In contrast to the majority of prior reports, the ectopic salivary glands were found in close proximity to the anterior pituitary lobe and showed active production of mucous secret, which caused progressive growth and symptoms in this patient. We further demonstrate nerve fibers surrounding the ectopic salivary glands, thereby suggesting parasympathetic innervation as a plausible mechanism triggering seromucous secretion. Neurosurgeons and neuropathologists need to be aware of this rare clinical condition expanding the spectrum of differential diagnoses of sellar masses. PMID:23254138

  14. Necrosis in benign salivary gland neoplasms. Not necessarily a sign of malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Allen, C M; Damm, D; Neville, B; Rodu, B; Page, D; Weathers, D R

    1994-10-01

    Necrosis that occurs in a salivary gland neoplasm is usually considered to be an ominous sign, suggesting malignant transformation, particularly in lesions that have had no prior manipulation such as fine-needle aspiration. We describe five pleomorphic adenomas and two canalicular adenomas of salivary gland origin that exhibited necrosis, yet were otherwise benign. All lesions displayed a distinctive histopathologic pattern characterized by a narrow rim of viable tumor tissue at the periphery of the neoplasm combined with a diffuse central region that demonstrated apparent ischemic necrosis. No invasion of adjacent normal tissue was identified, and no recurrence or metastasis has been seen with these lesions. Caution should be exercised in the evaluation of salivary gland neoplasms with central necrosis to avoid misdiagnosis of all such lesions as malignant.

  15. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary glands: diagnostic pitfalls--revisited.

    PubMed

    Rajwanshi, Arvind; Gupta, Kirti; Gupta, Nalini; Shukla, Rajeev; Srinivasan, Radhika; Nijhawan, Raje; Vasishta, Rakesh

    2006-08-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland lesions is a safe, effective diagnostic technique. Several amply illustrated reviews are available in the English literature. The reported diagnostic accuracy varies between 86% to 98%. The sensitivity ranges from 62% to 97.6% and specificity is higher from 94.3% to 100%. In this present study, we have analyzed 172 cases of salivary gland aspirates and the histopathological diagnosis was available in 45 cases. There was discordance in cytological and histopathological diagnosis in nine cases. Five cases had discrepancies in benign versus malignant diagnosis with four cases being false negative. The errors in these FNA diagnoses were due to sampling error, observational error and interpretational error. Therefore, this study illustrates high diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in salivary gland lesions and shows that FNAC offers valuable information that allows the planning of subsequent patient management.

  16. Clinicopathological study of salivary gland tumors: an assessment of 303 patients.

    PubMed

    Morais, Maria de Lourdes Silva de Arruda; Azevedo, Paulo Roberto; Carvalho, Cyntia Helena; Medeiros, Lélia; Lajus, Tirzah; Costa, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes

    2011-05-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are remarkable for their histological diversity and several studies point to their varied occurrence in the population. Clinical aspects were histologically assessed to determine possible associations and define parameters to differentiate benign and malignant neoplasms. The case files of patients diagnosed with epithelial salivary gland tumors between 1989 and 2005 were reviewed. A majority (71%) of the 303 salivary gland tumors studied were benign and pleomorphic adenoma were found to be most common. Mean ages for patients with benign and malignant tumors were 49.2 and 58.5 years, respectively. A statistically significant difference between these tumors was observed for the following variables: mean age, tumor size and disease duration. A correlation was found between histological diagnosis and tumor consistency. The data presented here corroborate a number of previous studies and are therefore relevant in understanding the diverse characteristics exhibited by these tumors.

  17. Expression and mutation patterns of p53 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Nordkvist, A; Röijer, E; Bang, G; Gustafsson, H; Behrendt, M; Ryd, W; Thoresen, S; Donath, K; Stenman, G

    2000-03-01

    The expression and mutation patterns of p53 were studied in a series of 68 benign pleomorphic adenomas and 237 malignant salivary gland tumors. p53 overexpression (nuclear staining exceeding 10%) was detected in 20% of the malignant salivary gland tumors, with the highest prevalence observed in polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and the lowest in adenoid cystic carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. In contrast, none of the 68 benign pleomorphic adenomas had nuclear staining exceeding 10%. SSCP and nucleotide sequence analysis of exons 4 to 9 of p53 in 19 malignant tumors revealed 9 mutations in 7 tumors. Our findings indicate that p53 may be a useful marker to help discriminate between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

  18. A rare salivary gland neoplasm: multiple canalicular adenoma; A case report.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas; Silva Arruda, Maria de Lourdes; Ramos, Carlos César Formiga

    2004-06-01

    The canalicular adenoma is an uncommon, benign salivary gland tumour that most frequently occurs in the upper lip. Although the incidence of multifocal epithelial tumours of the minor salivary is very low, canalicular adenoma sometimes present as a multifocal lesion. We present a case of multifocal canalicular adenomas of upper lip in a woman aged 68 years and discuss their features, emphasising diagnosis, clinical behaviour, treatment, histological and immunohistochemical aspects.

  19. Comprehensive annotation of the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus from Ethiopian tsetse flies: a proteogenomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV; family Hytrosaviridae) can establish a chronic covert asymptomatic infection and an acute overt symptomatic infection in its tsetse fly host (Diptera: Glossinidae). Expression of the disease symptoms, the salivary gland hypertrophy sy...

  20. Concurrent Transient Activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin Pathway Prevents Radiation Damage to Salivary Glands

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Bo; Yang Zhenhua; Shangguan Lei; Zhao Yanqiu; Boyer, Arthur; Liu, Fei

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Many head and neck cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy suffer from permanent impairment of their salivary gland function, for which few effective prevention or treatment options are available. This study explored the potential of transient activation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in preventing radiation damage to salivary glands in a preclinical model. Methods and Materials: Wnt reporter transgenic mice were exposed to 15 Gy single-dose radiation in the head and neck area to evaluate the effects of radiation on Wnt activity in salivary glands. Transient Wnt1 overexpression in basal epithelia was induced in inducible Wnt1 transgenic mice before together with, after, or without local radiation, and then saliva flow rate, histology, apoptosis, proliferation, stem cell activity, and mRNA expression were evaluated. Results: Radiation damage did not significantly affect activity of Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway as physical damage did. Transient expression of Wnt1 in basal epithelia significantly activated the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway in submandibular glands of male mice but not in those of females. Concurrent transient activation of the Wnt pathway prevented chronic salivary gland dysfunction following radiation by suppressing apoptosis and preserving functional salivary stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, Wnt activation 3 days before or after irradiation did not show significant beneficial effects, mainly due to failure to inhibit acute apoptosis after radiation. Excessive Wnt activation before radiation failed to inhibit apoptosis, likely due to extensive induction of mitosis and up-regulation of proapoptosis gene PUMA while that after radiation might miss the critical treatment window. Conclusion: These results suggest that concurrent transient activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway could prevent radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction.