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Sample records for aequorea victoria avgfp

  1. Sound scattering by the gelatinous zooplankters Aequorea victoria and Pleurobrachia bachei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monger, B. C.; Chinniah-Chandy, S.; Meir, E.; Billings, S.; Greene, C. H.; Wiebe, P. H.

    Target strengths were determined for individual Aequorea victoria and Pleurobrachia bachei using separate 200, 420 and 1,000 kHz transducers in an enclosure deployed off the dock of the Friday Harbor Laboratories in northern Puget Sound, Washington, USA. The target strength for Aequorea, when averaged over all animal sizes and all three trnasducer frequencies, was -72.6 dB. The target strength for Pleurobrachia was -75.9 dB when similarly averaged. Average reduced target strengths for Aequorea and Pleurobrachia were -43.3 and -33.1 dB, respectively. Differences in the sound scattering contrasts for Pleurobrachia and Aequorea are proposed to explain the larger reduced target strength of Pleurobrachia, relative to that of Aequorea. A new sound scattering model was developed to predict the backscattering cross-section of Aequorea. The model takes into account expected variations in target strength due to changes in shape of the jellyfish as it propels itself through the water. The scattering model was tuned specifically for Aequorea in the present study, but has a general formulation that is widely applicable to any medusa-shaped gelatinous zooplankter.

  2. Identifying and modeling motion primitives for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Isaac; Krieg, Michael; Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2015-12-01

    The movements of organisms can be thought of as aggregations of motion primitives: motion segments containing one or more significant actions. Here, we present a means to identify and characterize motion primitives from recorded movement data. We address these problems by assuming that the motion sequences can be characterized as a series of dynamical-system-based pattern generators. By adopting a nonparametric, Bayesian formalism for learning and simplifying these pattern generators, we arrive at a purely data-driven model to automatically identify breakpoints in the movement sequences. We apply this model to swimming sequences from two hydromedusa. The first hydromedusa is the prolate Sarsia tubulosa, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell cavity pressurization, jet formation, jetting, cavity fluid refill, and coasting. The second hydromedusa is the oblate Aequorea victoria, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell compression, vortex separation, cavity fluid refill, vortex formation, and coasting. Our experimental results indicate that the breakpoints between primitives are correlated with transitions in the bell geometry, vortex formation and shedding, and changes in derived dynamical quantities. These dynamics quantities include terms like pressure, power, drag, and thrust. Such findings suggest that dynamics information is inherently present in the observed motions. PMID:26495992

  3. Aequorea green fluorescent protein analysis by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, J.D.; Cuthbertson, R.A.; Donahue, C.J.; Wolfgang-Kimball, D.

    1995-12-01

    The isolation and expression of the cDNA for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria has highlighted its potential use as a marker for gene expression in a variety of cell types. The longer wavelength peak (470 nm) of GFP`s bimodal absorption spectrum better matches standard fluorescein filter sets; however, it has a considerably lower amplitude than the major absorption peak at 395. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of GFP with routinely available instrumentation, Heim et al. have generated a GFP mutant (serine-65 to threonine; S65T-GFP) which possesses a single absorption peak centered at 490 nm. We have constructed this mutant in order to determine whether it or wild-type GFP (wt-GFP) afforded greater sensitivity when excited near their respective absorption maxima. Using the conventionally available 488 nm and ultraviolet (UV) laser lines from the argon ion laser as well as the 407 nm line from a krypton ion laser with enhanced violet emission, we were able to closely match the absorption maxima of both the S65T and wild-type forms of Aequorea GFP and analyze differences in fluorescence intensity of transiently transfected 293 cells with flow cytometry. The highest fluorescence signal was observed with 488 nm excitation of S65T-GFP relative to all other laser line/GFP pairs. The wt-GFP fluorescence intensity, in contrast, was significantly higher at 407 nm relative to either 488 nm or UV. These results were consistent with parallel spectrofluorometric analysis of the emission spectrum for wt-GFP and S65T- GFP. The relative contribution of cellular autofluorescence at each wavelength was also investigated and shown to be significantly reduced at 407 nm relative to either UV or 488 nm. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Chemical nature of the light emitter of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Haruki; Inouye, Satoshi; Hirano, Takashi; Matsuno, Tatsuki; Kojima, Satoshi; Kubota, Masayuki; Ohashi, Mamoru; Tsuji, Frederick I.

    1996-01-01

    The jellyfish Aequorea victoria possesses in the margin of its umbrella a green fluorescent protein (GFP, 27 kDa) that serves as the ultimate light emitter in the bioluminescence reaction of the animal. The protein is made up of 238 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain and produces a greenish fluorescence (λmax = 508 nm) when irradiated with long ultraviolet light. The fluorescence is due to the presence of a chromophore consisting of an imidazolone ring, formed by a post-translational modification of the tripeptide -Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67-. GFP has been used extensively as a reporter protein for monitoring gene expression in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about the chemical mechanism by which fluorescence is produced. To obtain a better understanding of this problem, we studied a peptide fragment of GFP bearing the chromophore and a synthetic model compound of the chromophore. The results indicate that the GFP chromophore consists of an imidazolone ring structure and that the light emitter is the singlet excited state of the phenolate anion of the chromophore. Further, the light emission is highly dependent on the microenvironment around the chromophore and that inhibition of isomerization of the exo-methylene double bond of the chromophore accounts for its efficient light emission. PMID:8942983

  5. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  6. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  7. Partway to 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows the route that NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity had driven through its 659th Martian day, or sol, (Dec. 1, 2005) relative to the potential destination of 'Victoria Crater' farther south. The base image is a portion of a mosaic (previously released as PIA07506) combining images from the Mars Observer Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter, the Thermal Emission Imaging System on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, and Opportunity's own Descent Image Motion Estimation System. The scale bar at lower right is 800 meters (one-half mile).

  8. Local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Sarkisyan, Karen S; Bolotin, Dmitry A; Meer, Margarita V; Usmanova, Dinara R; Mishin, Alexander S; Sharonov, George V; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bozhanova, Nina G; Baranov, Mikhail S; Soylemez, Onuralp; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Vlasov, Peter K; Egorov, Evgeny S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Chudakov, Dmitry M; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Mamedov, Ilgar Z; Tawfik, Dan S; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Kondrashov, Fyodor A

    2016-05-19

    Fitness landscapes depict how genotypes manifest at the phenotypic level and form the basis of our understanding of many areas of biology, yet their properties remain elusive. Previous studies have analysed specific genes, often using their function as a proxy for fitness, experimentally assessing the effect on function of single mutations and their combinations in a specific sequence or in different sequences. However, systematic high-throughput studies of the local fitness landscape of an entire protein have not yet been reported. Here we visualize an extensive region of the local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria (avGFP) by measuring the native function (fluorescence) of tens of thousands of derivative genotypes of avGFP. We show that the fitness landscape of avGFP is narrow, with 3/4 of the derivatives with a single mutation showing reduced fluorescence and half of the derivatives with four mutations being completely non-fluorescent. The narrowness is enhanced by epistasis, which was detected in up to 30% of genotypes with multiple mutations and mostly occurred through the cumulative effect of slightly deleterious mutations causing a threshold-like decrease in protein stability and a concomitant loss of fluorescence. A model of orthologous sequence divergence spanning hundreds of millions of years predicted the extent of epistasis in our data, indicating congruence between the fitness landscape properties at the local and global scales. The characterization of the local fitness landscape of avGFP has important implications for several fields including molecular evolution, population genetics and protein design. PMID:27193686

  9. 33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations in 33 CFR part 165.23, no person or vessel may enter or remain in the zone described in paragraph... Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.837 Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria,...

  10. 33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations in 33 CFR part 165.23, no person or vessel may enter or remain in the zone described in paragraph... Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.837 Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria,...

  11. 33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations in 33 CFR part 165.23, no person or vessel may enter or remain in the zone described in paragraph... Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.837 Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria,...

  12. 33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations in 33 CFR part 165.23, no person or vessel may enter or remain in the zone described in paragraph... Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.837 Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations in 33 CFR part 165.23, no person or vessel may enter or remain in the zone described in paragraph... Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.837 Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria,...

  14. Hepatitis E Infections, Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Adamopoulos, Jim; Carter, Karen; Kelly, Heath

    2005-01-01

    In the first half of 2004, acute hepatitis E virus infections diagnosed in Victoria, Australia, increased 7-fold. Of the interviewed patients with highly reactive serologic results, 90% reported recent clinically compatible illness and overseas travel. The increase is compared with a background of exposure in countries in which hepatitis E is endemic. PMID:15757573

  15. Chemical synthesis of the precursor molecule of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein, subsequent folding, and development of fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Nishiuchi, Yuji; Inui, Tatsuya; Nishio, Hideki; Bódi, József; Kimura, Terutoshi; Tsuji, Frederick I.; Sakakibara, Shumpei

    1998-01-01

    The present paper describes the total chemical synthesis of the precursor molecule of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein (GFP). The molecule is made up of 238 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain and is nonfluorescent. To carry out the synthesis, a procedure, first described in 1981 for the synthesis of complex peptides, was used. The procedure is based on performing segment condensation reactions in solution while providing maximum protection to the segment. The effectiveness of the procedure has been demonstrated by the synthesis of various biologically active peptides and small proteins, such as human angiogenin, a 123-residue protein analogue of ribonuclease A, human midkine, a 121-residue protein, and pleiotrophin, a 136-residue protein analogue of midkine. The GFP precursor molecule was synthesized from 26 fully protected segments in solution, and the final 238-residue peptide was treated with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to obtain the precursor molecule of GFP containing two Cys(acetamidomethyl) residues. After removal of the acetamidomethyl groups, the product was dissolved in 0.1 M Tris⋅HCl buffer (pH 8.0) in the presence of DTT. After several hours at room temperature, the solution began to emit a green fluorescence (λmax = 509 nm) under near-UV light. Both fluorescence excitation and fluorescence emission spectra were measured and were found to have the same shape and maxima as those reported for native GFP. The present results demonstrate the utility of the segment condensation procedure in synthesizing large protein molecules such as GFP. The result also provides evidence that the formation of the chromophore in GFP is not dependent on any external cofactor. PMID:9811837

  16. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sharon A.; Grant, John A.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Golombek, Mathew P.; Geissler, Paul E.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Parker, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The $\\sim$750 m diameter and $\\sim$75 m deep Victoria crater in Meridiani Planum, Mars, presents evidence for significant degradation including a low, serrated, raised rim characterized by alternating alcoves and promontories, a surrounding low relief annulus, and a floor partially covered by dunes. The amount and processes of degradation responsible for the modified appearance of Victoria crater were evaluated using images obtained in situ by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in concert with a digital elevation model created using orbital HiRISE images. Opportunity traversed along the north and northwest rim and annulus, but sufficiently characterized features visible in the DEM to enable detailed measurements of rim relief, ejecta thickness, and wall slopes around the entire degraded, primary impact structure. Victoria retains a 5 m raised rim consisting of 1-2 m of uplifted rocks overlain by 3 m of ejecta at the rim crest. The rim is $\\sim$120 to 220 m wide and is surrounded by a dark annulus reaching an average of 590 m beyond the raised rim. Comparison between observed morphology and that expected for pristine craters 500 to 750 m across indicate the original, pristine crater was close to 600 m in diameter. Hence, the crater has been erosionally widened by approximately 150 m and infilled by about 50 m of sediments. Eolian processes are responsible for modification at Victoria, but lesser contributions from mass wasting or other processes cannot be ruled out. Erosion by prevailing winds is most significant along the exposed rim and upper walls and accounts for $\\sim$50 m widening across a WNW-ESE diameter. The volume of material eroded from the crater walls and rim is $\\sim$20% less than the volume of sediments partially filling the crater, indicating eolian infilling from sources outside the crater over time. The annulus formed when $\\sim$1 m deflation of the ejecta created a lag of more resistant hematite spherules that trapped darker, regional

  17. Overview of Approach to 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft shows an overview of 'Victoria Crater' and a portion of the area NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has covered to reach the enormous depression.

    Images such as this one from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor are helping scientists and engineers decide the best path for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it approaches 'Victoria Crater.'

    In figure 1, a blue dot indicates 'Cape Verde' and a red dot 'Cabo Frio.' These two points mark the extent of the crater visible from the rover's position on its 945th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 20, 2006), a location it had reached two sols earlier and from which much of this monster depression was still out of sight. The green annotations indicate 'Duck Bay,' a location expected to allow a view to the other side of the crater. A dune, or ripple, is to the left of the crater, right in front of the green dot location. This is where the team initially talked about sending Opportunity for the rover's first view down into the crater. After further consideration, the team opted for a drive to the right of that ripple (south of the green dot) near the rim.

    The yellow lines that surround and intersect Victoria Crater are used to measure the crater and the distance to the far 'bays.' North is up. Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

  18. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Degradation of Victoria crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S.A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M.P.; Geissler, P.E.; Sullivan, R.J.; Kirk, R.L.; Parker, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ???750 m diameter and ???75 m deep Victoria crater in Meridiani Planum, Mars, is a degraded primary impact structure retaining a ???5 m raised rim consisting of 1-2 m of uplifted rocks overlain by ???3 m of ejecta at the rim crest. The rim is 120-220 m wide and is surrounded by a dark annulus reaching an average of 590 m beyond the raised rim. Comparison between observed morphology and that expected for pristine craters 500-750 m across indicates that the original, pristine crater was close to 600 m in diameter. Hence, the crater has been erosionally widened by ???150 m and infilled by ???50 m of sediments. Eolian processes are responsible for most crater modification, but lesser mass wasting or gully activity contributions cannot be ruled out. Erosion by prevailing winds is most significant along the exposed rim and upper walls and accounts for ???50 m widening across a WNW-ESE diameter. The volume of material eroded from the crater walls and rim is ???20% less than the volume of sediments partially filling the crater, indicating eolian infilling from sources outside the crater over time. The annulus formed when ???1 m deflation of the ejecta created a lag of more resistant hematite spherules that trapped <10-20 cm of darker, regional basaltic sands. Greater relief along the rim enabled meters of erosion. Comparison between Victoria and regional craters leads to definition of a crater degradation sequence dominated by eolian erosion and infilling over time. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce an approximately true-color panorama. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

    Opportunity landed on Jan. 25, 2004, Universal Time, (Jan. 24, Pacific Time) inside a much smaller crater about 6 kilometers (4 miles) north of Victoria Crater, to begin a surface mission designed to last 3 months and drive about 600 meters (0.4 mile).

  1. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  2. Opportunity at Work Inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock in a bright-toned layer inside Victoria Crater.

    The image was taken during the rover's 1,322nd Martian day, or sol (Oct. 13, 2007).

    Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  3. A study of protein-protein interactions in living cells using luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from Renilla luciferase to Aequorea GFP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wang, G; O'Kane, D J; Szalay, A A

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported that Escherichia coli and mammalian cells containing a fusion protein consisting of the Renilla luciferase linked to Aequorea GFP exhibited luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) from luciferase to GFP in the presence of coelenterazine. In this paper, we describe the construction of two gene fusions in which the cDNA for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is connected to the cDNA for a "humanized" GFP, and the cDNA for insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP-6) is linked to a cDNA encoding the Renilla luciferase (RUC). The expression of the fusion gene constructs in CHO cells resulted in single polypeptides with the molecular weights expected for IGF-II-GFP and IGFBP-6-RUC, respectively, based on the use of antibodies against GFP and Renilla luciferase. The secretion of IGF-II-GFP from CHO cells was verified by fluorescence microscopy and the presence of IGFBP-6-RUC in the culture medium was confirmed by luminometry. The interaction between the two known binding partners, IGF-II and IGFBP-6, was monitored by measuring LRET from the IGFBP-6-RUC protein to IGF-II-GFP in the presence of coelenterazine, using a low-light imaging system and spectrofluorometry. Based on these data, luciferase-to-GFP LRET holds great promise for the study of protein-protein interactions in eukaryotic cells in real time. PMID:11212912

  4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopic studies of segmental mobility in aequorin and a green fluorescent protein from Aequorea forskalea

    SciTech Connect

    Nageswara Rao, B.D.; Kemple, M.D.; Prendergast, F.G.

    1980-10-01

    Aequorin is a protein of low molecular weight (20,000) isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea forskalea which emits blue light upon the binding of Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. This bioluminescence requires neither exogenous oxygen nor any other cofactors. The light emission occurs from an excited state of a chromophore (an imidazolopyrazinone) which is tightly and noncovalently bound to the protein. Apparently the binding of Ca/sup 2 +/ by the protein induces changes in the protein conformation which allow oxygen, already bound or otherwise held by the protein, to react with and therein oxidize the chromophore. The resulting discharged protein remains intact, with the Ca/sup 2 +/ and the chromophore still bound, but is incapable of further luminescence. The fluorescence spectrum of this discharged protein and the bioluminescence spectrum of the original charged aequorin are identical. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) of approx. 30,000 mol wt isolated from the same organism, functions in vivo as an acceptor of energy from aequorin and subsequently emits green light. We are applying proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy to examine structural details of, and fluctuations associated with the luminescent reaction of aequorin and the in vivo energy transfer from aequorin to the GFP.

  5. Looking Forward: Community Gateways at Victoria University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The mission and values of Victoria University provide the underlying criteria for the development and implementation of the Community Gateways initiative, which aims to transform the lives of those living in the west of Melbourne through the power of further education. Community Gateways takes the university into the community by providing career…

  6. Geography and Geographical Education in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriewaldt, Jeana

    2006-01-01

    Victoria has just emerged from 10 years where Geography has been one of three strands in the key learning area of Studies of Society and Environment (SOSE). The overarching framework emerged from an attempt to develop a national curriculum. Whilst the national curriculum was rejected by Australian state and territories who each hold legislative…

  7. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Polar Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Factors influencing birth control habits in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Selwood, T; Leeton, J

    1981-02-01

    A survey was conducted in March 1978 for the purpose of comparing the contraceptive habits of Melbourne and ex-Melbourne populations in Victoria. Of the 1312 records of sexually active persons collected in 1978, 1254 of those persons were between the ages of 15 and 49. Recorded information included age, sex, marital status, and place of domicile (Melbourne or ex-Melbourne, Victoria). When the Melbourne population was compared with the rest of Victoria, the proportion using each method of contraception was much the same for each group. A marked difference was the proportion using withdrawal in Melbourne; this was over 3 times the proportion among the ex-Melbourne population. Over 35% of persons under age 30 used oral contraceptives (OCs), compared with 24.2 in the over 30 age range. Barrier methods and natural family planning methods and withdrawal were commonly used by the older age groups. A large proportion of the over age 30 group used sterilization and hysterectomy as forms of birth control. Individuals in "de facto" relationships showed a tendency towards more reliable forms of contraception than did other groups. Only 20.3% were not using some form of contraception. Single persons were frequent OC users and users of barrier methods. 28.1% used no form of contraception. The sex of the person interviewed in the survey revealed a bias. Males tended to report male birth control methods and female reported female methods rather than those used by partners of the opposite sex. Marital status influenced birth control choice. The choice of birth control for each marital status was influenced by the confounding factor of mean age of each group. PMID:7247847

  11. 'Victoria' After Sol 950 Drive (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08778

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08778 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Cylindrical view for PIA08778

    A drive of about 30 meters (about 100 feet) on the 950th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 25, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 20 meters (about 66 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' From that position, the rover's navigation camera took the exposures combined into this stereo anaglyph, which appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green glasses. The scalloped shape of the crater is visible on the left edge. Due to a small dune or ripple close to the nearest part of the rim, the scientists and engineers on the rover team planned on sol 951 to drive to the right of the ripple, but not quite all the way to the rim, then to proceed to the rim the following sol. The image is presented in cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter, about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  12. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  13. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. At Bright Band Inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A layer of light-toned rock exposed inside Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars appears to mark where the surface was at the time, many millions of years ago, when an impact excavated the crater. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drove to this bright band as the science team's first destination for the rover during investigations inside the crater.

    Opportunity's left front hazard-identification camera took this image just after the rover finished a drive of 2.25 meters (7 feet, 5 inches) during the rover's 1,305th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 25, 2007). The rocks beneath the rover and its extended robotic arm are part of the bright band.

    Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  15. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Victoria crater (2.05N, 354.51E) is ~750 m in diameter and the largest crater on Mars observed in situ. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed NW to SE across a broad annulus dominated by dark sand that at least partially surrounds the crater before navigating the northern crater rim. Rover observations of the crater and ejecta deposits are complemented by images with 26-52 cm/pixel scales from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable assessment of degradation state. The present depth/diameter ratio for Victoria is 0.1, less than the 0.2 expected for a pristine primary impact structure. Together with the eroded, serrated rim, this implies an originally smaller crater diameter and/or considerable infilling consistent with occurrence of a large dune field and few exposed rocks on the crater floor. The height and width of the raised rim is generally 4-5 m and 150-225 m, respectively, less than the 30 m and 500-600 m, respectively, expected for a pristine 750 m diameter crater. Ejecta thicknesses around the rim were derived using rover-based and HiRISE images and yield consistent estimates averaging ~3 m. The serrated rim plan creates a series of promontories extending up to 50 m into the crater and generally fronted by 30-60 degree slopes that are locally vertical and are separated by bays whose floors typically slope 15-25 degrees. A crater originally on order of 600-650 m in diameter and subsequently enlarged by mass wasting and aeolian erosion may yield a structure resembling Victoria today. The steep expression of the promontories and local outcroppings of rocks in the ejecta blanket points to some ongoing mass wasting, but the relative paucity of associated flanking talus indicates derived blocks of sulfate sandstone are not resistant to saltating sand and are rapidly broken down by the wind or are completely covered/filled in by aeolian drift. At Cape St. Vincent, the promontory appears undercut

  16. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  17. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  18. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  19. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia. The three radar frequencies help to distinguish different land use patterns. The bright pink areas are suburban regions, the brownish areas are forested regions, and blue areas are agricultural fields or forest clear-cuts. Founded in 1843 as a fur trading post, Victoria has grown to become one of western Canada's largest commercial centers. In the upper right is San Juan Island, in the state of Washington. The Canada/U.S. border runs through Haro Strait, on the right side of the image, between San Juan Island and Vancouver Island. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 6, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 42 kilometers (23 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 123.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  1. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view incorporates many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). It combines a stereo pair so that it appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

    Opportunity landed on Jan. 25, 2004, Universal Time, (Jan. 24, Pacific Time) inside a much smaller crater about 6 kilometers (4 miles) north of Victoria Crater, to begin a surface mission designed to last 3 months and drive about 600 meters (0.4 mile).

  3. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  4. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. Recent plant studies using Victoria 2.0

    SciTech Connect

    BIXLER,NATHAN E.; GASSER,RONALD D.

    2000-03-08

    VICTORIA 2.0 is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe nuclear reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS and secondary circuits. These predictions account for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. VICTORIA 2.0 was released in early 1999; a new version VICTORIA 2.1, is now under development. The largest improvements in VICTORIA 2.1 are connected with the thermochemical database, which is being revised and expanded following the recommendations of a peer review. Three risk-significant severe accident sequences have recently been investigated using the VICTORIA 2.0 code. The focus here is on how various chemistry options affect the predictions. Additionally, the VICTORIA predictions are compared with ones made using the MELCOR code. The three sequences are a station blackout in a GE BWR and steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) and pump-seal LOCA sequences in a 3-loop Westinghouse PWR. These sequences cover a range of system pressures, from fully depressurized to full system pressure. The chief results of this study are the fission product fractions that are retained in the core, RCS, secondary, and containment and the fractions that are released into the environment.

  6. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce this view, which is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

  7. Opportunity's First Dip into Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity entered Victoria Crater during the rover's 1,291st Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 11, 2007). The rover team commanded Opportunity to drive just far enough into the crater to get all six wheels onto the inner slope, and then to back out again and assess how much the wheels slipped on the slope. The driving commands for the day included a precaution for the rover to stop driving if the wheels were slipping more than 40 percent. Slippage exceeded that amount on the last step of the drive, so Opportunity stopped with its front pair of wheels still inside the crater. The rover team planned to assess results of the drive, then start Opportunity on an extended exploration inside the crater.

    This wide-angle view taken by Opportunity's front hazard-identification camera at the end of the day's driving shows the wheel tracks created by the short dip into the crater. The left half of the image looks across an alcove informally named 'Duck Bay' toward a promontory called 'Cape Verde' clockwise around the crater wall. The right half of the image looks across the main body of the crater, which is 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

  8. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle, Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, Valentina; Di Achille, Gaetano; Ferranti, Luigi; Rothery, David A.; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a new geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury, along with a reconnaissance study of the geometry and kinematics of lobate scarps in this area. To this end, we produced a 1:3,000,000 geologic map of the area using the images provided by the NASA spacecraft MESSENGER, which has been orbiting the planet since March, 2011. The geologic map shows the distribution of smooth plains, intermediate plains, intercrater plains units and a classification of crater materials based on an empirical distinction among three stages of degradation. Structural mapping shows that the H2 quadrangle is dominated by N-S faults (here grouped into the Victoria system) to the east and NE-SW faults (Larrocha system) to the west, with the secondary existence of NW-SE-trending faults (Carnegie system) in the north-western area of the quadrangle. A systematic analysis of these systems has led to the following results. 1) the Victoria system is characterized by a main array of faults located along Victoria Rupes - Endeavour Rupes - Antoniadi Dorsum. The segmentation of this array into three different sectors changes from north to south and is spatially linked to the presence of three volcanic vents located at the boundaries between each sector and at the northern end of the Victoria Rupes sector , suggesting that volcanism and faulting are interrelated 2) The main array of Carnegie system is kinematically linked and antithetical to the Victoria system. Both systems have arguably controlled the growth of a longitudinal, fault-free, crustal and gravimetric bulge in the central area of the Victoria quadrangle, which is interpreted as a regional contractional pop-up. 3) The Larrocha system is interrupted against the central bulge and thus is probably older than the Victoria and Carnegie systems. Buffered crater counting performed on the Victoria system confirms the young relative age of its fault segments with respect to the map units

  9. Bistable isoelectric point photoswitching in green fluorescent proteins observed by dynamic immunoprobed isoelectric focusing

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alex J.; Tentori, Augusto M.; Herr, Amy E.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel isoelectric point photoswitching phenomenon in both wild-type Aequorea victoria (av) GFP and the E222G mutant Aequorea coerulescens (ac) GFP. A combination of time-resolved microfluidic isoelectric focusing (IEF) and in situ antibody blotting IEF were employed to monitor dark (non-fluorescent) and bright (fluorescent) GFP populations. Through IEF, each population was observed to exhibit distinct isoelectric points (pI) and, thus, distinct formal electrostatic charges. Experimentally observed interconversion between the dark, higher pI and bright, lower pI GFP populations is tightly controlled by differential UV and blue light exposure. The stoichiometry and kinetics of charge transfer tied to this reversible photobleaching process are deduced. In concert with a reaction-transport model of bistable reversible charge and fluorescence photoswitching, the on-chip measurements of population interconversion rates suggest the potential for both rheostatic and discrete switch-like modulation of the electrostatic charge of GFPs depending on the illumination profile. We estimate that 3–4 formal charges distinguish the bright and dark populations of avGFP, compared to one charge for those of acGFP. Given the proposed role of E222 as a bridge between internal and exit hydrogen bond clusters within the GFP β-barrel, the difference in charge switching magnitude between the two mutants provides intriguing evidence for the proton wire hypothesis of proton transport within the GFP structure, and of proton exchange with the bulk solvent. Our facile dynamic and probed IEF assays should find widespread use in analytical screening and quantitative kinetic analysis of photoswitching and other charge switching processes in response to stimuli including light, temperature, or binding/cleavage events. PMID:23017083

  10. Hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria: climate change and early warnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Severe thunderstorms and associated high waves represent a constant threat to the 200,000 fishermen operating on Lake Victoria. According to the International Red Cross, presumably 3000 to 5000 fishermen die every year on the lake, thereby substantially contributing to the global death toll from natural disasters. Despite the long-known bad reputation of Lake Victoria, operational early warning systems are lacking and possible future changes of these extreme thunderstorms are unknown. Here we present the first dedicated high-resolution, coupled lake-land-atmosphere climate projection for the African Great Lakes region and analyse it in combination with new satellite data and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Our model projections for the end-of-the-century indicate that Lake Victoria amplifies the future intensification of extreme precipitation seen over the surrounding land. Under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5), the 1% most extreme over-lake precipitation may intensify up to four times faster compared to surrounding land. Our findings are consistent with an ensemble of coarser-scale climate projections for Africa, but the lower skill of the ensemble over Lake Victoria constrains its applicability. Interestingly, the change in extremes contrasts to the change in average over-lake precipitation, which is projected to decrease by -6% for the same period. By further analyzing the high-resolution output we are able to explain this different response: while mesoscale circulation changes cause the average precipitation decline, the response of extremes is essentially thermodynamic. Finally, the study of the satellite-based detection of severe thunderstorms revealed a strong dependency of the nighttime storm intensity over Lake Victoria on the antecedent daytime land storm activity. This highlights the potential of this new satellite product for predicting intense storms over Lake Victoria. Overall, our results indicate a new major hazard associated with climate

  11. Aboriginal Students in Victoria. ACER Research Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lemos, Marion M.

    An estimated 80%-90% of all Aboriginal students enrolled in the primary and secondary schools of Victoria, Australia, were tested and surveyed to determine their numbers, distribution, attendance, achievement, attitudes, and school leaving patterns. Most of the 1244 Aboriginals surveyed attended state schools and 75% were schooled in rural areas.…

  12. Information Brokers in Victoria: Doing What, for Whom and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne; Kelson, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    Reports findings of study of information brokers in Victoria, Australia, which identified services offered by individual brokers and information brokerage businesses, resources used to provide those services, their clientele and pricing strategies, the attributes needed for a successful broker, and relationships between brokers and traditional…

  13. Reaching Year 12 in Victoria, Australia: Student and School Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…

  14. Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil

    2014-01-01

    The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

  15. STS-57 Earth observation of Lake Victoria, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Earth observation taken aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is of Africa's Lake Victoria, which sits in the middle of the East African Rift Valley System.Lake Victoria is a major resource in eastern Africa, especially to the countries bordering the lake -- Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. Typical summer indicators in equatorial Africa -- puffy clouds over land mass and clear skies over the lakes -- are in the view. Lake Albert in the western section of the Rift Valley and Lake Turkana in the eastern section can be seen to the west and east of Lake Victoria, respectively. Most of the other features on the right are obscured by clouds. NASA scientists studying the STS-57 Earth photography point out that the wide perspective of this scene gives a sense of the three-dimensional profile of the whole rift system. The scientists cite the way in which the component valleys of the rift system ramp up to Lake Victoria on either side.

  16. Catalogue Use at the State Library of Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey conducted at the State Library of Victoria indicates that users in general, and not just scholars, value the standard elements of bibliographic data found in the Library's catalogues, and consider all these elements useful for finding, identifying and selecting items. Rather than making do with less, users wanted more…

  17. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  18. Model for heat-up of structures in VICTORIA

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.

    1993-12-01

    VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code that treats fission product behavior in the reactor coolant system during a severe accident. During an accident, fission products that deposit on structural surfaces produce heat loads that can cause fission products to revaporize and possibly cause structures, such as a pipe, to fail. This mechanism had been lacking from the VICTORIA model. This report describes the structural heat-up model that has recently been implemented in the code. A sample problem shows that revaporization of fission products can occur as structures heat up due to radioactive decay. In the sample problem, the mass of deposited fission products reaches a maximum, then diminishes. Similarly, temperatures of the deposited film and adjoining structure reach a maximum, then diminish.

  19. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006).

  20. Status of VICTORIA: NRC peer review and recent code applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1997-12-01

    VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS. A summary of the results and recommendations of an independent peer review of VICTORIA by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is presented, along with recent applications of the code. The latter include analyses of a temperature-induced steam generator tube rupture sequence and post-test analyses of the Phebus FPT-1 test. The next planned Phebus test, FTP-4, will focus on fission product releases from a rubble bed, especially those of the less-volatile elements, and on the speciation of the released elements. Pretest analyses using VICTORIA to estimate the magnitude and timing of releases are presented. The predicted release of uranium is a matter of particular importance because of concern about filter plugging during the test.

  1. Transcriptome pyrosequencing of the Antarctic brittle star Ophionotus victoriae.

    PubMed

    Burns, Gavin; Thorndyke, Michael C; Peck, Lloyd S; Clark, Melody S

    2013-03-01

    Brittle stars are included within a whole range of species, which contribute to knowledge in the medically important area of tissue regeneration. All brittle stars regenerate lose limbs, but the rate at which this occurs is highly variable and species-specific. One of the slowest rates of arm regeneration reported so far is that of the Antarctic Ophionotus victoriae. Additionally, O. victoriae also has an unusual delay in the onset of regeneration of about 5months. Both processes are of interest for the areas of regeneration biology and adaptation to cold environments. One method of understanding the details of regeneration events in brittle stars is to characterise the genes involved. In the largest transcriptome study of any ophiuroid to date, we describe the results of mRNA pyrosequencing from pooled samples of regenerating arms of O. victoriae. The sequencing reads resulted in 18,000 assembled contiguous sequences of which 19% were putatively annotated by blast sequence similarity searching. We focus on the identification of major gene families and pathways with potential relevance to the regenerative processes including the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, Hox genes, the SOX gene family and the TGF beta signalling pathways. These data significantly increase the amount of ophiuroid sequences publicly available and provide candidate transcripts for the further investigation of the unusual regenerative process in this Antarctic ophiuroid. PMID:23904059

  2. Recent MELCOR and VICTORIA Fission Product Research at the NRC

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Cole, R.K.; Gauntt, R.O.; Schaperow, J.H.; Young, M.F.

    1999-01-21

    The MELCOR and VICTORIA severe accident analysis codes, which were developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are designed to estimate fission product releases during nuclear reactor accidents in light water reactors. MELCOR is an integrated plant-assessment code that models the key phenomena in adequate detail for risk-assessment purposes. VICTORIA is a more specialized fission- product code that provides detailed modeling of chemical reactions and aerosol processes under the high-temperature conditions encountered in the reactor coolant system during a severe reactor accident. This paper focuses on recent enhancements and assessments of the two codes in the area of fission product chemistry modeling. Recently, a model for iodine chemistry in aqueous pools in the containment building was incorporated into the MELCOR code. The model calculates dissolution of iodine into the pool and releases of organic and inorganic iodine vapors from the pool into the containment atmosphere. The main purpose of this model is to evaluate the effect of long-term revolatilization of dissolved iodine. Inputs to the model include dose rate in the pool, the amount of chloride-containing polymer, such as Hypalon, and the amount of buffering agents in the containment. Model predictions are compared against the Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiments conduced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), specifically International Standard Problem 41. Improvements to VICTORIA's chemical reactions models were implemented as a result of recommendations from a peer review of VICTORIA that was completed last year. Specifically, an option is now included to model aerosols and deposited fission products as three condensed phases in addition to the original option of a single condensed phase. The three-condensed-phase model results in somewhat higher predicted fission product volatilities than does the single-condensed-phase model. Modeling of U02

  3. Details of Layers in Victoria Crater's Cape St. Vincent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity rover spent about 300 sols (Martian days) during 2006 and 2007 traversing the rim of Victoria Crater. Besides looking for a good place to enter the crater, the rover obtained images of rock outcrops exposed at several cliffs along the way.

    The cliff in this image from Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) is informally named Cape St. Vincent. It is a promontory approximately 12 meters (39 feet) tall on the northern rim of Victoria crater, near the farthest point along the rover's traverse around the rim. Layers seen in Cape St. Vincent have proven to be among the best examples of meter scale cross-bedding observed on Mars to date. Cross-bedding is a geologic term for rock layers which are inclined relative to the horizontal and which are indicative of ancient sand dune deposits. In order to get a better look at these outcrops, Pancam 'super-resolution' imaging techniques were utilized. Super-resolution is a type of imaging mode which acquires many pictures of the same target to reconstruct a digital image at a higher resolution than is native to the camera. These super-resolution images have allowed scientists to discern that the rocks at Victoria Crater once represented a large dune field, not unlike the Sahara desert on Earth, and that this dune field migrated with an ancient wind flowing from the north to the south across the region. Other rover chemical and mineral measurements have shown that many of the ancient sand dunes studied in Meridiani Planum were modified by surface and subsurface liquid water long ago.

    This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image acquired on sol 1167 (May 7, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 16 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  4. Exploration of Victoria crater by the mars rover opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F., III; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; De Souza, P.A., Jr.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Schroder, C.; Sullivan, R.J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ???750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ???6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  5. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria' (Altered Contrast)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006). Contrast has been altered to improve the visibility of details in shadowed areas.

  6. Bigger Crater Farther South of 'Victoria' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version

    The team operating NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has chosen southeast as the direction for the rover's next extended journey, toward a crater more than 20 times wider than 'Victoria Crater.' Opportunity exited Victoria Crater on Aug. 28, 2008, after nearly a year investigating the interior.

    The crater to the southeast is about 22 kilometers (13.7 miles) in diameter and about 300 meters (1,000 feet) deep, exposing a much thicker stack of rock layers than those examined in Victoria Crater.

    The rover team informally calls the bigger crater 'Endeavour' and emphasizes that Opportunity may well never reach it. The rover has already operated more than 18 times longer than originally planned, and the distance to the big crater, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) matches the total distance Opportunity has driven since landing in early 2004. Driving southeastward is expected to take Opportunity to exposures of younger rock layers than is has previously seen and to provide access to rocks on the plain that were thrown long distances by impacts that excavated even deeper, more distant craters.

    The crater that Opportunity will drive toward dominates this orbital view from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter. The much smaller Victoria Crater is the most prominent circle near the upper left corner of the image. This view is a mosaic of about 50 separate visible-light images taken by THEMIS.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rover missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. THEMIS was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the

  7. Injury surveillance in Victoria, Australia: developing comprehensive injury incidence estimates.

    PubMed

    Watson, W L; Ozanne-Smith, J

    2000-03-01

    This study aimed to develop an estimate of the incidence of all medically-treated injury by level of severity and to broadly describe the epidemiology of injury in the Australian State of Victoria in a given year. Victoria has developed a relatively comprehensive injury surveillance system. Data is currently collected by various agencies on injury deaths, hospitalisations and emergency department attendances. The method used to establish the incidence of both unintentional and intentional injury is described. Incidence figures were directly derived, or estimated from, the available Victorian health sector and Coronial data bases for three level of severity (deaths, hospitalisations and medical treatment only) and for causes of injury, age and gender groups, location of the injury event and activity at the time of injury. In 1993/1994, injuries resulted in at least 1487 deaths, 67,402 persons hospitalised and an estimated 397,160 medically-treated, non-hospitalised injured persons in Victoria. In total, over 466,000 people were injured or 10.5 persons per year for every 100 residents. Males sustain 62% of all injuries yet represent 49.5% of the population. Almost three-quarters of injury fatalities and over 60% of non-fatal injuries occur among males. Young people aged 15-24 years account for 22% of all injuries yet represent only about 16% of the Victorian population. Children (0-14 years) also suffer relatively high injury rates, although mainly less severe, while the elderly are at risk of more severe injuries. The leading cause of injury death in Victoria is suicide, followed by motor vehicle accidents, whereas falls are the leading cause of all non-fatal injury. Most injuries occur in the home (36%), areas of sport and recreation (12.5%) and transport (11.7%). They are mainly associated with leisure activities (33.1%), work (11%) and transportation (10.8%). This study demonstrates a method for the development of comprehensive injury incidence estimates. The

  8. Exploration of Victoria Crater by the Mars Rover Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A. H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, J. W.; Bell, J. F.; Calvin, W. M.; Christensen, P. R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; de Souza, P. A.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, R.; Golombek, M. P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T. J.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rice, J. W.; Schröder, C.; Sullivan, R. J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ~750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ~6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  9. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult…

  10. A Snapshot: Multicultural Music Teaching in Schools in Victoria, Australia, Portrayed by School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethsinghe, Rohan Nishantha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the changing demographic factors and as demanded by the governmental policies and regulations, schools in Victoria, Australia, are expected to foster multicultural educational programs that address the diverse needs of students. Research has found that school teachers in Victoria struggle to provide the aspired to multicultural education…

  11. Events Management Education through CD-ROM Simulation at Victoria University of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marcia; And Others

    There has been a rapid growth in the events industry in Victoria and Australia over the past five years with an increase in large scale events--resulting in substantive economic impact. The growth in events in Australia is projected to continue to beyond 2001. The Department of Management at Victoria University of Technology (VU) received a…

  12. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Polar Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Analysis of continuous GPS measurements from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Several years of continuous data have been collected at remote bedrock Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Annual to sub-annual variations are observed in the position time-series. An atmospheric pressure loading (APL) effect is calculated from pressure field anomalies supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model loading an elastic Earth model. The predicted APL signal has a moderate correlation with the vertical position time-series at McMurdo, Ross Island (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) station MCM4), produced using a global solution. In contrast, a local solution in which MCM4 is the fiducial site generates a vertical time series for a remote site in Victoria Land (Cape Roberts, ROB4) which exhibits a low, inverse correlation with the predicted atmospheric pressure loading signal. If, in the future, known and well modeled geophysical loads can be separated from the time-series, then local hydrological loading, of interest for glaciological and climate applications, can potentially be extracted from the GPS time-series.

  15. VICTORIA-92 pretest analyses of PHEBUS-FPT0

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Erickson, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    FPT0 is the first of six tests that are scheduled to be conducted in an experimental reactor in Cadarache, France. The test apparatus consists of an in-pile fuel bundle, an upper plenum, a hot leg, a steam generator, a cold leg, and a small containment. Thus, the test is integral in the sense that it attempts to simulate all of the processes that would be operative in a severe nuclear accident. In FPT0, the fuel will be trace irradiated; in subsequent tests high burn-up fuel will be used. This report discusses separate pretest analyses of the FPT0 fuel bundle and primary circuit have been conducted using the USNRC`s source term code, VICTORIA-92. Predictions for release of fission product, control rod, and structural elements from the test section are compared with those given by CORSOR-M. In general, the releases predicted by VICTORIA-92 occur earlier than those predicted by CORSOR-M. The other notable difference is that U release is predicted to be on a par with that of the control rod elements; CORSOR-M predicts U release to be about 2 orders of magnitude greater.

  16. Cationic Triarylmethane Photosensitizers For Selective Photochemotherapy: Victoria Blue-Bo, Victoria Blue-R And Malachite Green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadwa, K.; Smith, S.; Oseroff, A. R.

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated the malignant cell selective phototoxicity of some triarylmethane dyes including Victoria Blue BO (VB-BO), Victoria Blue R (VB-R), and Malachite Green (MG). Phototoxicity was studied in human squamous (FaDu) and colon (CX-1) carcinoma, and in human and murine melanoma (NEL, B-16) cell lines, as well as in non-malignant monkey kidney cells (CV-1). Cultured cells were exposed to varying concentrations of the dyes for 60 min, washed with PBS, irradiated after an efflux time of 90 min in culture media, and placed in a colony forming assay. VB-BO was the most effective photosensitizer, giving 90% killing of malignant cells such as B-16 when treated with 5x10-8 M dye and 13 J/cm2 light. CV-1 cells were unaffected under these conditions. VB-R was about 10 fold less effective, while MG had minimal phototoxicity in this assay. VB-BO was studied in vivo, using subcutaneous FaDu tumors in nude mice. At a dose of 3 mg/kg followed 4 hrs later by dye laser irradiation under conditions which did not produce hyperthermia, there was an 80% complete remission rate without significant phototoxicity to overlying or adjacent normal skin. The triarylmethanes are a novel class of photosensitizers which may have promise in vitro and in vivo.

  17. VENUS - The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea: First Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. K.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Round, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Victoria Experimental Network Under the Sea (VENUS) is a recently installed cabled ocean observatory representing the next generation of infrastructure technology. VENUS is scheduled to consist of two major segments, one in Saanich Inlet (installed in February 2006), and a second in the Strait of Georgia (planned for October 2006). The technologies associated with both the hardware and software that will deliver data from instruments to scientists is being developed in collaboration with both the NEPTUNE Canada and MARS observatories. The presentation will provide an overview of the science projects planned for stage one of the installed instruments, the engineering design of the infrastructure, the preliminary design of the Data Management and Archive System (DMAS), lessons learned so far, and preliminary results from the first few months of data from Saanich Inlet.

  18. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  19. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (Enhanced)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is a false color rendering (enhanced to bring out details from within the shadowed regions of the scene) of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  20. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  1. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  2. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  3. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Impact of Land Use on Soil Respiration in Southwestern Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodosio, B.; Daly, E.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2015-12-01

    Land use management is one of the key contributors to the global environmental change. Considerable changes in landscapes have been experienced in Southwestern Victoria, Australia in the past two decades. Eucalyptus globulus (blue gum) plantations have expanded, resulting in possible changes in the water and carbon balances of catchments. The shift from pastures to plantations could have a significant impact on the local carbon balance with possible effects on atmospheric CO2 concentration and vegetation productivity. We present preliminary measurements from a field study comparing soil respiration in a plantation and a pasture. Adjacent catchments in Southwestern Victoria, near Gatum, were used as study areas; the prominent difference between the two catchments is the land use, with one catchment being used as a pasture for livestock grazing and the other catchment being mainly planted with blue gums. The variability of soil respiration in the pasture is governed by differences in soil moisture and substrate content due to local features of the topography and livestock grazing. Soil respiration measurements in the plantation were taken on mounds, access tracks, and open spaces. Most observations on mounds had higher soil respiration possibly due to root and mycorrhizal respiration. The measurements in open spaces had comparable values with mound measurements; this might be due to a less limited radiation. The soil respiration between trees had lower values, possibly because of radiation limitation due to the canopy cover. These preliminary measurements allow us to compare soil respiration variability across catchments with different land uses. This is important to estimate CO2 fluxes from soil to the atmosphere in large areas and will be valuable in estimating gross primary production from measurements of net ecosystem exchange.

  6. Color variations on Victoria quadrangle: support for the geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambon, F.; Galluzzi, V.; Carli, C.; Giacomini, L.; Massironi, M.; Palumbo, P.; Guzzetta, L.; Mancinelli, P.; Vivaldi, V.; Ferranti, L.; Pauselli, C.; Frigeri, A.; Zusi, M.; Pozzobon, R.; Cremonese, G.; Ferrari, S.; Capaccioni, F.

    2015-10-01

    Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. Its extreme thermal environment makes it difficult to explore onsite. In 1974, Mariner 10, the first mission dedicated to Mercury, covered 45% of the surface during of the three Hermean flybys [1]. For about 30 years after Mariner 10, no other mission has flownto Mercury. Many unresolved issues need an answer, and in recent years the interest about Mercury has increased. MESSENGER mission contributed to understand Mercury's origin, its surface structure, and the nature of its magnetic field, exosphere, and magnetosphere [1]. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) provided a global coverage of Mercury surface with variable spatial resolution. MDIS is equipped with a narrow angle camera (NAC), dedicated to the study of the geology and a wide angle camera (WAC) with 12 filters useful to investigate the surface composition[2]. Mercury has been divided into 15 quadrangles for mapping purposes [3]. The mapping process permits integration of different geological surface information to better understand the planet crust formation and evolution. Merging spectroscopically data is a poorly followed approach in planetary mapping, but it gives additional information about lithological composition, contributing to the construction of a more complete geological map [e.g. 4]. Recently, [5] proposed a first detailed map of all the Victoria quadrangle (H2). Victoria quadrangle is located in a longitude range between 270°E and 360°E and a latitude range of 22.5°N and 65°N,and itwas only partially mapped by Mariner 10 data[3]. Here we investigate the lithological variation by using the MDIS-WAC data to produce a set of color map products which could be asupport to the geological mapping [5]. The future ESA-JAXA mission to Mercury, BepiColombo, will soon contribute to improve the knowledge of Mercury surface composition and geology thanks to the Spectrometer and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo-Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS)[6].

  7. Offshore investigations on Wilkes land-Victoria land margin, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Eittreim, S.L.

    1984-04-01

    In January 1984, the US Geological Survey research vessel S. P. Lee carried out investigations of the Antarctic continental margin in the Wilkes Land Victoria Land areas, using 24-channel and high-resolution seismic, sonobuoy refraction, gravity, magnetic, and bottom-sampling methods. This investigation augmented previous surveys of the Dumont d'Urville area by the French Petroleum Institute and explored new areas west and east to the boundary between the onshore Wilkes basin and the Victoria Land highlands. These surveys defined sediment thickness distribution and seismic stratigraphy in this frontier area. The tectonic style of the boundary between the East Antarctic craton and the younger crust of West Antarctica in the Ross Sea is revealed by one multichannel seismic line across this important boundary. The initial breakup of Antarctical from Australia occurred as a slowly spreading phase during the middle Cretaceous. According to Deep Sea Drilling Project results on the Tasman Rise, conditions of restricted circulation existed in the growing basin between the continents before the late Eocene. After the late Eocene, the major oceanic circulation pattern was established. Before that time, conditions were favorable for preservation of organic-carbon deposits on the sea floor. Among the questions to be addressed with this data are the following. How do apparent subsidence rates of this passive margin compare with others around the world. Does the onshore subglacial Wilkes basins to the Otway and Ceduna basins of Australia exists. What is the effect of the ice cap on the stratigraphy of this margin. Do the two major Tertiary ice advances have conspicuous seismic-stratigraphic signatures.

  8. PCBs in fish and their cestode parasites in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Oluoch-Otiego, John; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Kiptoo, Kipkorir Koross Godfrey; Chemoiwa, Emily J; Ngugi, Charles C; Simiyu, Gelas; Omutange, Elijah S; Ngure, Veronica; Opiyo, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3 μg/kg dw and 300-3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs. PMID:27456696

  9. End‐of‐life decisions in medical practice: a survey of doctors in Victoria (Australia)

    PubMed Central

    Neil, D A; Coady, C A J; Thompson, J; Kuhse, H

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To discover the current state of opinion and practice among doctors in Victoria, Australia, regarding end‐of‐life decisions and the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Longitudinal comparison with similar 1987 and 1993 studies. Design and participants Cross‐sectional postal survey of doctors in Victoria. Results 53% of doctors in Victoria support the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia. Of doctors who have experienced requests from patients to hasten death, 35% have administered drugs with the intention of hastening death. There is substantial disagreement among doctors concerning the definition of euthanasia. Conclusions Disagreement among doctors concerning the meaning of the term euthanasia may contribute to misunderstanding in the debate over voluntary euthanasia. Among doctors in Victoria, support for the legalisation of voluntary euthanasia appears to have weakened slightly over the past 17 years. Opinion on this issue is sharply polarised. PMID:18055904

  10. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Heames, T.J. ); Williams, D.A.; Johns, N.A.; Chown, N.M. ); Bixler, N.E.; Grimley, A.J. ); Wheatley, C.J. )

    1990-10-01

    This document provides a description of a model of the radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident. This document serves as the user's manual for the computer code called VICTORIA, based upon the model. The VICTORIA code predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions between fission products and structural materials, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. This document provides a detailed description of each part of the implementation of the model into VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided. The VICTORIA code was developed upon a CRAY-XMP at Sandia National Laboratories in the USA and a CRAY-2 and various SUN workstations at the Winfrith Technology Centre in England. 60 refs.

  11. Origin of the superflock of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Snoeks, Jos; Meyer, Axel

    2003-04-11

    Lake Victoria harbors a unique species-rich flock of more than 500 endemic haplochromine cichlid fishes. The origin, age, and mechanism of diversification of this extraordinary radiation are still debated. Geological evidence suggests that the lake dried out completely about 14,700 years ago. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses of almost 300 DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region of East African cichlids, we find that the Lake Victoria cichlid flock is derived from the geologically older Lake Kivu. We suggest that the two seeding lineages may have already been lake-adapted when they colonized Lake Victoria. A haplotype analysis further shows that the most recent desiccation of Lake Victoria did not lead to a complete extinction of its endemic cichlid fauna and that the major lineage diversification took place about 100,000 years ago. PMID:12649486

  12. Analysis of the water balance of Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossent, J.; de Brabanter, W.; Bauwens, W.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Victoria is situated within an elevated plateau in the western part of Africa's Great Rift Valley and lies within the territory of three countries: Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. It is Africa's largest lake and the second widest fresh water lake in the world in terms of surface area. It is also the source of the longest branch of the River Nile, the White Nile. The lake's shallowness, limited river inflow, and large surface area relative to its volume make it vulnerable to climate changes and fluctuations of the water level. This affects the surrounding countries and their people a lot, especially in terms of their food supply and economy. The aim of this study was to get more information on the causes of these fluctuations by analysing the water balance of the lake for the period 1970-1974. It was based both on historical data and measurements and new calculations, and compared with previous studies (e.g. Suttcliffe and Parks, 1999). Precipitation and evaporation over the lake surface were calculated with the Thiessen Polygons method, using measurements from stations around the lake and on the islands. The total inflow of the lake is the sum of the contributions of twelve subbasins. One of these subcatchments, the Nzoia-catchment, was modeled with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), a physically based, semi-distributed river basin simulator, as a contribution to the development of a water balance model for Lake Victoria. To calculate the outflow at the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja (Uganda), gauge heights of the lake were used in combination with the "Agreed Curve" (the relationship between water level and flow that was set by the policy makers). As the lake is assumed to be a system with a closed mass balance, the combination of the variations in the above mentioned components resulted in changes of the lake's storage, leading to fluctuations of the water level. For the period 1970-1974 the calculated mean monthly evaporation is 133 mm, with a standard deviation

  13. Sensitivity analysis of the GNSS derived Victoria plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolinário, João; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel

    2014-05-01

    Fernandes et al. (2013) estimated the angular velocity of the Victoria tectonic block from geodetic data (GNSS derived velocities) only.. GNSS observations are sparse in this region and it is therefore of the utmost importance to use the available data (5 sites) in the most optimal way. Unfortunately, the existing time-series were/are affected by missing data and offsets. In addition, some time-series were close to the considered minimal threshold value to compute one reliable velocity solution: 2.5-3.0 years. In this research, we focus on the sensitivity of the derived angular velocity to changes in the data (longer data-span for some stations) by extending the used data-span: Fernandes et al. (2013) used data until September 2011. We also investigate the effect of adding other stations to the solution, which is now possible since more stations became available in the region. In addition, we study if the conventional power-law plus white noise model is indeed the best stochastic model. In this respect, we apply different noise models using HECTOR (Bos et al. (2013), which can use different noise models and estimate offsets and seasonal signals simultaneously. The seasonal signal estimation is also other important parameter, since the time-series are rather short or have large data spans at some stations, which implies that the seasonal signals still can have some effect on the estimated trends as shown by Blewitt and Lavellee (2002) and Bos et al. (2010). We also quantify the magnitude of such differences in the estimation of the secular velocity and their effect in the derived angular velocity. Concerning the offsets, we investigate how they can, detected and undetected, influence the estimated plate motion. The time of offsets has been determined by visual inspection of the time-series. The influence of undetected offsets has been done by adding small synthetic random walk signals that are too small to be detected visually but might have an effect on the

  14. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this stereo view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. It is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Victorias energy efficiency and cogeneration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-31

    This report describes a two-phase energy project currently contemplated for joint implementation at the Victorias Milling Company, a large sugar mill and refinery on the island of Negros in the Visayas region of the Philippines. The Energy Efficiency (EE) phase is expected to reduce of eliminate VMC`s fossil fuel consumption, which will have a direct and substantial impact on carbon emissions. Phase I is an EE project which involves the installation of equipment to reduce steam and electricity demand in the factories. Phase II, will involve retrofitting and increasing the capacity of the steam and power generation systems, and selling power to the grid. By increasing efficiency and output, the cogeneration project will allow the factory to use only bagasse sugar cane fiber waste as fuel for energy needs. The cogeneration project will also eliminate VMC`s electricity purchases and supply additional power for the island, which will offset generation capacity expansion on the island and the Visayas region.

  16. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Work-related suicide in Victoria, Australia: a broad perspective.

    PubMed

    Routley, Virginia Hazel; Ozanne-Smith, Joan E

    2012-01-01

    While unintentional work-related injury is increasingly recognised as important and preventable, population studies of the full range of work related suicides have received less attention. The objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of work-related suicide in Victoria, July 2000-December 2007. The study draws on a database of all work-related deaths reported to the Victorian Coroner, inclusive of broadly defined work-relatedness. Inclusion criteria for work-related suicide were at least one of: suicide means was work related, work stressors were identified in police reports to the Coroners or the Coroner's finding, the suicide method involved another person's work (e.g. rail suicide, heavy vehicle) or the suicide location was a workplace. Cases still open for investigation were excluded. Of 642 work-related suicides, 55% had an association with work stressors; 32% jumped or lay in front of a train or heavy vehicle; 7% involved a work location and 6% involved work agents. Work stressor cases identified included business difficulties, recent or previous work injury, unemployment/redundancy or conflict with supervisors/colleagues (including workplace bullying). Work-related suicide is a substantial problem, for which few detailed population wide studies are available. Further research is required to understand the contribution of work stressors and effective interventions. PMID:22132703

  18. Comparative Epidemiology of Influenza B Yamagata- and Victoria-Lineage Viruses in Households.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cuiling; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Tsang, Tim K; Fang, Vicky J; Fung, Rita O P; Ip, Dennis K M; Cauchemez, Simon; Leung, Gabriel M; Peiris, J S Malik; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2015-10-15

    Influenza B viruses split into 2 distinct lineages in the early 1980s, commonly named the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. There are few data on the comparative epidemiology of Victoria- and Yamagata-lineage viruses. In 2007-2011, we enrolled 75 and 34 households containing index patients with acute respiratory illness who tested positive for Yamagata- and Victoria-lineage viruses, respectively, from outpatient clinics in Hong Kong, China. These index patients and their household contacts were followed up for 7-10 days. We examined overall risk of polymerase chain reaction-confirmed infection among household contacts and the risk of secondary infection within households using an individual-based hazard model that accounted for tertiary transmission and infections occurring outside the household. We found that for Victoria-lineage viruses, the risk of within-household infection among household contacts aged ≤15 years was significantly higher (risk ratio = 12.9, 95% credibility interval: 4.2, 43.6) than that for older household contacts, while for Yamagata-lineage viruses, the risk of within-household infection for household contacts did not differ by age. Influenza B Yamagata- and Victoria-lineage viruses have similar characteristics in terms of viral shedding and clinical illness. The mechanisms underlying these epidemiologic differences deserve further investigation. PMID:26400854

  19. Characterising groundwater dynamics in Western Victoria, Australia using Menyanthes software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldeyohannes, Yohannes; Webb, John

    2010-05-01

    Water table across much of the western Victoria, Australia have been declining for at least the last 10-15 years, and this is attributed to the consistently low rainfall for these years, but over the same period of time there has been substantial change in land use, with grazing land replaced by cropping and tree plantations appearing in some areas. Hence, it is important to determine the relative effect the climate and land use factors on the water table changes. Monitoring changes in groundwater levels to climate variables and/or land use change is helpful in indicating the degree of threat faced to agricultural and public assets. The dynamics of the groundwater system in the western Victoria, mainly on the basalt plain, have been modelled to determine the climatic influence in water table fluctuations. In this study, a standardized computer package Menyanthes was used for quantifying the influence of climatic variables on the groundwater level, statistically estimating trends in groundwater levels and identify the properties that determine the dynamics of groundwater system. This method is optimized for use on hydrological problems and is based on the use of continuous time transfer function noise model, which estimates the Impulse response function of the system from the temporal correlation between time series of groundwater level and precipitation surplus. In this approach, the spatial differences in the groundwater system are determined by the system properties, while temporal variation is driven by the dynamics of the input into the system. 80 time series models are analysed and the model output parameter values characterized by their moments. The zero-order moment Mo of a distribution function is its area and M1 is related to the mean of the impulse response function. The relation is M1/Mo. It is a measure of the system's memory. It takes approximately 3 times the mean time (M1/Mo) for the effect of a shower to disappear completely from the system. Overall

  20. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  1. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  2. Reactivated tectonic boundaries and implications for the reconstruction of southeastern Australia and northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.A.; Gleadow, A.J.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Rifted continental margins are strongly influenced by the location of zones of preexisting crustal weakness. Apatite fission track thermochronological data indicate that the Paleozoic lithospheric boundary between the Kanmantoo and Lachlan fold belts in western Victoria, Australia, was reactivated during Mesozoic rifting as a transfer fault. To the east of this boundary, 1-2 km of material was denuded during extension, while essentially no denudation took place during rifting to the west. The correlated tectonic boundary within the Bowers terrane of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, was also reactivated upon rifting. During fragmentation of Gondwana, movement on this zone perpendicular to the direction of rifting probably determined the location of the Tasman Fracture Zone. When Australia and Antarctica are reconstructed along the trace of the Tasman Fracture Zone, the tectonic boundary in Victoria falls into precise alignment with the Bowers terrane.

  3. Institutional responses to communicable diseases at Victoria College, University of Toronto, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Gidney, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1940 students and staff risked their lives to attend, and teach at, Victoria College. Not only did Victoria experience three major epidemics--diphtheria in 1911, influenza from 1918 to 1920, and smallpox in 1927--but almost yearly one or two students contracted diseases such as scarlet fever, measles, and mumps. Yet at a time when there was no health insurance and few hospital facilities, how did the university cope with the problem? This paper examines the care provided to Victoria's residential students. In the process the paper illustrates not only the upheaval endured by individual students but also the enormous financial and emotional toll paid by the institution, especially by members of its female staff. PMID:18447307

  4. 78 FR 35604 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 155-Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Notification of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Proposed Production Activity; Caterpillar, Inc.; (Excavator and Frame Assembly Production), Victoria, Texas... proposed production activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar), located in..., at 7300 Lone Tree Road, Victoria, Texas. The facility is used for the production of excavators...

  5. Differential age susceptibility to influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses in the 2015 Australian influenza season.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ian G; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Sullivan, Sheena G

    2016-01-01

    Influenza B viruses make up an important part of the burden from seasonal influenza globally. The 2015 season in Australia saw an unusual predominance of influenza B with a distinctive switch during the season from B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage viruses to B/Victoria/2/87 lineage viruses. We also noted significant differences in the age groups infected by the different B lineages, with B/Victoria infecting a younger population than B/Yamagata, that could not be explained by potential prior exposure. PMID:26848118

  6. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  7. Characterization of the Ugandan inshore waters of Lake Victoria based on temperature-conductivity diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cózar, AndréS.; Bracchini, Luca; Dattilo, Arduino; Loiselle, Steven; Azza, Nicholas

    2004-12-01

    Temperature-conductivity diagrams are shown as a valid instrument to analyze the hydrographic structure of freshwater ecosystems, even along the surface waters. We put this method in practice in the Ugandan inshore waters of Lake Victoria. A complementary parameter (T-C anomaly) was used to differentiate between upland water intrusions. The relative value of the T-C anomaly provided information about the nature of the water intrusions and showed a considerable correlation with the biological characteristics of the water masses. The results indicated that the connections between catchment attributes, water characteristics, and biological community are quite direct in the inshore waters of Lake Victoria.

  8. Structural Analysis of the Victoria Quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Objective of this thesis is the mapping and structural analysis of the H2 quadrangle, “Victoria”, and a reconnaissance study of the geometry and kinematics of lobate scarps on Mercury. To this end, I produced a 1:3,000,000 geologic map of the area using the images provided by the NASA spacecraft MESSENGER, which has been orbiting the planet since March, 2011. The geologic map shows the distribution of smooth plains, intermediate plains, intercrater plains units and a classification of crater materials based on an empirical distinction among three stages of degradation. Structural mapping shows that the H2 quadrangle is dominated by N-S faults (here grouped into the Victoria system) to the east and NE-SW faults (Larrocha system) to the west, with the secondary existence of NW-SE-trending faults (Carnegie system) in the north-western area of the quadrangle. A systematic analysis of these systems has led to the following results. 1) The Victoria system is characterized by a main array of faults located along Victoria Rupes – Endeavour Rupes – Antoniadi Dorsum. The segmentation of this array into three different sectors changes from north to south and is spatially linked to the presence of three volcanic vents located at the boundaries between each sector and at the northern end of the Victoria Rupes sector, suggesting that volcanism and faulting are interrelated. 2) The main array of Carnegie system is kinematically linked and antithetical to the Victoria system. Both systems have arguably controlled the growth of a longitudinal, fault-free, crustal and gravimetric bulge in the central area of the Victoria quadrangle, which is interpreted as a regional contractional pop-up. 3) The Larrocha system is interrupted against the central bulge and thus is probably older than the Victoria and Carnegie systems. Buffered crater counting performed on the Victoria system confirms the young relative age of its fault segments with respect to the map units. The faults of the

  9. 78 FR 48318 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Victoria County, 1997 8...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 1- hour ozone (43 FR 8962). As required by the CAA, the state of Texas... in March 25, 1980 (45 FR 19231) and another in August 13, 1984 (49 FR 32180). An additional SIP..., 1995 (60 FR 12438). On July 27, 1994, Texas submitted a request to redesignate Victoria County...

  10. Supervision and Satisfaction among School Psychologists: An Empirical Study of Professionals in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielking, Monica; Moore, Susan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the supervision arrangements and job satisfaction among school psychologists in Victoria, Australia. Participation in professional supervision was explored in relation to the type of employment and job satisfaction. The results revealed that the frequency of participation in supervision activities was less than optimal, with…

  11. The Killing of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria: A Myth Challenged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadswell, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    On 21 March 1941, the Council of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria, Australia, (the Association) voted the organisation out of existence. The demise was in no way contemplated, and there was no practical reason why the Council acted in the way it did. This paper is the story of the destruction of a successful adult education…

  12. Communicating Risk with Parents: Exploring the Methods and Beliefs of Outdoor Education Coordinators in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallat, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the risk communication strategies currently being employed by seven outdoor education co-ordinators in Government schools in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest are the beliefs and assumptions held by these co-ordinators in relation to communicating risk with parents. Current policy stipulates that parents must be…

  13. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.136 Section 81.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... County, Jackson County, Jim Wells County, Kenedy County, Kleberg County, Lavaca County, Live Oak...

  14. Rhetoric, Reality and Resources: The New 3R's for Victoria's "Schools of the Future."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Tony

    The new government of the state of Victoria (Australia) announced its "Schools of the Future" program in 1993. The emphasis on the role of the community in education and self-management by schools seemed promising for the quality of education in the state, but after 3 years of implementation, the reality does not match the rhetoric of this reform.…

  15. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  16. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum . PMID:26981690

  17. Predator removal: effect on fisheries yields in lake victoria (East Africa).

    PubMed

    Marten, G G

    1979-02-16

    Lake Victoria's artisanal fishery has an overfishing problem. A possible solution is suggested by records showing that fish catches are best where predator populations have been reduced by fishing. It may be possible to remedy overfishing by increasing fishing effort, provided the additional effort is directed toward predators. PMID:17813374

  18. Vulnerability to Bushfires in Rural Australia: A Case Study from East Gippsland, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Joshua; Handmer, John; Mercer, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature and causes of vulnerability to bushfires in the Wulgulmerang district of East Gippsland, Victoria, in south-eastern Australia. In 2003 bushfires devastated the small population of this isolated farming district, destroying homes, agricultural assets and public infrastructure. The fires also adversely affected the…

  19. Connections '96. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (2nd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Sakari, Mary, Ed.; Miller, Carole S., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 19 papers presented at the second annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines, including preschool education, classroom communication, mathematics instruction, theater, attention deficit disorders, distance learning by rural home schoolers,…

  20. Educational Enrolment of Students with a Disability in New South Wales and Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Ian; Foreman, Phil; Jenkinson, Josephine

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of legislative and special education policy on the educational enrollment of students with a disability across Australia. Enrollment trends in New South Wales and Victoria are examined and discussed within the context of their respective special education policies, disability discrimination legislation, and…

  1. Equity Indicators: Measures of Socio-Economic Status at Victoria University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Genevieve; Doughney, James; Palermo, Josephine

    After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…

  2. A Vision for Training and Further Education in Victoria. Vision Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Training Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    The state of Victoria (Australia) needs a well-educated, adaptable work force to face the numerous challenges stemming from the following: shifts in employment toward "knowledge workers"; the impact of competition, technological change, and microeconomic reform; aging of the population; disparate views regarding the purpose of education; and the…

  3. People Management Practices in the Public Health Sector: Developments from Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Pauline; Bartram, Timothy; Harbridge, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the impact on human resource management (HRM) practices in the public health sector in Victoria, Australia of two different government policy environments. First, it explores the Liberal Coalition Government's decentralisation of public health sector management, from 1992-1999 and second, the Labor Government's…

  4. Establishing an Online Community of Inquiry at the Distance Education Centre, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Luke C.; Jackson, Alun C.; Chambers, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot intervention focused on three courses that were redesigned to utilize the online environment to establish an online community of inquiry (CoI). The setting for this research study was the Distance Education Centre, Victoria (DECV), an Australian co-educational school with approximately 3000 students who, for a variety of reasons, are…

  5. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Vivienne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  6. Connections '99. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (5th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner W., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1999 annual conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Victoria (British Columbia). The papers are: (1) "Sacred and the Profane in Advertising Art" (Bill Zuk, Robert Dalton); (2) "Finding the Fund$ in Fun Run: Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Physical Activity Events as…

  7. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle, Bruce Howe); (3)…

  8. Connections '97. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (3rd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 17 papers presented at the third annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines and topics, including student teaching, athletics, researcher-teacher collaboration, hands-on science instruction, violence prevention, youth violence, counseling,…

  9. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (<20 kg N km-2 yr-1), nitrogen release to the watershed must be derived from the mining of soil N stocks. The fraction of riverine N export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  10. The Cambrian Ross Orogeny in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and New Zealand: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federico, L.; Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.; Bradshaw, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Cambrian, the paleo-Pacific margin of the Gondwana supercontinent included East Antarctica, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand and was affected by themajor Ross-Delamerian Orogeny. In Antarctica, evidence suggests that this resulted from oblique subduction and that in northern Victoria Land it was accompanied by the opening and subsequent closure of a back-arc basin. Comparison of the type and timing of sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic events in areas noted above shows strong similarities between northern Victoria Land and New Zealand. In both regions Middle Cambrian volcanites are interpreted as arc/back-arc assemblages produced by west-directed subduction; sediments interbedded with the volcanites show provenance both from the arc and from the Gondwana margin and therefore place the basin close to the continent. Back-arc closure in the Late Cambrian was likely accomplished through a second subduction system

  11. Episodic rifting of phanerozoic rocks in the victoria land basin, Western ross sea, antarctica.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A K; Davey, F J

    1985-09-13

    Multichannel seismic-reflection data show that the Victoria Land-basin, unlike other sedimentary basins in the Ross Sea, includes a rift-depression 15 to 25 kilometers wide that parallels the Transantarctic Mountains and contains up to 12 kilometers of possible Paleozoic to Holocene age sedimentary rocks. An unconformity separates the previously identified Cenozoic sedimentary section from the underlying strata of possible Mesozoic and Paleozoic age. Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks intrude into the entire section along the eastern flank of the basin. The Victoria Land basin is probably part of a more extensive rift system that has been active episodically since Paleozoic time. Inferred rifting and basin subsidence during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time may be associated with regional crustal extension and uplift of the nearby Transantarctic Mountains. PMID:17753283

  12. Modes of climate variability and heat waves in Victoria, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Teresa J.; Berry, Gareth J.; Reeder, Michael J.; Nicholls, Neville

    2014-10-01

    Summertime heat waves in the southeastern state of Victoria, Australia, are associated with broad anticyclonic upper level potential vorticity (PV) anomalies. The current research establishes the relationship between heat waves, precipitation, and three modes of climate variability of importance for rainfall in Australia: the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Heat waves in Victoria in summer are more common during phases 3-6 of the MJO (when convection is enhanced over the eastern Indian Ocean, Maritime Continent, and western Pacific Ocean) and La Niña phases of ENSO. The PV-Theta (Θ) structure of the heat wave and pattern of convection varies with the phase of each mode of variability. Enhanced tropical convection results in a heat wave characterized by a monopole of anticyclonic PV, whereas suppressed convection is associated with a dipole of anticyclonic and cyclonic PV.

  13. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class. PMID:26602150

  14. Episodic rifting of phanerozoic rocks in the Victoria Land basin, Western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, A. K.; Davey, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Multichannel seismic-reflection data show that the Victoria Land basin, unlike other sedimentary basins in the Ross Sea, includes a rift-depression 15 to 25 kilometers wide that parallels the Transantarctic Mountains and contains up to 12 kilometers of possible Paleozoic to Holocene age sedimentary rocks. An unconformity separates the previously identified Cenozoic sedimentary section from the underlying strata of possible Mesozoic and Paleozoic age. Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks intrude into the entire section along the eastern flank of the basin. The Victoria Land basin is probably part of a more extensive rift system that has been active episodically since Paleozoic time. Inferred rifting and basin subsidence during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time may be associated with regional crustal extension and uplift of the nearby Transantarctic Mountains.

  15. Environmental impacts of cage culture in Lake Victoria: the case of Shirati Bay-Sota, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashindye, Benedicto Boniphace; Nsinda, P; Kayanda, R; Ngupula, G W; Mashafi, C A; Ezekiel, C N

    2015-01-01

    The experimental cage culture was conducted at Shirati bay, Lake Victoria from February to August 2013, to investigate the impacts of the small scale cage culture on the environment. Three locations along the cages, at the intermediate and one in the offshore (control) were sampled for water quality parameters, phytoplankton and macro invertebrates. A notable increase in nutrient concentration was observed after the set of cages among the stations. However DO, pH, and water transparency showed no major changes and was within the recommended ranges. Cyanophytes an indicator of inorganic pollution dominated before and after the set of cages, an increase in phytoplankton numerical abundance was observed after stocking of fish in cages. In addition there was an increase in the invertebrate community especially bivalves and gastropods. In conclusion we found no consistent environmental change caused by cage culture, and therefore it can be allowed in Lake Victoria, Tanzania part, with close monitoring of its impacts. PMID:26361576

  16. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class. PMID:26602150

  17. The minimal response to contact metamorphism by the Devonian Buchan Caves Limestone, Buchan Rift, Victoria, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Bone, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A 2.2 m thick, Late Eocene (?) dike that intruded the Devonian Buchan Caves Limestone, near Murrindal, Victoria, has produced a narrow contact aureole only centimeters wide in the adjacent host rock. The lack of response of the Buchan Caves Limestone to contact metamorphism is attributed to: 1) prior heating to near 200??C; and 2) the fact that the dike intruded into cool, near surface, low-porosity rocks which may have been in the vadose zone. -from Authors

  18. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  19. Mapping dominant annual land cover from 2009 to 2013 across Victoria, Australia using satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Kathryn; Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Clark, Rob; Robson, Susan; Lewis, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for regularly updated, broad-scale, accurate land cover information in Victoria from multiple stakeholders. This paper documents the methods used to generate an annual dominant land cover (DLC) map for Victoria, Australia from 2009 to 2013. Vegetation phenology parameters derived from an annual time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Indices 16-day 250 m (MOD13Q1) product were used to generate annual DLC maps, using a three-tiered hierarchical classification scheme. Classification accuracy at the broadest (primary) class level was over 91% for all years, while it ranged from 72 to 81% at the secondary class level. The most detailed class level (tertiary) had accuracy levels ranging from 61 to 68%. The approach used was able to accommodate variable climatic conditions, which had substantial impacts on vegetation growth patterns and agricultural production across the state between both regions and years. The production of an annual dataset with complete spatial coverage for Victoria provides a reliable base data set with an accuracy that is fit-for-purpose for many applications. PMID:26602009

  20. Urban eutrophication and its spurring conditions in the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Kabenge, Martin; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of Lake Victoria in providing its ecosystem services to riparian states, both immediate and along the Nile river basin, is strongly related to its water quality. Over the past few decades, eutrophication has increased in the lake arising from increased inflow of nutrients. This study was carried out in the Murchison Bay area of Lake Victoria with the aims of assessing the progress of eutrophication nutrient enrichment into the lake between 1990 and 2014. Using Landsat satellite floating algae index (FAI) products and data from laboratory analysis of water samples, the study revealed that floating algae reoccurred periodically with coverage varying between 1 and 18 km(2). The findings also indicated that the range of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased greatly with maximum concentrations recorded at 31.2 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.084 mg l(-1) in 1990. The soluble reactive phosphorus concentration range showed a maximum of 1.45 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.043 mg l(-1) in 1990. The chlorophyll levels increased from an average of 17 μg l(-1) in 1992 by threefold in 1996 but had however declined and halved in intensity by 2011. The eutrophication that has occurred in Lake Victoria over the past decades has been due to pollution from industrial, residential, and agricultural areas within the catchment. PMID:26531714

  1. Simulation of pollution buffering capacity of wetlands fringing the Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Mwanuzi, F; Aalderink, H; Mdamo, L

    2003-04-01

    Lake Victoria has undergone substantial and most negative changes, especially over the last 30 years. One of the driving factors is nutrient enrichment from human activities in the catchment, which is causing eutrophication. This has been associated with, among others, the rapid proliferation of water hyacinth, alga blooms, and with general disruption of the lake ecosystem. Most of pollution to the lake flow via the natural wetlands. In order to understand how wetlands function within the Lake Victoria ecosystem a wetland model has been developed. The main objective of the model is to establish and simulate the buffering processes and capacity of individual wetlands (that is, their ability to absorb sediments, nutrients and pollutants) within the Lake Victoria basin. It was found that in both seasonal and permanent swamp there is a net export of organic matter produced in the wetlands. Most of the inorganic phosphorous were retained in the wetlands (60% to 90% removal) while there was a negative retention of nitrates probably due to the export of organic matter which associate very much with nitrates. PMID:12605942

  2. Mapping dominant annual land cover from 2009 to 2013 across Victoria, Australia using satellite imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Kathryn; Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Clark, Rob; Robson, Susan; Lewis, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for regularly updated, broad-scale, accurate land cover information in Victoria from multiple stakeholders. This paper documents the methods used to generate an annual dominant land cover (DLC) map for Victoria, Australia from 2009 to 2013. Vegetation phenology parameters derived from an annual time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Indices 16-day 250 m (MOD13Q1) product were used to generate annual DLC maps, using a three-tiered hierarchical classification scheme. Classification accuracy at the broadest (primary) class level was over 91% for all years, while it ranged from 72 to 81% at the secondary class level. The most detailed class level (tertiary) had accuracy levels ranging from 61 to 68%. The approach used was able to accommodate variable climatic conditions, which had substantial impacts on vegetation growth patterns and agricultural production across the state between both regions and years. The production of an annual dataset with complete spatial coverage for Victoria provides a reliable base data set with an accuracy that is fit-for-purpose for many applications. PMID:26602009

  3. Characterization of bacterial communities in lithobionts and soil niches from Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Van Goethem, Marc W; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Valverde, Angel; Cary, Stephen C; Cowan, Don A

    2016-04-01

    Here we provide the first exploration of microbial diversity from three distinct Victoria Valley edaphic habitats, namely lithobionts (hypoliths, endoliths) and surface soils. Using a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing we assess community structure and diversity patterns, respectively. Our analysis revealed that habitat type (endolithic versus hypolithic versus surface soils) significantly influenced bacterial community composition, even though dominant phyla such as Actinobacteria (41% of total reads) were common to all samples. Consistent with previous surveys in other Dry Valley ecosystems, we found that lithobionts were colonized by a few highly dominant phylotypes (such asGemmatimonasandLeptolyngbya). Our analyses also show that soil bacteria were more diverse and evenly distributed than initially expected based on previous evidence. In contrast to total bacteria, the distribution of Cyanobacteria was not strongly influenced by habitat type, although soil- and endolith-specific cyanobacterial lineages were found. The detection of cyanobacterial lineages in these habitats appears to be influenced by the dispersal of aquatic inocula from lacustrine communities or benthic mats which are abundant in Victoria Valley. Together, our results provide insights into the phylogenetic variation and community structure across niche habitats in Victoria Valley. PMID:26946500

  4. Pervasive, tholeiitic refertilisation and heterogeneous metasomatism in Northern Victoria Land lithospheric mantle (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Faccini, Barbara; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of peridotite xenoliths in the Cenozoic volcanics from Greene Point (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) provides new constraints on the characterisation of the lithospheric mantle beneath the West Antarctic Rift. Based on mineral major and trace element models, this mantle domain is proposed to represent a residuum after 10% and 20% partial melting. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results for Sr and Nd systematics highlight the substantial contribution of tholeiitic melts percolating through peridotites. Close correlation with trace element contents in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Ferrar and Karoo tholeiites allows us to ascribe this refertilisation event to the Jurassic. This asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to the Northern Victoria Land mantle segment. The rare presence of glass and secondary phases indicate that Greene Point xenoliths were heterogeneously affected by alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening; this has also been widely observed in other Northern Victoria Land localities (i.e., Baker Rocks). Temperature and fO2 were calculated (950 °C; Δlog fO2 (QFM), - 1.70 to - 0.39) at a fixed pressure of 15 kbar, confirming the tendency of the anhydrous Greene Point xenolith population to have higher equilibration temperatures and comparable redox conditions, compared to the nearby amphibole-bearing peridotites from Baker Rocks.

  5. Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)??Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiwa, Praxeda K.

    Human health and development are threatened in many parts of the world either from lack of water or poor water quality. Human development has partially contributed to water quality deterioration. In Tanzania, for instance, rapid population growth that caused expansion of agricultural activities, livestock keeping, deforestation, biomass burning and human settlement have exerted pressures within the Lake Victoria Basin. These developments have led to land degradation and increased levels of pollution mainly from non-point sources. The Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda initiated the program of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project, (LVEMP), in 1994 to rehabilitate the Lake Ecosystem through restoration and conservation of biodiversity in the lake as well as within the catchment. This paper presents the five years (1997-2002) experience of LVEMP in Tanzania on the issues of water quality; focusing on water pollution, water quality monitoring and LVEMP strategies to accomplish water quality management in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara and Mwanza regions). The findings show that non-point source pollution from agricultural practices; as well as unplanned urban settlements contribute more to siltation and eutrophication of the of Lake Victoria than that from point source pollution. Recommendations for water quality management and sustainability are presented.

  6. Comparison of Mortality Following Hospitalisation for Isolated Head Injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, Belinda J.; Lyons, Ronan A.; Lecky, Fiona E.; Bouamra, Omar; Woodford, Maralyn; Coats, Timothy J.; Cameron, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. Methods Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005–June 2006) were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3) admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. Findings Mortality was 12% (749/6256) in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048) in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5), and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69). For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575) for TARN and 20% (68/346) for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19), but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90). Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74) and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03). Conclusion The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  7. High prevalence of non-synonymous substitutions in mtDNA of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kazumasa; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Terai, Yohey; Okada, Norihiro; Tachida, Hidenori

    2014-12-01

    When a population size is reduced, genetic drift may fix slightly deleterious mutations, and an increase in nonsynonymous substitution is expected. It has been suggested that past aridity has seriously affected and decreased the populations of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria, while geographical studies have shown that the water levels in Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi have remained fairly constant. The comparably stable environments in the latter two lakes might have kept the populations of cichlid fishes large enough to remove slightly deleterious mutations. The difference in the stability of cichlid fish population sizes between Lake Victoria and the Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi is expected to have caused differences in the nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio, ω (=dN/dS), of the evolutionary rate. Here, we estimated ω and compared it between the cichlids of the three lakes for 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes using maximum likelihood methods. We found that the lineages of the cichlids in Lake Victoria had a significantly higher ω for several mitochondrial loci. Moreover, positive selection was indicated for several codons in the mtDNA of the Lake Victoria cichlid lineage. Our results indicate that both adaptive and slightly deleterious molecular evolution has taken place in the Lake Victoria cichlids' mtDNA genes, whose nonsynonymous sites are generally conserved. PMID:25241383

  8. Population genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes on Lake Victoria islands, west Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Minakawa, Noboru; Beier, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2004-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic structure of island Anopheles gambiae populations is important for the current tactics in mosquito control and for the proposed strategy using genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMM). Genetically-isolated mosquito populations on islands are a potential site for testing GMM. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic structure of A. gambiae populations on the islands in Lake Victoria, western Kenya. Methods The genetic diversity and the population genetic structures of 13 A. gambiae populations from five islands on Lake Victoria and six villages from the surrounding mainland area in the Suba District were examined using six microsatellite markers. The distance range of sampling sites varied between 2.5 and 35.1 km. Results A similar level of genetic diversity between island mosquito populations and adjacent mainland populations was found. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.3 for the island populations and 6.8 for the mainland populations. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.32 and 0.28 for the island and mainland populations, respectively. A low but statistically significant genetic structure was detected among the island populations (FST = 0.019) and between the island and mainland populations (FST = 0.003). A total of 12 private alleles were found, and nine of them were from the island populations. Conclusion A level of genetic differentiation between the island and mainland populations was found. Large extent of gene flow between the island and mainland mosquito populations may result from wind- or human-assisted dispersal. Should the islands on Lake Victoria be used as a trial site for the release program of GMM, mosquito dispersal between the islands and between the island and the mainland should be vigorously monitored. PMID:15581429

  9. Irrigator responses to groundwater resource management in northern Victoria, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Bruce C.; Webb, John; Wilkinson, Roger; Cherry, Don

    2014-10-01

    In northern Victoria, farmers are the biggest users of groundwater and therefore the main stakeholders in plans that seek to sustainably manage the resource. Interviews with 30 irrigation farmers in two study areas, analysed using qualitative social research methods, showed that the overwhelming majority of groundwater users agreed with the need for groundwater management and thought that the current plans had achieved sustainable resource use. The farmers also expressed a strong need for clear technical explanations for management decisions, in particular easily understood water level data. The social licence to implement the management plans arose through effective consultation with the community during plan development. Several additional factors combined to gain acceptance for the plans: good data on groundwater usage and aquifer levels is available; irrigation farmers had been exposed to usage restrictions since the late 1990s; an ‘adaptive’ management approach is in use which allowed refinements to be readily incorporated and fortuitously, plan development coincided with the 1998-2009 drought, when declines in groundwater levels reinforced the usefulness of the plans. The imposition of a nation-wide water use reduction plan in 2012 had relatively little impact in Victoria because of the early implementation of effective groundwater management plans. However, economic difficulties that reduce groundwater users’ capacity to pay groundwater management charges mean that the future of the plans in Victoria is not assured. Nevertheless, the high level of trust that exists between Victorian irrigation farmers and the management agencies suggests that the continued use of a consultative approach will continue to produce workable outcomes. Lessons from the Victorian experience may be difficult to apply in other areas of groundwater use in Australia and overseas, where there may be a quite different history of development and culture of groundwater management.

  10. Metals in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and suspended particulate matter from Lake Victoria, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Machiwa, John F

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the levels of pollutant metals in suspended particulate matter and Nile perch from Lake Victoria. The metals in particulate matter were determined to ascertain their concentrations at the base of the food chain. Nile perch samples were collected in September 2003 from five major fish processing factories at the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza and Musoma. The concentrations of total Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were generally low in particulate matter and in most locations were close to or below their limits of detection. The concentrations of Zn were high in suspended particulate matter, the highest being 219.4 +/- 153.0 microg L(-1) found in particulate matter from Nungwe Bay in the southern part of Lake Victoria. Nile perch generally contained low levels of heavy metals; the range for Pb was <0.01-0.08 microg g(-1) ww, Cd was <0.001-0.04 microg g(-1) ww, Cu was 0.01-0.97 microg g(-1) ww, and Zn was <0.01-18.94 microg g(-1) ww. The concentration of total mercury ranged between 31.0 and 684.2 ng g(-1) ww; generally, it was below the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (1000 ng total Hg g(-1) ww for piscivorous fish species) maximum allowable level. Indeed, all Nile perch samples that weighed less than 10 kg had less than 200 ng total Hg g(-1) ww and therefore are safe for regular consumption by at-risk groups such as children and pregnant women. Levels of mercury and other heavy metals in Nile perch at present is, therefore, not a severe environmental issue; however, urgent regulatory measures should be taken to minimize metal input into the lake to maintain the current levels in the fish. PMID:16134370

  11. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A

    2015-05-01

    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. PMID:25805041

  12. Malaria Vectors in Lake Victoria and Adjacent Habitats in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O.; Sonye, George O.; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control. PMID:22412913

  13. Reconstruction of Eolian Bedforms from Cross-Bedded Strata at Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, A. G.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Squyres, S. W.; Lewis, K.; Metz, J.; Bell, J. F.; Athena Science Team

    2007-12-01

    Outcrop exposures imaged by the Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum have depicted cross-bedded strata with geometries and scales similar to eolian and subaqeous deposits on Earth. On Earth preserved cross-strata are rich in geologic information, providing insight into the depositional environment and sediment transport directions. The high-resolution stratigraphy of these cross-bedded strata can be used to reconstruct sedimentary bedforms on Mars to infer formation process and describe the depositional environment. Meter-scale cross bedding at Victoria Crater is similar to terrestrial eolian deposits and is interpreted as a dry dune field. Sets of cross-strata in the Cape St. Vincent and Cape St. Mary sections of Victoria Crater are comparable to Jurassic-age eolian deposits of the western US. The Opportunity Rover has spent ~300 sols traversing 90 degrees of the rim of Victoria crater, obtaining images of rock outcrops exposed by several promontories along the way. The outcrops at the Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent promontories, which are located at opposite ends of the traverse, have proven to be the best examples of meter scale cross-bedding observed on Mars to date. Super-resolution imaging techniques and long baseline stereo observations were utilized during an extended imaging campaign of both outcrop faces. Cape St. Mary is characterized by meter-scale trough-style cross bedding, suggesting sinuous crested dunes with scour pits migrating perpendicular to the outcrop face. Cape St. Vincent, which is striking 110° away from Cape St. Mary, has layering indicative of a single climbing bedform with dune heights of several meters. The findings at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent are combined with other bedding faces to produce an eolian deposition model for layering exposed at Victoria Crater. Any depositional model used to explain the bedding must conform to an observed N-S paleo-flow direction. In addition to bedded layering, a bright band is observed

  14. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  15. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  16. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming. PMID:23065238

  17. A review of mercury in Lake Victoria, East Africa: implications for human and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda; Dixon, D G; Hecky, R E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the site of many recent studies measuring mercury (Hg) concentrations in water, fish, sediment, soil, and humans. Most of these studies were motivated by concerns about Hg contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in fish were usually below permissible World Health Organization (WHO) concentrations and international marketing limits and do not threaten the lucrative export industry. Nile perch 3-10 kg and most >10 kg had THg concentrations above the WHO threshold concentrations for at-risk groups (200 ng/g). Elevated THg concentrations in large Nile perch are not of major concern because Nile perch are rarely consumed by the people living on Lake Victoria and very large Nile perch are becoming increasingly rare in catches. Water THg concentrations were below Canadian drinking water guidelines but were elevated relative to those in the northern Great Lakes. Sediment and soil THg concentrations were within inter-national guidelines and are comparable to those in northern latitudes but are lower than those in the Amazon basin. Biomass burning and soil erosion are estimated to be the major sources of THg for the lake and probably constitute a larger source of THg than gold mining in Tanzania.THg concentrations in urine and hair from human volunteers indicate that while gold miners and frequent skin-bleaching cream users are at risk of inorganic mercury poisoning, the rest of the population, including fishermen, is not. Human exposure assessments demonstrated that fish consumption and soil geophagy constitute major sources of THg for humans, but the total estimated daily intake of THg was below the Health Canada tolerable daily intake (TDI) limits. The use of beauty creams containing high inorganic Hg concentrations, however, caused the estimated THg exposure to exceed the TDI. The high THg content in the hair of regular cream users supports this assessment. The nutritional

  18. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Heams, T J; Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A; Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J; Wheatley, C J; Dickson, L W; Osborn-Lee, I; Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J; Alexander, C A; Lee, R Y

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  19. Round the bend: a brief history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia 1848 to 1950's.

    PubMed

    Sands, Natisha Marina

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents a history of mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia from 1848 to the 1950's, or the asylum years to the era of the mental hospital. The research for this historical overview was conducted as part of a literature review for a mental health nursing doctoral thesis, which included an account of the evolution of the profession from asylum attendant to the present time. The literature reviewed for this project revealed a distinct lack of a coherent, chronological account of the historical development of mental health nursing in Victoria, and this paper seeks to address that knowledge gap. PMID:19499436

  20. Three Licentiates of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh who were decorated with the Victoria Cross.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, M H

    2011-08-01

    Since the Victoria Cross was introduced in January 1856 by Queen Victoria to reward acts of valour in the face of the enemy, initially during the Crimean War, over 1350 medals have been awarded. Of these, three were awarded to medical officers who had previously gained the Licentiate Diploma of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (LRCS Edin) - Valentine Munbee McMaster on 25 September 1857, Henry Thomas Sylvester on 20 November 1857 (although the acts of valour for which he was awarded his VC occurred on two occasions in September 1855) and Campbell Mellis (or Millis) Douglas on 7 May 1867. PMID:21810849

  1. Risk factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the impact of cyclist, road and crash characteristics on the injury severity of cyclists involved in traffic crashes reported to the police in Victoria, Australia between 2004 and 2008. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of severe injury (serious injury and fatality) in cyclist crashes reported to the police. There were 6432 cyclist crashes reported to the police in Victoria between 2004 and 2008 with 2181 (33.9%) resulting in severe injury of the cyclist involved. The multivariate analysis found that factors that increase the risk of severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes were age (50 years and older), not wearing a helmet, riding in the dark on unlit roads, riding on roads zoned 70 km/h or above, on curved sections of the road, in rural locations and being involved in head-on collisions as well as off path crashes, which include losing control of vehicle, and on path crashes which include striking the door of a parked vehicle. While this study did not test effectiveness of preventative measures, policy makers should consider implementation of programs that address these risk factors including helmet programs and environmental modifications such as speed reduction on roads that are frequented by cyclists. PMID:23036419

  2. Pb isotope record over one century in snow from Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Velde, K.; Vallelonga, P.; Candelone, J.-P.; Rosman, K. J. R.; Gaspari, V.; Cozzi, G.; Barbante, C.; Udisti, R.; Cescon, P.; Boutron, C. F.

    2005-03-01

    Pb and Ba concentrations and Pb isotopic compositions are reported for firn core and snow pit samples from Victoria Land, Antarctica, dating from 1872 AD to 1994 AD. From variations in Pb/Ba ratios and Pb isotopic compositions, two periods of major Pb enhancements were identified, from 1891 to 1908 AD and from 1948 to 1994 AD. The earlier pollution event is attributed to Pb emissions from non-ferrous metal production and coal combustion in the Southern Hemisphere and is in excellent agreement with coincident pollution inputs reported in firn/ice cores from two other regions of Antarctica, at Coats Land and Law Dome. Using Pb isotopic systematics, it was calculated that ˜50% of Pb deposited in Victoria Land in 1897 originated from anthropogenic emission sources. The more recent period of Pb enhancements, from 1948 to 1994 AD, corresponds to the introduction and widespread use of gasoline alkyl Pb additives in automobiles in the Southern Hemisphere, with anthropogenic Pb inputs averaging 60% of total Pb but with large uncertainty. Intra- and inter-annual variations in Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions were evaluated in snow pits samples corresponding to the period 1991-1994. Substantial variations in Pb/Ba and 206Pb/ 207Pb ratios were detected but the absence of a regular seasonal pattern for these parameters suggests that the transport and deposition of aerosols to the Antarctic ice sheet are complex and vary from year to year.

  3. Sunspots, El Niño, and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stager, J. Curt; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Conway, Declan; Verburg, Piet; Mason, Peter J.

    2007-08-01

    An association of high sunspot numbers with rises in the level of Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the focus of many investigations and vigorous debate during the last century. In this paper, we show that peaks in the ~11-year sunspot cycle were accompanied by Victoria level maxima throughout the 20th century, due to the occurrence of positive rainfall anomalies ~1 year before solar maxima. Similar patterns also occurred in at least five other East African lakes, which indicates that these sunspot-rainfall relationships were broadly regional in scale. Although irradiance fluctuations associated with the sunspot cycle are weak, their effects on tropical rainfall could be amplified through interactions with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation systems, including ENSO. If this Sun-rainfall relationship persists in the future, then sunspot cycles can be used for long-term prediction of precipitation anomalies and associated outbreaks of insect-borne disease in much of East Africa. In that case, unusually wet rainy seasons and Rift Valley Fever epidemics should occur a year or so before the next solar maximum, which is expected to occur in 2011-2012 AD.

  4. Stretching out the Australasian microtektite strewn field in Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Rochette, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies of microtektites collected in newly explored summit plateaus of the Transantarctic Mountains (i.e., Schroeder Spur, Killer Nunatak, Miller Butte in the inland catchment of the Rennick Glacier, and Allan Hills, in the inland catchment of the Mackay-David Glaciers) document a regional distribution of Australasian microtektites in Victoria Land. A geochemical comparison with Australasian microtektites from deep sea sediments at lower latitudes identifies a possible projectile geochemical signature for the first time, and confirms that Transantarctic Mountains microtektites experienced higher thermal regimes. Ballistic calculations reveal that the extraordinary distance of the Transantarctic Mountains microtektites from the hypothetical impact location in Indochina (∼11,000 km) could be more efficiently attained at relatively low ejection angles (20°-40°). Finally, the occurrence of Australasian microtektites (∼0.8 Ma old) on specific glacial surfaces of the Antarctic bedrock constrains the glacial history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Victoria Land. In particular, data from Allan Hills supports a glaciological scenario envisaging an extremely stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet over at least the last ∼1 Ma in the inland catchment of the Mackay/David glaciers. This is consistent with the large accumulation of meteorites in the adjacent blue ice fields.

  5. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R

    2016-06-01

    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90 % of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs. PMID:26350290

  6. On the age and origin of the species flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Fryer, G

    2001-06-01

    Recent suggestions concerning the age and origin of the flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (East Africa) are considered. These accept as proven the suggestion that Lake Victoria dried out completely in the Late Pleistocene, was dry for several thousand years, and refilled ca. 12400 years ago. Apart from the fact that other geophysical evidence contradicts this claim, its biological implications, which do likewise, have never been considered by those who have accepted it. Like those of all previous authors who have seized on the presence of the haplochromine flock of perhaps more than 600 species as evidence of extremely rapid evolution since the lake allegedly refilled, the account completely overlooks the fact that any such desiccation must have eliminated not only the haplochromine cichlids but the entire biota of the lake. Nevertheless, its present fauna not only includes the haplochromines but many other endemic organisms that would not be expected, and whose presence and history demand an explanation if the lake did indeed dry out. No such explanation has been offered, nor does such seem possible. The recent interpretation of events is questioned and rejected. PMID:11375102

  7. On the age and origin of the species flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria.

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Recent suggestions concerning the age and origin of the flock of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (East Africa) are considered. These accept as proven the suggestion that Lake Victoria dried out completely in the Late Pleistocene, was dry for several thousand years, and refilled ca. 12400 years ago. Apart from the fact that other geophysical evidence contradicts this claim, its biological implications, which do likewise, have never been considered by those who have accepted it. Like those of all previous authors who have seized on the presence of the haplochromine flock of perhaps more than 600 species as evidence of extremely rapid evolution since the lake allegedly refilled, the account completely overlooks the fact that any such desiccation must have eliminated not only the haplochromine cichlids but the entire biota of the lake. Nevertheless, its present fauna not only includes the haplochromines but many other endemic organisms that would not be expected, and whose presence and history demand an explanation if the lake did indeed dry out. No such explanation has been offered, nor does such seem possible. The recent interpretation of events is questioned and rejected. PMID:11375102

  8. The Influence of Subsurface Karst Terrain on Hydrology and Hydrogeology in Southwestern Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perveen, F.; Webb, J.; Dresel, E.; Hekmeijer, P.; Zydor, H.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed study, in collaboration with Department of Primary Industries (DPI), Victoria, has been carried out in three small subcatchments of southwestern Victoria (total area 8.4 km2), which are characterised by varying degrees of influence of a subsurface karst terrain. Lithological logs and downhole geophysics (gamma and bulk conductivity - EM39) on 15 bores within the catchments were supplemented by 2D electrical resistivity vertical profiling, and showed that the middle to late Miocene Port Campbell Limestone is present at shallow depths (~5 m) in two catchments, and somewhat deeper (>70 m) in the third catchment. The limestone is overlain by early Pliocene clay-rich Dorodong Sands. The topography of the third catchment is characterised by shallow closed depressions. Detailed hydrogeological cross-sections using groundwater levels in the bores show closed depressions within the potentiometric surface, that are attributed to the presence of subsurface conduits within the highly permeable limestone, verified by the variable hydraulic conductivity values ( 0.005 - 0.545m/day) obtained from single borehole recovery tests. Stream hydrographs reveal that there is virtually no surface runoff from one subcatchment, due to leakage into a conduit in the underlying limestone. A perched water table is also found in the same area. Thus the study area shows the typical karst features of a highly heterogeneous terrain with massive connectivity between surface water and groundwater regimes, despite the fact that the limestone is overlain by the clay-rich Dorodong Sands.

  9. Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Andrea S.; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2013-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources. PMID:24204684

  10. The diversity of male nuptial coloration leads to species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey

    2013-01-01

    The amazing coloration shown by diverse cichlid fish not only fascinates aquarium keepers, but also receives great attention from biologists interested in speciation because of its recently-revealed role in their adaptive radiation in an African lake. We review the important role of coloration in the speciation and adaptive evolution of Lake Victoria cichlids, which have experienced adaptive radiation during a very short evolutionary period. Mature male cichlids display their colors during mate choice. The color of their skin reflects light, and the reflected light forms a color signal that is received by the visual system of females. The adaptive divergence of visual perceptions shapes and diverges colorations, to match the adapted visual perceptions. The divergence of visual perception and coloration indicates that the divergence of color signals causes reproductive isolation between species, and this process leads to speciation. Differences in color signals among coexisting species act to maintain reproductive isolation by preventing hybridization. Thus, the diversity of coloration has caused speciation and has maintained species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids. PMID:24025243

  11. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Victoria 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Jim; Wilson, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the population of college transfer students who entered the University of Victoria (UVic) from 2003/04 to 2007/08, updating a June 2004 report. Section A provides a general profile of the 6,917 British Columbia (BC) college transfer students who first registered and commenced studies at UVic in any session between summer 2003…

  12. Appendices. Impact and Adequacy; a Report of an Evaluation of Government Post-Primary School Libraries in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balson, M.; And Others

    The appendixes to the evaluation of Victoria, Australia's secondary school libraries include lists of the 33 schools visited to gather information and of the interviewees. The names of the 132 high schools with Commonwealth libraries are given with the dates of their openings and maps showing their locations. Copies of survey instruments used to…

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  14. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  15. "Why Didn't They Teach Us Any of This before?": Youth Appraisal of Turkish Provision in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beykont, Zeynep F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines youth assessment of the quality and success of languages provision. The discussion draws on data collected from students and graduates of Victoria's 16 secondary Turkish programs in large-scale surveys (n=858) and follow-up interviews (n=177). Surveys revealed that upper secondary Turkish classrooms serve predominantly…

  16. "Why Has It Only become an Issue Now?": Young Drug Users' Perceptions of Drug Driving in Melbourne, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laura Ann; Wilson, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary research into drug-user perceptions of drug driving was undertaken with a sample group of drug users aged 18 to 24 from Melbourne, Victoria. Eleven males and nine females participated in semi-structured interviews and completed self-report surveys. Participants discussed their drug driving and their perceptions of the likelihood of…

  17. The Discourse of Public Education: An Urban Campaign for a Local Public High School in Melbourne, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the metonymic slippage surrounding the discourse of public education, through observations and interviews with Lawson High School active campaigners in the state of Victoria, Australia. The notion of campaigning for public education has become an ever-present issue on an international scale, and this article aims to contribute…

  18. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal.

  19. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual…

  20. "Comfortably British" to "Fundamentally Economic"? The Effects of Language Policies on Year 12 Language Candidature in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to explore how various language policies may have impacted Year 12 language candidature in Victoria. Australian Federal and Victorian State Government language policies are but one of the influences yet, it may be argued, the most significant influence. These stand alongside waves of immigration, global events and conflicts, and…

  1. Rips, Currents and Snags: Investigating the Delivery of Educational Goals for Young Australians in the Region of Gippsland, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Monash University (Gippsland campus) is situated in Churchill, Latrobe Valley, located in central Gippsland, eastern Victoria. A large percentage of the Gippsland region comprises of a socio-economically disadvantaged population (Figure 1). In Semester One, 2011 as part of the Bachelor of Primary Education course at Monash, it was decided that a…

  2. Biogenesis, structure, and immune-suppressive effects of virus-like particles of a Drosophila parasitoid, Leptopilina victoriae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Jorge; Chiu, Hsiling; Oo, Thiri; Plaza, Rosemary; Hoskins, Sally; Govind, Shubha

    2005-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae are attacked by virulent strains of parasitoid wasps. Females of Leptopilina heterotoma produce virus-like particles (VLPs) that efficiently destroy lamellocytes, a major larval immune effector cell type. We report here that L. victoriae, a closely related wasp species, also produces VLPs that trigger immune suppression responses in fly hosts. We compare the ability of immune suppression of the two parasitoids using a mutant host strain hopscotch(Tumorous-lethal) (hop(Tum-l)). hop(Tum-l) larvae have two defects of hematopoietic origin: overproliferation of hemocytes and constitutive encapsulation of self-tissue by lamellocytes. The encapsulation phenotype is suppressed weakly by L. victoriae and strongly by L. heterotoma. In vitro studies on hop(Tum-l) lamellocytes show that VLP-containing fluid from either wasp species induces lamellocyte lysis, but with different kinetics. Previously undocumented precursors of L. victoriae VLPs are synthesized in the long gland and are first visible within canals connecting secretory cells to the long gland lumen. VLP assembly occurs in the lumen. VLPs show multiple electron-dense projections surrounding a central core. Maturing particles appear segmented, singly or in arrays, embedded in the reservoir matrix. In sections, mature particles are pentagonal or hexagonal; the polygon vertices extending into spikes. Our results suggest that L. victoriae is likely to promote immune suppression by an active mechanism that is mediated by VLPs, similar to that used by L. heterotoma. PMID:15749103

  3. Nuclear markers reveal unexpected genetic variation and a Congolese-Nilotic origin of the Lake Victoria cichlid species flock.

    PubMed Central

    Seehausen, Ole; Koetsier, Egbert; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Chapman, Lauren J; Chapman, Colin A; Knight, Mairi E; Turner, George F; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Bills, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) DNA have indicated that the cichlid species flock of the Lake Victoria region is derived from a single ancestral species found in East African rivers, closely related to the ancestor of the Lake Malawi cichlid species flock. The Lake Victoria flock contains ten times less mtDNA variation than the Lake Malawi radiation, consistent with current estimates of the ages of the lakes. We present results of a phylogenetic investigation using nuclear (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and a wider coverage of riverine haplochromines. We demonstrate that the Lake Victoria-Edward flock is derived from the morphologically and ecologically diverse cichlid genus Thoracochromis from the Congo and Nile, rather than from the phenotypically conservative East African Astatotilapia. This implies that the ability to express much of the morphological diversity found in the species flock may by far pre-date the origin of the flock. Our data indicate that the nuclear diversity of the Lake Victoria-Edward species flock is similar to that of the Lake Malawi flock, indicating that the genetic diversity is considerably older than the 15 000 years that have passed since the lake began to refill. Most of this variation is manifested in trans-species polymorphisms, indicating very recent cladogenesis from a genetically very diverse founder stock. Our data do not confirm strict monophyly of either of the species flocks, but raise the possibility that these flocks have arisen from hybrid swarms. PMID:12590750

  4. Nuclear markers reveal unexpected genetic variation and a Congolese-Nilotic origin of the Lake Victoria cichlid species flock.

    PubMed

    Seehausen, Ole; Koetsier, Egbert; Schneider, Maria Victoria; Chapman, Lauren J; Chapman, Colin A; Knight, Mairi E; Turner, George F; van Alphen, Jacques J M; Bills, Roger

    2003-01-22

    Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial (mt) DNA have indicated that the cichlid species flock of the Lake Victoria region is derived from a single ancestral species found in East African rivers, closely related to the ancestor of the Lake Malawi cichlid species flock. The Lake Victoria flock contains ten times less mtDNA variation than the Lake Malawi radiation, consistent with current estimates of the ages of the lakes. We present results of a phylogenetic investigation using nuclear (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and a wider coverage of riverine haplochromines. We demonstrate that the Lake Victoria-Edward flock is derived from the morphologically and ecologically diverse cichlid genus Thoracochromis from the Congo and Nile, rather than from the phenotypically conservative East African Astatotilapia. This implies that the ability to express much of the morphological diversity found in the species flock may by far pre-date the origin of the flock. Our data indicate that the nuclear diversity of the Lake Victoria-Edward species flock is similar to that of the Lake Malawi flock, indicating that the genetic diversity is considerably older than the 15 000 years that have passed since the lake began to refill. Most of this variation is manifested in trans-species polymorphisms, indicating very recent cladogenesis from a genetically very diverse founder stock. Our data do not confirm strict monophyly of either of the species flocks, but raise the possibility that these flocks have arisen from hybrid swarms. PMID:12590750

  5. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  6. 75 FR 43579 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Victoria County Station, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... receipt and availability of this application was published in the Federal Register (73 FR 56867) on September 30, 2008. On November 6, 2008, a subsequent notice was published in the Federal Register (73 FR... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Victoria County Station, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal...

  7. 78 FR 60826 - Foreign-Trade Zone 155-Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... (78 FR 35604, 06/13/2013). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the activity is... Production Activity; Caterpillar, Inc. (Excavator and Frame Assembly Production); Victoria, Texas On May 29... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Caterpillar, Inc.,...

  8. Rates of Student-Reported Antisocial Behavior, School Suspensions, and Arrests in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Toumbourou, John W.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Catalano, Richard F.; Mathers, Megan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Few methodologically rigorous international comparisons of student-reported antisocial behavior have been conducted. This paper examines whether there are differences in the frequency of both antisocial behavior and societal responses to antisocial behavior in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States. These 2 states were…

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  10. Marching Backwards into the Future: The Introduction of the English Creative Music Movement in State Secondary Schools in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In 1910, Victoria established an elite form of state secondary education that remained essentially unchanged until the introduction of a progressive curriculum during the late 1960s. This radical and voluntary curriculum introduced child-centred learning and personal development skills to state secondary schools. Many state secondary music…

  11. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) in Victoria, Australia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Shafiei, Touran; Watson, Lyndsey F; Ridgway, Lael; Cramer, Rhian L; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and infants. Despite recommendations from the WHO, by 6 months of age 40% of Australian infants are receiving no breast milk. Increased early postpartum breastfeeding support may improve breastfeeding maintenance. 2 community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, were implemented and evaluated. Design 3-arm cluster randomised trial. Setting LGAs in Victoria, Australia. Participants LGAs across Victoria with breastfeeding initiation rates below the state average and > 450 births/year were eligible for inclusion. The LGA was the unit of randomisation, and maternal and child health centres in the LGAs comprised the clusters. Interventions Early home-based breastfeeding support by a maternal and child health nurse (home visit, HV) with or without access to a community-based breastfeeding drop-in centre (HV+drop-in). Main outcome measures The proportion of infants receiving ‘any’ breast milk at 3, 4 and 6 months (women's self-report). Findings 4 LGAs were randomised to the comparison arm and provided usual care (n=41 clusters; n=2414 women); 3 to HV (n=32 clusters; n=2281 women); and 3 to HV+drop-in (n=26 clusters; 2344 women). There was no difference in breastfeeding at 4 months in either HV (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29) or HV+drop-in (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.08) compared with the comparison arm, no difference at 3 or 6 months, nor in any LGA in breastfeeding before and after the intervention. Some issues were experienced with intervention protocol fidelity. Conclusions Early home-based and community-based support proved difficult to implement. Interventions to increase breastfeeding in complex community settings require sufficient time and partnership building for successful implementation. We cannot conclude that additional community-based support is ineffective in improving breastfeeding

  12. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  13. Risk factors for maternal morbidity in Victoria, Australia: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Anthea C; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Wallace, Euan M; Oats, Jeremy; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this analysis was to quantify the risk factors associated with maternal morbidity among women in Victoria, Australia, focusing particularly on sociodemographic factors. Design Case–control analysis. Participants Data on all maternities in Victoria from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2008. Methods A case–control analysis was conducted using unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted ORs (aORs). Cases were defined as all women noted to have had a severe complication during the index pregnancy. Severe maternal morbidity was defined by the validated, composite Australian Maternal Morbidity Outcome Indicator. Socioeconomic position was defined by Socio-Economic Indices for Areas (SEIFA), specifically the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD), and other variables analysed were age, parity, Indigenous background, multiple pregnancy, country of birth, coexisting medical condition, previous caesarean section, spontaneous abortion or ectopic pregnancy. Results The study population comprised 211 060 women, including 1119 cases of severe maternal morbidity (0.53%). Compared with the highest IRSD quintile, the aOR for the 2nd quintile was 1.23 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49), 0.98 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.21) for the 3rd quintile, 1.55 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.87) for the 4th and 1.21 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.47) for the lowest (most deprived) quintile. Indigenous status was associated with twice (aOR 2.02; 95% CI 1.32 to 3.09) the odds of being a case. Other risk factors for severe maternal morbidity were age ≥35 years (aOR 1.22; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.44), coexisting medical condition (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.65), multiple pregnancy (aOR 2.30; 95% CI 1.71 to 3.10), primiparity (aOR 1.36; 95% CI 1.18 to 1.57), previous caesarean section (aOR 1.79; 95% CI 1.53 to 2.10) and previous spontaneous miscarriage (aOR 1.25; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.44). Conclusions The findings from Victoria strongly suggest that social disadvantage needs to be acknowledged and further

  14. View of portion of Murray River Basin of State of Victoria, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A near vertical view of a portion of the Murray River Basin area in the northwest corner of the State of Victoria, Australia (35.5S, 142,0E), as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Dry Lake Tyrrell appears as pink and white. The Murray River is in the lower right corner of the photograph. A mass of clouds (white) covers a large portion of the left side of the picture. Rectangular fields of varying sizes indicate an area of major agriculture. A difference in soil color (from pink near the river to buff extending outward) is evident. Large uncultivated areas (dark) are either areas of recent burning or areas unsuitable for growing crops.

  15. Recruiting and retaining competent clinical nurses. The Clinical Promotion Project Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Grantham, M; Ross, S E; MacKay, R; Banfield, V; Brown, J; Beanlands, H

    1989-06-01

    A career advancement program for nurses has been developed and implemented at the Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, as part of a manpower planning strategy for recruitment and retention of clinical nurses. A competency based performance appraisal system was developed and implemented as part of the program. This system identifies four levels of clinical expertise. Progression through each level indicates that a nurse has achieved a certain level of skill, knowledge and abilities. Demonstrated competence in one level is a prerequisite to promotion to the next level of practice. Implementation of this system provides clinical career opportunities for nurses in direct patient care. This article will provide the nurse administrator with an insight into the development and implementation of a clinical career advancement program. Future articles will described the research evaluation of the Clinical Performance Appraisal System and clinical nurses' reactions to the new system. PMID:2486680

  16. A new resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral method for determination of O3 with victoria blue B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guiqing; Yang, Duo; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) could be absorbed by boric acid-potassium iodide (BKI) absorbent solution to produce tri-iodine ion (I3-) that react with victoria blue B (VBB) to form the associated particle (VBB-I3)n and exhibited a strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) peak at 722 nm. Under the chosen conditions, the RRS peak intensity was linear with O3 concentration in the range of 0.2-50 μmol/L, with a linear regression equation of ΔI722 = 17.9c - 45.4 and detection limit of 0.057 μmol/L. Accordingly, a simple, rapid and sensitive RRS spectral method was set up for determination of trace O3 in air, with satisfactory results.

  17. Chemostratigraphy and Fe Mineralogy of the Victoria Crater Duck Bay Section: Opportunity APXS and Moessbauer Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Jolliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    Meridiani Planum is a vast plain of approximately horizontally bedded sedimentary rocks composed of mixed and reworked basaltic and evaporitic sands containing secondary, diagenetic minerals [e.g., 1-5]. Because bedding planes are subparallel to topography, investigation of contiguous stratigraphy requires examining exposures in impact craters. Early in the mission (sols 130-317), Opportunity was commanded to do detailed study of exposed outcrops in Endurance crater, including the contiguous Karatepe section at the point of ingress. Just over 1000 sols later and roughly 7 km to the south, the rover is being commanded to do a similar study of the Duck Bay section of Victoria crater. Here we report on the preliminary results from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Moessbauer instruments.

  18. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    PubMed

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it. PMID:23769929

  19. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  20. Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Kocher, T D; Basasibwaki, P; Wilson, A C

    1990-10-11

    Lake Victoria, together with its satellite lakes, harbours roughly 200 endemic forms of cichlid fishes that are classified as 'haplochromines' and yet the lake system is less than a million years old. This 'flock' has attracted attention because of the possibility that it evolved within the lake from one ancestral species and that biologists are thus presented with a case of explosive evolution. Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic. We sequenced up to 803 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 14 representative Victorian species and 23 additional African species. The flock seems to be monophyletic, and is more akin to that from Lake Malawi than to species from Lake Tanganyika; in addition, it contains less genetic variation than does the human species, and there is virtually no sharing of mitochondrial DNA types among species. These results confirm that the founding event was recent. PMID:2215680

  1. Sir James Mouat, VC KCB FRCS (1815-1899): winner of the first medical Victoria Cross.

    PubMed

    Lawrenson, Ross

    2004-11-01

    Sir James Mouat was the first of 36 doctors to win the Victoria Cross. Born in Kent in 1815, he was educated at University College London before joining the army. After service in India and Ireland he joined the 6th Dragoon Guards as regimental surgeon and served with them throughout the Crimean War. He won his VC at the Battle of Balaclava. After the Crimean War he was appointed principal medical officer to the British troops in the New Zealand Wars. After serving in New Zealand he returned to England and became Inspector General of Hospitals. Surgeon General Mouat retired on 28 April 1876. He was appointed an honorary surgeon to the Queen in 1888, and a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath in 1894. He died of a stroke on 4 January 1899 at the age of 83. PMID:15486614

  2. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion. PMID:26612951

  3. Steranes and triterpanes in the Beacon Supergroup samples from southern Victoria Land in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Watanuki, Kunihiko ); Machihara, Tsutomu ); Suzuki, Noriyuki ); Funaki, Minoru )

    1987-10-01

    Steranes and triterpanes in Beacon Supergroup samples (sedimentary rock and silicified wood) from Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak of southern Victoria Land in Antarctica were studied to elucidate sources of organic materials, sedimentary paleoenvironment and thermal history after deposition. Relative abundances of C{sub 27}, C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and visual kerogen results of Beacon Supergroup samples from Allan Hills imply that organic materials in the sedimentary paleoenvironments are contributed mainly by vascular plants with some influence of microorganisms, while those of the Carapace Nunatak sample may be largely due to fern spores. The pristane/phytane and pristane/heptadecane ratios of the samples were generally close to unity and between 0.50 and 0.99, respectively, suggesting that the sedimentary paleoenvironment was shallow lacustrine with alternating oxic and anoxic conditions.

  4. Basal Adare volcanics, Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land, Antarctica: Late Miocene intraplate basalts of subaqueous origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Dunlap, W.J.; Isaac, M.J.; Sutherland, R.P.; Faure, K.

    2007-01-01

    Late Cenozoic lavas and associated hyaloclastite breccias of the Adare volcanics (Hallett volcanic province) in Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land rest unconformably on Paleozoic greywackes. Abundant hyaloclastite breccias are confined to a paleovalley; their primary geological features, and the stable isotope ratios of secondary minerals, are consistent with eruption in a subaqueous environment with calcite formation probably involving seawater. In contrast, the lavas which stratigraphically overlie the hyaloclastites on Mayr Spur probably were erupted subaerially. K-Ar dating of eight samples from this basal sequence confirms the known older age limit (Late Miocene) of the Hallett volcanic province. Geochemical data reveal an ocean island basalt-like affinity, similar to other Cenozoic igneous rocks of the Hallett volcanic province. If a submarine eruptive paleoenvironment is accepted then there has been net tectonic or isostatic post-Late Miocene uplift of a few hundred metres in the Robertson Bay-Adare Peninsula area

  5. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes) distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25875201

  6. Tsetse Fly (G.f. fuscipes) Distribution in the Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25875201

  7. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Granitic rocks within Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, T.; KIM, Y.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Woo, J.

    2015-12-01

    The study areas, Lichen Hills and Outback Nunatak are located in the Northern Victoria Land which is close to Pacific Ocean side of Transantarctic Mountain (TAM), Antarctica. According to the study of Zeller and Dreschoff (1990), the radioactivity values of Lichen hills and Frontier Mt. area in the Victoria Land were very high. To identify the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks in these areas, 13 samples of Lichen Hills rocks and 4 samples of Outback Nunatak rocks are analyzed. For mineralogical study, samples were observed in macroscale as well as microscale including microscope electron probe analysis. Rock samples of Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak are mainly leucogranite and granitic pegmatite. These rock samples are composed of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline like granite. In SEM-EDS analysis, the observed light colored minerals show relatively high Th, U, Dy, Ce, Nb concentration. This suggests that rock samples may contain minerals such as fergusonite, monazite, thorite, allanite, karnasurtite which are considered to be REE-bearing minerals. Samples of related rocks have been analyzed in terms of major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). As concentration of SiO2 increase, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, P2O5 concentration decrease and Na2O, K2O, MnO concentration increase. Analyzed trace elements and REE are normalized using CI Chondrite, Primitive mantle. The normalized data show that LREE are enriched compared to HREE. The distinct negative anomalies of Eu, Sr are observed, indicating that rock-forming melts are fairly processed state of fractional crystallization. It means that Th, U, Nb, Ta are much enriched in the melts.

  8. Geology and petrogenesis of the Kirkpatrick Basalt, Pain Mesa and Solo Nunatak, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Mensing, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The flows on Pain Mesa were divided into a Lower Suite and an Upper Suite based on differences in their chemical compositions. The Upper Suite has higher concentrations of SiO/sub 2/, alkalies, total Fe, MnO, TiO/sub 2/, and P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ than the Lower Suite. In addition, the flows of the Upper Suite are homogeneous in chemical composition compared to the Lower Suite which is differentiated. The isotope compositions of Sr and O of the Lower Suite are positively correlated which indicates that the magma was contaminated by crustal material. The isotopic and chemical compositions of the flows of the Lower Suite were explained by fractional crystallization and simultaneous assimilation of a crustal contaminant. The initial Sr isotope ratios of the Upper Suite, calculated for an assumed age of 175 Ma, were lower than those of the Lower Suite, and are not constant. However, by lowering the assumed age of the Upper Suite to 92 Ma the range of the initial Sr-isotope ratios was greatly reduced. Paleomagnetic results and K-Ar dating of Ferrar rocks at the Litell Rocks Nunatak in northern Victoria Land also support the hypothesis that the Upper Suite is Cretaceous in age. The magma source of both suites has elevated /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios compared to normal mantle values because of prior enrichment in Rb. The magma source was enriched in Rb about 475 Ma years ago. This data coincides with the Ross Orogeny which may reflect a causal relationship between these events. The occurrence of igneous activity in northern Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land were juxtaposed during the Mesozoic Era but were later separated as a result of major right lateral displacement along the Transantarctic rift system.

  9. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths among Schoolchildren in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Siza, Julius E.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to conduct a survey on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to come up with feasible control strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. Depending on the size of the school, 150-200 schoolchildren were recruited for the study. Duplicate Kato-Katz stool smears were prepared from each child and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. Urine specimens were examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs using the filtration technique. After the survey, mass drug administration was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosomiasis and STHs infections, respectively. A total of 5,952 schoolchildren from 36 schools were recruited for the study and had their stool and urine specimens examined. Out of 5,952 schoolchildren, 898 (15.1%) were positive for S. mansoni, 754 (12.6%) for hookworms, 188 (3.2%) for Ascaris lumblicoides, and 5 (0.008%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 5,826 schoolchildren who provided urine samples, 519 (8.9%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. The results revealed that intestinal schistosomiasis, urogenital schistosomiasis, and STH infections are highly prevalent throughought the lake basin. The high prevalence of intestinal and urogenital schistosomisiasis in the study area was a function of the distance from Lake Victoria, the former being more prevalent at localities close to the lake, whilst the latter is more so away from it. Control of schistosomiasis and STHs in the study area requires an integrated strategy that involves provision of health education to communities, regular treatments, and provision of adequate safe water supply and sanitation facilities. PMID:26537030

  10. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    PubMed

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria. PMID:27030983

  11. Basin-scale control on the phytoplankton biomass in Lake Victoria, Africa.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Bruno, Miguel; Bergamino, Nadia; Ubeda, Bárbara; Bracchini, Luca; Dattilo, Arduino M; Loiselle, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    The relative bio-optical variability within Lake Victoria was analyzed through the spatio-temporal decomposition of a 1997-2004 dataset of remotely-sensed reflectance ratios in the visible spectral range. Results show a regular seasonal pattern with a phase shift (around 2 months) between the south and north parts of the lake. Interannual trends suggested a teleconnection between the lake dynamics and El-Niño phenomena. Both seasonal and interannual patterns were associated to conditions of light limitation for phytoplankton growth and basin-scale hydrodynamics on phytoplankton access to light. Phytoplankton blooms developed during the periods of lake surface warming and water column stability. The temporal shift apparent in the bio-optical seasonal cycles was related to the differential cooling of the lake surface by southeastern monsoon winds. North-south differences in the exposure to trade winds are supported by the orography of the Eastern Great Rift Valley. The result is that surface layer warming begins in the northern part of the lake while the formation of cool and dense water continues in the southern part. The resulting buoyancy field is sufficient to induce a lake-wide convective circulation and the tilting of the isotherms along the north-south axis. Once surface warming spreads over the whole lake, the phytoplankton bloom dynamics are subjected to the internal seiche derived from the relaxation of thermocline tilting. In 1997-98, El-Niño phenomenon weakened the monsoon wind flow which led to an increase in water column stability and a higher phytoplankton optical signal throughout the lake. This suggests that phytoplankton response to expected climate scenarios will be opposite to that proposed for nutrient-limited great lakes. The present analysis of remotely-sensed bio-optical properties in combination with environmental data provides a novel basin-scale framework for research and management strategies in Lake Victoria. PMID:22253837

  12. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September–May) and mixing (June–August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore—offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria. PMID:27030983

  13. Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation Distribution and Intensity over Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, sensitivity simulations on the impact of rapid urbanization over Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa were done using a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4-rc29) with the Hostetler lake model activated. The simulations were done for the rainy seasons that is the long rains (March-April-May) and short rains (October-November-December). Africa is projected to have a surge in urbanization with an approximate rate of 590% in 2030 over their 2000 levels. The Northern part of Lake Victoria Basin and some parts of Rwanda and Burundi are amongst the regions with high urbanization projections. Simulations were done with the land cover for 2000 and the projected 2030 urbanization levels. The results showed that increasing the urban fraction over the northern part of the basin modified the physical parameters such as albedo, moisture and surface energy fluxes, aerodynamic roughness and surface emissivity, thereby altering the precipitation distribution, intensity and frequency in the region. The change in the physical parameters gave a response of an average increase in temperature of approximately 2oC over the urbanized region. A strong convergence zone was formed over the urbanized region and thereby accelerating the lake-breeze front towards the urbanized region center. Precipitation in the urbanized region and regions immediate to the area increased by approximately 4mm/day, while drying up the southern (non-urbanized) side of the basin. The drying up of the southern side of the basin could be a result of divergent flow and subsidence that suppresses vertical development of storms.

  14. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result. PMID:27535604

  15. Long-term groundwater storage change in Victoria, Australia from satellite gravity and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Scanlon, Bridget; Güntner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Analysis based on satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and land surface models indicates that groundwater storage in Victoria, Australia had been declining steadily, until a trend reversal around early 2010, attributed to two wetter seasons in 2010 and 2011. In situ groundwater level measurements (from a network of 1395 bores in Victoria) also indicate a steady groundwater depletion since the early 1990's, and show remarkable agreement with GRACE estimates for the 10-year period (2003-2012) in common with the GRACE mission. Groundwater depletion rates for 2005 to 2009 are relatively large as indicated by both GRACE estimates (8.0 ± 1.7 km3/yr) and in situ measurements (8.3 ± 3.4 km3/yr). Over the same period (2005-2009), GRACE measurements capture significant groundwater depletion in a wider region covering much of the southern Murray-Darling Basin, and the total groundwater depletion rate in this region is about 17.2 ± 4.7 km3/yr. Annual groundwater storage changes are strongly correlated with precipitation anomalies, but only about one-fifth of anomalous precipitation contributes to groundwater recharge. The strong correlation suggests that this groundwater depletion is primarily related to drought with related groundwater pumping for agricultural and domestic consumption. The remarkable agreement between GRACE estimates and in situ measurements demonstrates the great potential of satellite gravity observations in combination with land surface model estimates to quantify changes in regional groundwater resources, especially when in situ measurements are limited or unavailable. This study shows the importance of reducing leakage bias in GRACE observations and the effectiveness of the forward modeling iterative method used.

  16. Perceptions of Prescribed Burning in a Local Forest Community in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  17. Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers. PMID:17001507

  18. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths among Schoolchildren in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to conduct a survey on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to come up with feasible control strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. Depending on the size of the school, 150-200 schoolchildren were recruited for the study. Duplicate Kato-Katz stool smears were prepared from each child and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. Urine specimens were examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs using the filtration technique. After the survey, mass drug administration was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosomiasis and STHs infections, respectively. A total of 5,952 schoolchildren from 36 schools were recruited for the study and had their stool and urine specimens examined. Out of 5,952 schoolchildren, 898 (15.1%) were positive for S. mansoni, 754 (12.6%) for hookworms, 188 (3.2%) for Ascaris lumblicoides, and 5 (0.008%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 5,826 schoolchildren who provided urine samples, 519 (8.9%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. The results revealed that intestinal schistosomiasis, urogenital schistosomiasis, and STH infections are highly prevalent throughought the lake basin. The high prevalence of intestinal and urogenital schistosomisiasis in the study area was a function of the distance from Lake Victoria, the former being more prevalent at localities close to the lake, whilst the latter is more so away from it. Control of schistosomiasis and STHs in the study area requires an integrated strategy that involves provision of health education to communities, regular treatments, and provision of adequate safe water supply and sanitation facilities. PMID:26537030

  19. Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    de Zeeuw, Marnix P.; Westbroek, Irene; van Oijen, Martien J.P.; Witte, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania, are described and illustrated. These species closely resemble each other. Their affinities to other zooplanktivorous haplochromines from Lake Victoria are discussed. Haplochromis argens sp. n., which featured under nicknames (mainly Haplochromis “argens”) in more than 50 papers, was caught both in the Mwanza Gulf and the Emin Pasha Gulf, whereas Haplochromis goldschmidti sp. n. was only found in the Emin Pasha Gulf. Of the latter species only males are available, but it seems unlikely that it represents a case of male colour polymorphism as several presumably unrelated characters differ in sympatry between the two species, suggesting that there is no gene flow. Statistical analysis revealed that the overall difference between the two species is greater than that between the populations from the two locations. Body depth of the two species in sympatry in the Emin Pasha Gulf was more similar than that of Haplochromis goldschmidti sp. n. and the allopatric population of Haplochromis argens sp. n. from the Mwanza Gulf,which mayindicate an overall environmental effect. However, several measurements related to the width of snout and mouth differed more between the populations of the two species in sympatry than between the allopatric populations. In contrast to a group of zooplanktivorous species that recovered successfully after environmental changes in the lake, Haplochromis argens sp. n. is among a group that became extremely rare and probably is in danger of extinction; the conservation status of Haplochromis goldschmidti sp. n. is currently unknown. PMID:23717179

  20. Detailed glaciochemical investigations in southern Victoria Land - a proxy climatic record

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Local accumulation-basins in the Transantarctic Mountains possess sites suitable for recovering ice-core records that are valuable for studying climate change. These sites are also unique, because they are close to the sites of other ice-core studies and to areas with established terrestrial records. The objective is to study a snowpit in detail and collect ice cores in southern Victoria Land; this work will be similar to the investigations that the authors has conducted in south Greenland and in the Dominion Range near the Beardmore Glacier. The proposed sites are in Convoy, Asgard, and Royal Society ranges. The authors will select one site at which he will recover two ice cores, each approximately 200 to 300 meters in depth. Samples will be analyzed for major anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride) and cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium, ammonium, silicate), total acidity, conductivity, density, and core stratigraphy with dating provided by cross-calibration of all of the preceding plus total beta-activity, lead-210, oxygen isotopes, and microparticles. This investigation will yield a detailed record of several thousand years of glacial history, climate change, and volcanic activity for southern Victoria Land. This record will be compared to existing terrestrial records to add necessary detail and to other global ice-core records to assess global climatic change. It will also help to document volcanic activity for Mount Erebus as well as other volcanos in the Southern Hemisphere and possibly some in the Northern Hemisphere. With this record, the author will be able to evaluate the influence of volcanic and solar activity on climate as well as add greatly to the understanding of the chemistry of the global atmosphere.

  1. Elevated East Antarctic outlet glaciers during warmer-than-present climates in southern Victoria Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, K.; Marchant, D. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Winckler, G.; Head, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    We document Plio-Pleistocene changes in the level of Taylor Glacier, an outlet glacier in southern Victoria Land that drains Taylor Dome on the periphery of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Chronologic control comes from 3He cosmogenic-nuclide analyses of 27 boulders sampled from drifts and moraines in Kennar Valley, a small hanging valley that opens onto a peripheral lobe of Taylor Glacier in the Quartermain Mountains. Assuming a constant boulder-erosion rate of 10 cm Myr-1, our preferred age model spans the last 3.1 Myr and calls for stepped ice recession from a local highstand ~200 m above the present Taylor Glacier at the mouth of Kennar Valley. The texture and sedimentology of all mapped moraines and drifts indicate deposition from cold-based ice, analogous with the situation for the modern Taylor Glacier. Correlation of our moraine record with published reports for fluctuations of Taylor Glacier elsewhere in the Quartermain Mountains, and with a dated moraine record for Ferrar Glacier (a second outlet for Taylor Dome) in the nearby Wilkness Mountains, reveals consistent ice-surface changes, highlighting minor, but widespread ice recession in southern Victoria Land since the mid to late Pliocene. The combined records show an atypical relationship with average global temperatures, with higher-than-present ice levels occurring during globally warm periods, including the Pliocene climatic optimum (˜3.1 Ma), Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 31 (~1.1 Ma), and the penultimate interglacial, MIS 5.5 (~120 ka). The combined records also suggest that the rate of ice-surface lowering for both outlet glaciers accelerated after the Mid-Pleistocene transition at ~0.9 Myr.

  2. ROSSMAP; Regional Seismic Stratigraphic Correlations in the Victoria Land Basin and the Timing of Rifting Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, B. W.; Henrys, S. A.; Wilson, T. J.; Fielding, C. R.; Levy, R. H.; Andrill Mis-Science Team

    2010-12-01

    ROSSMAP aims to produce a new series of digital seismic stratigraphic and structural maps for the Ross Sea region, and develop reconstructions of past sedimentary volumes and paleo-bathymetry that will be used in numerical models to help identify tectonic and climate feedbacks. In particular, ROSSMAP will define targets for future drilling initiatives in the Ross Sea region, and provide a legacy of web-based electronic databases that will be available to other researcher. Interpretation in the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) has focused on establishing links to new and existing drill holes. Several regional seismic reflectors were mapped throughout the southern portion of the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) and are tied to the ANDRILL McMurdo Sound drill cores. The age of one prominent reflector (Ri - red, correlative with RSU-2) is 4.7-4.3 Ma based on a tie to AND-1B and extensively mapped in the VLB. Mapping, together with quantitative biostratigraphic correlation techniques, indicates that the red reflector is associated with relative sea-level fall resulting from ice-sheet growth and/or local tectonic uplift. Correlative sediments preserved in AND-1B indicate regional climatic warmth, which suggests that the red reflector is more likely related to a tectonic event. Furthermore, the onset of sediment accumulation at CIROS-2 post-dates 4.5 Ma, suggesting that local subsidence and creation of accommodation space began at this time. Two other stratigraphic horizons (Rh and Rg) have been extensively mapped where seismic data image above the seafloor multiple. Reflector Rh (dark green and correlative with RSU-4a marks a basin-wide unconformity. Near the western margin of the Victoria Land Basin, this horizon is a marked angular discordance with angularity increasing westward. In AND-1B Rh is correlated with the base of a ~180-m-thick interval of late Miocene-early Pliocene, pyrite-cemented, high-velocity volcanic sandstone and mudstone. Volcanic rocks in a tongue extending from

  3. Rock Glaciers in the Upper Basin of Bermejo River, Santa Victoria, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. L.; Íbáñez Palacios, G. P.; Toledo, M. A.; Páez, S. V.

    2013-05-01

    The Bermejo River is an international basin in the Tropical Andes, Santa Victoria range. The Santa Victoria range extend in N-S sense (22°08' and 23°00' South latitude between 65° and 65°30' West longitude). It maxim height is about 5.055 m s.n.m. and it average height is 3000 m s.n.m. There have been localize intact rock glaciers (active and inactive) and relict. The rock glaciers are frozen water reservoir and regulate the water regime in the high mountain over the world. The global warming effects have been express in this region with average annual air temperatures in increase: The series of temperatures of La Quiaca weather station, years 1911-2010, shows an increase about 1° C (from 9,14° C to 10,08° C) since 70' decade to actuality. This study aims to contribute to the survey of intact rock glaciers and the suite of accompanying landforms. The geographic identification and location of rock glaciers have made through the interpretation of aerial photographs and LandSat 7 and Aster Images in comparison with Google Earth using GIS and visual interpretation technics. This information has controlled with fieldwork in several campaigns. The rock glaciers are classified (in base of it activity) in actives, inactives and relict. The first and the second class were grouped in a category called intact rock glaciers for simplify it identification. The unified categories are water-storing. In the fieldwork have determinated the following aspects: 1- Active processes determination (needle ice, lenticular ice formation, etc.) and its sedimentary products: sucrose structure, inverted gradation, extrusion, open work gravels. 2- Location and geomorphologic measurement of rock glaciers and periglacial forms. There are identified 318 intact rock glaciers in high basin of Bermejo river, Sub-basins Condado river, Los Toldos-Lipeo river and Iruya river, Santa Victoria range. The actives rock glaciers, indicators of discontinuous permafrost, are installed from 4300 m s

  4. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.

    2010-12-01

    Cities in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa, at the same time that their water resource is threatened by domestic waste and industrial pollution. Urban centers use local springs, wetlands and Lake Victoria as source waters. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three pilot towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Their current populations are 100,000, 70,000 and 200,000 respectively. Demand coverage is ~70% in Masaka and Bukoba, and less than 50% in Kisii. IWRM models for each town were calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios upto 2050. In Masaka, flow and climate data were available to calibrate a runoff model to simulate streamflow at water intake. In Masaka, without considering climate change, the system is infrastructure-limited and not water availability (hydrology) limited until 2035, under projected population growth of 2.17%. Under a wet climate scenario as projected by GCM’s for the LV region, the current wetland source could supply all expected demands until 2050. Even under a drought scenario, the wetland could supply all demand until 2032, if the supply infrastructure is updated at an estimated cost of USD 10.8 million. However, demand targets can only be met at the expense of almost no water returning to the wetland downstream of the intake by 2035, unless substantial investments

  5. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nienow, J. A.; Meyer, M. A.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  6. Association of a New Wolbachia Strain with, and Its Effects on, Leptopilina victoriae, a Virulent Wasp Parasitic to Drosophila spp.

    PubMed Central

    Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Onemola, Bodunde

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are ubiquitous intracellular bacteria of arthropods. Often considered reproductive parasites, they can benefit certain host species. We describe a new Wolbachia strain from Leptopilina victoriae, a Drosophila wasp. The strain is closely related to Wolbachia from Culex sp. Located to the posterior poles of oocytes, it manipulates its host's reproduction by inducing a male development type of cytoplasmic incompatibility. We also report its diverse effects on the wasp's life history traits. PMID:22685158

  7. White men and weak masculinity: men in the public asylums in Victoria, Australia, and New Zealand, 1860s-1900s.

    PubMed

    Coleborne, Catharine

    2014-12-01

    This article reveals a set of formulations of masculine identity through the fragments of extant casebook evidence from nineteenth-century psychiatric institutions in Victoria, Australia, and Auckland, New Zealand. It shows that some patterns in the identification of masculinity and insanity emerge, also highlighting the relevance of individual stories and 'cases' to fully understand how masculine identities were fashioned through medical institutional language. PMID:25395445

  8. Legacy and currently used pesticides in the atmospheric environment of Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Kiremire, Bernard T; Muir, Derek C G; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla; Mubiru, Drake N

    2016-02-01

    The Lake Victoria watershed has extensive agricultural activity with a long history of pesticide use but there is limited information on historical use or on environmental levels. To address this data gap, high volume air samples were collected from two sites close to the northern shore of Lake Victoria; Kakira (KAK) and Entebbe (EBB). The samples, to be analyzed for pesticides, were collected over various periods between 1999 and 2004 inclusive (KAK 1999-2000, KAK 2003-2004, EBB 2003 and EBB 2004 sample sets) and from 2008 to 2010 inclusive (EBB 2008, EBB 2009 and EBB 2010 sample sets). The latter sample sets (which also included precipitation samples) were also analyzed for currently used pesticides (CUPs) including chlorpyrifos, chlorthalonil, metribuzin, trifluralin, malathion and dacthal. Chlorpyrifos was the predominant CUP in air samples with average concentrations of 93.5, 26.1 and 3.54 ng m(-3) for the EBB 2008, 2009, 2010 sample sets, respectively. Average concentrations of total endosulfan (ΣEndo), total DDT related compounds (ΣDDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) ranged from 12.3-282, 22.8-130 and 3.72-81.8 pg m(-3), respectively, for all the sample sets. Atmospheric prevalence of residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with fresh emissions of endosulfan, DDT and lindane. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and dieldrin were also detected in air samples. Transformation products, pentachloroanisole, 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole and 3,4,5,6-tetrachloroveratrole, were also detected. The five most prevalent compounds in the precipitation samples were in the order chlorpyrifos>chlorothalonil>ΣEndo>ΣDDTs>ΣHCHs with average fluxes of 1123, 396, 130, 41.7 and 41.3 ng m(-2)sample(-1), respectively. PeCB exceeded HCB in precipitation samples. The reverse was true for air samples. Backward air trajectories suggested transboundary and local emission sources of the analytes. The results underscore the need for a concerted

  9. New constraints on fluid sources in orogenic gold deposits, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Kendrick, Mark A.; Fairmaid, Alison M.; Phillips, David; Wilson, Christopher J. L.; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2012-03-01

    Fluid inclusion microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy and noble gas plus halogen geochemistry, complemented by published stable isotope data, have been used to assess the origin of gold-rich fluids in the Lachlan Fold Belt of central Victoria, south-eastern Australia. Victorian gold deposits vary from large turbidite-hosted `orogenic' lode and disseminated-stockwork gold-only deposits, formed close to the metamorphic peak, to smaller polymetallic gold deposits, temporally associated with later post-orogenic granite intrusions. Despite the differences in relative timing, metal association and the size of these deposits, fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates that all deposits are genetically associated with similar low-salinity aqueous, CO2-bearing fluids. The majority of these fluid inclusions also have similar 40Ar/36Ar values of less than 1500 and 36Ar concentrations of 2.6-58 ppb (by mass) that are equal to or much greater than air-saturation levels (1.3-2.7 ppb). Limited amounts of nitrogen-rich fluids are present at a local scale and have the highest measured 40Ar/36Ar values of up to 5,700, suggesting an external or distinct source compared to the aqueous fluids. The predominance of low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids with low 40Ar/36Ar values, in both `orogenic' and `intrusion-related' gold deposits, is attributed to fluid production from common basement volcano-sedimentary sequences and fluid interaction with sedimentary cover rocks (turbidites). Aqueous fluid inclusions in the Stawell-Magdala deposit of western Victoria (including those associated with N2) preserve mantle-like Br/Cl and I/Cl values. In contrast, fluid inclusions in deposits in the eastern structural zones, which contain more abundant shales, have elevated molar I/Cl ratios with maximum values of 5,170 × 10-6 in the Melbourne Zone. Br/I ratios in this zone range from 0.5 to 3.0 that are characteristic of fluid interaction with organic-rich sediments. The maximum I/Cl and characteristic

  10. Elevated East Antarctic outlet glaciers during warmer-than-present climates in southern Victoria Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanger, Kate M.; Marchant, David R.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Winckler, Gisela; Head, James W.

    2011-10-01

    We document Plio-Pleistocene changes in the level of Taylor Glacier, an outlet glacier in southern Victoria Land that drains Taylor Dome on the periphery of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Chronologic control comes from 3He cosmogenic-nuclide analyses of 27 boulders sampled from drifts and moraines in Kennar Valley, a small hanging valley that opens onto a peripheral lobe of Taylor Glacier in the Quartermain Mountains. Assuming a constant boulder-erosion rate of 10 cm Myr -1, our preferred age model spans the last 3.1 Myr and calls for stepped ice recession from a local highstand ~ 200 m above the present base of Taylor Glacier at the mouth of Kennar Valley. The texture and sedimentology of all mapped moraines and drifts indicate deposition from cold-based ice, analogous with the modern Taylor Glacier at the mouth of Kennar Valley. The Kennar Valley glacial record shows an uncharacteristic relationship with average global temperatures, exhibiting higher-than-present ice levels during globally warm periods, including the Pliocene climatic optimum (~ 3.1 Ma) and Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 31 (~ 1.07 Ma). The Kennar Valley record also suggests that the rate of ice-surface lowering accelerated after the mid-Pleistocene transition at ~ 0.9 Ma. Correlation of our moraine record with published reports for fluctuations of Taylor Glacier elsewhere in the Quartermain Mountains, and with a dated moraine record from Ferrar Glacier (a second outlet for Taylor Dome), reveals similar ice-surface changes, highlighting minor, but widespread ice recession in southern Victoria Land since the mid- to late-Pliocene. Our record for minimal variability in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet contrasts with recent data from nearby marine cores that call for dynamic fluctuations in the volume of grounded ice in the Ross Embayment, and significant reduction of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) during warmer-than-present intervals. Taken together, these records from the Ross Embayment

  11. Impact of immigrant pastoral herds to fringing wetlands of lake Victoria in Magu district Mwanza region, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, H.; Masikini, M.

    The assessment of impacts of pastoral herds to the fringing wetlands of Lake Victoria in Magu district in Mwanza region was carried out in 1999/2000. Lamadi village located along Speke Gulf of Lake Victoria was chosen. The main farming systems in the area are agriculture, agro-pastoralism, and pastoralism. The wetlands are heavily used for livestock grazing during the dry season. Since 1990s the area has been experiencing a high influx of immigrant pastoral herds from drought prone districts. The increasing livestock numbers have led into serious degradation of wetlands. The type of damages includes: soil erosion, loss of vegetation cover and deforestation. This lead to pollution of Lake Victoria along the Speke gulf in particular as the wetlands was buffering a lot of pollutants from the catchments. The range condition at Lamadi was rated fair. The carrying capacity of rangelands was estimated at 3.57-6.75 ha/LU and the wetlands were seriously degraded causing heavy soil erosion and environmental pollution during rainy season. It was recommended to raise people’s awareness on conservation of environment and mobilise communities to take responsibility on management of the environmental resources.

  12. Weathered stony meteorites from Victoria Land, Antarctica, as possible guides to rock weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Parallel studies of Martian geomorphic features and their analogs on Earth continue to be fruitful in deciphering the geologic history of Mars. In the context of rock weathering, the Earth-analog approach is admirably served by the study of meteorites recovered from ice sheets in Antarctica. The weathering environment of Victoria Land possesses several Mars-like attributes. Four of the five Antarctic meteorites being studied contain rust and EETA79005 further possesses a conspicuous, dark, weathering rind on one side. Secondary minerals (rust and salts) occur both on the surfaces and interiors of some of the samples and textural evidence indicates that such secondary mineralization contributed to physical weathering (by salt riving) of the rocks. Several different rust morphologies occur and emphasis is being placed on identifying the phase compositions of the various rust occurrances. A thorough understanding of terrestrial weathering features of the meteorites is a prerequisite for identifying possible Martian weathering features (if such features exist) that might be postulated to occur in some meteorites.

  13. Fatal injury in tree felling and related activities, Victoria, Australia 1992-2007.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Lisa Ruth; Ibrahim, Joseph Elias

    2010-02-01

    This study aims to examine fatalities resulting from tree felling and related activities in Victoria, Australia, involving work and do-it-yourself (DIY) activities, 1992-2007. Case identification was undertaken using coronial databases. A manual review of coroners' findings of closed cases was performed. Data collected and examined comprised demographics, occupation, incident location, activity, equipment used, injury mechanism and cause of death. Sixty-two cases were identified during the 16-year period; over 50% comprised DIY deaths (n=33). All but one victim was male. The median age for paid workers was less than for DIY (43 years vs 59 years). One-third of work activities were performed by persons outside professional tree-felling industries. While commercial forestry and logging industries experience a high fatality rate in Australia, non-professionals are also vulnerable to tree-felling injury. Study findings identified in excess of 70% of fatal incidents involved persons not employed within a relevant industry. Prevention efforts must focus on safety beyond workplaces and certain industries alone to reduce these deaths. PMID:20179037

  14. Corporatization as a means of improving water quality: the experience in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Narelle

    Factors including fragmentation, a lack of direction, poor accountability, poor water quality, and a sizable state government subsidy contributed to the rural water industry in Victoria, Australia, in 1993. In 1993 the state government set out parameters for reform to change the size, structure, performance, and culture of the water industry. The path taken was not privatization, but corporatization. Tools used included amalgamation of organizations; separating water provisions from local government; changing the composition and reporting mechanisms of the boards; establishing clear benchmarks and performance criteria; making information publicly available; and providing a commercial orientation. The outcomes of the reforms were to be a focus on water quality and effluent management. In 2001, 15 water authorities were in place. There were significant improvements in accountability, finances, and performance. The authorities provided information on performance to both the state and the public. Reductions of operating costs have been in the range of 20-35%, with savings put back into new infrastructure. Water quality has significantly improved in a number of parameters and effluent management has also improved. This paper describes the challenges faced before the reform process, the reforms initiated, and the outcomes. It argues that privatization is not the only path to improvement: Developing a corporate structure and accountability can also deliver substantial improvements. PMID:15371224

  15. Single- versus multi-vehicle bicycle road crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study is to compare trends, circumstances and outcomes of single- versus multi-vehicle bicycle on-road crashes in Victoria, Australia, through the analysis of police records and hospital admissions between January 2004 and December 2008. The results show that over 80% of on-road single-vehicle bicycle crashes occurred as a result of the cyclist losing control of the bicycle with the remainder involving collisions with objects. Compared with multi-vehicle crashes, single-vehicle crashes were more likely to occur in the dark, in wet conditions and in rural areas. Over half of the cyclists hospitalised as result of on-road crashes were injured in single-vehicle crashes and this proportion seems to be increasing over time. Single-vehicle crashes were associated with hospitalised injuries as severe as those resulting from multivehicle crashes. The findings highlight the significant burden of serious injury associated with single-vehicle bicycle road crashes. Further research is needed to investigate in greater detail the risk factors of these crashes and the effectiveness of countermeasures to reduce their burden. PMID:23435306

  16. Opportunity Takes a Last Look at Rock Exposure Before Heading to 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity recently stopped to analyze an exposure of rock near 'Beagle Crater,' on a target nicknamed 'Baltra.' Nearly 100 sols, or Martian days, had passed since Opportunity had last analyzed one of the now-familiar rock exposures seen on the Plains of Meridiani. The rover ground a 3-millimeter-deep (0.12-inch-deep) hole in the rock using the rock abrasion tool on sol 893 (July 29, 2006) while stationed about 25 meters (82 feet) from the southwest rim of Beagle Crater.

    Scientists wanted to analyze the outcrop one more time before driving the rover onto the ring of smooth material surrounding 'Victoria Crater.' Opportunity's analysis showed the rock to be very similar in its elemental composition to other exposures encountered during the rover's southward trek across Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity acquired the image data shown here shortly after noon on Mars on sol 896 (Aug. 1, 2006) with the panoramic camera (Pancam), after backing up 1 meter (3.3 feet) from Baltra to assure that the target was in sunlight. This is an approximately true-color Pancam image, generated from mathematical combinations of calibrated left-eye images using filters ranging from 432-nanometer to 753-nanometer wavelengths.

  17. Opportunity Takes a Last Look at Rock Exposure Before Heading to 'Victoria Crater'(Microscopic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity recently stopped to analyze an exposure of rock near 'Beagle Crater,' on a target nicknamed 'Baltra.' Nearly 100 sols, or Martian days, had passed since Opportunity had last analyzed one of the now-familiar rock exposures seen on the Plains of Meridiani. The rover ground a 3-millimeter-deep (0.12-inch-deep) hole in the rock using the rock abrasion tool on sol 893 (July 29, 2006) while stationed about 25 meters (82 feet) from the southwest rim of Beagle Crater.

    Scientists wanted to analyze the outcrop one more time before driving the rover onto the ring of smooth material surrounding 'Victoria Crater.' Opportunity's analysis showed the rock to be very similar in its elemental composition to other exposures encountered during the rover's southward trek across Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity's microscopic imager acquired this view on sol 894 (July 30, 2006) while the target was fully shadowed. The view shows an area about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across, just spanning the diameter of the hole ground into Baltra. The image resolution of 30 microns per pixel makes it possible to see features as small as 0.1 millimeter (0.004 inch).

  18. Opportunity Takes a Last Look at Rock Exposure Before Heading to 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity recently stopped to analyze an exposure of rock near 'Beagle Crater,' on a target nicknamed 'Baltra.' Nearly 100 sols, or Martian days, had passed since Opportunity had last analyzed one of the now-familiar rock exposures seen on the Plains of Meridiani. The rover ground a 3-millimeter-deep (0.12-inch-deep) hole in the rock using the rock abrasion tool on sol 893 (July 29, 2006) while stationed about 25 meters (82 feet) from the southwest rim of Beagle Crater.

    Scientists wanted to analyze the outcrop one more time before driving the rover onto the ring of smooth material surrounding 'Victoria Crater.' Opportunity's analysis showed the rock to be very similar in its elemental composition to other exposures encountered during the rover's southward trek across Meridiani Planum.

    Opportunity acquired the image data shown here shortly after noon on Mars on sol 896 (Aug. 1, 2006) with the panoramic camera (Pancam), after backing up 1 meter (3.3 feet) from Baltra to assure that the target was in sunlight. This is a false-color image, made using the Pancam's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. The false color emphasizes differences in rock and soil materials.

  19. Review of the materials-chemistry models in the VICTORIA code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, D. R.; Mubayi, Vinod

    Recently a Peer Review Committee established by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its report on VICTORIA, a detailed mechanistic computer code that addresses the release of fission products from degraded reactor fuel and the ex-core behavior of the released material. The present paper summarizes the findings of the report relevant to the materials-chemistry aspects of the code that apply chiefly to the high-temperature, steam-hydrogen environment of the degrading fuel and cladding. In addition to reviewing the theoretical foundation of the mechanisms used in the code, the assessment utilizes the `test problem' technique. In this method, the code (or its methods) are applied to very simple fuel and cladding systems with variations of input conditions, code flags, and material properties. The output is judged against expected behavior for each change. The topics treated include the thermochemical database, the code's method of treating interphase equilibria, the model of fission product release, and the treatment of cladding oxidation and hydrogen production.

  20. What can legacy datasets tell us about soil quality trends? Soil acidity in Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, B. P.; Crawford, D. M.; Robinson, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose-built soil monitoring networks have been established in many countries to identify where soil functionality is threatened and to target remediation initiatives. An alternative to purpose-built soil monitoring networks is to use legacy soils information. Such information yields almost instant assessments of soil change but the results should be interpreted with caution since the information was not collected with monitoring in mind. We assess the threat of soil acidification in Victoria using two legacy datasets: (i) the Victorian Soils Information System (VSIS) which is a repository of the results of soil analyses conducted for scientific purposes since the 1950s and (ii) a database of 75 000 routine soil test results requested by farmers between 1973 and 1993. We find that the VSIS measurements are clustered in space and time and are therefore suitable for local rather than broad-scale assessments of soil change. The farmers’ results have better spatial and temporal coverage and space-time models can be used to quantify the spatial and temporal trends in the pH measurements. However, careful validation of these findings is required since we do not completely understand how the measured paddocks were selected and we cannot be certain that sampling or laboratory protocols have not changed with time.

  1. Characterisation of bacterioplankton communities in the meltwater ponds of Bratina Island, Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen D J; McDonald, Ian R; Herbold, Craig W; Cary, Stephen C

    2014-08-01

    A unique collection of Antarctic aquatic environments (meltwater ponds) lies in close proximity on the rock and sediment-covered undulating surface of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, near Bratina Island (Victoria Land, Antarctica). During the 2009-10 mid-austral summer, sets of discrete water samples were collected across the vertical geochemical gradients of five meltwater ponds (Egg, P70E, Legin, Salt and Orange) for geochemical and microbial community structure analysis. Bacterial DNA fingerprints (using Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis) statistically clustered communities within ponds based on anosim (R = 0.766, P = 0.001); however, one highly stratified pond (Egg) had two distinct depth-related bacterial communities (R = 0.975, P = 0.008). 454 pyrosequencing at three depths within Egg also identified phylum level shifts and increased diversity with depth, Bacteroidetes being the dominant phyla in the surface sample and Proteobacteria being dominant in the bottom two depths. best analysis, which attempts to link community structure and the geochemistry of a pond, identified conductivity and pH individually, and to a lesser extent Ag(109) , NO2 and V(51) as dominant influences to the microbial community structure in these ponds. Increasing abundances of major halo-tolerant OTUs across the strong conductivity gradient reinforce it as the primary driver of community structure in this study. PMID:24862286

  2. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  3. Short-term droughts forecast using Markov chain model in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, Siti Nazahiyah; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhuiyan, Muhammed A.

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive risk management strategy for dealing with drought should include both short-term and long-term planning. The objective of this paper is to present an early warning method to forecast drought using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and a non-homogeneous Markov chain model. A model such as this is useful for short-term planning. The developed method has been used to forecast droughts at a number of meteorological monitoring stations that have been regionalised into six (6) homogenous clusters with similar drought characteristics based on SPI. The non-homogeneous Markov chain model was used to estimate drought probabilities and drought predictions up to 3 months ahead. The drought severity classes defined using the SPI were computed at a 12-month time scale. The drought probabilities and the predictions were computed for six clusters that depict similar drought characteristics in Victoria, Australia. Overall, the drought severity class predicted was quite similar for all the clusters, with the non-drought class probabilities ranging from 49 to 57 %. For all clusters, the near normal class had a probability of occurrence varying from 27 to 38 %. For the more moderate and severe classes, the probabilities ranged from 2 to 13 % and 3 to 1 %, respectively. The developed model predicted drought situations 1 month ahead reasonably well. However, 2 and 3 months ahead predictions should be used with caution until the models are developed further.

  4. Chlorine-36 tracing of salinity sources in the Dry Valleys of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Catherine A.; Phillips, Fred M.; Elmore, David; Bentley, Harold W.

    1990-02-01

    Chlorine-36 was used to trace the origins of salts in six saline lakes in the Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Characteristic 36Cl signatures were estimated for the various potential chloride sources, which include atmospheric deposition, rock weathering, seawater, and deep ground water. 36Cl /Cl ratios were measured in natural waters and salts from the Dry Valleys. Dilute lake waters (Cl - < 100 mg/l) were found to have 36Cl /Cl ratios in the range 100 × 10 -15 to 1,700 × 10 -15, whereas saline waters (Cl - > 1000 mg/l) had ratios in the range 9 × 10 -15 to 40 × 10 -15. Simple mixing models were employed to quantify the relative contributions of the various chloride sources to Lake Vanda and Don Juan Pond. These results show that Lake Vanda has received its chloride from both deep ground water and the Onyx River. Don Juan Pond has received nearly all its chloride from deep ground water, probably ultimately from rock-water interaction. Deep ground water is the principal source of chloride to the lakes of Wright Valley. However, preliminary data suggest that marine-derived salts or relict sea water may be a significant source of chloride to the lakes of Taylor Valley, implying a possible recent marine invasion that did not affect Wright Valley.

  5. Chlorine-36 tracing of salinity sources in the dry valleys of Victoria land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C.A.; Phillips, F.M. ); Elmore, D. ); Bentley, H.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Chlorine-36 was used to trace the origins of salts in six saline lakes in the Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Characteristic {sup 36}Cl signatures were estimated for the various potential chloride sources, which include atmospheric deposition, rock weathering, seawater, and deep ground water. {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios were measured in natural waters and salts from the Dry Valleys. Dilute lake waters (Cl{sup {minus}} < 100 mg/l) were found to have {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in the range 100 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} to 1,700 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}, whereas saline waters (Cl{sup {minus}} > 1000 mg/l) had ratios in the range 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}15} to 40 {times} 10{sup {minus}15}. Simple mixing models were employed to quantify the relative contributions of the various chloride sources to Lake Vanda and Don Juan Pond. These results show that Lake Vanda has received its chloride from both deep ground water and the Onyx River. Don Juan Pond has received nearly all its chloride from deep ground water, probably ultimately from rock-water interaction. Deep ground water is the principal sources of chloride to the lakes of Wright Valley. However, preliminary data suggest that marine-derived salts or relict sea water may be a significant sources of chloride to the lakes of Taylor Valley, implying a possible recent marine invasion that did not affect Wright Valley.

  6. An overview of Australia's Phytophthora species assemblage in natural ecosystems recovered from a survey in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, William A; Howard, Kay; StJ Hardy, Giles E; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-06-01

    Although Phytophthora species cause serious diseases worldwide, until recently the main focus on disease in natural ecosystems in southern Australia has been on the distribution and impact of P. cinnamomi. However, new Phytophthora pathogens have emerged from natural ecosystems, and there is a need to better understand the diversity and distribution of these species in our natural forests, woodlands and heathlands. From a survey along a 70 km pipeline easement in Victoria, Phytophthora species were isolated from 249 rhizosphere samples and 25 bait bags deployed in 21 stream, river, or wetland locations. Of the 186 Phytophthora isolates recovered, 130 were identified to species based on ITS sequence data. Ninety-five isolates corresponded to 13 described Phytophthora species while additionally 35 isolates were identified as Clade 6 hybrids. Phytophthora cinnamomi was the most common species isolated (31 %), followed by P. elongata (6 %), both species were only recovered from soil. Samples from sites with the highest soil moisture at the time of sampling had the highest yield of isolates. Consistent with other studies throughout the world, Clade 6 species and their hybrids dominated water samples, although many of these species were also recovered less frequently from soil samples. Many of the species recovered in this study have not previously been reported from eastern Australia, reinforcing that Phytophthora species are widespread, abundant and diverse in natural ecosystems. We have probably been underestimating Phytophthora diversity in Australia. PMID:27433440

  7. Recent trends in benzodiazepine use by injecting drug users in Victoria and Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Fry, Craig L; Bruno, Raimondo B

    2002-12-01

    To address the lack of data on patterns of benzodiazepine use among injecting drug users (IDU) in Victoria and Tasmania, convenience samples of 152 Melbourne and 100 Hobart IDU were recruited from needle and syringe programme outlets and administered a structured survey on patterns of benzodiazepine use, injection-related health problems and drug use history. Most respondents had used benzodiazepines during the preceding 6 months, and more than one-third (Melbourne 36%, 95% CI, 28-44; Hobart 37%, 95% CI, 27-47) had injected benzodiazepines during this period. Diazepam was the preferred benzodiazepine for those using orally, while intravenous benzodiazepine users preferred to inject temazepam. Benzodiazepine injection for Melbourne IDU was related to greater levels of injection-related health problems. Patterns of benzodiazepine use amongst Melbourne and Hobart IDU are different to that in other Australian jurisdictions, with available data suggesting that prevalence of injection may be increasing. Ongoing monitoring of benzodiazepine injection, together with in-depth studies of supply characteristics and health impacts in jurisdictions where significant trends are detected is needed. Consideration of regulatory, supply, education and training options for the prevention of benzodiazepine injection is also indicated. PMID:12537706

  8. Forensic odontology, part 3. The Australian bushfires - Victoria state, February 2009.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the stages in the disaster victim identification of those who lost their lives in the Australian bushfires that raged across the state of Victoria in February 2009. Communities were damaged or destroyed leaving families distressed and homeless, and as the number of deaths increased the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams were activated, with plans evolving to deal with this emergency. The identification process was challenging due to many factors, such as the dangers and difficulties involved in body recovery and the charring and commingling of remains. It would take several months of careful work to identify the dead using a multidisciplinary approach. The impact of this incident will have long-lasting consequences for the families and communities involved. At the time of writing all but one of the 173 victims had been identified, mostly by dental methods: quite remarkable when only small fragments of the dental structures remained in many cases. This article is based on the author's personal experience working to assist the organised and experienced Australian Dental DVI Team. PMID:21475281

  9. Diversity of Conotoxin Gene Superfamilies in the Venomous Snail, Conus victoriae

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel D.; Safavi-Hemami, Helena; McIntosh, Lachlan D.; Purcell, Anthony W.; Norton, Raymond S.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms represent a vast library of bioactive peptides and proteins with proven potential, not only as research tools but also as drug leads and therapeutics. This is illustrated clearly by marine cone snails (genus Conus), whose venoms consist of mixtures of hundreds of peptides (conotoxins) with a diverse array of molecular targets, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors and neurotransmitter transporters. Several conotoxins have found applications as research tools, with some being used or developed as therapeutics. The primary objective of this study was the large-scale discovery of conotoxin sequences from the venom gland of an Australian cone snail species, Conus victoriae. Using cDNA library normalization, high-throughput 454 sequencing, de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation with BLASTX and profile hidden Markov models, we discovered over 100 unique conotoxin sequences from 20 gene superfamilies, the highest diversity of conotoxins so far reported in a single study. Many of the sequences identified are new members of known conotoxin superfamilies, some help to redefine these superfamilies and others represent altogether new classes of conotoxins. In addition, we have demonstrated an efficient combination of methods to mine an animal venom gland and generate a library of sequences encoding bioactive peptides. PMID:24505301

  10. Modelling catchment management impact on in-stream phosphorus loads in northern Victoria.

    PubMed

    Vigiak, O; Rattray, D; McInnes, J; Newham, L T H; Roberts, A M

    2012-11-15

    Phosphorus pollution severely impairs the water quality of rivers in Australia and worldwide. Conceptual models have proved useful to assess management impact on phosphorus loads, particularly in data-sparse environments. This paper develops and evaluates the coupling of a point-scale model (HowLeaky2008) to a catchment scale model (CatchMODS) to enhance modelling of farm management impacts on in-stream phosphorus loads. The model was tested in two adjacent catchments in northern Victoria (Avon-Richardson and Avoca), Australia. After calibration of the in-stream attenuation parameter against measurements at gauging stations, the model simulated specific annual phosphorus loads across the catchments well (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.52 in the Avon-Richardson and 0.83 for the Avoca catchment). Phosphorus loads at both catchment outlets under current conditions were estimated at 7 t y(-1) and were dominated by field exports. Changes to farm management practices, i.e. the use of perennial pastures in grazing systems and zero-tillage in cropping systems were estimated to reduce phosphorus load by 31% in the Avon-Richardson catchment and 19% in the Avoca catchment, relative to current practices (annual pasture and minimum tillage). The model afforded a major improvement in conceptual modelling by explicit simulation of the impacts of soil and climatic conditions on field-scale exports and by placing them in the context of landscape processes. PMID:22796756

  11. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kristo, Michael Joseph; Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; et al

    2015-04-13

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (~1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K2(UO2)3O4·4H2O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (~380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO3·2H2O, with minor phases ofmore » U3O8 and UO2. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of 236U and 232U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.« less

  12. A 16 year study of injuries to professional kickboxers in the state of Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Zazryn, T; Finch, C; McCrory, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the rate and type of injuries occurring to registered professional kickboxers in Victoria, Australia over a 16 year period. Methods: Data describing all fight outcomes and injuries sustained during competition for the period August 1985 to August 2001 were obtained from the Victorian Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board. Results: A total of 382 injuries were recorded from 3481 fight participations, at an injury rate of 109.7 injuries per 1000 fight participations. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (52.5%), followed by the lower extremities (39.8%). Specifically, injuries to the lower leg (23.3%), the face (19.4%), and intracranial injury (17.2%) were the most common. Over 64% of the injuries were superficial bruising or lacerations. Conclusion: The nature of kickboxing, whereby kicking the opponent is the prime movement and the head a prime target, is reflected in the distributions of body regions most commonly injured by participants. Further research into injury patterns in different styles of kickboxing and the mechanism of injury occurrence is required. Exposure adjusted prospective studies are needed to monitor injury rates over time. PMID:14514540

  13. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  14. Education Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline with Aging: 12-Year Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, L.B.; Glymour, M.M.; Sparks, C.; Bontempo, D.; Dixon, R.A.; MacDonald, S.W.S.; Manly, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Few studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1,023 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range: 55–94) and gender, we found that years of education (range: 6–20) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  15. Integrating environmental gap analysis with spatial conservation prioritization: a case study from Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Moilanen, Atte; White, Matt; Burgman, Mark

    2012-12-15

    Gap analysis is used to analyse reserve networks and their coverage of biodiversity, thus identifying gaps in biodiversity representation that may be filled by additional conservation measures. Gap analysis has been used to identify priorities for species and habitat types. When it is applied to identify gaps in the coverage of environmental variables, it embodies the assumption that combinations of environmental variables are effective surrogates for biodiversity attributes. The question remains of how to fill gaps in conservation systems efficiently. Conservation prioritization software can identify those areas outside existing conservation areas that contribute to the efficient covering of gaps in biodiversity features. We show how environmental gap analysis can be implemented using high-resolution information about environmental variables and ecosystem condition with the publicly available conservation prioritization software, Zonation. Our method is based on the conversion of combinations of environmental variables into biodiversity features. We also replicated the analysis by using Species Distribution Models (SDMs) as biodiversity features to evaluate the robustness and utility of our environment-based analysis. We apply the technique to a planning case study of the state of Victoria, Australia. PMID:22935646

  16. Reprint of: Revised magnetostratigraphic chronologies for New Harbour drill cores, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the evolution of southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late-Neogene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic chronologies, which we use to correlate the drill core successions with onshore dry-valleys geomorphic records and offshore deep-ocean records. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed using stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from the drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. We recognise five styles of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords, which we correlate with discrete climate phases. During the latest Miocene-early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords with active sedimentation in the Taylor Fiord and erosion of basement rocks in the Ferrar Fiord. Glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (> 300 m) at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures around Antarctica were at least 5 °C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 post 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea rather than from East Antarctic glaciers. Post 1.7 Ma, lacustrine sediments were deposited behind ice-dammed lakes, which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded and grounded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains.

  17. Revised magnetostratigraphic chronologies for New Harbour drill cores, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohneiser, Christian; Wilson, Gary

    2012-02-01

    The Taylor Valley (DVDP-10, -11) and Ferrar Fiord (CIROS-2) drill cores offer a window into the evolution of southern Victoria Land glaciers and the Antarctic climate system during the late-Neogene. Here we present new magnetostratigraphic chronologies, which we use to correlate the drill core successions with onshore dry-valleys geomorphic records and offshore deep-ocean records. Magnetostratigraphies were constructed using stepwise AF and/or thermal demagnetisation of discrete specimens from the drill cores. Correlation of magnetostratigraphies with the magnetic polarity timescale was guided by biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints. We recognise five styles of sedimentation in the Taylor/Ferrar fiords, which we correlate with discrete climate phases. During the latest Miocene-early Pliocene, wet based glaciers filled the Taylor and Ferrar fiords with active sedimentation in the Taylor Fiord and erosion of basement rocks in the Ferrar Fiord. Glaciers retreated during the Pliocene warm period leaving open marine conditions and deep fiords (> 300 m) at a time when the Ross Sea was free of ice and sea surface temperatures around Antarctica were at least 5 °C warmer than today. We recognise the first significant cooling in DVDP-11 post 2.6 Ma by a shift to current winnowed sediments sourced from the Ross Sea rather than from East Antarctic glaciers. Post 1.7 Ma, lacustrine sediments were deposited behind ice-dammed lakes, which formed when West Antarctic ice expanded and grounded across the Ross Embayment and abutted the Transantarctic Mountains.

  18. A comparative study of Quaternary dating techniques applied to sedimentary deposits in southwest Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, J.; Barbetti, M.; Ditchburn, R.; Kimber, R. W. L.; McCabe, W.; Murray-Wallace, C. V.; Prescott, J. R.; Whitehead, N.

    At five sites in western Victoria a total of five Quaternary dating techniques have been applied to shell beds varying in age from Holocene to beyond the last interglacial. To examine the age concordancy of the methods, 89 analyses were conducted—16 by radiocarbon, 26 by uranium series disequilibrium, 26 by amino acid racemisation, 5 by thermoluminescence and 16 by electron spin resonance, the latter previously reported by Goede (1989). Uncertainties associated with diagenetic environments of samples precluded reliable numerical age assignments for beds older than Holocene. Instead, relative dating of shell beds was based on a reference site (Goose Lagoon) which was assigned to the last interglacial based on its morphostratigraphic setting and concordant results of three of the dating methods (amino acid racemisation, uranium series disequilibrium and electron spin resonance). Overall there was considerable agreement between methods although not all were applied to each site. Uranium series dating proved most problematical. Migration of radionuclides between groundwater and shells introduced large errors at one site and led to appreciable uncertainties at others.

  19. Longitudinal Effects of School Drug Policies on Student Marijuana Use in Washington State and Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the longitudinal effect of schools’ drug policies on student marijuana use. Methods. We used data from the International Youth Development Study, which surveyed state-representative samples of students from Victoria, Australia, and Washington State. In wave 1 (2002), students in grades 7 and 9 (n = 3264) and a school administrator from each participating school (n = 188) reported on school drug policies. In wave 2 (2003), students reported on their marijuana use. We assessed associations between student-reported and administrator-reported policy and student self-reported marijuana use 1 year later. Results. Likelihood of student marijuana use was higher in schools in which administrators reported using out-of-school suspension and students reported low policy enforcement. Student marijuana use was less likely where students reported receiving abstinence messages at school and students violating school policy were counseled about the dangers of marijuana use. Conclusions. Schools may reduce student marijuana use by delivering abstinence messages, enforcing nonuse policies, and adopting a remedial approach to policy violations rather than use of suspensions. PMID:25790384

  20. Victoria's Child FIRST and IFS differential response system: progress and issues.

    PubMed

    Lonne, Bob; Brown, Gerry; Wagner, Ingrid; Gillespie, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    Differential response has long been utilized by statutory child protection systems in Australia. This article describes the advent and history of Victoria's differential response system, with a particular focus on the Child FIRST and IFS programme. This program entails a partnership arrangement between the Department of Human Services child protection services and community-based, not-for-profit agencies to provide a diverse range of early intervention and prevention services. The findings of a recent external service system evaluation, a judicial inquiry, and the large-scale Child and Family Services Outcomes Survey of parents/carers perspectives of their service experiences are used to critically examine the effectiveness of this differential response approach. Service-user perspectives of the health and wellbeing of children and families are identified, as well as the recognized implementation issues posing significant challenges for the goal of an integrated partnership system. The need for ongoing reform agendas is highlighted along with the policy, program and structural tensions that exist in differential response systems, which are reliant upon partnerships and shared responsibilities for protecting children and assisting vulnerable families. Suggestions are made for utilizing robust research and evaluation that gives voice to service users and promotes their rights and interests. PMID:25192958

  1. Pioneering water quality data on the Lake Victoria watershed: effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Jovanelly, Tamie J; Johnson-Pynn, Julie; Okot-Okumu, James; Nyenje, Richard; Namaganda, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Four forest reserves within 50 km of Kampala in Uganda act as a critical buffer to the Lake Victoria watershed and habitat for local populations. Over a 9-month period we capture a pioneering water quality data set that illustrates ecosystem health through the implementation of a water quality index (WQI). The WQI was calculated using field and laboratory data that reflect measured physical and chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen on demand, nitrates, phosphates, fecal coliform, and temperature turbidity). Overall, the WQI for the four forest reserves reflect poor to medium water quality. Results compared with US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization drinking water standards indicate varying levels of contamination at most sites and all designated drinking water sources, with signatures of elevated nitrates, phosphates, and/or fecal coliforms. As critical health problems are known to arise with elevated exposure to contaminants in drinking water, this data set can be used to communicate necessary improvements within the watershed. PMID:26322777

  2. Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Women of Reproductive Age in Tanzania's Lake Victoria Region

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Jennifer A.; Mguta, Charles; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Mitchell, Katrina B.; Bang, Heejung; Simplice, Harusha; Kalluvya, Samuel E.; Changalucha, John M.; Johnson, Warren D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a community-based study of 457 women aged 18–50 years living in eight rural villages in northwest Tanzania. The prevalence of female urogenital schistosomiasis (FUS) was 5% overall but ranged from 0% to 11%. FUS was associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2–13.5) and younger age (OR = 5.5 and 95% CI = 1.2–26.3 for ages < 25 years and OR = 8.2 and 95% CI = 1.7–38.4 for ages 25–29 years compared with age > 35 years). Overall HIV prevalence was 5.9% but was 17% among women with FUS. We observed significant geographical clustering of schistosomiasis: northern villages near Lake Victoria had more Schistosoma mansoni infections (P < 0.0001), and southern villages farther from the lake had more S. haematobium (P = 0.002). Our data support the postulate that FUS may be a risk factor for HIV infection and may contribute to the extremely high rates of HIV among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21363971

  3. A positive association between cryptosporidiosis notifications and ambient temperature, Victoria, Australia, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Kent, Lillian; McPherson, Michelle; Higgins, Nasra

    2015-12-01

    Increased temperatures provide optimal conditions for pathogen survival, virulence and replication as well as increased opportunities for human-pathogen interaction. This paper examined the relationship between notifications of cryptosporidiosis and temperature in metropolitan and rural areas of Victoria, Australia between 2001 and 2009. A negative binomial regression model was used to analyse monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and the monthly count of cryptosporidiosis notifications. In the metropolitan area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature of the current month was associated with a 22% increase in cryptosporidiosis notifications (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.31). In the rural area, a 1 °C increase in monthly average minimum temperature, lagged by 3 months, was associated with a 9% decrease in cryptosporidiosis notifications (IRR 0.91; 95% CI 0.86-0.97). Rainfall was not associated with notifications in either area. These relationships should be considered when planning public health response to ecological risks as well as when developing policies involving climate change. Rising ambient temperature may be an early warning signal for intensifying prevention efforts, including appropriate education for pool users about cryptosporidiosis infection and management, which might become more important as temperatures are projected to increase as a result of climate change. PMID:26608765

  4. The prevalence and epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bucknell, D G; Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I

    1995-06-01

    A quantitative post mortem study of 150 horses from Victoria was conducted to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites. A total of 42 species of metazoan parasite was found. The following species of non-cyathostome parasite were found (% prevalence): Trichostrongylus axei (51%); Habronema muscae (13%); H. majus (2%); Draschia megastoma (5%); Gastreophilus intestinalis (81%); G. nasalis (29%); Parascaris equorum (5%); Anoplocephala perfoliata (29%); Fasciola hepatica (0.7%); Oxyuris equi (7%); Strongylu vulgaris (23%); S. edentatus (23%); S. equinus (3%); Craterostomum acuticaudatum (7%); Triodontophorus serratus (8%); T. tenuicollis (8%); T. brevicauda (3%). Ninety-five per cent of horses were infected with gut-wall encysted stages of cythostomes with a mean intensity of 113,000 larvae per horse. Ninety-three per cent of all horses harboured adult cyathosome worms; 24 species representing 6 genera were found. The 3 most prevalent species were Cylicostephanus longiburstatus (76%); Cyathostomum catinatum (68%) and Cylicocyclus nassatus (54%). Seventeen species of strongyle were present in high abundance, which allowed their site distribution in the large intestine to be determined. Twelve species preferred the large colon to the small colon and caecum, and the remaining 5 species preferred the caecum. Statistical analysis of the parasitological data set allowed effects of sex, age, type, and physical condition of the horse as well as the season and environment on the prevalence and mean intensity of infection to be determined. PMID:7657457

  5. Exploration of photocatalytic properties of microbially designed silver nanoparticles on Victoria blue B.

    PubMed

    Jishma, P; Thomas, Roshmi; Narayanan, Rakhie; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2016-07-01

    Victoria blue B (VBB) belongs to triphenylmethane group of dyes, which is widely used in textile industries. Hence development of novel treatment methods are of considerable applications in its removal. In the current study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formed by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was investigated for the degradation of VBB. Interestingly, the UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis of VBB-AgNPs treated samples showed a decrease in absorption at 615 nm, which is characteristic of pure VBB. This time-dependent degradation process was further investigated by changing the initial dye concentration, AgNPs concentration and pH. Approximately 78 % of reduction was observed within 8 h of the study and hence the result of the study is with promising applications for the development of novel dye degradation technologies. Phytotoxicity analysis of degradation product using Vigna unguiculata revealed the non-toxic effect of degradation product when compared to VBB and this confirms the promising potential and applications of the study. PMID:26975321

  6. Stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Mt. Melbourne volcanic field (North Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido; Lucci, Federico

    2016-04-01

    Mt. Melbourne (2,732 ma.s.l.) is a large quiescent stratovolcano located in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and is one of a handful of volcanoes on the Antarctic plate with the potential for large-scale explosive eruptions. The early, Lower Pleistocene, volcanism was largely alkali basaltic to hawaiitic in composition and monogenetic in style, producing tens of small scoria cones and lava flows scattered over a wide area across the Transantarctic Mountains (Random Hills Period). During the Middle Pleistocene, volcanic activity focused to the area of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano, where several monogenetic centres show the transition from early subglacial/ subaqueous conditions to emergent subaerial conditions (Shield Nunatak Period). The oldest exposed deposit associated with the early activity of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano (Mt. Melbourne Period) is a trachytic subaerial ignimbrite dated at 123.6±6.0 ka, which reflects the establishment of a crustal magma chamber. Above the ignimbrite a succession of alkali basaltic, hawaiitic, and subordinate benmoreitic lavas and scoria cones is exposed, dated at 90.7±19.0 ka. The most recent deposits are exposed at the top of Mt. Melbourne, where the crater rim is composed of trachytic to rhyolitic pumice fall deposits, which are also extensively dispersed around the volcano, originated from Plinian-scale eruptions. The most recent explosive deposit proved difficult to date accurately because very low quantities of radiogenic 40Ar were released, resulting in imprecise plateau ages of 50±70 and 35±22 ka.

  7. A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Adrian M; Stagnitti, Karen E; Mercer, Catherine; Dunbar, James

    2005-01-01

    Attracting and retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem in both Australia and overseas. Predicted increases in health needs will require strategic actions to enhance the rural workforce and its ability to deliver the required services. A range of factors in different domains has been associated with recruitment and retention in the allied health workforce. For example, factors can be related to the nature of the work, the personal needs, or the way an organisation is led. Some factors cannot be changed (eg geographical location of extended family) whereas others can be influenced (eg education, support, management styles). Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals is a challenging problem that deserves attention in all domains and preparedness to actively change established work practices, both individually as well as collectively, in order to cater for current and predicted health needs. Changes to enhance workforce outcomes can be implemented and evaluated using a cyclic model. The Allied Health Workforce Enhancement Project of the Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health (GGT UDRH) is working towards increasing the number of allied health professionals in the south west of Victoria. Based on themes identified in the literature, an interactive model is being developed that addresses recruitment and retention factors in three domains: (1) personal or individual; (2) organisation; and (3) community. PMID:16375575

  8. Fast adaptive responses in the oral jaw of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hoogwater, Ellen S; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; van Reenen, Elize; Spits, Kevin V; van der Stelt, Ronald C; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Rapid morphological changes in response to fluctuating natural environments are a common phenomenon in species that undergo adaptive radiation. The dramatic ecological changes in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to study environmental effects on cichlid morphology. This study shows how four haplochromine cichlids adapted their premaxilla to a changed diet over the past 30 years. Directly after the diet change toward larger and faster prey in the late 1980s, the premaxilla (upper jaw) changed in a way that is in agreement with a more food manipulating feeding style. During the 2000s, two zooplanktivorous species showed a reversal of morphological changes after returning to their original diet, whereas two other species showed no reversal of diet and morphology. These rapid changes indicate a potential for extremely fast adaptive responses to environmental fluctuations, which are likely inflicted by competition release and increase, and might have a bearing on the ability of haplochromines to cope with environmental changes. These responses could be due to rapid genetic change or phenotypic plasticity, for which there is ample evidence in cichlid fish structures associated with food capture and processing. These versatile adaptive responses are likely to have contributed to the fast adaptive radiation of haplochromines. PMID:25403383

  9. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles. PMID:9370009

  10. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  11. Reprint of "The victorivirus Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S is the primary cause of disease/hypovirulence in its natural host and a heterologous host".

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiatao; Havens, Wendy M; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Ghabrial, Said A

    2016-07-01

    A transmissible disease of the plant pathogenic fungus Helminthosporium victoriae, the causal agent of Victoria blight of oats, was reported more than 50 years ago. Diseased, but not normal, isolates, of H. victoriae contain two distinct viruses designated according to their sedimentation values as victorivirus Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S (HvV190S) and chrysovirus Helminthosporium victoriae 145S (HvV145S). Although a viral etiology of the disease was previously proposed, conclusive evidence was lacking. Here we present unequivocal evidence based on transfecting virus-free H. victoriae protoplasts with purified virus particles showing that HvV190S is essential for disease development. Furthermore, we show an expansion of the host range of HvV190S to include Cryphonectria parasitica and we also show similarity in a subset of phenotypic traits between HvV190S-infected RNA silencing deficient mutant (Δdcl-2) of C. parasitica and a strain of H. victoriae. In virulence assays on detached American chestnut branches and Red Delicious apple fruits, HvV190S-infected C. parasitica strain Δdcl-2 was markedly less virulent than wild type and virus-free Δdcl-2 C. parasitica strains. Furthermore, the hypovirulent HvV190S-infected C. parasitica Δdcl-2 strain exhibited strong antifungal activity in dual culture with the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. No such inhibitory activity was observed in comparable dual cultures with wild type and virus-free Δdcl-2 C. parasitica strains. The discovery that infection with HvV190S induced a hypovirulent phenotype in a heterologous plant pathogenic host is very significant since it might be possible to convert other economically important plant pathogenic fungi to hypovirulence using HvV190S. PMID:27208849

  12. The victorivirus Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S is the primary cause of disease/hypovirulence in its natural host and a heterologous host.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiatao; Havens, Wendy M; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Ghabrial, Said A

    2016-02-01

    A transmissible disease of the plant pathogenic fungus Helminthosporium victoriae, the causal agent of Victoria blight of oats, was reported more than 50 years ago. Diseased, but not normal, isolates, of H. victoriae contain two distinct viruses designated according to their sedimentation values as victorivirus Helminthosporium victoriae virus 190S (HvV190S) and chrysovirus Helminthosporium victoriae 145S (HvV145S). Although a viral etiology of the disease was previously proposed, conclusive evidence was lacking. Here we present unequivocal evidence based on transfecting virus-free H. victoriae protoplasts with purified virus particles showing that HvV190S is essential for disease development. Furthermore, we show an expansion of the host range of HvV190S to include Cryphonectria parasitica and we also show similarity in a subset of phenotypic traits between HvV190S-infected RNA silencing deficient mutant (Δdcl-2) of C. parasitica and a strain of H. victoriae. In virulence assays on detached American chestnut branches and Red Delicious apple fruits, HvV190S-infected C. parasitica strain Δdcl-2 was markedly less virulent than wild type and virus-free Δdcl-2 C. parasitica strains. Furthermore, the hypovirulent HvV190S-infected C. parasitica Δdcl-2 strain exhibited strong antifungal activity in dual culture with the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. No such inhibitory activity was observed in comparable dual cultures with wild type and virus-free Δdcl-2 C. parasitica strains. The discovery that infection with HvV190S induced a hypovirulent phenotype in a heterologous plant pathogenic host is very significant since it might be possible to convert other economically important plant pathogenic fungi to hypovirulence using HvV190S. PMID:26724750

  13. Application of Satellite Observations to Manage Natural Disasters in the Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, Tesfaye; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the Eastern part of Africa is a vital natural resource for the economic well being and prosperity of over 30 million people located in riparian regions of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. It covers a large area of about 68,870 km2 and produces a GDP of about US $30 billion per year. The region is also very much prone to natural disasters such as severe floods during heavy precipitation periods in the Eastern part of Africa. In addition to floods, the precipitation also produces large infestations of mosquito larvae due to the standing water in many areas. This further causes multiple vector borne diseases such as Malaria, Rift Valley Fever and more. These problems are of serious concern and require active and aggressive surveillance and management to minimize the loss of human and animal lives and property damage. Satellite imagery and observations along with the in situ measurements provide a great tool to analyze and study this area and inform the policy makers to make calculated policy decisions which are more beneficial to the environment. Recently, NASA and USAID have joined forces with the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) located in Nairobi, Kenya to utilize multiple NASA sensors such as TRMM, SRTM and MODIS to develop flood potential maps for the Lake Victoria Basin. The idea is to generate a flood forecasts and "nowcasts" that can be sent to the disaster management organizations of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. Post flood event satellite imagery is becoming a common tool to assess the areas inundated by flooding. However, this work is unique undertaking by utilizing land imaging and atmospheric satellites to build credible flood potential maps. At same time, we are also studying the potential occurrence and spread of Rift Valley Fever disease based on the short term climate records and precipitation data. These activities require multi-nation coordination and agreements and

  14. Procedural skills practice and training needs of doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics in rural Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Shepherd, Irwyn; McGrail, Matthew; Kassell, Lisa; Connolly, Marnie; Williams, Brett; Nestel, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Procedural skills are a significant component of clinical practice. Doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics are trained to use a variety of procedural skills. Rural clinicians in particular are often required to maintain competence in some procedural skills that are used infrequently, and which may require regular and repeated rehearsal. This paper reports on a research project conducted in Gippsland, Victoria, to ascertain the frequency of use, and relevance to clinical practice, of a range of skills in the fields of medicine, nursing, midwifery, and paramedic practice. The project also gathered data on the attitudes of clinicians regarding how frequently and by what means they thought they needed to practice these skills with a particular focus on the use of simulation as an educational method. Methods The research was conducted following identification of a specific set of procedural skills for each professional group. Skills were identified by an expert steering committee. We developed online questionnaires that consisted of two parts: 1) demographic and professional characteristics, and 2) experience of procedural skills and perceived training needs. We sought to invite all practicing clinicians (doctors, nurses, midwives, paramedics) working in Gippsland. Online surveys were distributed between November 2011 and April 2012 with three follow-up attempts. The Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Results Valid responses were received from 58 doctors, 94 nurses, 46 midwives, and 30 paramedics, whom we estimate to represent not more than 20% of current clinicians within these professions. This response rate reflected some of the difficulties experienced in the conduct of the research. Results were tabulated for each professional group across the range of skills. There was significant correlation between the frequency of certain skills and confidence with maintenance of these skills. This did not necessarily correlate

  15. Planning for the impacts of Hadley cell expansion on water supply in Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David; Timbal, Bertrand; Chiew, Francis; Hendon, Harry; Moran, Rae

    2013-04-01

    South-eastern Australia has recently experienced the worst drought of the instrumental record; the so-called Millennium drought (1997-2009). This drought was primarily a cool season phenomenon, with large reductions in rainfall observed during the Austral winter (April to October). This reduction in winter rainfall, combined with an absence of wet years and very wet months led to a reduction in streamflow across the region far greater than would be anticipated based on the 12 percent reduction in mean annual rainfall alone. These conditions have proven particularly challenging for water management and planning processes. Our research has linked the extent, duration and severity of this drought to the ongoing observed expansion of the Southern Hemisphere Hadley cell of 0.5 degrees per decade. This expansion has intensified the sub-tropical ridge over southern Australia, pushing cool season mid-latitude storm tracks further south, leading to a reduction in winter rainfall over the region. Modelling has shown that the expansion of the Hadley cell can only be reproduced if anthropogenic influences (greenhouse gases, aerosols and stratospheric ozone) are included in the models, thus providing evidence that the Millennium drought was at least partly attributable to climate change. Climate model projections also indicate that the expansion of the Hadley Cell is likely to continue. This means that the traditional winter "filling season" for water supply systems in Victoria may be less reliable in the future. However, in the light of the expansion of tropical influences, the cool season rainfall deficit may be offset to some extent by increased rainfall in the warmer months of the year. Given that the Millennium drought has been shown to be at least partly attributable to climate change and the considerable uncertainties associated with projected future changes, water planning and management processes in Victoria have been modified to be more robust, adaptive and flexible

  16. Sleep-Related Infant Deaths in Victoria: A Retrospective Case Series Study.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Dwyer, Jeremy; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Young, Jeanine; Stephan, Karen Lesley; McClure, Roderick John

    2016-05-01

    Background There is general agreement that in some circumstances, sharing a sleep surface of any kind with an infant increases the risk of sudden unexpected death in infancy. There is a paucity of research conducted in Australia examining this issue. This study examines the frequency and distribution of sleep-related infant deaths in a defined population, and reports the proportion that occurred in the context of bed-sharing. Methods A retrospective population-based case series study was conducted of infants (≤365 days) who died in a sleeping context during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Information about the infant, caregiver, sleeping environment and bed-sharing was collected from a review of the coroner's death investigation record. Results During the 3-year study period, 72 infant deaths occurred in a sleeping context. Of these, 33 (45.8 %) occurred in the context of bed-sharing: n = 7 in 2008; n = 11 in 2009; and n = 15 in 2010. Further analysis of the 33 deaths occurring in the context of bed-sharing showed that in this group, bed-sharing was largely intentional, habitual and most often involved the mother as one of the parties. Conclusions Given the case series nature of the study design, a causal relationship between bed-sharing and infant death could not be inferred. However the fact that nearly half of all sleep-related deaths occurred in the context of bed-sharing, provides strong support for the need to undertake definitive analytic studies in Australia so that evidence-based advice can be provided to families regarding the safety of bed-sharing practices. PMID:26649875

  17. Sedimentology of an early Cambrian tide-dominated embayment: Quyuk formation, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbano, Andrew M.; Pratt, Brian R.; Hadlari, Thomas; Dewing, Keith

    2015-05-01

    The early Cambrian (series 2, stage 4) Quyuk formation is exposed in the Minto Inlier of western Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic Islands, and forms the base of the Phanerozoic succession. Coeval with other sandstones of this age in Laurentia, it was deposited in a shallow-marine embayment on a passive margin during the initial phase of the early Paleozoic transgression. Four facies associations are recognized: (1) offshore muds consisting dominantly of dark gray laminated mudstone with discontinuous laminae of medium- to coarse sand; (2) offshore sand dune fields characterized by laterally continuous, planar cross-stratified beds up to 1.4 m thick of medium- to coarse-grained sandstone; (3) distal nearshore consisting dominantly of fine- to medium-grained bioturbated sandstone and fine- to medium-grained sandstone interbedded with laminated mudstone; and (4) proximal nearshore characterized by laterally continuous fine- to medium-grained bioturbated sandstone and medium-grained oolitic ironstone. Large scale dunes of facies association 2 record areas where tidal currents were amplified and had available sediment supply in contrast to facies association 1, which was sediment starved. Dunes are, for the most part, non-bioturbated or contain just a few individual burrows belonging to Skolithos. In nearshore settings, bioturbation in the form of a typical early Cambrian suite of shallow-subtidal ichnofossils predominated, representing a low-diversity Cruziana ichnofacies. Oolitic ironstone horizons in the proximal nearshore mark periods of low sedimentation rates when iron became concentrated and calcite was the primary cementing agent. The coastline is envisaged as a complex of bays and lagoons.

  18. Comparison of alternatives to passive surveillance to detect foot and mouth disease incursions in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Garner, M G; East, I J; Kompas, T; Ha, P V; Roche, S E; Nguyen, H T M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate strategies to enhance the early detection of foot and mouth disease incursions in Australia. Two strategies were considered. First, improving the performance of the current passive surveillance system. Second, supplementing the current passive system with active surveillance strategies based on testing animals at saleyards or through bulk milk testing of dairy herds. Simulation modelling estimated the impact of producer education and awareness by either increasing the daily probability that a farmer will report the presence of diseased animals or by reducing the proportion of the herd showing clinical signs required to trigger a disease report. Both increasing the probability of reporting and reducing the proportion of animals showing clinical signs resulted in incremental decreases in the time to detection, the size and the duration of the outbreak. A gold standard system in which all producers reported the presence of disease once 10% of the herd showed clinical signs reduced the median time to detection of the outbreak from 20 to 15days, the duration of the subsequent outbreak from 53 to 42days and the number of infected farms from 46 to 32. Bulk milk testing reduced the median time to detection by two days and the number of infected farms by six but had no impact on the duration of the outbreak. Screening of animals at saleyards provided no improvement over the current passive surveillance system alone while having significant resource issues. It is concluded that the most effective way to achieve early detection of incursions of foot and mouth disease into Victoria, Australia is to invest in improving producer reporting. PMID:27237393

  19. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. PMID:23886616

  20. Stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Mt. Melbourne volcanic field (North Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido; Lucci, Federico; Phillips, David; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Runci, Valentina

    2012-11-01

    Mt. Melbourne (2,732 m a.s.l.) is a large quiescent stratovolcano located in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and is one of a handful of volcanoes on the Antarctic plate with the potential for large-scale explosive eruptions. During the XVIII Italian Expedition in 2002-2003, the Mt. Melbourne volcanic succession was studied in terms of stratigraphy and sampled for 40Ar/39Ar age determinations and geochemistry. The early, Lower Pleistocene, volcanism was largely alkali basaltic to hawaiitic in composition and monogenetic in style, producing tens of small scoria cones and lava flows scattered over a wide area across the Transantarctic Mountains (Random Hills Period). During the Middle Pleistocene, volcanic activity focused to the area of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano, where several monogenetic centres show the transition from early sub-glacial/subaqueous conditions to emergent subaerial conditions (Shield Nunatak Period). The oldest exposed deposit associated with the early activity of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano (Mt. Melbourne Period) is a trachytic subaerial ignimbrite dated at 123.6 ± 6.0 ka, which reflects the establishment of a crustal magma chamber. Above the ignimbrite a succession of alkali basaltic, hawaiitic, and subordinate benmoreitic lavas and scoria cones is exposed, dated at 90.7 ± 19.0 ka. The Holocene deposits are exposed at the top of Mt. Melbourne, where the crater rim is composed of trachytic to rhyolitic pumice fall deposits, which are also extensively dispersed around the volcano, likely originated from Plinian-scale eruptions. The most recent explosive deposit proved difficult to date accurately because very low quantities of radiogenic 40Ar were released, resulting in imprecise plateau ages of 50 ± 70 and 35 ± 22 ka.

  1. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, Michael Joseph; Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Knight, Kim; Loi, Elaine; Hotchkis, Michael; Moody, Kenton; Singleton, Michael; Robel, Martin; Hutcheon, Ian

    2015-04-13

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (~1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K2(UO2)3O4·4H2O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (~380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO3·2H2O, with minor phases of U3O8 and UO2. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of 236U and 232U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.

  2. Emergence of GII.Pg norovirus in gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Dunbar, Natalie L; Marshall, John A

    2016-09-01

    The ORF 1 GII.Pg genotype represents an obligatory recombinant comprising the ORF 1 GII.Pg genotype and a number of ORF 2 genotypes. The emergence, incidence, and molecular features of GII.Pg norovirus have never been considered in detail and are the subject of the current study. Over the period 2002-2013, GII.Pg norovirus was detected in 16 outbreaks in Victoria, Australia. It was first identified in 2009 and thereafter was detected at low level in each year of the study. GII.Pg norovirus outbreaks occurred in both healthcare and non-healthcare settings and could be found in individuals with a broad range of ages. The seasonality of GII.Pg norovirus outbreaks was significantly different from that of all other (non-GII.Pg) norovirus outbreaks. For the 15 GII.Pg norovirus outbreaks where ORF 2 sequencing data were available, two ORF 2 recombinant genotypes were found: GII.1 in 5 (33%) outbreaks and GII.12 in 10 (67%) outbreaks. The ORF 1 phylogenetic tree shows that the GII.Pg ORF 1 genotype fell into two distinct groups. The ORF 2 phylogenetic tree indicates that the GII.1 and GII.12 clusters each corresponded to one of the groups in the ORF 1 tree. This indicates the two recombinant forms were evolving in parallel and not one from the other. Analysis of age data indicates the GII.1 and GII.12 recombinant forms circulated in different ways in the community. J. Med. Virol. 88:1521-1528, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26946515

  3. Atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the watershed of Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Kiremire, Bernard T; Muir, Derek C G; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla; Mubiru, Drake N

    2012-11-01

    In the first study of its kind in Africa, PAHs were measured in high volume (24 h) air samples collected from two sampling stations, at Kakira and Entebbe (KAK and EBB, respectively) within the Lake Victoria watershed in Uganda, to assess source contributions and generate a baseline reference data set for future studies in the East African region. Sampling was conducted over two periods [2000-2004 (KAK and EBB1) and 2008-2010 (EBB2)]. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction and analyzed for 30 PAHs by GC-MS. The mean total PAH concentrations (ng/m(3)) were found to be 74.3 (range; 19.3-311, N = 39) for KAK, 56.8 (range; 13.3-126, N = 22) for EBB1 and 33.1 (range; 4.91-108, N = 56) for EBB2. The 3-ringed PAHs were the most predominant group with mean concentrations of 35.9 ng/m(3)(EBB1), 30.5 ng/m(3)(KAK) and 23.2 ng/m(3)(EBB2). Naphthalene had an exceptionally high mean concentration (21.9 ng/m(3)) for KAK compared to 0.44 and 0.39 ng/m(3) in EBB1 and EBB2 respectively, likely due to intensive agricultural operations nearby KAK. Principal component and diagnostic ratio analyses showed that the measured levels of PAHs were associated with mixed sources, combustion of petroleum, and biomass being the major sources. PMID:23020709

  4. Fault and Fracture Networks in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia; Implications for Structural Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, J.; King, R.; Holford, S. P.; Bailey, A. H.; Hand, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    The propensity for a fracture to be open to fluid flow is controlled by the orientation and magnitude of the in-situ stress field, types of cement within fractures, the rock strength of both fracture fills and wall rock and surrounding pore-fluid pressures in both fracture zone and surrounding rock. Although it is well understood that the optimal angle between σ1 and the fracture plane for slip is ~30 degrees, the cumulative effects of all these factors are poorly constrained within sedimentary basins; and therefore, the ability for fluid to flow through fractures is not well known. Naturally occurring fractures were recorded in the field, from outcrop of the Eumeralla Formation in the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia. Over 1800 fractures were recorded showing a mean strike of NNE-SSW. Two distinctive fracture sets were identified with orientations of ~010-190 and ~045-225. Natural fractures were further characterised as open or closed. A total of 632 open fractures in two dominant sets were observed at surface, with mean strikes of N-S and ESE-WNW. A total of 878 closed fractures (generally being cemented) in two dominant sets were also observed at surface, also with mean strikes of N-S and ESE-WNW. Further investigation of these data showed that despite a majority of these closed fractures being optimally aligned with the present-day stress field, they remained closed. Thin sections revealed multiple generations of fracture cements. Inferring both a crack seal history and that these mineral cements could potentially be rendering the fractures stress insensitive. Failure of fractures to reactivate and remain open to fluid flow in the favourable stress conditions of the Otway Basin has potential to adversely affect and limit the secondary permeability of the system. This also validates the notion that the in-situ stress regime is not always the dominant factor in the propensity for a fracture to be open to fluid flow.

  5. Acquisition of HIV by African-Born Residents of Victoria, Australia: Insights from Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lemoh, Chris; Ryan, Claire E.; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hearps, Anna C.; Aleksic, Eman; Chibo, Doris; Grierson, Jeffrey; Baho, Samia; Street, Alan; Hellard, Margaret; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Crowe, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    African-born Australians are a recognised “priority population” in Australia's Sixth National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We compared exposure location and route for African-born people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Victoria, Australia, with HIV-1 pol subtype from drug resistance assays and geographical origin suggested by phylogenetic analysis of env gene. Twenty adult HIV positive African-born Victorian residents were recruited via treating doctors. HIV exposure details were obtained from interviews and case notes. Viral RNA was extracted from participant stored plasma or whole blood. The env V3 region was sequenced and compared to globally representative reference HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Library HIV Database. Twelve participants reported exposure via heterosexual sex and two via iatrogenic blood exposures; four were men having sex with men (MSM); two were exposed via unknown routes. Eight participants reported exposure in their countries of birth, seven in Australia, three in other countries and two in unknown locations. Genotype results (pol) were available for ten participants. HIV env amplification was successful in eighteen cases. HIV-1 subtype was identified in all participants: eight both pol and env; ten env alone and two pol alone. Twelve were subtype C, four subtype B, three subtype A and one subtype CRF02_AG. Reported exposure location was consistent with the phylogenetic clustering of env sequences. African Australians are members of multiple transnational social and sexual networks influencing their exposure to HIV. Phylogenetic analysis may complement traditional surveillance to discern patterns of HIV exposure, providing focus for HIV prevention programs in mobile populations. PMID:24391866

  6. Identifying Water Insecurity Hotspots in the Lake Victoria Basin of Eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Shukla, S.; Linard, C.; Gaughan, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), one of Africa's most populated transboundary watersheds and home to more than 30 million inhabitants, is increasingly challenged by both water quality problems and water quantity shortages against a backdrop of climate variability and change; and other environmental challenges. As a result of pollution, droughts, more erratic rainfall, heightened demand for water for both consumption and agricultural needs as well as differences in water allocation among the riverine countries of Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi, many parts of this region are already experiencing water scarcity on a recurrent basis. Furthermore, given projected annual population growth rates of 2.5 to 3.5% for the next 20 years, water shortages are likely to be exacerbated in the future. Analyzing historical changes in the water resources of this region is hence important to identify "hot spots" that might be most sensitive to future changes in climate and demography. In this presentation, we report the findings of a comprehensive analysis performed to (i) examine changes in water resources of LVB in recent decades and (ii) identify overlap between regions of significant changes in water resources with land cover changes and high population centers that are also projected to grow the fastest over the coming decades. We first utilize several satellite, stations and model(s) based climatic and hydrologic datasets to assess changes in water resources in this region. We then use a quality-controlled Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product to identify areas of significant land cover changes. Simultaneously we use projections of gridded population density based on differential growth rates for rural and urban population to estimate fastest projected human population growth for 2030 and 2050 relative to 2010 data. Using the outcomes of these change analysis we identify water insecurity hotspots in the LVB.

  7. Precipitable Water Vapor from GPS in Antarctica: Opportunities from the TAMDEF GPS Network, Victoria Land.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Grejner, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    An experiment was carried out in order to estimate Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected by the Trans Antarctic Mountain Deformation Network, Victoria Land in Antarctica. TAMDEF is the OSU and US Geological Survey joint project sponsored by National Science Foundation (NSF). Estimation of PWV from the GPS data could play a crucial role in weather and climate study for Antarctica, by increasing the spatial and temporal resolutions of PWV estimates that can be used together with traditional meteorological data (such as ground meteorological stations and radiosonde) in the numerical weather prediction models. The basic observation used in this experiment is the ion-free, double-difference phase observations. Data collected by the TAMDEF network were processed using the PAGES software (Program for the Adjustment of GPS Ephemerides) with a 30-s sampling rate and 15-degree cutoff angle, using precise GPS orbits disseminated by the IGS (International GPS Service). PAGES is a production and research tool employed for a variety of NGS products (Mader et al. 1995). Optimal data reduction strategy was developed based on three different models tested. The Niell Mapping Functions and CfA 2.2 mapping functions with the Saastamoinen model, and the Marini model were used to estimate the wet delay (step Piece-Wise Linear strategy), which later was transformed to PWV via Bevis et al. (1992). The GPS PWV estimates are currently being compared to the radiosonde data in order to assess the quality of the GPS PWV solutions. The preliminary results are very promising, indicating a good match between the two methods. In summary, introducing GPS-derived PWV to weather/climate models will improve the model's predictive capability, and will allow a better understanding of the Antarctic weather conditions (and climate). Furthermore, more exact forecast of storm systems will recover surface, coastal, and air travel safety across the Antarctic

  8. Governance of quality of care: a qualitative study of health service boards in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bismark, Marie M; Studdert, David M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the engagement of health service boards with quality-of-care issues and to identify factors that influence boards’ activities in this area. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with 35 board members and executives from 13 public health services in Victoria, Australia. Interviews focused on the role currently played by boards in overseeing quality of care. We also elicited interviewees’ perceptions of factors that have influenced their current approach to governance in this area. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes from interview transcripts. Results Virtually all interviewees believed boards had substantial opportunities to influence the quality of care delivered within the service, chiefly through setting priorities, monitoring progress, holding staff to account and shaping culture. Perceived barriers to leveraging this influence included insufficient resources, gaps in skills and experience among board members, inadequate information on performance and regulatory requirements that miss the mark. Interviewees converged on four enablers of more effective quality governance: stronger regional collaborations; more tailored board training on quality issues; smarter use of reporting and accreditation requirements; and better access to data that was reliable, longitudinal and allowed for benchmarking against peer organisations. Conclusions Although health service boards are eager to establish quality of care as a governance priority, several obstacles are blocking progress. The result is a gap between the rhetoric of quality governance and the reality of month-to-month activities at the board level. The imperative for effective board-level engagement in this area cannot be met until these barriers are addressed. PMID:24327735

  9. Three-dimensional structure and stoichiometry of Helmintosporium victoriae190S totivirus

    SciTech Connect

    Caston, Jose R. . E-mail: jrcaston@cnb.uam.es; Luque, Daniel; Trus, Benes L.; Rivas, German; Alfonso, Carlos; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Carrascosa, Jose L.; Annamalai, Padmanaban; Ghabrial, Said A.

    2006-04-10

    Most double-stranded RNA viruses have a characteristic capsid consisting of 60 asymmetric coat protein dimers in a so-called T = 2 organization, a feature probably related to their unique life cycle. These capsids organize the replicative complex(es) that is actively involved in genome transcription and replication. Available structural data indicate that their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) is packaged as an integral capsid component, either as a replicative complex at the pentameric vertex (as in reovirus capsids) or as a fusion protein with the coat protein (as in some totivirus). In contrast with members of the family Reoviridae, there are two well-established capsid arrangements for dsRNA fungal viruses, exemplified by the totiviruses L-A and UmV and the chrysovirus PcV. Whereas L-A and UmV have a canonical T = 2 capsid, the PcV capsid is based on a T = 1 lattice composed of 60 capsid proteins. We used cryo-electron microscopy combined with three-dimensional reconstruction techniques and hydrodynamic analysis to determine the structure at 13.8 A resolution of Helminthosporium victoriae 190S virus (Hv190SV), a totivirus isolated from a filamentous fungus. The Hv190SV capsid has a smooth surface and is based on a T = 2 lattice with 60 equivalent dimers. Unlike the RDRP of some other totiviruses, which are expressed as a capsid protein-RDRP fusion protein, the Hv190SV RDRP is incorporated into the capsid as a separate, nonfused protein, free or non-covalently associated to the capsid interior.

  10. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m(-3) at 50 m to 36 μg N m(-3) at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m(-2) s(-1) at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr(-1) in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition. PMID:27600433

  11. The origin and age of haplochromine fishes in Lake Victoria, east Africa.

    PubMed

    Nagl, S; Tichy, H; Mayer, W E; Takezaki, N; Takahata, N; Klein, J

    2000-05-22

    According to a widely held view, the more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (LV), East Africa, originated from a single founder species in less than 12,000 years. This view, however, does not follow from the published geological and molecular evidence. The former does indeed suggest that the LV basin dried out less than 15,000 years ago, but it does not provide any information about the species that re-colonized the new lake or that remained in the rivers draining the area. The molecular evidence is inconclusive with respect to the origin of the LV haplochromines because cichlids from critical regions around LV were not adequately sampled; and as far as the age of the LV haplochromines is concerned, it in fact led to an estimate of 250,000-750,000 years old. In the present study, mitochondrial DNA (control region) variation was determined by heteroduplex and sequencing analyses of more than 670 specimens collected at widely distributed East African riverine and lacustrine localities. The analyses revealed the existence of seven haplogroups (I-VII) distinguishable by characteristic substitutions. All endemic LV samples tested fell into one of these haplogroups (V) which, however, was also found to be present at various other localities, both riverine and lacustrine, outside LV. Within this haplogroup, four subgroups (VA through VD) could be distinguished, two of which (VB and VC) were represented in LV and at other localities. The great majority of the LV haplochromine species could be classified as belonging to the VC subgroup, which was found only in LV and in the rivers draining into it. Hence, while the endemic haplochromine species of LV could not have originated from a single founding population, the lake does harbour a large species flock which probably arose in situ. PMID:10874756

  12. The origin and age of haplochromine fishes in Lake Victoria, east Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Nagl, S; Tichy, H; Mayer, W E; Takezaki, N; Takahata, N; Klein, J

    2000-01-01

    According to a widely held view, the more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (LV), East Africa, originated from a single founder species in less than 12,000 years. This view, however, does not follow from the published geological and molecular evidence. The former does indeed suggest that the LV basin dried out less than 15,000 years ago, but it does not provide any information about the species that re-colonized the new lake or that remained in the rivers draining the area. The molecular evidence is inconclusive with respect to the origin of the LV haplochromines because cichlids from critical regions around LV were not adequately sampled; and as far as the age of the LV haplochromines is concerned, it in fact led to an estimate of 250,000-750,000 years old. In the present study, mitochondrial DNA (control region) variation was determined by heteroduplex and sequencing analyses of more than 670 specimens collected at widely distributed East African riverine and lacustrine localities. The analyses revealed the existence of seven haplogroups (I-VII) distinguishable by characteristic substitutions. All endemic LV samples tested fell into one of these haplogroups (V) which, however, was also found to be present at various other localities, both riverine and lacustrine, outside LV. Within this haplogroup, four subgroups (VA through VD) could be distinguished, two of which (VB and VC) were represented in LV and at other localities. The great majority of the LV haplochromine species could be classified as belonging to the VC subgroup, which was found only in LV and in the rivers draining into it. Hence, while the endemic haplochromine species of LV could not have originated from a single founding population, the lake does harbour a large species flock which probably arose in situ. PMID:10874756

  13. Paleozoic magmatism and associated tectonic problems of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, S. G.; Stump, E.

    The division of northern Victoria Land (NVL) into three north-northwest trending terranes is underscored by recent chemical and isotopic studies of the Paleozoic granitoids of the region. Early Paleozoic Granite Harbour Intrusives are found only in the (western) Wilson Terrane (WT), best interpreted as a continuation of the Ross Orogenic Belt, which developed along the margin of the East Antarctic Craton. Devonian Admiralty Intrusives, however, are found only within the (central) Bowers Terrane (BT) and the (eastern) Robertson Bay Terrane (RBT), and studies of chemical polarity indicate that these terranes are fragments of an allochthonous crustal block. In view of the key position occupied by NVL in reconstructions of Antarctica and Australia, recognition of the relationships outlined above raises important questions about the assembly and perhaps the breakup of this portion of Gondwana. Timing of juxtapositioning of the BT+RBT against the WT is problematic but is thought to have occurred after emplacement of the Devonian Admiralty Intrusives and must have occurred prior to deposition of the Beacon Supergroup in the Permian. Other geologic relations known at present do not provide definitive constraints on tectonic models, but there are unresolved points which may have special significance. For example, the tectonic setting of the Salamander Granite Complex, as well as the tectonic setting of middle Paleozoic volcanics exposed at Mount Black Prince, Lawrence Peaks, and Gallipoli Heights remain an important question. Clearly, the geology of NVL holds important clues to the tectonic history of this segment of Gondwana. Continued studies of the granitoids, coupled with new research on the middle Paleozoic volcanics, detailed structural studies with emphasis on timing and sense of movement on the terrane bounding faults, and more detailed provenance studies of all the sedimentary and metasedimentary rock units in NVL, would be helpful in evaluating and revising

  14. Syntectonic fluid flux during rift faulting: Record from the MIS core, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Paulsen, T. S.

    2009-12-01

    The McMurdo Ice Shelf project successfully recovered 1285 m of Neogene sedimentary core from the Victoria Land Basin, a large rift basin within the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) of Antarctica. The core contains 1475 natural fractures that were logged as faults, veins and clastic dikes, associated with the southern extension of the Neogene-active? Terror Rift fault zone. Veins constitute about 625 of this population. Most veins are filled with calcite, although zeolites and minor chlorite are common towards the bottom of the core. In the lower ~300 m of the core, veins contain opening-mode fiber fills and are wavy to tightly folded due to vertical shortening. Folded, opening-mode folded veins are filled by calcite fibers that grew normal to vein walls, indicating the host sediment was cohesive enough to fracture but was not fully lithified and accommodated vein buckling during compaction. Fold hinges are fractured and wedging of vein segments is marked by overlapping tips separated by zones with strong chlorite and clay fabrics, suggesting shearing during further vertical contraction of the host rock. Calcite veins are commonly strongly twinned. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows minor changes in color and intensity and minimal concentric or sectoral zoning, suggesting relatively rapid crystallization of fluids of similar chemistry. However, stable isotope analyses reveal large variations in values, with carbon values ranging from -21.91 to -7.15 (VPBD) and oxygen values ranging from -5.35 to -11.97 (VPBD). Further detailed investigation of the fracture fills using cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy combined with isotopic analysis of carbon and oxygen will document the generations of the filling material in more detail and will constrain the sources and evolution of the fluids. There has clearly been significant structural control on fluid pathways during lithification, compaction and diagenesis of strata deforming within the Terror Rift zone.

  15. Scaling up diabetes prevention in Victoria, Australia: policy development, implementation, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, James A; Jayawardena, Abirami; Johnson, Greg; Roger, Karen; Timoshanko, Amy; Versace, Vincent L; Shill, Jane; Philpot, Benjamin; Vartiainen, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Best, James D; Janus, Edward D

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The Australian lifestyle intervention program Life! is only the second reported, large-scale diabetes prevention program. This article describes the genesis and the successful establishment of Life! and its key outcomes for participants and implementation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Life!, a behavior-change intervention, comprises six group sessions over 8 months. The Victorian Department of Health funded Diabetes Australia-Victoria to implement the program. Experience of the Greater Green Triangle diabetes prevention implementation trial was used for intervention design, workforce development, training, and infrastructure. Clinical and anthropometric data from participants, used for program evaluation, were recorded on a central database. RESULTS Life! has a statewide workforce of 302 trained facilitators within 137 organizations. Over 29,000 Victorians showed interest in Life!, and 15,000 individuals have been referred to the program. In total, 8,412 participants commenced a Life! program between October 2007 and June 2011, and 37% of the original participants completed the 8-month program. Participants completing sessions 1 to 5 lost an average of 1.4 kg weight (P < 0.001) and waist circumference of 2.5 cm (P < 0.001). Those completing six sessions lost an average of 2.4 kg weight (P < 0.001) and waist circumference of 3.8 cm (P < 0.001). The weight loss of 2.4 kg represents 2.7% of participants' starting body weight. CONCLUSIONS The impact of Life! is attributable to applying available evidence for the system's design of the intervention and collaboration between policy makers, implementers, and evaluators using the principles of continuous quality improvement to support successful, large-scale recruitment and implementation. PMID:24319121

  16. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nalugwa, A; Olsen, A; Tukahebwa, M E; Nuwaha, F

    2015-02-01

    Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by Schistosoma trematode parasites, affects hundreds of millions of people and accounts for more than 40% of the global health burden due to neglected tropical diseases. In Uganda, intestinal schistosomiasis is endemic in 73 out of 112 districts and about 55% of the population of 36 million individuals are at risk. There is scanty information on the status and burden of schistosomiasis in preschool children less than six years of age in Uganda. This study aimed to assess the status of Schistosoma mansoni infections in children aged 1-5 years in Uganda. S. mansoni prevalence and intensity of infection were examined in 3058 children from 5 districts along Lake Victoria shoreline, eastern Uganda. For each child one stool sample was collected on three consecutive days. The Kato-Katz technique was used to prepare stool smears on slides for microscopic examination. Short interviews with a standardized pre-tested questionnaire prepared in the local language (Lusoga) were administered to each caregiver to identify risk factors associated with S. mansoni infection. An overall S. mansoni prevalence of 39.3% (95% CI: 38.0-41.1%) was estimated out of the 3058 stool samples examined. The geometric mean intensity of S. mansoni among the infected children was 273 (95% CI: 241-305) eggs per gram of faeces. Both prevalence and intensity of infection increased linearly with age (P<0.0001) and were highest in the age group 49-60 months. Majority (61%) of the children, especially in the age group 12-24 months (84.2%; 95% CI: 75.6-90.1%), were lightly infected. Short interviews with caregivers revealed that preschool children, 1-5 years old, get exposed to S. mansoni infested waters through bathing, playing or swimming. It is important that the Uganda national control programme for schistosomiasis takes preschool children into consideration and that health education on transmission of schistosomiasis is delivered to the endemic communities regularly

  17. Newly identified "Tunnunik" impact structure, Prince Albert Peninsula, northwestern Victoria Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewing, Keith; Pratt, Brian R.; Hadlari, Thomas; Brent, Tom; BÉDard, Jean; Rainbird, Robert H.

    2013-02-01

    Regional geological mapping of the glaciated surface of northwestern Victoria Island in the western Canadian Arctic revealed an anomalous structure in otherwise flat-lying Neoproterozoic and lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks, located south of Richard Collinson Inlet. The feature is roughly circular in plan view, approximately 25 km in diameter, and characterized by quaquaversal dips of approximately 45°, decreasing laterally. The core of the feature also exhibits local vertical dips, low-angle reverse faults, and drag folds. Although brecciation was not observed, shatter cones are pervasive in all lithologies in the central area, including 723 Ma old dikes that penetrate Neoproterozoic limestones. Their abundance decreases distally, and none was observed in surrounding, horizontally bedded strata. This circular structure is interpreted as a deeply eroded meteorite impact crater of the complex type, and the dipping strata as the remnants of the central uplift. The variation in orientation and shape of shatter cones point to variably oriented stresses with the passage of the shock wave, possibly related to the presence of pore water in the target strata as well as rock type and lithological heterogeneities, especially bed thickness. Timing of impact is poorly constrained. The youngest rocks affected are Late Ordovician (approximately 450 Ma) and the impact structure is mantled by undisturbed postglacial sediments. Regional, hydrothermal dolomitization of the Ordovician limestones, possibly in the Late Devonian (approximately 360 Ma), took place before the impact, and widespread WSW-ENE-trending normal faults of probable Early Cretaceous age (approximately 130 Ma) apparently cross-cut the impact structure.

  18. Metasomatism vs Refertilisation: New Insights from Northern Victoria Land mantle xenoliths (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of anhydrous (Greene Point, Handler Ridge) and amphibole-bearing (Harrow Peaks, Baker Rocks) xenolith populations from Cenozoic volcanics of Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica, provide new geochemical/geodynamic constraints on the nature and evolution of the NVL lithospheric mantle. Based on mineral major and trace element modelling applied on the various xenolith suites, this mantle domain is supposed to represent a residuum after 10 to 20% of partial melting, with Handler Ridge showing the most fertile character. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results evidence the large geochemical contribution of melt infiltration acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic. The close correlation between Greene Point clinopyroxene trace element contents and those from phenocrysts of Ferrar tholeiites, allows to ascribe the first refertilisation event to the Jurassic Ferrar magmatism; this asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to some NVL mantle segment. The rare presence of glassy patches and related secondary phases in Greene Point and Handler Ridge, as well as the amphibole presence in Harrow Peaks and Baker Rocks xenoliths prove that alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening, heterogeneously affected the NVL lithospheric domain. At a fixed P of 15 Kbar, T and fO2 were calculated; data reveal that the presence of amphibole (always < 3% modal content) does not influence the ambient redox conditions (comparable in amphibole-bearing and anhydrous Greene Point peridotites [ Δlog fO2 (QFM) -0.7)] but the anhydrous suite presents systematic higher temperature (950-1050 °C) than those amphibole bearing (850 °C).

  19. Ammonia deposition in the neighbourhood of an intensive cattle feedlot in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianlin; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Sun, Jianlei; Coates, Trevor; Lam, Shu Kee; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Intensive cattle feedlots are large emission sources of ammonia (NH3), but NH3 deposition to the landscape downwind of feedlots is not well understood. We conducted the first study in Australia to measure NH3 dry deposition within 1 km of a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Victoria. NH3 concentrations and deposition fluxes decreased exponentially with distance away from the feedlot. The mean NH3 concentrations decreased from 419 μg N m−3 at 50 m to 36 μg N m−3 at 1 km, while the mean NH3 dry deposition fluxes decreased from 2.38 μg N m−2 s−1 at 50 m to 0.20 μg N m−2 s−1 at 1 km downwind from the feedlot. These results extrapolate to NH3 deposition of 53.9 tonne N yr−1 in the area within 1 km from the feedlot, or 67.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as an area-weighted mean, accounting for 8.1% of the annual NH3-N emissions from the feedlot. Thus NH3 deposition around feedlots is a significant nitrogen input for surrounding ecosystems. Researches need be conducted to evaluate the impacts of NH3 deposition on the surrounding natural or semi-naturals ecosystems and to reduce N fertilizer application rate for the surrounding crops by considering nitrogen input from NH3 deposition. PMID:27600433

  20. Acquisition of HIV by African-born residents of Victoria, Australia: insights from molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lemoh, Chris; Ryan, Claire E; Sekawi, Zamberi; Hearps, Anna C; Aleksic, Eman; Chibo, Doris; Grierson, Jeffrey; Baho, Samia; Street, Alan; Hellard, Margaret; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    African-born Australians are a recognised "priority population" in Australia's Sixth National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We compared exposure location and route for African-born people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Victoria, Australia, with HIV-1 pol subtype from drug resistance assays and geographical origin suggested by phylogenetic analysis of env gene. Twenty adult HIV positive African-born Victorian residents were recruited via treating doctors. HIV exposure details were obtained from interviews and case notes. Viral RNA was extracted from participant stored plasma or whole blood. The env V3 region was sequenced and compared to globally representative reference HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Library HIV Database. Twelve participants reported exposure via heterosexual sex and two via iatrogenic blood exposures; four were men having sex with men (MSM); two were exposed via unknown routes. Eight participants reported exposure in their countries of birth, seven in Australia, three in other countries and two in unknown locations. Genotype results (pol) were available for ten participants. HIV env amplification was successful in eighteen cases. HIV-1 subtype was identified in all participants: eight both pol and env; ten env alone and two pol alone. Twelve were subtype C, four subtype B, three subtype A and one subtype CRF02_AG. Reported exposure location was consistent with the phylogenetic clustering of env sequences. African Australians are members of multiple transnational social and sexual networks influencing their exposure to HIV. Phylogenetic analysis may complement traditional surveillance to discern patterns of HIV exposure, providing focus for HIV prevention programs in mobile populations. PMID:24391866

  1. Farmer Tree Nursery as a Catalyst for Developing Sustainable Best Management Land Use Practices in Lake Victoria Catchments Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shisanya, C. A.; Makokha, M. O.; Kimani, S. K.; Kalumuna, M.; Tenge, A.

    Support to farmer nurseries is classified as either hard referring to material inputs (tree seed, water, tools and fencing) or soft (information, training and backstopping advice). Against a background of poor services for smallholder farmers in the Lake Victoria basin, it was hypothesized that a number of support agents operating at the grassroot level together with farmers themselves provide the different support functions needed in the establishment of farmer tree nurseries. Through financial support from Inter-University Council of East Africa coordinated VicReS Project, a collaborative project involving Kenyatta University (Kenya), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Mulingano Agricultural Research Institute (Tanzania) has been able to initiate reforestation/afforestation activities in Lake Victoria catchments ecosystems of western Kenya and western Tanzania. Through the initial activities, a total of twenty four farmer groups have been identified in western Kenya and supported through capacity building and supply of basic inputs for tree nursery seed bed preparation and management. The groups have been able to set up tree nurseries and are now managing seed beds with a total of 450,000 agro-forestry seedlings, mainly Grevillea robusta and Casuarina spp. The farmers intend to distribute the seedling among the members for planting on farm boundaries, around homesteads and woodlots within their homesteads and sell the surplus. Preliminary findings show that there is an urgent need to facilitate grassroot level support systems with larger participation from the national extension service for provision of training and backstopping advice. Strengthening the human capital of farmers and service providers emerges as critical in increasing impact. Farmer nurseries are shown to play a number of important and interrelated functions in building natural, human and social capital. Monitoring and evaluating farmer nurseries in catalyzing these three functions

  2. The influence of climate variability on numbers of three waterbird species in Western Port, Victoria, 1973-2002.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lynda E; Loyn, Richard H

    2006-05-01

    Seasonal and annual movements of Australian waterbirds are generally more complex than those of their Northern Hemisphere counterparts, and long-term data are needed to understand their relationships with climatic variables. This paper explores a long-term (1973-2002) set of waterbird counts from coastal Victoria and relates them to climatic data at local and continental scales. Three species (Black Swan Cygnus atratus, White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae and Grey Teal Anas gracilis) were chosen for this analysis. Black Swans have large local breeding populations near the study region; White-faced Herons have smaller local breeding populations and Grey Teal breed extensively in ephemeral inland floodplains, such as those in the Murray-Darling Basin. All showed significant relationships with streamflow, regional rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) at appropriate scales and time-lags, with streamflow explaining the most variance. Black Swans showed a strong seasonal cycle in abundance and local climate variables had the greatest influence on the counts. Numbers were positively correlated with streamflow in southern Victoria three to six seasons before each count. Broader-scale climatic patterns were more important for the other two species. Numbers of White-faced Herons were positively correlated with streamflow or rainfall over various parts of Australia seven to nine seasons before each count. Numbers of Grey Teal showed weak seasonal cycles, and were negatively correlated with rainfall in Victoria or the Murray-Darling Basin in the seasons before or during each count, and positively with streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin 15-18 months before each count. PMID:16435107

  3. Lessons from the front lines: the prehospital experience of the 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin C; Burkle, Frederick M; Holman, Paul F; Dunlop, Justin M; Archer, Frank L

    2009-12-01

    The H1N1 (swine influenza) 2009 outbreak in Victoria, Australia, provided a unique opportunity to review the prehospital response to a public health emergency. As part of Ambulance Victoria's response to the outbreak, relevant emergency response plans and pandemic plans were instigated, focused efforts were aimed at encouraging the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and additional questions were included in the call-taking script for telephone triage of emergency calls to identify potential cases of H1N1 from the point of call. As a result, paramedics were alerted to all potential cases of H1N1 influenza or any patient who met the current case definition before their arrival on the scene and were advised to use appropriate PPE. During the period of May 1 to July 2, Ambulance Victoria telephone triaged 1598 calls relating to H1N1 (1228 in metropolitan areas and 243 in rural areas) and managed 127 calls via a referral service that provides specific telephone triage for potential H1N1 influenza cases based on the national call-taking script. The referral service determines whether a patient requires an emergency ambulance or can be diverted to other resources such as flu clinics. Key lessons learned during the H1N1 outbreak include a focused need for continued education and communication regarding infection control and the appropriate use of PPE. Current guidelines regarding PPE use are adequate for use during an outbreak of infectious disease. Compliance with PPE needs to be addressed through the use of intra-agency communications and regular information updates early in the progress of the outbreak. PMID:19952886

  4. The influence of climate variability on numbers of three waterbird species in Western Port, Victoria, 1973 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Lynda E.; Loyn, Richard H.

    2006-05-01

    Seasonal and annual movements of Australian waterbirds are generally more complex than those of their Northern Hemisphere counterparts, and long-term data are needed to understand their relationships with climatic variables. This paper explores a long-term (1973 2002) set of waterbird counts from coastal Victoria and relates them to climatic data at local and continental scales. Three species (Black Swan Cygnus atratus, White-faced Heron Egretta novaehollandiae and Grey Teal Anas gracilis) were chosen for this analysis. Black Swans have large local breeding populations near the study region; White-faced Herons have smaller local breeding populations and Grey Teal breed extensively in ephemeral inland floodplains, such as those in the Murray-Darling Basin. All showed significant relationships with streamflow, regional rainfall and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) at appropriate scales and time-lags, with streamflow explaining the most variance. Black Swans showed a strong seasonal cycle in abundance and local climate variables had the greatest influence on the counts. Numbers were positively correlated with streamflow in southern Victoria three to six seasons before each count. Broader-scale climatic patterns were more important for the other two species. Numbers of White-faced Herons were positively correlated with streamflow or rainfall over various parts of Australia seven to nine seasons before each count. Numbers of Grey Teal showed weak seasonal cycles, and were negatively correlated with rainfall in Victoria or the Murray-Darling Basin in the seasons before or during each count, and positively with streamflow in the Murray-Darling Basin 15 18 months before each count.

  5. Molecular records of climate variability and vegetation response since the Late Pleistocene in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, Melissa A.; Johnson, Thomas C.; Werne, Josef P.; Grice, Kliti; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2012-11-01

    New molecular proxies of temperature and hydrology are helping to constrain tropical climate change and elucidate possible forcing mechanisms during the Holocene. Here, we examine a ˜14,000 year record of climate variability from Lake Victoria, East Africa, the world's second largest freshwater lake by surface area. We determined variations in local hydroclimate using compound specific δD of terrestrial leaf waxes, and compared these results to a new record of temperature utilizing the TEX86 paleotemperature proxy, based on aquatic Thaumarchaeotal membrane lipids. In order to assess the impact of changing climate on the terrestrial environment, we generated a record of compound specific δ13C from terrestrial leaf waxes, a proxy for ecosystem-level C3/C4 plant abundances, and compared the results to previously published pollen-inferred regional vegetation shifts. We observe a general coherence between temperature and rainfall, with a warm, wet interval peaking ˜10-9 ka and subsequent gradual cooling and drying over the remainder of the Holocene. These results, particularly those of rainfall, are in general agreement with other tropical African climate records, indicating a somewhat consistent view of climate over a wide region of tropical East Africa. The δ13C record from Lake Victoria leaf waxes does not appear to reflect changes in regional climate or vegetation. However, palynological analyses document an abrupt shift from a Poaceae (grasses)-dominated ecosystem during the cooler, arid late Pleistocene to a Moraceae-dominated (trees/shrubs) landscape during the warm, wet early Holocene. We theorize that these proxies are reflecting vegetation in different locations around Lake Victoria. Our results suggest a predominantly insolation-forced climate, with warm, wet conditions peaking at the maximum interhemispheric seasonal insolation contrast, likely intensifying monsoonal precipitation, while maximum aridity coincides with the rainy season insolation and the

  6. Distribution and origin of authigenic smectite clays in Cape Roberts Project Core 3, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priestas, A.W.; Wise, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Of some 800 m of lower Oligocene marine sediments cored continuously from the seafloor in the Victoria Land Basin of Antarctica at Cape Roberts Site CRP-3, the lower 500 m exhibit authigenic smectite clay coats on shallow-water sandstone grains. A scanning electron microscope/EDS study of 46 fracture sections confirms that the distribution of the clay coats through the unit is not uniform or evenly distributed, but rather varies with depth, original porosity, and the kinds and abundance of source materials. Our results suggest that smectite emplacement resulted from in-situ, low-temperature burial diagenesis rather than hydrothermal or fault-focused thermobaric fluids.

  7. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, V.; Di Achille, G.; Ferranti, L.; Rothery, D. A.; Palumbo, P.

    The first stratigraphic and geologic study of Mercury was released by Trask & Guest (1975) followed by Spudis & Guest (1988, and references therein), whose work was based on the images taken by Mariner 10 covering 42% of the total surface of Mercury. The planet has been officially divided into fifteen quadrangles: 2 polar, 5 equatorial and 8 at midlatitudes. Quadrangle H2 (= Hermes sheet n.2), named ``Victoria'' (20oN - 65oN Lon.; 270oE - 0o Lat.), was partially mapped by McGill & King (1983), though a wide area (˜64%) remained unmapped due to the lack of imagery. Following the terrain units recognized and described by the above authors, we have produced a geologic map of the entire quadrangle using MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and Ranging) images. The images taken by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) allowed us to map geologic and tectonic features in much greater detail than the previously published map (mapping scale range between 1:300k and 1:600k). We classified craters larger than 20 km using three relative age classes, which are a simplification of the past five degradation classes defined by McCauley et al. (1981). Victoria quadrangle is characterized by a localized N-S thrust array constituted by Victoria Rupes, Endeavour Rupes and Antoniadi Dorsum to the East and by a more diffuse system of NE-SW oriented fault arrays to the West: the two systems seem to be separated by a tectonic bulge. The Victoria-Endeavour-Antoniadi system has been interpreted as a fold-and-thrust belt by Byrne et al. (2014) and a previous study made on craters cross-cut by its thrusts reveals fault dips of 15-20o and a near dip slip motion (Galluzzi et al., 2015). This geologic map has the aim to build a regional model of its structural framework. Deciphering the geological setting of this quadrangle will bring important insights for understanding the tectonic evolution of the whole planet

  8. Environmental physiology of three species of Collembola at Cape Hallett, North Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Brent J; Terblanche, John S; Scott, Matthew B; Blatch, Gregory L; Jaco Klok, C; Chown, Steven L

    2006-01-01

    The environmental physiology of three speciesof Collembola: Cryptopygus cisantarcticus, Isotoma klovstadi (Isotomidae) and Friesea grisea (Neanuridae) was investigated from November 2002 to February 2003 at Cape Hallett, North Victoria Land, Antarctica. All three species were freeze avoiding, and while supercooling points were variable on seasonal and daily scales in I. klovstadi and C. cisantarcticus, they remained largely static in F. grisea. LT50 (temperature where 50% of animals are killed by cold) was -13.6, -19.1 and -19.8 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea, respectively. Upper lethal temperature was 34, 34 and 38 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea. Critical thermal minimum onset (the temperature where individuals entered chill coma) was ca. -7, -12 and -8 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea, and 25% of I. klovstadi individuals froze without entering chill coma. Critical thermal maximum (the onset of spasms at high temperature) was 30, 33 and 34 degrees C for C. cisantarcticus, I. klovstadi and F. grisea. Haemolymph osmolality was approximately 720 mOsm for C. cisantarcticus and 680 mOsm for I. klovstadi, and both species showed a moderate degree of thermal hysteresis, which persisted through the season. Desiccation resistance was measured as survival above silica gel, and the species survived in the rank order of C. cisantarcticus< I. klovstadi = F. grisea. Desiccation resulted in an increase in haemolymph osmolality in I. klovstadi, and water was quickly regained by desiccation-stressed individuals that had access to liquid water, but not by individuals placed in high humidity, indicating that this species is unable to absorb atmospheric water vapour. SDS-PAGE did not suggest any strong patterns in protein synthesis either seasonally or in response to temperature or desiccation stress. Microclimate temperatures were measured at sites representative of collection sites for the three

  9. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Catherine M; Britz, Margaret L; Gobius, Kari S; Craven, Heather M

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, seasonality, and species variety of enterococci present in raw milk factory silos and pasteurized milk in 3 dairying regions in Victoria, Australia, over a 1-yr period. Additionally, the growth ability of thermoduric enterococci isolated in this study (Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. hirae, and E. durans) was determined in milk at temperatures likely to occur during storage, transport, and distribution, and before domestic consumption (4 and 7°C). Enterococci were detected in 96% of 211 raw milk samples, with an average count of 2.48 log10 cfu/mL. Counts were significantly lower in winter than summer (average 1.84 log10 cfu/mL) and were different between factories but not regions. Enterococcus faecalis was the most prevalent species isolated from raw milk in every factory, comprising between 61.5 and 83.5% of enterococcal species across each season. Enterococci were detected in lower numbers in pasteurized milk than in raw milk and were below the limit of detection on spread plates (<10 cfu/mL) after factory pasteurization. Residual viable cells were only detected following enrichment using 100-mL samples of milk, with 20.8% of the samples testing positive; this equated to a decrease in the average raw milk enterococci count of >4 log10 cfu/mL following pasteurization. Although E. faecalis predominated in raw milk and E. durans was found in only 2.9% of raw milk samples, E. durans was the most prevalent species detected in pasteurized milk. The detection of enterococci in the pasteurized milk did not correlate with higher enterococci counts in the raw milk. This suggested that the main enterococci populations in raw milk were heat-sensitive and that thermoduric enterococci survived pasteurization in a small numbers of instances. All of the thermoduric enterococci that were assessed for growth at likely refrigeration temperatures were able to grow at both 4 and 7°C in sterile milk, with generation times of 35 to 41h

  10. The Role of Thermogenesis in the Pollination Biology of the Amazon Waterlily Victoria amazonica

    PubMed Central

    SEYMOUR, ROGER S.; MATTHEWS, PHILIP G. D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Several families of tropical plants have thermogenic flowers that show a 2-d protogynous sequence. Most are pollinated by large beetles that remain for the entire period in the flowers, where they compete for mates and feed. Active beetles require high body temperatures that they can achieve endogenously at great energy expense or attain passively and cheaply in a warm environment. Floral heating is therefore hypothesized to be a direct energy reward to endothermic beetles, in addition to its accepted role in enhancing scent production. • Methods This study measures the pattern of floral heat production (as temperature in 20 flowers and respiration rates in five flowers) in Victoria amazonica at field sites in Guyana and correlates floral temperatures with body temperatures necessary for activity in visiting Cyclocephala hardyi beetles. • Key Results Thermogenesis occurred in a bimodal pattern, with peaks associated with the arrival and departure of beetles near sunset. Peak CO2 production rates averaged 2·9 µmol s−1, equivalent to a heat production of 1·4 W. Heat was generated mainly in the floral chamber on the first evening and by the stamen complex on the second. Mean chamber temperature remained between 29·3 and 34·7 °C during the first night, when ambient temperature was 23·5–25·2 °C. Beetles actively competed for mates and consumed stylar processes in the floral chamber, where their mean thoracic temperature was 33·2 °C. At the lower ambient temperatures outside of the flower, beetles capable of sustained flight had a similar mean temperature of 32·0 °C. • Conclusions Floral heating is not only associated with attraction, but continues throughout the night when beetles are active inside the flower and increases again when they leave. Floral chamber temperatures similar to activity temperatures of actively endothermic beetles imply that thermogenesis is an energy reward. PMID:17018568

  11. Trialling a web-based spatial information management tool with Land Managers in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna M; Park, Geoff; Melland, Alice R; Miller, Ian

    2009-01-01

    A prototype web-based spatial information management tool (called eFarmer) was tested for its useability and usefulness by 46 Land Managers and 5 extension staff in Victoria, Australia. Participants had a range of enterprises (dairy, beef/sheep grazing, cropping, lifestyle land use), property sizes and computer ownership and expertise. A follow up study was conducted with 12 dairy farmers, where features regarding assessment of nutrient losses from paddocks (Farm Nutrient Loss Index, FNLI) were added to eFarmer. Over 27,000 maps (including 11,000 with aerial photography) were accessed by Land Managers during a 5-month trial period. Despite limited training and support, 1350 people are registered users, and approximately 700 have actively used the tool. Reasons for the success include providing improved access to spatial information, enabling measurement of farm features and creation of farm maps, providing a basis for decision-making about farm inputs, support for better farm and landscape scale action planning and production and Land Managers being able to seek management advice from the extension staff who facilitated eFarmer testing programs. For dairy farmers in the FNLI trial, awareness of off-site impacts increased and most changed management practices. Provision of on-going training and support will be at least as important as further development of the tool itself. Web-based spatial information tools have potential to improve the awareness of Land Managers about their environmental impacts and influence their decision-making. Access to spatial information has potential to reduce information asymmetry between Land Managers, extension staff and catchment planners in a constructive way. It will also change the role of extension staff away from being an expert with answers, to a facilitator enabling learning. Results have applicability in countries where there is a high level of farm computer ownership, relevant spatial information is available in GIS format

  12. A problem-oriented approach to understanding adaptation: lessons learnt from Alpine Shire, Victoria Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, Carolina

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is gaining attention as a significant strategic issue for localities that rely on their business sectors for economic viability. For businesses in the tourism sector, considerable research effort has sought to characterise the vulnerability to the likely impacts of future climate change through scenarios or ‘end-point' approaches (Kelly & Adger, 2000). Whilst useful, there are few demonstrable case studies that complement such work with a ‘start-point' approach that seeks to explore contextual vulnerability (O'Brien et al., 2007). This broader approach is inclusive of climate change as a process operating within a biophysical system and allows recognition of the complex interactions that occur in the coupled human-environmental system. A problem-oriented and interdisciplinary approach was employed at Alpine Shire, in northeast Victoria Australia, to explore the concept of contextual vulnerability and adaptability to stressors that include, but are not limited to climatic change. Using a policy sciences approach, the objective was to identify factors that influence existing vulnerabilities and that might consequently act as barriers to effective adaptation for the Shire's business community involved in the tourism sector. Analyses of results suggest that many threats, including the effects climate change, compete for the resources, strategy and direction of local tourism management bodies. Further analysis of conditioning factors revealed that many complex and interacting factors define the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the Shire's tourism sector to the challenges of global change, which collectively have more immediate implications for policy and planning than long-term future climate change scenarios. An approximation of the common interest, i.e. enhancing capacity in business acumen amongst tourism operators, would facilitate adaptability and sustainability through the enhancement of social capital in this business community. Kelly, P

  13. Steranes and triterpanes in the Beacon Supergroup samples from southern Victoria Land in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Machihara, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Funaki, Minoru; Watanuki, Kunihiko

    1987-10-01

    Steranes and triterpanes in Beacon Supergroup samples (sedimentary rock and silicified wood) from Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak of southern Victoria Land in Antarctica were studied to elucidate sources of organic materials, sedimentary paleoenvironment and thermal history after deposition. Relative abundances of C 27, C 28 and C 29 steranes and visual kerogen results of Beacon Supergroup samples from Allan Hills imply that organic materials in the sedimentary paleoenvironments are contributed mainly by vascular plants with some influence of microorganisms, while those of the Carapace Nunatak sample may be largely due to fern spores. The pristane/phytane and pristane/heptadecane ratios of the samples were generally close to unity and between 0.50 and 0.99, respectively, suggesting that the sedimentary paleoenvironment was shallow lacustrine with alternating oxic and anoxic conditions. The ( 22S/22R)-17α(H),21β(H)-C 31-C 33 triterpane ratios are approximately at thermal equilibrium values ( ca. 1.5) in most samples, while the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios and the (20R + 20S)-5α(H), 14β(H), 17β(H)/5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios vary from 0.0 to 1.1 and from 0.0 to 1.4, respectively. Most of the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios did not reach thermal equilibrium values. The correlation coefficient between the ( 20S/20R)-5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29 sterane ratios and (20R + 20S)-5α(H), 14β(H), 17β(H)/5α(H), 14α(H), 17α(H)-C 29, sterane ratios is very high (0.96). These variable maturities probably reflect thermal effects of basaltic dikes on the Beacon Supergroup at Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak during Jurassic time. Thermal stresses on the Beacon Supergroup prior to basaltic intrusion have been estimated to be quite low, so the paleotemperatures of this formation have been quite low.

  14. Behavioural dynamics of a clinical trial of sunscreens for reducing solar keratoses in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, J; Thompson, S C; Marks, R; Jolley, D; Schofield, P; Hill, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the behaviour of participants based on perception of treatment group in a randomised trial contributed to clinical outcome. DESIGN: A double blind randomised controlled trial of the effect of daily application of SPF 17 broad spectrum sunscreen cream (or placebo) on solar keratoses. SETTING: A rural city in Victoria, Australia. Residents aged 40 years or over were invited by letter to attend for a skin cancer screening check. Of these, 588 people with between one and 30 solar keratoses enrolled in the trial and 431 completed the trial, which extended over a six month period that included summer. Participants' perceptions of their treatment allocation, adherence with the treatment regimen, adoption of other sun protection behaviours, side effects, and perceptions of change in condition were measured at two monthly intervals. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between those who completed the study and those that did not for sex, age, treatment group, skin type, number of solar keratoses or correct perception of treatment group. Thirty per cent of those completing the study correctly guessed their treatment allocation, and people were just as likely to be right as to be wrong when they stated their opinion about their treatment allocation (z = 1.04; p = 0.15). Study group, skin type, amount of time spent outdoors, presence of side effects, perceptions of change in skin condition did not significantly predict correct perception of treatment allocation. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that adoption of other sun protection and adherence with cream use were not significantly affected by actual treatment allocation, correct perception of treatment allocation nor by their interaction. Poisson regression analysis showed a significantly lower difference ratio of solar keratoses in the sunscreen group compared with the placebo base cream group (OR 0.55; CI = 0.46, 0.64), and for women compared with men (OR = 0.76; CI = 0

  15. Mini-FLOTAC and Kato-Katz: helminth eggs watching on the shore of lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the challenges for monitoring helminth control programmes based on preventive chemotherapy is the lack of a copro-parasitological gold–standard method that combines good sensitivity with quantitative performance, low cost, and easy-to-learn technique. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare, the WHO recommended quantitative diagnostic technique (Kato-Katz) and the Mini-FLOTAC. Methods Mini-FLOTAC is an innovative method based on floatation of helminths eggs with two different solutions (FS2 and FS7) using a close system (Fill-FLOTAC) with 5% fixative. Kato-Katz was performed following WHO recommendation. The study was carried out in a rural part of Tanzania, close to Lake Victoria, where the laboratory facilities are fairly scarce, and the basic technique used in the local laboratory (direct smear) was taken as reference standard. Results 201 children were screened for intestinal helminths and 91% of them were found to be positive. The agreement among the three techniques was calculated with k Cohen coefficient and was fairly good (k = 0.4), although the Mini-FLOTAC results were more sensitive for hookworm (98%) with FS2, and for S.mansoni (90%) with FS7 followed by Kato-Katz (91% and 60% respectively) and direct smear (30% and 10% respectively). A good agreement was found between Mini-FLOTAC and Kato-Katz (k = 0.81) with FS7 (k = 0.76) for hookworm diagnosis and a fairly good one for S.mansoni diagnosis (k = 0.5). For both infections we had a poor agreement between the two quantitative techniques and the direct smear (k<0.3). Kato-Katz diagnosed a higher number of eggs (calculated by arithmetic mean) both for hookworm (455 vs 424 EPG) and for S.mansoni (71 vs 58 EPG) compared with the Mini-FLOTAC, but the differences were not significant (p = 0.4). Conclusions Mini-FLOTAC is a promising technique, comparable and as sensitive as the Kato-Katz, which is the recommended method in intestinal helminthology for monitoring

  16. Recovery after caesarean birth: a qualitative study of women's accounts in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The caesarean section rate is increasing globally, especially in high income countries. The reasons for this continue to create wide debate. There is good epidemiological evidence on the maternal morbidity associated with caesarean section. Few studies have used women's personal accounts of their experiences of recovery after caesarean. The aim of this paper is to describe women's accounts of recovery after caesarean birth, from shortly after hospital discharge to between five months and seven years after surgery. Method Women who had at least one caesarean birth in a tertiary hospital in Victoria, Australia, participated in an interview study. Women were selected to ensure diversity in experiences (type of caesarean, recency), caesarean and vaginal birth, and maternal request caesarean section. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A theoretical framework was developed (three Zones of clinical practice) and thematic analysis informed the findings. Results Thirty-two women were interviewed who between them had 68 births; seven women had experienced both caesarean and vaginal births. Three zones of clinical practice were identified in women's descriptions of the reasons for their first caesareans. Twelve women described how, at the time of their first caesarean section, the operation was performed for potentially life-saving reasons (Central Zone), 11 described situations of clinical uncertainty (Grey Zone), and nine stated they actively sought surgical intervention (Peripheral Zone). Thirty of the 32 women described difficulties following the postoperative advice they received prior to hospital discharge and their physical recovery after caesarean was hindered by a range of health issues, including pain and reduced mobility, abdominal wound problems, infection, vaginal bleeding and urinary incontinence. These problems were experienced across the three zones of clinical practice, regardless of the reasons women gave for their caesarean

  17. Use of Modern Family Planning Methods in Fishing Communities of Lake Victoria, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nanvubya, Annet; Ssempiira, Julius; Mpendo, Juliet; Ssetaala, Ali; Nalutaaya, Annet; Wambuzi, Mathias; Kitandwe, Paul; Bagaya, Bernard S.; Welsh, Sabrina; Asiimwe, Stephen; Nielsen, Leslie; Makumbi, Fredrick; Kiwanuka, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fishing communities (FCs) in Uganda have high HIV infection rates but poor access to health services including family planning (FP). Although FP is a cost-effective public health intervention, there is a paucity of data on knowledge and use of modern FP in FCs. This study determined knowledge and use of modern FP methods in FCs of Uganda. Methods Data were accrued from a 12-month follow up of 1,688 HIV-uninfected individuals, 18–49 years from 8 FCs along Lake Victoria, between September 2011 and March 2013. Data on knowledge and use of modern FP were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence Risk Ratios with corresponding 95% CIs were used to determine factors associated with Modern FP knowledge and use. Results The mean age was 31.4 years, with nearly half (48.8%) being females while more than half (58.6%) had attained up to primary education level. Knowledge of modern FP was high, 87.5% (1477/1688); significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 4.84 (95% CI; 3.08, 7.61)], among older respondents (25–29 years) [adj. PRR = 1.83 (95% CI; 1.12, 2.99)] compared to younger ones (18–24 years) and among those conducting business [adj. PRR = 2.42(95% CI; 1.02, 5.74)] relative to those primarily in fishing. Just over a third (35.2%, 595/1688) reported use of at least one modern FP method. Use of modern FP methods was significantly higher among females [adj. PRR = 2.04 (95% CI; 1.56, 2.65, and among those reporting multiple sexual partnerships [adj. PRR = 2.12, 95% CI; 1.63, 2.76)]. Nonuse of modern methods was mostly due to desire for more children (30.6%), fear of side effects (12.2%) and partner refusal (5.2%). Conclusion Despite their high knowledge of FP, FCs have low use of modern FP methods. Key barriers to use of modern FP methods were high fertility desires, fear of perceived side effects and partner refusal of methods. PMID:26512727

  18. Microbial Fe cycling and mineralization in sediments of an acidic, hypersaline lake (Lake Tyrell, Victoria, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roden, E. E.; Blöthe, M.; Shelobolina, E.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Tyrrell is a variably acidic, hypersaline, Fe-rich lake located in Victoria, Australia. Terrestrial acid saline lakes like Lake Tyrrell may be analogs for ancient Martian surface environments, as well as possible extant subsurface environments. To investigate the potential for microbial Fe cycling under acidic conditions and high salt concentration, we collected sediment core samples during three field trips between 2006 and 2008 from the southern, acidic edge of the lake. Materials from the cores were used for chemical and mineralogical analyses, as well as for molecular (16S rRNA genes) and culture-based microbiological studies. Near-surface (< 1 m depth) pore fluids contained low but detectable dissolved oxygen (ca. 50 uM), significant dissolved Fe(II) (ca. 500 uM), and nearly constant pH of around 4 - conditions conducive to enzymatic Fe(II) oxidation. High concentrations of Fe(III) oxides begin accumulate at a depth of ca. 10 cm, and may reflect the starting point for formation of massive iron concretions that are evident at and beneath the sediment surface. MPN analyses revealed low (10-100 cells/mL) but detectable populations of aerobic, halophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing organisms on the sediment surface and in the near-surface ground water. With culture-dependent methods at least three different halotolerant lithoautotrophic cultures growing on Fe(II), thiosulfate, or tetrathionate from different acidic sites were obtained. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these organisms are similar to previous described gamma proteobacteria Thiobacillus prosperus (95%), Halothiobacillus kellyi (99%), Salinisphaera shabanense (95%) and a Marinobacter species. (98%). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data from two different sites with a pH range between 3 and 4.5 revealed a dominance of gamma proteobacteria. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing libraries from both cores were dominated by sequences related to the Ectothiorhodospiraceae family, which includes the taxa

  19. Distal tephras of the eastern Lake Victoria basin, equatorial East Africa: correlations, chronology and a context for early modern humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegen, Nick; Tryon, Christian A.; Faith, J. Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J.; Beverly, Emily J.; Li, Bo; Jacobs, Zenobia

    2015-08-01

    The tephrostratigraphic framework for Pliocene and Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological sites in East Africa has been well established through nearly 50 years of research, but a similarly comprehensive framework is lacking for the Middle and particularly the Late Pleistocene. We provide the first detailed regional record of Late Pleistocene tephra deposits associated with artifacts or fossils from the Lake Victoria basin of western Kenya. Correlations of Late Pleistocene distal tephra deposits from the Wasiriya beds on Rusinga Island, the Waware beds on Mfangano Island and deposits near Karungu, mainland Kenya, are based on field stratigraphy coupled with 916 electron microprobe analyses of eleven major and minor element oxides from 50 samples. At least eight distinct distal tephra deposits are distinguished, four of which are found at multiple localities spanning >60 km over an approximately north to south transect. New optically stimulated luminescence dates help to constrain the Late Pleistocene depositional ages of these deposits. Our correlation and characterization of volcaniclastic deposits expand and refine the current stratigraphy of the eastern Lake Victoria basin. This provides the basis for relating fossil- and artifact-bearing sediments and a framework for ongoing geological, archaeological and paleontological studies of Late Pleistocene East Africa, a crucial time period for human evolution and dispersal within and out of Africa.

  20. Using the two-source capture-recapture method to estimate the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Kathryn; Kelly, Heath

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and the completeness of ascertainment of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Victoria, Australia, in 1998-2000 and to determine its common causes among children aged under 15 years. METHODS:: The two-source capture-recapture method was used to estimate the incidence of cases of AFP and to evaluate case ascertainment in the routine surveillance system. The primary and secondary data sources were notifications from this system and inpatient hospital records, respectively. FINDINGS: The routine surveillance system indicated that there were 14 cases and the hospital record review identified 19 additional cases. According to the two-source capture-recapture method, there would have been 40 cases during this period (95% confidence interval (CI) = 29-51), representing an average annual incidence of 1.4 per 100000 children aged under 15 years (95% CI = 1.1- 1.7). Thus case ascertainment based on routine surveillance was estimated to be 35% complete. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the commonest single cause of AFP. CONCLUSIONS: Routine surveillance for AFP in Victoria was insensitive. A literature review indicated that the capture-recapture estimates obtained in this study were plausible. The present results help to define a target notification rate for surveillance in settings where poliomyelitis is not endemic. PMID:12481205

  1. Hypoxia tolerance of introduced Nile perch: Implications for survival of indigenous fishes in the Lake Victoria basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, P.J.; Chapman, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of predatory Nile perch (Lates niloticus) into the Lake Victoria basin coincided with a dramatic decline in fish diversity. However, remnant populations of indigenous fishes persist in lagoons and satellite lakes separated from the main lakes by extensive areas of swamp, while other indigenous species find refuge in ecotonal areas at edges of marginal swamps in the main lakes. Low-oxygen conditions in these wetlands may physiologically stress Nile perch and therefore minimize its interaction with prey species. This study examined the low-oxygen tolerance of Nile perch collected from Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, by documenting behavioural and physiological strategies that relate to oxygen uptake. In response to hypoxia, Nile perch used aquatic surface respiration (ASR) at the air-water interface, ventilating their gills with water from the surface. However, several lines of evidence suggest that Nile perch in Lake Nabugabo are inefficient at ASR and relatively intolerant of low oxygen conditions. These include high thresholds for ASR relative to other indigenous fishes of the Lake Victoria basin, no decrease in gill ventilation rate with the onset of ASR, a faster time to loss of equilibrium in hypoxic conditions than other species from the region, and a high critical oxygen tension (24 mm Hg).

  2. Clustering of downhole physical property measurements at the Victoria property, Sudbury for the purpose of extracting lithological information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi, Omid; Smith, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Downhole density, gamma radioactivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements in five drillholes at the Victoria property (located in the south range of the Sudbury basin) were analyzed to identify homogenous physical units. The fuzzy k-means clustering algorithm was used for unsupervised classification of the data. Four main physical units were identified in boreholes with distinct physical characteristics. Three of them were differentiated mainly based on different gamma ray and density values, and the fourth one was characterized by high magnetic susceptibility. Physical units were compared with rock types logged by geologists to determine which rock types corresponded to physical units. We found that there was a meaningful spatial and statistical correlation between physical units (characterized based on their physical property measurements) and lithological units as indicated by rock types at the Victoria property. However, not all rock types could be uniquely identified by the statistical classification, but a set of similar groups could be identified. Hence, identifying a group of rock types described by each physical unit can be used to translate physical data to/from lithological data. Alternatively, the physical log units could be used as a quality control procedure to check the geological logs, or to highlight areas where more careful logging or other investigation would be warranted.

  3. What Are the Mitigating Conditions That Prevent the Uptake of Apprenticeships and Traineeships among Post-Secondary School Adolescents in Victoria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Alan

    A study analyzed mitigating conditions and factors that prevented the uptake of apprenticeships and traineeships among young people aged 15-19 years of age who had left school in Victoria, Australia. Data were based on a thesis completed in May 2000 involving analysis of theoretical research, observation in the field, and case study interviews…

  4. Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Mid-Adolescent School Performance and Connection: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This article examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes.…

  5. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at 1- and 2-year follow-up in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students ("N" = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004…

  6. Petrological characterization of mantle xenoliths from Handler Ridge, Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Giacomoni, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    A study of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Handler Ridge has been carried out in order to characterize the petrological features of the lithospheric mantle beneath Handler Ridge, Northern Victoria Land (NVL) and to extend the petrological knowledge of the mantle over a large portion of the Western Antarctic Rift, from M.te Melbourne (74°21'S 164°42'E) to Handler Ridge (72°31'S 167°18'E). Xenoliths are anhydrous spinel(sp) bearing lherzolites. Two textural types were recognized: i) medium to coarse grain protogranular and ii) fine grain equigranular. Some xenoliths present evidences of peridotite-melt interactions, such as spongy textures, cloudy rims and glassy patches. Large primary sp are often lobated. Newly formed, secondary crystals are referred to cpx only. Regardless textural types, olivine (ol) is forsteritic in composition with Fo varying from 87.5 to 91.0, with a more fertile group ranging between 87.6 and 88.6. NiO contents between 0.31 and 0.44 wt% match the typical mantle values. As observed in ol, orthopyroxene (opx) can be distinguished in two clusters: the more fertile group with mg# [=Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100 mol] ranging between 87.6 and 88.3 and the more residual one with mg# from 88.9 to 91.0. In cpx mg# varies between 87.06 and 91.7. Cpx in depleted lherzolite and secondary cpx are characterized by high values of Na2O (1.3-1.63 wt%) and Al2O3 (4.62-6.62 wt%). Glasses are SiO2 (≥55.50 wt%) oversaturated with TiO2 content between 0.6 and 1wt% and Na2O/K2O in the range of 0.80-2.02. Sp are characterized by mg# values between 62 and 78, and cr# [=Cr/(Cr+Al)*100 mol] from 14 to 42 with the usual negative correlation between the two parameters. The relationship between ol, opx and sp suggest that partial melting is the main process controlling the chemical variation of these three phases, while cpx were affected by metasomatic event/s. On the basis of the formalism of Brey & Kohler (1990), Liermann & Ganguly (2003) and Ballhaus (1991

  7. Water Dynamics, Ice Stability, and Salts in Victoria Valley Soils, Antarctica: An Instructive Analog for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.

    2006-12-01

    Typical of many hyper arid soils of the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, soils in Victoria Valley contain ~10% ice (at 0.3 m depth) and ~0.4% salt, mostly calcium and sodium sulfates and chlorides, making them excellent analogs to Martian soils. Vapor diffusion models designed to investigate ground ice dynamics on Mars are not entirely satisfactory because they lead to the unrealistic expectation that soils in Antarctica should be ice free within a 1000 years of being saturated with ice, and yet even ancient soils characteristically contain abundant ice near the surface. Validation of these diffusion models has been limited because of the paucity of field based climate and soil climate data. Moreover the models ignore the significant effects of snow cover, surface melt water and salts on vapor fluxes. To better understand the presence and stability of the shallow subsurface ice we are exploring the effect of snow cover and salts on vapor fluxes. Ice stability was investigated using high-resolution climate and soil temperature data from 2002 to 2005. According to the vapor diffusion model ice sublimates at an average rate of 0.22 mm a-1, corresponding to an ice recession of ~1.3 mm a-1 for soil with 10% ice content. Some of the water vapor is transported to the atmosphere; however, some water vapor accumulates at depth in the soil. Furthermore, snow cover during the summer may substantially reduce annual ice loss. Stable isotopes (δ18O & δD) in ice along a 1.6m vertical soil profile reveal a deuterium excess (-13 to -77 ‰) with the greatest enrichment of heavy isotopes at the top of the ice cement and decreasing with depth to form a concave-down profile. This isotopic profile was interpreted using a quantitative model of H2O transport in perennially frozen soil, including the advection-dispersion of heavy isotope- enriched surface water into the ice-cement. It suggests an average infiltration rate of 0.7 mm a-1 of brine if 2.5% of the H2O present is unfrozen, a

  8. Petrological study of Greene Point mantle xenoliths, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Faccini, Barbara; Coltorti, Massimo; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Grégoire, Michel

    2015-04-01

    A petrological study of mantle, anhydrous spinel-bearing lherzolites and harzburgites from Greene Point (GP) (Northern Victoria Land, NVL) have been carried out. Texturally they vary from protogranular to porphyroclastic with large orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine (ol) grains. Clinopyroxene (cpx) is smaller and often associated with vermicular and lobated spinel (sp). Several types of reaction textures occur with secondary phases represented by olivine (ol2), clinopyroxene (cpx2), cpx with spongy rim, and glass. Ol in lherzolites presents lower forsteritic content (90.5-91.7) than in harzburgites (Fo: 91.6-92.3), but for three samples with an anomalously high Fo contents (92.3-92.7). Irrespective of lithology NiO contents are on the average ~0.38 wt%. Opx, equilibrated with ol1, has mg# (Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100mol) values ranging from 91.0 to 92.6 with the highest values found in harzburgites. As for Ol, however three lherzolitic samples have mg# in opx overlapping the most residual harzburgites; Al2O3 varies from 2.33 to 4.92 wt% following a residual trend. Opx is characterized by fractionated REE-chondrite normalized patterns, depleted in light REE (LREE), with the most residual character in harzburgites. Cpx1 has mg# varying from 91.5 to 93.9, with cpx in harzburgites presenting the highest values. As for the other two phases, cpx in three lherzolites presents mg# values comparable with those of harzburgites. Al2O3 contents is between 4.00 and 6.42 wt% in lherzolites and from 2.32 to 4.37 wt% in harzburgites. TiO2 never exceeds 0.66 wt%. Cpx in lherzolites are usually depleted in Th, U, Nb, and Ta with Ti, Zr and Hf negative anomalies. They present a REE patterns variable from slightly LREE-enriched (with La and Ce inflections) to LREE-depleted with a general convex-upward trend. This latter trend is related to mg# rich lherzolites. In harzburgites cpx show the lowest HREE contents (YbN 1.00-2.94), with a strong positive fractionated L-MREE and flat HREE. Sp1 show a

  9. Breaking down barriers to eye care for Indigenous people: a new scheme for delivery of eye care in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Napper, Genevieve; Fricke, Tim; Anjou, Mitchell D; Jackson, A Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the implementation of and outcomes from a new spectacle subsidy scheme and de-centralised care options for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Victoria, Australia. The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme (VASSS) commenced in 2010, as an additional subsidy to the long-established Victorian Eyecare Service (VES). The Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme aimed to improve access to and uptake of affordable spectacles and eye examinations by Indigenous Victorians. The scheme is overseen by a committee convened by the Victorian Government's Department of Health and Human Services and includes eye-health stakeholders from the Aboriginal community and government, not-for-profit, university and Aboriginal communities. Key features of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme include reduced and certain patient co-payments of $10, expanded spectacle frame range, broadened eligibility and community participation in service design and implementation. We describe the services implemented by the Australian College of Optometry (ACO) in Victoria and their impact on access to eye-care services. In 2014, optometric services were available at 36 service sites across Victoria, including 21 Aboriginal Health Services (AHS) sites. Patient services have increased from 400 services per year in 2009, to 1,800 services provided in 2014. During the first three years of the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme program (2010 to 2013), 4,200 pairs of glasses (1,400 pairs per year) were provided. Further funding to 2016/17 will lift the number of glasses to be delivered to 6,600 pairs (1,650 per year). This compares to population projected needs of 2,400 pairs per year. Overcoming the barriers to using eye-care services by Indigenous people can be difficult and resource intensive; however the Victorian Aboriginal Spectacle Subsidy Scheme provides an example of positive outcomes achieved through carefully designed and

  10. Chronology for the Cueva Victoria fossil site (SE Spain): Evidence for Early Pleistocene Afro-Iberian dispersals.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Luis; Scott, Gary R; Scholz, Denis; Budsky, Alexander; Ferràndez, Carles; Ribot, Francesc; Martin, Robert A; Lería, María

    2016-01-01

    Cueva Victoria has provided remains of more than 90 species of fossil vertebrates, including a hominin phalanx, and the only specimens of the African cercopithecid Theropithecus oswaldi in Europe. To constrain the age of the vertebrate remains we used paleomagnetism, vertebrate biostratigraphy and (230)Th/U dating. Normal polarity was identified in the non-fossiliferous lowest and highest stratigraphic units (red clay and capping flowstones) while reverse polarity was found in the intermediate stratigraphic unit (fossiliferous breccia). A lower polarity change occurred during the deposition of the decalcification clay, when the cave was closed and karstification was active. A second polarity change occurred during the capping flowstone formation, when the upper galleries were filled with breccia. The mammal association indicates a post-Jaramillo age, which allows us to correlate this upper reversal with the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma). Consequently, the lower reversal (N-R) is interpreted as the end of the Jaramillo magnetochron (0.99 Ma). These ages bracket the age of the fossiliferous breccia between 0.99 and 0.78 Ma, suggesting that the capping flowstone was formed during the wet Marine Isotopic Stage 19, which includes the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. Fossil remains of Theropithecus have been only found in situ ∼1 m below the B/M boundary, which allows us to place the arrival of Theropithecus to Cueva Victoria at ∼0.9-0.85 Ma. The fauna of Cueva Victoria lived during a period of important climatic change, known as the Early-Middle Pleistocene Climatic Transition. The occurrence of the oldest European Acheulean tools at the contemporaneous nearby site of Cueva Negra suggest an African dispersal into SE Iberia through the Strait of Gibraltar during MIS 22, when sea-level was ∼100 m below its present position, allowing the passage into Europe of, at least, Theropithecus and Homo bearing Acheulean technology. PMID:26581114

  11. Reducing office workers’ sitting time: rationale and study design for the Stand Up Victoria cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive time spent in sedentary behaviours (sitting or lying with low energy expenditure) is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Desk-based office workers typically accumulate high amounts of daily sitting time, often in prolonged unbroken bouts. The Stand Up Victoria study aims to determine whether a 3-month multi-component intervention in the office setting reduces workplace sitting, particularly prolonged, unbroken sitting time, and results in improvements in cardio-metabolic biomarkers and work-related outcomes, compared to usual practice. Methods/Design A two-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT), with worksites as the unit of randomization, will be conducted in 16 worksites located in Victoria, Australia. Work units from one organisation (Department of Human Services, Australian Government) will be allocated to either the multi-component intervention (organisational, environmental [height-adjustable workstations], and individual behavioural strategies) or to a usual practice control group. The recruitment target is 160 participants (office-based workers aged 18–65 years and working at least 0.6 full time equivalent) per arm. At each assessment (0- [baseline], 3- [post intervention], and 12-months [follow-up]), objective measurement via the activPAL3 activity monitor will be used to assess workplace: sitting time (primary outcome); prolonged sitting time (sitting time accrued in bouts of ≥30 minutes); standing time; sit-to-stand transitions; and, moving time. Additional outcomes assessed will include: non-workplace activity; cardio-metabolic biomarkers and health indicators (including fasting glucose, lipids and insulin; anthropometric measures; blood pressure; and, musculoskeletal symptoms); and, work-related outcomes (presenteeism, absenteeism, productivity, work performance). Incremental cost-effectiveness and identification of both workplace and individual

  12. An exploration of emergency department presentations related to high heel footwear in Victoria, Australia, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many women are warned against the dangers of wearing high heel footwear however there is limited empirical evidence demonstrating an association between wearing high heel with injury. Gait laboratory testing has found a higher heel height placed the foot in a position that increases the risk of ankle sprain. Women have also been surveyed about wearing high heels and approximately half of those reported inconvenience and pain after wearing a high heel shoe. This study aims to explore emergency department presentations of injuries and the estimated costs that have been directly attributed to wearing high heeled footwear within Victoria, Australia during 2006–2010. Methods The Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD) was searched for all injuries attributed to wearing high heel footwear presenting to emergency departments in Victoria Australia, between the years of 2006–2010. The VEMD produced a report detailing sex, age at presentation, month of presentation, time of day of presentation, day of presentation, location that injury occurred and type of injury for presentation. Monash Health in Victoria Australia, provided emergency department estimates for injury types to calculate an estimated cost of an acute injury related to wearing high heel footwear. Results There were 240 injuries presenting to Victorian emergency departments directly attributed to wearing high heeled footwear. The majority of people injured were women (n = 236) and all were less than 55 years of age. More injuries presented on a Sunday (n = 83) and more in the 8 am-12 pm time bracket (n = 64). There were also more injuries presenting in the months of November, December and January (n = 80). The most commonly injured body part was the ankle (n = 123). The emergency department estimate of the cost of these injuries over this time-frame was almost $72,000 (mean of $316.72 per presentation). Conclusions People who wear high heel footwear on weekends appear to

  13. Mapping fractures using 1D anisotropic modelling of magnetotelluric data: a case study from the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, A.; Heinson, G.; Holford, S.; Thiel, S.

    2015-06-01

    We present 1D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data as a potential tool for mapping structural permeability in sedimentary basins. Using 1D inversions of a 171 site, broadband MT data set from the Koroit region of the Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia, we have delineated an electrically anisotropic layer at approximately 2.5 to 3.5 km depth. The anisotropy strike is consistent between stations at approximately 160° east of north. The depth of anisotropy corresponds to the top depth of the Lower Cretaceous Crayfish Group, and the anisotropy factor increases from west to east. We interpret the anisotropy as resulting from north-northwest oriented, fluid-filled fractures resulting in enhanced electrical and hydraulic conductivity. This interpretation is consistent with permeability data from well formation tests. It is also consistent with the orientation of mapped faults in the area, which are optimally oriented for reactivation in the current stress field.

  14. Validation of Victoria Symptom Validity Test Cutoff Scores among Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Litigants Using a Known-Groups Design.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2016-05-01

    The Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) is one of the most accurate performance validity tests. Previous research has recommended several cutoffs for performance invalidity classification on the VSVT. However, only one of these studies used a known groups design and no study has investigated these cutoffs in an exclusively mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) medico-legal sample. The current study used a known groups design to validate VSVT cutoffs among mild traumatic brain injury litigants and explored the best approach for using the multiple recommended cutoffs for this test. Cutoffs of <18 Hard items correct, <41 Total items correct, an Easy - Hard items correct difference >6, and <5 items correct on any block yielded the strongest classification accuracy. Using multiple cutoffs in conjunction reduced classification accuracy. Given convergence across studies, a cutoff of <18 Hard items correct is the most appropriate for use with mTBI litigants. PMID:26795609

  15. Pathways From School Suspension to Adolescent Nonviolent Antisocial Behavior in Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.; McMorris, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    School suspension is associated with school drop-out, crime, delinquency, and alcohol and other drug use for the suspended student. Important research questions are how academic and related factors are relevant to the school suspension process and the generality of the process in different sites. State representative samples of Grade 7 students (N = 1,945) in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia were followed from 2002 to 2004. In both states, Grade 7 school suspension was associated with higher rates of nonviolent antisocial behavior and suspension 24 months later, before Grade 8 factors were entered into the model. Relevant factors were Grade 8 low school grades and association with antisocial peers, as well as Grade 8 antisocial behavior in Washington State only. The implications of these findings for the ways in which suspension is used in schools are outlined. PMID:24049218

  16. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface sediments near the shore of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Henkelmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria is considered to be contaminated with toxic chemicals emanating from anthropogenic activities, especially near large industrial towns such as Kisumu. This has recently caused concerns about its water quality and impact on aquatic organisms and human beings. This study was justified by the need to generate baseline concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in surface sediment from selected sites in the lake and determine the influence of activities on their concentrations and potential risks to fish-eating birds living near the lake. Surface sediments (<30cm) from three different fish landing beaches, located 200m from the shore of Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria near Kisumu city, Homa Bay and Mbita (control) towns, were analysed. The total mean concentrations (in pgg(-1)drywt) were found to range from 17.4-812 (Σdl-PCBs), 36.6-813 (ΣPCDDs) and 1.45-46.4 (ΣPCDFs). The calculated Toxic Equivalents (TEQWHO(2005)) ranged from 0.001-0.43 (Σdl-PCBs) and 0.09-31 (ΣPCDD/Fs). The fish landing beaches at Kisumu city were found to be contaminated with respect to dl-PCBs and dioxins, followed by Homa Bay and Mbita. The relatively high levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) influenced the TEQ and the ΣPCDFs/ΣPCDDs ratios indicated chemical processes as partial sources of the dioxins. The levels of contaminants obtained in this study showed potential exposure to aquatic organisms and fish eating birds through food chain transfer. PMID:25150826

  17. Relations between people, relations about things: gendered investment and the case of the Lake Victoria fishery, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Medard, Modesta

    2012-01-01

    Using the example of one of the African fisheries that has been most significantly transformed from family based to commercialized—that on Lake Victoria in Tanzania—this article considers the social nexus of decision making and focuses on analyzing women’s place. It is true that women have never been more than a minority in fisheries due to traditional inheritance patterns and new market structures, both of which bypass women in questions of ownership and decision making. We look in vain for fishwives, if this means female fish producers acting with a highly visible degree of economic and social autonomy. There is no vernacular term to identify women who work with fish or those rare women who own fishing vessels. And yet the absence of derogatory representation suggests that there have been few attempts to detract from women who are active in the fishery. Should we thus be aiming at more subtlety in our analytical approaches to fishing relations on Lake Victoria? The article unveils the ways in which women’s relations with fishermen are negotiated and how agreements are reached on behalf of their families. It explores for women’s empowerment via the customary social relations and management arrangements that exist in these riparian communities. The lake fishery has a basis for development, but its potential for the kind of growth that will have returns for future generations rests on an appreciation of how fisher-wives conceive of, and respond to, the opportunities, constraints and risks of investing in this fishery. PMID:22545266

  18. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase chain…

  19. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Reporter To Monitor Gene Expression and Food Colonization by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wanglei; Huang, Zhengyu; Flaherty, Joseph E.; Wells, Kevin; Payne, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    Transformants of Aspergillus flavus containing the Aequorea victoria gfp gene fused to a viral promoter or the promoter region and 483 bp of the coding region of A. flavus aflR expressed green fluorescence detectable without a microscope or filters. Expression of green fluorescent protein fluorescence was correlated with resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in five corn genotypes inoculated with these transformants. PMID:9925624

  20. Monitoring transgenic plants using in vivo markers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.N. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The gene coding for green fluorecent protein (GFP), isolated and cloned from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, is an ideal transgene for the monitoring of any plant species. It has the ability to fluoresce without added substrate, enzyme, or cofactor; it does not introduce morphological or sexual aberrations when expressed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2015-07-14

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

    2004-01-01

    Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during…

  5. Multiple shallow level sill intrusions coupled with hydromagmatic explosive eruptions marked the initial phase of Ferrar large igneous province magmatism in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viereck-Goette, L.; Schöner, R.; Bomfleur, B.; Schneider, J.

    2007-01-01

    Field data gathered during GANOVEX IX (2005/2006) in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, indicate that volcaniclastic deposits of phreatomagmatic eruptions (so-called Exposure Hill Type events) are intercalated with fluvial deposits of Triassic-Jurassic age at two stratigraphic levels. Abundant scoriaceous spatter (locally welded) indicates a hawaiian/strombolian component. Breccia-filled diatremes, from which volcaniclastic deposits were sourced, are rooted in sills which intruded wet sediments. The deposits are thus subaerial expressions of initial Ferrar magmatism involving intrusion of multiple shallow-level sills. Due to magma-sediment interaction abundant clastic dikes are developed that intrude the sediments and sills. All igneous components in the volcaniclastic deposits are andesitic in composition, as are the chilled margins of the sills. They are more differentiated than the basaltic andesites of the younger effusive section of Kirkpatrick plateau lavas which in northern Victoria Land start with pillow lavas and small volume lava flows from volcanic necks.

  6. CMCC’s persistent pursuit of university affiliation Part III: the push for union with the University of Victoria, BC, 1988 to 1992

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Douglas M

    1996-01-01

    The period between 1988 and 1992 is reviewed with respect to the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) and its attempted affiliation with the University of Victoria in British Columbia. Part I, published earlier, detailed the period between 1945 and 1969 and the proposals for university affiliation with the University of Alberta and Brandon College in Manitoba. Part II focused on the period between 1969 and 1988 and discussed government inquiries, strategic planning and political intervention. In Part III of this triad, the chronology of events with respect to CMCC’s sustained, sophisticated and focused attempt at affiliation with the University of Victoria is discussed and the problems encountered with the Senate are described which lead to the eventual breakdown of any potential union.

  7. Attitudes, Knowledge and Factors Associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (p<0.001), having completed childhood vaccinations (p<0.001) and their parents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (p<0.001). The main reason reported for HPV non-vaccination was parental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (p<0.001) and were less likely to consider vaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (p<0.001). Overall, 61% of unvaccinated participants reported that a

  8. Magnetic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Eleonora; Lurcock, Pontus Conrad; Palmeri, Rosaria; Florindo, Fabio; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the integration between rock magnetism and metamorphic petrology of ultramafic rocks and metabasites, variably metamorphosed under UHP, eclogite or HP amphibolite facies peak conditions, and cropping out along the Lanterman-Mariner suture (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) in three different areas: the Lanterman Range, the Salamander Range and the Dessent Ridge. The outcrops along the Lanterman-Mariner suture provide a unique opportunity to define the relationships between magnetic properties and metamorphic evolution, in a wide P-T range, of ultramafic rocks and metabasites in the paleo-Pacific margin of Gondwana, an area which is well-studied from a petrological and structural point of view but lacking a rock magnetic study. To characterize the magnetic properties of these rocks, we performed a set of rock magnetic analyses (low-field magnetic susceptibility, natural remanence, thermomagnetic curves and hysteresis loops). We then characterized the minero-petrographical and compositional features of opaque minerals on selected samples using both the optical microscope and the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples display a remarkable heterogeneity in the studied magnetic properties depending on both type and abundance of the carriers of magnetization (Fe-Ti oxides and sulphides). Independently of the degree of retrogression and lithology (eclogites, retrogressed eclogites, pirossenites and amphibolites), several samples contain variable amounts of both magnetite and pyrrhotite, while others show only magnetite as the main ferromagnetic mineral. The remaining samples mainly consist of paramagnetic minerals and may display small amounts of magnetite. Based on the microstructural evidence, more than one generation of ferromagnetic minerals may occur in retrogressed UHP ultramafic rocks and eclogites. These new data and interpretations are essential 1) to characterize and to verify primary and secondary oxide and sulphide

  9. Species composition and distribution of the Antarctic plunderfishes (Pisces, Artedidraconidae) from the Ross Sea off Victoria Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mesa, Mario; Cattaneo-Vietti, Riccardo; Vacchi, Marino

    2006-04-01

    Among the notothenioid fish, the Antarctic plunderfishes (family Artedidraconidae) are a poorly known component of the bottom fauna of the continental shelf despite their relative importance. The family is composed of 25 small- to medium-sized endemic species and four genera, Artedidraco, Dolloidraco, Histiodraco and Pogonophryne, which are the most benthic and sedentary of the notothenioid fish. In the framework of "Victoria Land Transect Project", several samples of plunderfishes were collected by means of an Agassiz trawl. Sampling activities were carried out between 100 and 500 m depth in five sites over nearly 4° latitude off Victoria Land. Overall, trawling yielded 80 specimens of plunderfish, including all species of Artedidraco reported from the Ross Sea, i.e. Artedidraco glareobarbatus, A. loennbergi, A. orianae, A. shackletoni and A. skottsbergi, and the monotypic genus Histiodraco. The use of multivariate statistical analyses on catch data indicated sampling site as the main factor affecting species composition. Histiodraco velifer and A. skottsbergi were caught almost exclusively in the southernmost sites, characterizing the artedidraconid fauna of Cape Russell. A. orianae was sampled only in the northernmost sites, such as Cape Adare and Hallett Peninsula. A. loennbergi appeared to be a ubiquitous species, whereas A. glareobarbatus was caught only at the Hallett Peninsula. Plunderfishes showed a particular distribution pattern in relation to depth as well. A. glareobarbatus was the shallowest species, being sampled within 100 m. A. orianae and A. shackletoni showed a similar distribution, being caught mostly at 100-200 m, whereas A. skottsbergi was mainly sampled at 200-300 m. H. velifer was caught in a wide depth range, but mostly in deeper waters (400 m). A. loennbergi was eurybathic, showing a wider depth distribution than other species. Univariate measures of diversity indicated Cape Adare as the poorer site in terms of species richness and

  10. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  11. Predictors and responses to the growth in physical violence during adolescence: a comparison of students in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates patterns in violence over 3 time points in early- to mid-adolescence in 2 statewide representative samples of youth, one in Washington State, USA, and the other in Victoria, Australia. Comparable data collection methods in both states were used to cross-nationally compare patterns of violence, risk factors, and responses to violence (school suspensions and arrests) in 2 policy contexts. Risk factors include early use of alcohol, binge drinking, involvement with antisocial peers, family conflict, poor family management, sensation seeking, and bully victimization. These are modeled as correlates of initial violence and predictors of change in violence over a 3-year period, from ages 12-15, for participating youth. Results suggest that patterns and predictors of violence are mostly similar in the 2 states. Initial levels of violence (age 13) and change over time in violence were associated in both states with more youth school suspensions and more police arrests in Grade 9. Some cross-national differences were also shown. For example, correlations of violence with gender and violence with binge drinking were stronger in Victoria, whereas correlations of violence with early use of alcohol and with antisocial peer involvement were stronger in Washington State. Antisocial peer involvement and family conflict were significant predictors of a gradual increase in violence from Grades 7-9 for youth in Victoria only. Implications are discussed with attention to prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:22239392

  12. Variation in fatty acid composition in muscle and heart tissues among species and populations of tropical fish in Lakes Victoria and Kyoga.

    PubMed

    Kwetegyeka, Justus; Mpango, George; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto

    2008-11-01

    The composition of the fatty acids in muscle and heart tissue of seven fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), marbled lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), Lake Victoria squeaker (Synodontis victoriae), Bagrus docmas, and Tilapia zilli, from two locations in Lake Kyoga and one location in Lake Victoria was chemometrically determined. The muscle tissue was very lean, with an average of 3.4 mg total fatty acids per g tissue. The lipid level in the heart tissue was approximately five times higher than in the muscle tissue, with an average of 15.5 mg total fatty acids per g tissue. The n-3/n-6 level in the muscles was 1.7 +/- 0.7 and in the heart tissue 1.0 +/- 0.4. The muscle tissue contained an average of 46 mg cholesterol per 100 g, and the heart tissue contained about five times as much. Plasmalogens were detected in 7-8% of the amounts of total fatty acids in both muscle and heart tissue. The seven species had large differences (P < 0.05) in the fatty acid composition for both muscle and heart tissue. Within the species there were differences between fish from the populations in the three locations, although the population differences were smaller than the species differences. These differences appear to be controlled more closely by genetics/transcriptomics than by the diet. PMID:18712426

  13. Initiation and early evolution of the Franklin magmatic event preserved in the 720 Ma Natkusiak Formation, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Nicole M. B.; Ootes, Luke; Rainbird, Robert H.; Bédard, Jean H.; Cousens, Brian

    2016-03-01

    Our understanding of the onset and evolution of flood basalt volcanism is rooted in the study of the character and internal architecture of its eruptive products. Neoproterozoic continental flood basalts of the ca. 720 Ma Franklin magmatic event are preserved as the Natkusiak Formation and are exposed within the Minto Inlier on Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. The 200 m volcanic succession evaluated in this study has features similar to those of other continental flood basalt provinces and consists of four volcanic units: a basal unit of laterally discontinuous flows with evidence for lava-sediment interactions, a mafic volcaniclastic deposit emplaced as a mass flow, a quartz-rich volcanic sandstone that records the re-establishment of small river channels, and a unit of thick, high-titanium tholeiitic sheet flows that mark the onset of the main phase of flood volcanism. The basal units show marked lateral thickness variations that imply the existence of paleotopography during their eruption and/or deposition. In addition, two newly discovered volcanic vent complexes within the Natkusiak succession preserve the products of explosive, vent-forming basaltic pyroclastic fall eruptions. Differences in major element geochemistry between the basal and upper basaltic flow units, in conjunction with the lithological characteristics of each volcanic unit, are used to correlate the units on a scale of over 100 km from the south of the Minto Inlier to the north.

  14. Genetic Factors Moderate Everyday Physical Activity Effects on Executive Functions in Aging: Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Thibeau, Sherilyn; McFall, G. Peggy; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Everyday physical activity (EPA) is an important modifiable contributor to age-related variability in executive functioning (EF). However its role may be moderated by non-modifiable genetic factors. We tested independent and interactive effects of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF rs6265) and Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE rs6583817) on EF and EPA-EF relationships. Method The sample consisted of genotyped older adults (N=577, M age=70.47 years) over three waves (~9 years) of the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Analyses included (a) confirmatory factor analysis establishing a single latent EF factor from four standard EF tasks, (b) latent growth modeling over a 40-year band of aging (ages 53-95), and (c) structural regression to investigate the independent and interactive effects of BDNF, IDE and EPA. Results First, higher levels of EPA were associated with better EF performance at the centering age (75 years) and less EF decline. Second, IDE G+ (protective) carriers exhibited better EF performance at age 75 than their G− (non-protective) peers. Third, within the IDE G+ carrier group, those with higher EPA exhibited better EF performance and slower decline over time than those with lower EPA. Fourth, for the BDNF homozygote Val group higher EPA was associated with better EF performance and more gradual EF change; however, this beneficial effect was not seen for Met carriers. Conclusion The effect of modifiable physical health factors on EF is moderated by biological mechanisms associated with risk-protection genetic polymorphisms. PMID:26710092

  15. Construction of chromosome markers from the Lake Victoria cichlid Paralabidochromis chilotes and their application to comparative mapping.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, A; Terai, Y; Kobayashi, N; Yoshida, K; Suzuki, M; Nakanishi, A; Matsuda, Y; Watanabe, M; Okada, N

    2014-01-01

    Cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes are known as a spectacular example of adaptive radiation in vertebrates. Four linkage maps have been constructed to identify the genes responsible for adaptation and speciation, and the genetic linkages of those genes are assumed to play an important role during adaptive evolution. However, it is difficult to analyze such linkages because the linkage groups of one species do not match well with those of the other species. Chromosome markers are a powerful tool for the direct identification of linkage homology between different species. We used information about the linkage map of the Lake Malawi cichlid (Labeotropheus fuelleborni/Metriaclima zebra) to isolate bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BAC library of Paralabidochromis chilotes, Lake Victoria. We identified 18 of 22 P. chilotes chromosomes by single- and multi-color BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization using 19 BAC clones. Comparative mapping with the chromosome markers of P. chilotes in Astatotilapia burtoni (2n = 40) from Lake Tanganyika revealed the chromosome rearrangements that have occurred in this lineage. These chromosome markers will be useful for delineating the process of genome and chromosome evolution in African species. PMID:24217467

  16. Capacity Building for Disaster Management in Vulnerable Regions of Africa: Implementing an Operational Flood Warming System in Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Li, L.; Adler, R.; Policelli, F.

    2008-12-01

    NASA Applied Science program has partnered with USAID and The Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) in Africa to implement an operational flood warning system for East Africa, SERVIR-Africa project. The project seeks to take advantage of remote sensing information as an alternative and supplemental to ground-based observation in order to preserve the spatial extent of flood hazards. The recently available and virtually uninterrupted supply of satellite-based rainfall estimates is increasingly becoming a cost-effective data source for flood prediction in many under-gauged regions around the world. Our initial focus aims to provide an operational flood warning system for Lake Victoria, a flood-prone region home to 30 million people. The key datasets enabling the development of a distributed hydrological model in Africa include TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) mission, HydroSHEDS hydrological products, MODIS Land cover, and soil parameters provided by FAO. This research focuses on evaluation and integration the TMPA Real- Time product into an online operational flood prediction system. We will also identify the optimal calibration strategy for satellite rainfall data into real-time hydrological modeling, one current knowledge gap that has remained relatively unexplored. Early results demonstrate this flood modeling system is useful decision- support tool for governmental officials and international aid organizations to better quantify flood impacts and extent of hazard risk, as well as more expediently respond to flood emergencies.

  17. Demographic and socio-cultural correlates of medical mistrust in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre; Polonsky, Michael; McQuilten, Zoe; Waters, Neil

    2013-11-01

    Studies on medical mistrust have mainly focused on depicting the association between medical mistrust and access/utilization of healthcare services. The effect of broader socio-demographic and psycho-social factors on medical mistrust remains poorly documented. The study examined the effect of broader socio-demographic factors, acculturation, and discrimination on medical mistrust among 425 African migrants living in Victoria and South Australia, Australia. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, low medical mistrust scores (i.e., more trusting of the system) were associated with refugee (β=-4.27, p<0.01) and family reunion (β=-4.01, p<0.01) migration statuses, being Christian (β=-2.21, p<0.001), and living in rural or village areas prior to migration (β=-2.09, p<0.05). Medical mistrust did not vary by the type of acculturation, but was positively related to perceived personal (β=0.43, p<0.001) and societal (β=0.38, p<0.001) discrimination. In order to reduce inequalities in healthcare access and utilisation and health outcomes, programs to enhance trust in the medical system among African migrants and to address discrimination within the community are needed. PMID:24177416

  18. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Victoria tilapia (Oreochromis variabilis) and Redbelly Tilapia (Tilapia zilli): genome characterization and phylogeny analysis.

    PubMed

    Kinaro, Zachary Omambia; Xue, Liangyi; Volatiana, Josies Ancella

    2016-07-01

    The Cichlid fishes have played an important role in evolutionary biology, population studies and aquaculture industry with East African species representing a model suited for studying adaptive radiation and speciation for cichlid genome projects in which closely related genomes are fast emerging presenting questions on phenotype-genotype relations. The complete mitochondrial genomes presented here are for two closely related but eco-morphologically distinct Lake Victoria basin cichlids, Oreochromis variabilis, an endangered native species and Tilapia zilli, an invasive species, both of which are important economic fishes in local areas. The complete mitochondrial genomes determined for O. variabilis and T. zilli are 16 626 and 16,619 bp, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and a non-coding control region, which are typical of vertebrate mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the two species revealed that though both lie within family Cichlidae, they are remotely related. PMID:27158785

  19. The age-specific prevalence of human parvovirus immunity in Victoria, Australia compared with other parts of the world.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, H. A.; Siebert, D.; Hammond, R.; Leydon, J.; Kiely, P.; Maskill, W.

    2000-01-01

    The age-specific immunity to human parvovirus infection was estimated in Victoria, Australia using prospectively collected samples from the Royal Children's Hospital, the Royal Women's Hospital and the Australian Red Cross Blood Service and from sera stored at the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL). All testing was performed at VIDRL using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Biotrin). Of the 824 sera tested, 28% of those drawn from people aged 0-9 years contained protective antibodies to human parvovirus. This rose to 51% in the next decade of life. There was then a slow rise to about 78% immunity over 50 years of age. An analysis of all requests for parvovirus serology at VIDRL from 1992 to 1998 suggested that parvovirus tended to occur in 4-year cycles, with 2 epidemic years followed by 2 endemic years. A review of published reports of parvovirus immunity suggested that parvovirus infection may be more common, with a correspondingly higher proportion of the community immune, in temperate as opposed to tropical countries. PMID:10982069

  20. An exploration of issues of management and intention to stay: allied health professionals in South West Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, Karen; Schoo, Adrian; Dunbar, James; Reid, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Management of allied health staff and services often has implications for staff stability and retention. A survey of allied health staff in South West Victoria was conducted in 2003 to explore issues relating to recruitment and retention. Findings relating to management and retention of staff in their current job are addressed in this report. A total of 138 staff returned their questionnaires. Results were related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, level of belonging, with professional needs identified as feeling supported, orientation to the position, clear job description, and able to recommend the position to others. Qualitative data showed that recommending the position was associated with job satisfaction, autonomy, flexibility, and variety of work. The immediate management structure was significantly related to retention. Reasons given for intending to leave were related to management categories. These were management structure, lack of career structure, and lack of professional support. Reasons given by respondents for not recommending their current position were as follows: not for long-term career, risk of deskilling if staying too long, and financially unrewarding. These reasons were also related to management. Positive reasons for staying, which were related to management, included flexible work conditions, variety of clinical and management experience, good working environment, good support, and autonomy. Recommendations are given for organizational development and training for managers. PMID:17243438

  1. The Role of Thaumarchaeota in N2O generation in an unconfined basalt-sandstone aquifer system, Western Victoria (Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Hepburn, E.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which nitrous oxide is produced and transformed in groundwater are poorly understood. Here we used GC-MS and nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses to quantify nitrate, ammonia and nitrous oxide levels in nitrate-contaminated aquifers in the Newer Volcanics province of Western Victoria. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), and phylogenetic analyses of functional nitrogen-cycling and 16S rRNA genes, of whole community microbial DNA from groundwater samples obtained from different depths within different aquifers with low-flow pumping revealed nitrate, ammonia and nitrous oxide levels of up to ~40 mg/L, up to ~0.85 mg/L, and up to ~770 nM, respectively in several groundwater samples. Delta 15N and delta 18O values ranged from -2.68‰ to 68.19‰ and -3.37‰ to 26.83‰, respectively. Nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations decreased with depth in the unconfined aquifer, while TOC generally increased. Higher ammonia levels were observed in more heavily ferruginized sandstones. Increaased nitrate and nitrous oxide levels were found within the principal basaltic aquifers. Q-PCR results showed variable concentrations of nir, nar, nos and amo genes associated with different redox transformations along the nitrification and denitrification pathways, indicating potential nitrous oxide formation via both pathways within different depths in the aquifer. 16S rRNA gene analyses implicated an important role for the Thaumarchaeota in groundwater nitrogen cycling.

  2. Environments and trypanosomiasis risks for early herders in the later Holocene of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chritz, Kendra L; Marshall, Fiona B; Zagal, M Esperanza; Kirera, Francis; Cerling, Thure E

    2015-03-24

    Specialized pastoralism developed ∼3 kya among Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan herders in eastern Africa. During this time, a mosaic of hunters and herders using diverse economic strategies flourished in southern Kenya. It has been argued that the risk for trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), carried by tsetse flies in bushy environments, had a significant influence on pastoral diversification and migration out of eastern Africa toward southern Africa ∼2 kya. Elmenteitan levels at Gogo Falls (ca. 1.9-1.6 kya) preserve a unique faunal record, including wild mammalian herbivores, domestic cattle and caprines, fish, and birds. It has been suggested that a bushy/woodland habitat that harbored tsetse fly constrained production of domestic herds and resulted in subsistence diversification. Stable isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel (n = 86) from this site reveals, instead, extensive C4 grazing by both domesticates and the majority of wild herbivores. Integrated with other ecological proxies (pollen and leaf wax biomarkers), these data imply an abundance of C4 grasses in the Lake Victoria basin at this time, and thus little risk for tsetse-related barriers to specialized pastoralism. These data provide empirical evidence for the existence of a grassy corridor through which small groups of herders could have passed to reach southern Africa. PMID:25775535

  3. Thirty-two cases of mesothelioma in Victoria, Australia: a retrospective survey related to occupational asbestos exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Milne, J E

    1976-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in four states in Australia. Crocidolite has been mined and milled at Wittenoom in West Australia where five cases of mesothelioma were reported after exposure of high intensity. The 32 cases of mesothelioma reported in this paper occurred during a period of 11 years in Victoria; 29 were pleural and three peritoneal. There were 22 autopsies. End occupations were misleading in 66% of cases. Two of the three subjects with peritoneal mesothelioma were siblings, and there was no evidence of occupational or other exposure to asbestos in either. There was a significant prevalence of pulmonary asbestos bodies in the tumour series as compared with an unselected consecutive series of 200 routine autopsies (0.01 greater than P greater than 0.001). The occupational history was as effective a method of assessing 'true' asbestos exposure as the pulmonary asbestos body count. Five cases had had a duration of exposure of one year or less, but they had had heavy exposure. The latent interval before tumour development was 25 years or longer in each case. There was no known exposure to asbestos in five cases (16%). The rare association of mesothelioma with types of asbestos other than crocikolite may not exist and could be explicable on the basis of the proportion (16%) of these tumours arising randomly in the population. PMID:1276091

  4. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ingmar; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps. PMID:26839881

  5. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ingmar; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps. PMID:26839881

  6. Environments and trypanosomiasis risks for early herders in the later Holocene of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chritz, Kendra L.; Marshall, Fiona B.; Zagal, M. Esperanza; Kirera, Francis; Cerling, Thure E.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized pastoralism developed ∼3 kya among Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan herders in eastern Africa. During this time, a mosaic of hunters and herders using diverse economic strategies flourished in southern Kenya. It has been argued that the risk for trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), carried by tsetse flies in bushy environments, had a significant influence on pastoral diversification and migration out of eastern Africa toward southern Africa ∼2 kya. Elmenteitan levels at Gogo Falls (ca. 1.9–1.6 kya) preserve a unique faunal record, including wild mammalian herbivores, domestic cattle and caprines, fish, and birds. It has been suggested that a bushy/woodland habitat that harbored tsetse fly constrained production of domestic herds and resulted in subsistence diversification. Stable isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel (n = 86) from this site reveals, instead, extensive C4 grazing by both domesticates and the majority of wild herbivores. Integrated with other ecological proxies (pollen and leaf wax biomarkers), these data imply an abundance of C4 grasses in the Lake Victoria basin at this time, and thus little risk for tsetse-related barriers to specialized pastoralism. These data provide empirical evidence for the existence of a grassy corridor through which small groups of herders could have passed to reach southern Africa. PMID:25775535

  7. Seasonal biogeochemical profiling of an unlined landfill in rural Victoria (Australia): implications for stream and groundwater contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minard, A.; Moreau, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Unlined landfills and waste transfer stations lack collection systems to prevent groundwater pollution. Unmonitored leakage into shallow groundwater can lead to eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems. Such sites are fairly common in rural Australia, and seven years of groundwater and leachate biogeochemical data taken near a rural landfill in Beaufort (Victoria) Australia, showed that interacting biogeochemical cycles (i.e. C, N, S, Fe) influenced contaminant transport into groundwaters seasonally. Reductive dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides coupled with alkalinity spikes was coupled to higher carbon turnover rates within a methanogenic landfill cell. This process appeared to occur mainly during summers and less during winters. Dissolved trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) alternated with increases in dissolved iron, but with less frequency during the winter months. Nitrate and sulphate however seasonally alternated with high nitrate/low sulphate during the winter, and low nitrate/high sulphate during the summer, within the landfill cell. The seasonal variability of nitrate and sulphate in landfill leachate was also reflected in the down-flow groundwater chemistry.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative flame retardants in air and precipitation samples from the northern Lake Victoria region, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Muir, Derek C G; Kiremire, Bernard T; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    High volume air and precipitation samples were collected close to the shore of Lake Victoria at Entebbe, Uganda, between October 2008 and July 2010 inclusive. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants (AFRs) were analyzed by GC-MS. BDEs 47, 99, and 209 were the predominant PBDEs with mean concentrations (in air) of 9.84, 4.38, 8.27 pg m(-3) and mean fluxes in precipitation of 3.40, 6.23, and 7.82 ng m(-2) sample(-1), respectively. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), anti- and syn-Dechlorane plus were detected at levels comparable with those of PBDEs. Both PBDEs and AFRs in air generally increased from 2008 to 2010. Elevated PBDE concentrations in air were associated with slow moving low altitude air masses from the region immediately adjacent to the lake, while low concentrations were mostly associated with fast moving westerly and southwesterly air masses. Analysis of the octa- and nona-BDE profiles suggested photolysis and pyrolytic debromination of BDE-209 in the air samples. The highly halogenated and most abundant PBDEs and AFRs in air also predominated in precipitation samples. This is the first study to report flame retardants in high volume air samples and precipitation in Equatorial Africa. PMID:24400732

  9. A first record of Cretaceous aphids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha) in Australia, from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra Fossil Bed, Victoria.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah K; Skidmore, Luke I; Stilwell, Jeffrey D

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the first species of aphid from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra Fossil Bed of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Victoria, Australia. This aphid, herein named Koonwarraphis rotundafrons gen. & sp. nov., is assigned to the cosmopolitan Cretaceous superfamily Tajmyraphidoidea, which has been previously described from the Lebanese, Taimyrian, Canadian, Myanmar (Burmese), and Spanish ambers. Koonwarraphis rotundafrons is the first aphid recorded from the eastern Gondwanan landmass during the Cretaceous, and represents the only tajmyraphidoid preserved as a compression fossil, rather than as an amber inclusion. Due to the nature of the fossil's preservation, Koonwarraphis cannot be firmly placed in any of the described tajmyraphidoid families; however, all observable morphological features suggest that the genus is broadly typical of the superfamily and Cretaceous aphids in general. Koonwarraphis' shortened rostrum, a feature also seen in other tajmyraphidoids, suggests an association with the more herbaceous aspects of the Early Cretaceous Victorian flora. Considering the modern aphid preference for angiosperm plants, it is possible that this aphid was living upon the herbaceous early angiosperms recorded previously from the Koonwarra macrofloral assemblage. PMID:27395744

  10. SUGAR CANE GROWING AND CATTLE GRAZING AS DRIVERS TO WETLAND DEGRADATION IN UGANDA: A case of upper river Ruizi and Iguluibi catchments Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakiyemba Were, Alice; Isabirye, Moses; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef; Poesen, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Introduction: This study was conducted with in the framework of the VLIR-OI project with the aim of making contributions to the Diagnosis and Remediation of Land Degradation Processes in the Riparian Zone of Lake Victoria Uganda in view of reducing sediment pollution of the Lake Waters with a special focus on the upper river Ruiz and Iguluibi catchments. The study seeks to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in light of the current farming systems and practices and their contributions to land degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Vegetation especially wetlands improves the resistance to erosion. The removal of riparian vegetation tends to accelerate surface erosion as a result of human activities. Increased erosion with in the catchments due to clearing of wetlands for sugarcane growing and cattle grazing has caused adverse increased sedimentation, degraded the water quality, and reduced the water productivity of the Lake Victoria Basin. Methods: We conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to investigate Sugarcane growing and cattle grazing as drivers to wetland degradation in Uganda in light of the current farming systems and practices and their socio-economic contributions to wetland degradation and pollution of the Lake Victoria waters. Focus group discussions, key informant interviews, semi structured interviews and observations were undertaken with the relevant stakeholders in the community. Results: Findings reveal that in Iguluibi catchment, sugarcane growing is now a major activity indicating land use change since the 1990s. Community members said when planting sugarcane all vegetations including all trees are cut leaving the land bare to allow the tractor to clear the land for cultivation. This has left the land bare without any natural vegetation with increased erosion hence eventually loss of soil fertility and increased sediment pollution to the Lake Victoria waters. As a result of

  11. Geographic Variations in Chilled Margin Chemistry of Jurassic Dolerite Intrusions in the Dry Valley Region of South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, T. H.; Elliot, D. H.; Calhoun, A.

    2005-12-01

    Jurassic tholeiites of the Ferrar Large Igneous Province (FLIP) crop out in a linear belt that extends for over 3000 km along the Transantarctic Mtns. The FLIP was emplaced over a short period of time (<1 m.y.) and is temporally associated with the initiation of Gondwana break-up in the Weddell Sea sector of Antarctica. The intrusive phase of the FLIP consists primarily of a high level complex of dolerite sills and subordinate connecting and cross-cutting dikes that have intruded near the base of and within flat-lying Devonian to Triassic supracrustal strata of the Beacon Supergroup. In the Dry Valley region of south Victoria Land (SVL), the two most prominent sills are intruded along (peneplain sill) and just below (basement sill) the regional unconformity. Geologic mapping has commonly assumed that each of these intrusions is regionally extensive in SVL at roughly the same stratigraphic level. No extensive dike swarm has been identified within the province to act as a feeder for these sills and a number of possible magma transport models have been proposed. During the 2004-05 Magmatic Field Laboratory Workshop, chilled margin samples of dolerite intrusions were systematically collected from localities in the Wright and Victoria Valleys adjacent to Bull Pass. The major and trace element composition of samples from the basement sill in this region tightly cluster around a single composition (SiO2=55.0%, MgO=6.8%, TiO2=0.63%, Zr=100 ppm) despite a geographic spread of ~16 km. Two chilled margin samples collected from the Peneplain sill in the same region have identical chemical compositions to the basement sill. In contrast, prior work on chilled margins of intrusions from the upper Taylor Glacier region fall into three distinctly different compositional groups. The basement sill in the Taylor Glacier region has slightly more evolved compositions (SiO2=55.7%, MgO=5.6%, TiO2=0.71%, Zr=117 ppm) than in the region surrounding Bull Pass. The peneplain sill and several

  12. Mapping folds and fractures in basement and cover rocks using UAV photogrammetry, Cape Liptrap and Cape Paterson, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollgger, Stefan A.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2016-04-01

    Brittle and ductile deformation of alternating layers of Devonian sandstone and mudstone at Cape Liptrap, Victoria, Australia, resulted in upright folds with associated fold accommodation faults and multiple fracture sets. Structures were mapped at the Fold Stack locality at Cape Liptrap using high-resolution aerial photographs acquired by a digital camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Subsequent photogrammetric modelling resulted in georeferenced spatial datasets (point cloud, digital elevation model and orthophotograph) with sub-cm resolution and cm accuracy, which were used to extract brittle and ductile structure orientation data. An extensive dataset of bedding measurements derived from the dense point cloud was used to compute a 3D implicit structural trend model to visualise along-strike changes of Devonian (Tabberabberan) folds at the Fold Stack locality and to estimate bulk shortening strain. This model and newly collected data indicate that first generation shallowly south-southwest plunging upright folds were gently refolded about a steeply plunging/subvertical fold axis during a Devonian low-strain north-south shortening event. This also led to the local tightening of first generation folds and possibly strike-slip movement along regional scale faults. In order to distinguish fractures associated with Devonian compression from those that formed during Cretaceous extension and later inversion, we compared the five fracture sets defined at Cape Liptrap to previously mapped joints and faults within the overlying sedimentary cover rocks of the Cretaceous Strzelecki Group (Gippsland Basin), which crop out nearby. An east-southeast trending fracture set that is not evident in the Strzelecki Group can be linked to the formation of Devonian folds. Additionally, hinge line traces extracted from the Fold Stack dataset are aligned parallel to a dominant fracture set within the overlying cover sediments. This suggests that basement structures (folds

  13. Comparison of Loss Estimates for Greater Victoria, British Columbia, from Scenario Earthquakes using HAZUS - Implications for Risk, Response and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, M. P.; Clague, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Victoria, British Columbia, lies near the Cascadia subduction zone, where three distinct classes of earthquakes contribute to local seismic risk. The largest-magnitude events are subduction-interface earthquakes, which generate widespread shaking across the Pacific Northwest region from British Columbia to northern California. Interface-earthquake risk is mitigated somewhat by the low frequency of events and the distance from the source to populated areas. The largest contribution to the probabilistic hazard is from strong deep-focus earthquakes within the down-going Juan de Fuca slab. Intraslab quakes are frequent, but attenuation from depth results in smaller ground motions. The highest-loss scenarios are associated with major earthquakes on shallow west- to northwest-trending crustal faults that extend across Puget Sound and the southern Strait of Georgia. These faults are a result of compression in the North American plate associated with oblique subduction of the Juan de Fuca slab beneath southwestern British Columbia and northwestern Washington. Our understanding of frequency-magnitude relations for individual shallow-crustal faults is hampered by a widespread cover of Pleistocene glacial deposits, thus the risk is difficult to estimate. We have prepared shake maps for several scenario earthquakes that take into account local geologic conditions. We compare strong ground motions from local crustal fault sources with Cascadia plate-boundary, intraslab and probabilistic building code ground motions. Hazard maps from scenario events are combined with models of the build environment within the HAZUS platform to generate loss estimates. The results may be used to identify vulnerabilities, focus advance mitigation efforts, and guide response and recovery planning.

  14. Monitoring basin-scale land cover changes in Kagera Basin of Lake Victoria using ancillary data and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasige, John E.; Groen, Thomas A.; Smaling, Eric; Jetten, Victor

    2013-04-01

    The Kagera Basin is a high value ecosystem in the Lake Victoria watershed because of the hydrological and food services it provides. The basin has faced large scale human induced land use and land cover changes (LUCC), but quantitative data is to date lacking. A combination of ancillary data and satellite imagery were interpreted to construct LUCC dynamics for the last century. This study is an initial step towards assessing the impact of LUCC on sustainable agriculture and water quality in the watershed. The results show that large trends of LUCC have rapidly occurred over the last 100 years. The most dominant LUCC processes were gains in farmland areas (not detectable in 1901 to 60% in 2010) and a net reduction in dense forest (7% to 2.6%), woodlands (51% to 6.9%) and savannas (35% to 19.6%) between 1901 and 2010. Forest degradation rapidly occurred during 1974 and 1995 but the forest re-grew between 1995 and 2010 due to forest conservation efforts. Afforestation efforts have resulted in plantation forest increases between 1995 and 2010. The rates of LUCC observed are higher than those reported in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and other parts of the world. This is one of the few studies in SSA at a basin scale that combines multi-source spatio-temporal data on land cover to enable long-term quantification of land cover changes. In the discussion we address future research needs for the area based on the results of this study. These research needs include quantifying the impacts of land cover change on nutrient and sediment dynamics, soil organic carbon stocks, and changes in biodiversity.

  15. Effect of topography on farm-scale spatial variation in extreme temperatures in the Southern Mallee of Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Prakash N.; Chen, Deli

    2011-03-01

    Extreme temperatures around flowering of wheat have the potential to reduce grain yield and at farm scale their impact can be spatially variable depending on topography. Twenty-five data loggers were installed at 0.8-m height across a 164-ha farm in the southern Mallee of Victoria, Australia to spatially record the daily course of temperatures around the average date of flowering of wheat in the region. The experiment was conducted during 2-years period. In 1 year, the farm had no crop cover and in another year the farm had a wheat crop. Multiple linear regression analysis techniques were used to fit models relating daily extreme temperatures to the farm topographic features of elevation, aspect and slope, and the average maximum and minimum temperatures of each day at the farm in order to identify areas of high risk of extreme temperatures around the time of the flowering of wheat. The fitted regression models explained 90% and 97% of the variability in maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively, when the farm had no crop cover and 80% and 94% of the variability in maximum and minimum temperatures, respectively, when the farm had a wheat crop cover. When the farm had no crop, only minimum temperature was partially explained by the topography however, both maximum and minimum temperatures were partially explained by the topography when the farm had a wheat crop. From this study it was concluded that, (1) high temperature variations were found across the farm (2) temperature variations were only partially explained from the developed model presumably due to the flatter topography of the farm and (3) the relationships obtained from this study could be used in a crop model which can explain variation in grain yield based on the topography of a field.

  16. Distribution and exploitation of Nile perch Lates niloticus in relation to stratification in Lake Victoria, East Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taabu-Munyaho, A.; Kayanda, Robert J.; Everson, Inigo; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Marteinsdóttir, Gudrún

    2013-01-01

    Stratification restricts habitable areas forcing fish to balance between favourable temperature and minimum dissolved oxygen requirements. Acoustic surveys conducted during the stratified and isothermal periods on tropical Lake Victoria indicated that stratification of temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) affected vertical distribution of Nile perch. There was higher mean temperature (25.6 ± 0.5 °C) and lower DO (6.4 ± 1.8 mg/l) during stratified period compared to the isothermal period (mean temperature 24.9 ± 0.3 °C; mean DO 7.3 ± 0.6 mg/l). Higher mean densities of Nile perch were recorded in the coastal (0.44 ± 0.03) and deep (0.27 ± 0.02 g/m3) strata during the stratified compared to the isothermal season (coastal: 0.24 ± 0.01; deep: 0.12 ± 0.02 g/m3). In addition, Nile perch density in the upper 0–40 m depth layers in the coastal and deep strata increased by over 50% from the isothermal to the stratified season. Daily landings from 65 motorised fishing boats between October 2008 and September 2010 show higher mean catch (26.29 ± 0.17 kg/boat/day) during stratified compared to the isothermal (23.59 ± 0.15) season. Thermal stratification apparently compresses the habitat available to Nile perch and can potentially result in higher exploitation. Managers should evaluate the potential benefits of instituting closed seasons during the stratified period, and stock assessment models should take into account the seasonal niche compression.

  17. Feasibility to Detect Signs of Potential CO2 Leakage with Multi-Temporal SPOT Satellite Vegetation Imagery in Otway, Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholathat, R.; Ge, L.; Li, X.; Hu, Z.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents image processing results for the OtwayCO2storage site, a demonstration project of CO2 sequestration in south-western Victoria, Australia. These results were derived from SPOT-VGT S10 datasets of 2001 to mid 2011. Over 65,000 tonnes of CO2-rich gas stream was injected into a depleted gas reservoir at a depth of 2050 meters at the site since 2008. Over time, CO2 migration up-dip within the 31 m thick reservoir sandstone capped by the impervious thick seal rock has been recorded. But no top soil contamination has been discovered. This study has analysed the site vegetation growth using NDVI as a measure on a pixel by pixel basis. The multi-year time series result shows that NDVI values at the site regularly vary according to the seasons. Furthermore, precipitation levels were fluctuating in the past 10 years, especially in the years of 2002 and 2006, which correlated with low NDVI measuring results. But there are detected hot spots that cannot be linked with rainfall. Authors have found that some hot spots correspond with site well drilling and pipelines construction periods and locations. While others might be due to image data biased. Therefore, certain low NDVI spikes in the temporal evolution results cannot be attributed to only drought or pasture grazing. These subtle changes detected in the NDVI index prove the ability to use satellite image for providing valuable information to decision makers in relation to CO2 sequestration site environmental safety monitoring for searching CO2 leakage signals.

  18. Wetland vegetation and nutrient retention in Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugisha, P.; Kansiime, F.; Mucunguzi, P.; Kateyo, E.

    Wetlands form an important part of the catchment area of the African Great Lakes and protect water resources therein. One of the most important functions is the retention of nutrients from the inflowing water from the catchment, by wetland plants which store them in their phytomass. An assessment of the capacity in storing nutrients by dominant plants ( Cyeprus papyrus, Miscanthus violaceus, Phragmites mauritianus and Colocasia C. esculenta), of Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands at the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda, was studied through the determination of phytomass production and nutrient concentration in the plant parts at different stages of growth. The above ground phytomass production increased rapidly during the exponential growth for C. papyrus and P. mauritianus. In all the dominant plants, nitrogen concentration was highest in juvenile plants and decreased with increasing age. The most pronounced nitrogen level occurred in the young umbels of C. papyrus during the first month of growth with total nitrogen content of 1.95% DW which dropped to 0.62% DW after the fifth month in Nakivubo wetland. Corms (tubers) of yams had the highest nitrogen content in Kirinya and Nakivubo wetlands exhibiting respective values of 4.8% DW and 3.7% DW. There is a close relationship between nutrient content and increase in phytomass. In Nakivubo and Kirinya wetlands, the rapid increase in phytomass during the third and fourth month corresponded with high nutrient levels. Since plants store significant amounts of nitrogen during their growth, periodic harvesting of above ground plant parts can remove significant amounts of nutrients (during the first five months of growth) from the wastewater flowing into the two wetlands. Wetland plant species with high phytomass productivity and well developed root systems and ability to withstand flooding are the best in nutrient removal.

  19. Perceptions of HIV and Safe Male Circumcision in High HIV Prevalence Fishing Communities on Lake Victoria, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, Paul E.; Pfeiffer, James; Kibira, Simon P. S.; Lubinga, Solomon J.; Mukose, Aggrey; Babigumira, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, the Uganda Ministry of Health introduced its Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) strategy for HIV prevention with the goal of providing 4.2 million voluntary medical male circumcisions by 2015. Fishing communities, where HIV prevalence is approximately 3–5 times higher than the national average, have been identified as a key population needing targeted HIV prevention services by the National HIV Prevention Strategy. This study aimed to understand perceptions of HIV and identify potential barriers and facilitators to SMC in fishing communities along Lake Victoria. Methods We conducted 8 focus group discussions, stratified by sex and age, with 67 purposefully sampled participants in 4 communities in Kalangala District, Uganda. Results There was universal knowledge of the availability of SMC services, but males reported high uptake in the community while females indicated that it is low. Improved hygiene, disease prevention, and improved sexual performance and desirability were reported facilitators. Barriers included a perceived increase in SMC recipients’ physiological libido, post-surgical abstinence, lost income during convalescence, and lengthier recovery due to occupational hazards. Both males and females reported concerns about spousal fidelity during post-SMC abstinence. Reported misconceptions and community-held cultural beliefs include fear that foreskins are sold after their removal, the belief that a SMC recipient’s first sexual partner after the procedure should not be his spouse, and the belief that vaginal fluids aid circumcision wound healing. Conclusions Previous outreach efforts have effectively reached these remote communities, where availability and health benefits of SMC are widely understood. However, community-specific intervention strategies are needed to address the barriers identified in this study. We recommend the development of targeted counseling, outreach, and communication strategies to address barriers

  20. A new Eemian record of Antarctic tephra layers retrieved from the Talos Dome ice core (Northern Victoria Land)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria; Petit, Jean Robert; Langone, Antonio; Stenni, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Polar ice sheets are remarkable repositories of tephra layers. The Talos Dome ice core (72°49‧S, 159°11‧E), drilled at the edge of the East Antarctic Plateau, close to Late Quaternary volcanoes, offers considerable potential to extend the current tephra time-stratigraphic framework. A tephrochronological study was undertaken of the ice core sections related to the Last Interglacial and the transition to the subsequent glacial period. Thirteen macroscopically visible layers, interpreted to be related to primary deposition of fallout tephra, have been analysed for quantitative grain size and glass shard geochemistry. The layers, precisely framed within the climate (δ18O) record for the core, span in age from 111.6 ± 1.9 to 123.3 ± 2.2 ka. Coarse particle size suggests origin from regional sources. Indeed, the vast majority of the samples display an alkaline affinity and trachytic composition that are both typical geochemical features of rifting Antarctic volcanism. Using subtle differences in the geochemical signatures and the comparison with data from previous studies, a few layers are attributed to known coeval Mt. Melbourne eruptions. Another sample subset is consistent with derivation from The Pleiades and Mt. Rittmann volcanoes. One peculiar trachytic glass population appears to be related to activity of the more distant Marie Byrd Land volcanoes. The newly detected tephras provide stratigraphic markers that could facilitate future synchronisation and dating of palaeoclimatic records. The Talos Dome tephra inventory also contributes significantly to the reconstruction of the Northern Victoria Land explosive volcanism, for which chronostratigraphic data for the Last Interglacial temporal segment are poor.

  1. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    PubMed

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service. PMID:24442964

  2. Respiratory function at age 8-9 after extremely low birthweight or preterm birth in Victoria in 1997.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Robertson, Colin; Doyle, Lex W

    2013-05-01

    To determine if respiratory function at 8 years of age in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1,000 g) or extremely preterm (EPT, <28 weeks' gestation) children born in 1997 remains worse than normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight, >2,499 g) and term (37-42 weeks) controls, particularly in those ELBW/EPT children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a cohort study of 201 consecutive ELBW/EPT survivors born in the state of Victoria during 1997, and 199 contemporaneous randomly selected NBW/term controls. Respiratory function was measured at 8 years of age according to standard guidelines, and compared with previous cohorts born in 1991-1992. Respiratory function data were available for almost 75% of both cohorts. ELBW/EPT subjects had substantial reductions in airflow compared with controls (e.g., mean difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1 ] -0.91 SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to -0.63 SD, and in maximum expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity [FEF25-75% ] -0.96 SD, 95% CI -1.22 to -0.71). These differences were similar to those observed between ELBW/EPT and controls subjects born in 1991-1992. Within the ELBW/EPT cohort, children who had BPD in the newborn period had significant reductions in both the FEV1 (-0.76 SD) and FEF25-75% (-0.58 SD) compared with those who did not have BPD, which were not statistically significant from those in the 1991-92 cohort. ELBW/EPT children born in 1997 still have significantly abnormal lung function compared with NBW/term controls, but results were similar to an earlier era when survival rates were lower. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:449-455. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22826206

  3. A microsatellite-based genetic linkage map and putative sex-determining genomic regions in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yu; Nikaido, Masato; Kondo, Azusa; Suzuki, Hikoyu; Yoshida, Kohta; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-04-15

    Cichlid fishes in East Africa have undergone extensive adaptive radiation, which has led to spectacular diversity in their morphology and ecology. To date, genetic linkage maps have been constructed for several tilapias (riverine), Astatotilapia burtoni (Lake Tanganyika), and hybrid lines of Lake Malawi cichlids to facilitate genome-wide comparative analyses. In the present study, we constructed a genetic linkage map of the hybrid line of Lake Victoria cichlids, so that maps of cichlids from all the major areas of East Africa will be available. The genetic linkage map shown here is derived from the F2 progeny of an interspecific cross between Haplochromis chilotes and Haplochromis sauvagei and is based on 184 microsatellite and two single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Most of the microsatellite markers used in the present study were originally designed for other genetic linkage maps, allowing us to directly compare each linkage group (LG) among different cichlid groups. We found 25 LGs, the total length of which was 1133.2cM with an average marker spacing of about 6.09cM. Our subsequent linkage mapping analysis identified two putative sex-determining loci in cichlids. Interestingly, one of these two loci is located on cichlid LG5, on which the female heterogametic ZW locus and several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to adaptive evolution have been reported in Lake Malawi cichlids. We also found that V1R1 and V1R2, candidate genes for the fish pheromone receptor, are located very close to the recently detected sex-determining locus on cichlid LG5. The genetic linkage map study presented here may provide a valuable foundation for studying the chromosomal evolution of East African cichlids and the possible role of sex chromosomes in generating their genomic diversity. PMID:25639358

  4. Quantifying diffuse pathways for overland flow between the roads and streams of the mountain ash forests of central Victoria Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Patrick N. J.; Hairsine, Peter B.; Croke, Jacky C.; Takken, Ingrid

    2006-06-01

    Limiting connectivity between road runoff sources and stream networks is crucial for preservation of water quality in forested environments. Where flow is non-eroding, the length of hillslope available to accommodate volumes of discharged water is the key to restricting connectivity. Hairsine et al. ([2002], Hydrological Processes 16: 2311-2327) proposed a probabilistic model of diffuse overland flow that predicted the hillslope lengths required to infiltrate road discharge, based on the concept of volume to breakthrough (Vbt). This paper extends this analysis to a different forest environment with the aim of testing the portability of the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model. The volume of flow required to travel overland to a distance of 5 and 10 m (Vbt5 and Vbt10) from drainage outlets was measured in deep, highly conductive mountain soils in the Upper Tyers catchment, Victoria, Australia. Rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and soil depths contrasted markedly with those in the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) study, and represent an extreme in Australian forests. Statistical analyses revealed the population of Vbt5 to be indistinguishable from that observed by Hairsine et al. ([2002]), indicating the model is valid for a range of forest soils. There was no significant correlation of sediment plume length with site characteristics such as slope, width of flow, or existence of incised pathways. It is suggested there are universal properties of pathways draining tracks and roads, with bioturbation acting to restore available pore spaces filled by antecedent plumes. Drain discharge design criteria may be developed for local conditions using the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model, providing a robust tool for protection of water quality in the siting of new forest roads, and maintenance of exiting roads and tracks.

  5. Lithospheric control on basaltic magma compositions within a long-lived monogenetic magmatic province: the Cainozoic basalts of eastern Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. C.; Nicholls, I. A.; Maas, R.

    2012-12-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Holocene and extending across southern Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated ~ 95 Ma ago during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanic activity has continued sporadically since that time with the only major hiatus being between 18 and 7 Ma (Price et al, 2003). Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 18-90 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. These have in the past been referred to as the "Older Volcanics" to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (< 5 Ma) lava fields to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between DM and EM 2 in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. They are isotopically similar to Samoan OIB but different from intra-plate rocks of the New Zealand-Antarctic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP). Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y but there is subtle diversity within and between particular lava fields. (La/Yb)n and K/Nb ratios show significant variation and some basalts are relatively enriched in Sr, P and Pb. Potassium and Rb show distinctive relative depletions in some samples and this could be indicating low degree melting with residual phlogopite. When Sr isotope data for Older Volcanics are projected onto an east-west profile they outline distinctive discontinuities that can be related to surface and subsurface structural features within the basement. This has previously been identified in the "Newer Volcanics" (< 5 Ma) province of western Victoria (Price et al., 1997, 2003). Both Proterozoic and

  6. Environmental epidemiology of intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda: population dynamics of biomphalaria (gastropoda: planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with observations on natural infections with digenetic trematodes.

    PubMed

    Rowel, Candia; Fred, Besigye; Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria (N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene. PMID:25705680

  7. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    PubMed Central

    Rowel, Candia; Fred, Besigye; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria  (N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene. PMID:25705680

  8. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Scheelings, Titus Franciscus; Frith, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox admissions was 59.3%. This study highlights the effects of urbanisation on wild animal populations and a need for continued public education in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of wildlife, especially threatened species. PMID:26207984

  9. Anthropogenic Factors Are the Major Cause of Hospital Admission of a Threatened Species, the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Scheelings, Titus Franciscus; Frith, Sarah Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reasons for presentation and outcomes of hospitalised grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in Victoria, Australia, a retrospective analysis was performed on 532 records from two wildlife hospitals. Cases were categorised based on presenting signs and outcomes determined. Anthropogenic factors (63.7%) were a major cause of flying fox admissions with entanglement in fruit netting the most significant risk for bats (36.8%). Overall the mortality rate for flying fox admissions was 59.3%. This study highlights the effects of urbanisation on wild animal populations and a need for continued public education in order to reduce morbidity and mortality of wildlife, especially threatened species. PMID:26207984

  10. Redox state of subcontinental lithospheric mantle and relationships with metasomatism: insights from spinel peridotites from northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinelli, Cristina; Andreozzi, Giovanni B.; Conte, Aida M.; Oberti, Roberta; Armienti, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    Rift-related Cenozoic alkaline mafic lavas from northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) carry abundant mantle xenoliths whose oxygen fugacities ( fO2) were determined to assess how the metasomatism, related to Cenozoic magmatism, affected the state of oxidation of the lithospheric mantle. The xenoliths used for this study are anhydrous spinel peridotites sampled in two localities, Greene Point and Baker Rocks, that show different extents of metasomatism: these are limited to incompatible element enrichments in Greene Point and to enrichments in major, minor and trace elements at Baker Rocks. The data set includes a composite xenolith from Baker Rocks, formed by a depleted lherzolite crosscut by an amphibole-bearing vein. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to accurately determine the Fe3+/Fetot ratios in spinel and amphibole minerals. Amphiboles were also characterized by Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction, and the crystallographic data were used to calculate the dehydrogenation. The oxidation state recorded by the xenoliths ranges from 0.2 to 1.5 log-bar units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer (Δlog fO2) with the highest values observed in the metasomatized samples from Greene Point. For the vein of composite Baker Rocks xenolith, Δlog fO2 was estimated on the basis of the amphibole in -1.7 log-bar units, a value close to those calculated for all Baker Rocks xenoliths (Δlog fO2 = -1.5 to -1.1 log-bar units). These results indicate a similar oxidation state for lithospheric mantle prior to the metasomatic event at Greene Point and Baker Rocks (Δlog fO2 ~ -1.3 log-bar units). Metasomatism produced different effects in the shallow mantle at the two sites. At Greene Point, an oxidizing metasomatic melt caused the rise of fO2 in peridotite portions close to melt conduits up to FMQ. In contrast, at Baker Rocks, a metasomatizing melt with fO2 similar to that of the peridotite matrix produced chemical changes in the surrounding mantle rocks and amphibole

  11. Monitoring Lake Victoria Water Quality from Space: Opportunities for Strengthening Trans-boundary Information Sharing for Effective Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugo, R. M.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Nyaga, J. W.; Irwin, D.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Victoria (LV) is an important freshwater resource in East Africa, covering 68,800 km2, and a catchment that spans 193,000km2. It is an important source of food, energy, drinking and irrigation water, transport and a repository for agricultural, human and industrial wastes generated from its catchment. For such a lake, and a catchment transcending 5 international boundaries, collecting data to guide informed decision making is a hard task. Remote sensing is currently the only tool capable of providing information on environmental changes at high spatio-temporal scales. To address the problem of information availability for LV, we tackled two objectives; (1) we analyzed water quality parameters retrieved from MODIS data, and (2) assessed land cover changes in the catchment area using Landsat data. We used L1A MODIS-Aqua data to retrieve lake surface temperature (LST), total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll-a (CHLa) and diffuse attenuation coefficient (KD490) in four temporal periods i.e. daily, weekly, monthly and seasonal scales. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was done on monthly data. An analysis of land cover change was done using Landsat data for 3 epochs in order to assess if land degradation contributes to water quality changes. Our results indicate that MODIS-Aqua data provides synoptic views of water quality changes in LV at different temporal scales. The Winam Gulf in Kenya, the shores of Jinja town in Uganda, as well as the Mwanza region in Tanzania represent water quality hotspots due to their relatively high TSM and CHLa concentrations. High levels of KD490 in these areas would also indicate high turbidity and thus low light penetration due to the presence of suspended matter, algal blooms, and/or submerged vegetation. The EOF analysis underscores the areas where LST and water color variability are more significant. The changes can be associated with corresponding land use changes in the catchment, where for instance wetlands are

  12. Paleoclimatic and paleoecological reconstruction of early Miocene terrestrial equatorial deposits, Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, L. A.; Peppe, D. J.; McNulty, K. P.; Driese, S. G.; Lutz, J.; Nightingale, S.; Maxbauer, D. P.; Horner, W. H.; DiPietro, L. M.; Lehmann, T.; Dunsworth, H. M.; Harcourt-Smith, W. E.; Ogondo, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological responses to climatic shifts are often studied to inform us on future anthropogenic-driven climate change. However, few of these climatic shifts occur over time scales appropriate to modern change and few occur with biota similar to modern. The Miocene Climatic Optimum is an ideal interval to study because of its rapid duration and because it occurred during the rise and proliferation of apes. The sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya were deposited between 18 and 20 Ma and record a changing equatorial climate just prior to the Miocene Climate Optimum. This location also offers an opportunity to use multiple proxies to constrain climate and landscape, including paleosol geochemistry, paleobotany and paleontology. Additionally, due to the rich fossil preservation on the islands, climatic shifts are framed within the context of early caterrhine evolution. Here, we report a climate shift recorded through three time slices spanning two formations over ~2 myr. The oldest unit, the Wayando Formation, records an arid, probably open ecosystem with pedogenic calcite rhizoliths, a high groundwater table, poorly-formed paleosols and permineralized sedges. The middle time slice, the Grit Member-Fossil Bed Member contact of the Hiwegi Formation, shows evidence of a local saline lake, with desiccation features, satin-spar after gypsum deposits and salt hoppers. Paleobotanical and sedimentological data from roughly contemporaneous strata indicate a warm, highly seasonal environment that supported a mixture of woodland and forested elements across the landscape. The youngest unit, which is within the Kibanga Member of the Hiwegi Formation, displays demonstrable evidence for a closed-canopy multistoried forest with the presence of tree-stump casts and permineralized root systems within a red-brown paleosol. Within the same paleosol horizon, the dental remains of the catarrhines Proconsul and Dendropithecus have been discovered in situ. This

  13. Neogene-Quaternary Volcanic Alignments in the Transantarctic Mountains and West Antarctic Rift System of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, T. S.; Wilson, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    Neogene-Quaternary volcanism in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, produced the Erebus Volcanic Province, a suite of alkaline volcanic rocks that extend from the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift to offshore localities within the West Antarctic rift system. We are mapping volcanic vent patterns in the province to detect alignments indicative of stress/strain patterns during rift evolution. In the southern sector of the Erebus Volcanic Province in the Royal Society Range Block of the Transantarctic Mountains, mapping shows that elliptical scoria cones, fissures, dikes, and linear vent arrays define volcanic alignments that have a dominant NNE trend, with subsidiary WNW trends. Age data for the alignments suggest that this pattern persisted from 14.6 to 0.25 Ma. We are currently completing mapping along an east-west transect crossing the rift margin, and results obtained so far within the rift region indicate a similar pattern of alignments. On the northern flank of Mount Morning, a large volcano just to the east of the Royal Society Range, elliptical scoria cones and linear vent arrays define volcanic alignments that have a dominant NE trend, with a subsidiary NNW trend. Available age data suggest that many of these cone alignments may be of Quaternary age. At Brown Peninsula, further east from the rift flank, cone alignments trend NNE and available ages range from 2 to 3 Ma. To the east of Brown Peninsula, cone alignments trend NW at Black Island, but are of uncertain age; age data on Black Island range from 11 to 3.4 Ma. At White Island, the farthest east into the rift, cone alignments trend NNE and available age data suggest volcanism as young as 0.2 Ma. Although some differences in cone alignment trends are apparent between the rift flank and the rift system across our transect, both regions appear to be dominated by NE trending alignments, which implies a WNW to NW minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) direction. This is oblique to the ENE Shmin Cape

  14. Enrichment and exposure assessment of As, Cr and Pb of the soils in the vicinity of Stawell, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ryan R P; Hough, Robert M; Watkins, Ronald T

    2010-06-01

    Stawell Gold Mine in NW Victoria, Australia, mines ores that contain large concentrations of As and significant quantities of the metals Pb and Cr. The aim of this research was to understand the dispersion, enrichment and probable exposure of these potentially hazardous elements around the mine site. Fifty-five surface soil samples were collected near the mine (<15 km) and analysed by ICP-MS/OES following bioavailable and four-acid extractions. Soils near the mine show greater concentrations of As, Cr and Pb than those near a regionally determined background. This is attributed to the combination of a natural geochemical halo around mineralization and anthropogenic dispersion due to mining and urbanization. Total As concentrations were between 16 and 946 mg kg(-1) near the mine in a regional background of 1-16 mg kg(-1). Total Cr concentrations were between 18 and 740 mg kg(-1) near the mine in a regional background of 26-143 mg kg(-1). Total Pb concentrations were between 12 and 430 mg kg(-1) near the mine in a regional background of 9-23 mg kg(-1). Dispersion of contaminant elements from the present ore processing is <500 m. The most enriched soils occur close to the town and are unrelated to present mining practices. The bioavailable As, Cr and Pb, soil ingestion rates and Risk Reference Doses were used to estimate health risks. An average toddler (12 kg) would need to consume at least 1.5 g, and most likely 12 g, of soil per day to show some symptoms of As toxicity. The maximum measured bioavailable As would pose a risk at average ingestion rates of 200 mg per day. Individuals with soil-eating disorders would exceed the safe daily consumption limits for As, and potentially Cr and Pb. Small children are not typically exposed to soil everyday, very few have soil eating disorders, and, therefore, the health risk from the soils around the mine is minimal. PMID:19779837

  15. Faulting processes at high fluid pressures: An example of fault valve behavior from the Wattle Gully Fault, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Stephen F.

    1995-07-01

    The internal structures of the Wattle Gully Fault provide insights about the mechanics and dynamics of fault systems exhibiting fault valve behavior in high fluid pressure regimes. This small, high-angle reverse fault zone developed at temperatures near 300°C in the upper crust, late during mid-Devonian regional crustal shortening in central Victoria, Australia. The Wattle Gully Fault forms part of a network of faults that focused upward migration of fluids generated by metamorphism and devolatilisation at deeper crustal levels. The fault has a length of around 800 m and a maximum displacement of 50 m and was oriented at 60° to 80° to the maximum principal stress during faulting. The structure was therefore severely misoriented for frictional reactivation. This factor, together with the widespread development of steeply dipping fault fill quartz veins and associated subhorizontal extension veins within the fault zone, indicates that faulting occurred at low shear stresses and in a near-lithostatic fluid pressure regime. The internal structures of these veins, and overprinting relationships between veins and faults, indicate that vein development was intimately associated with faulting and involved numerous episodes of fault dilatation and hydrothermal sealing and slip, together with repeated hydraulic extension fracturing adjacent to slip surfaces. The geometries, distribution and internal structures of veins in the Wattle Gully Fault Zone are related to variations in shear stress, fluid pressure, and near-field principal stress orientations during faulting. Vein opening is interpreted to have been controlled by repeated fluid pressure fluctuations associated with cyclic, deformation-induced changes in fault permeability during fault valve behavior. Rates of recovery of shear stress and fluid pressure after rupture events are interpreted to be important factors controlling time dependence of fault shear strength and slip recurrence. Fluctuations in shear stress

  16. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Heerde, Jessica A.; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at one- and two-year follow-up in Washington, United States and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students (N = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004 (Grade 9 [G9]). Rates of lifetime, current, frequent, and heavy episodic alcohol use were higher in Victoria than Washington State, whereas rates of five antisocial behaviors were generally comparable across states. After controlling for established risk factors, few associations between alcohol use and antisocial behavior remained, except that G7 current use predicted G8 police arrests and stealing and G9 carrying a weapon and stealing; G7 heavy episodic use predicted G8 and G9 police arrests; and G7 lifetime use predicted G9 carrying a weapon. Hence, risk factors other than alcohol were stronger predictors of antisocial behaviors. PMID:25132702

  17. Sharing the tracks to good tucker: identifying the benefits and challenges of implementing community food programs for Aboriginal communities in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Murray, Margaret; Bonnell, Emily; Thorpe, Sharon; Browne, Jennifer; Barbour, Liza; MacDonald, Catherine; Palermo, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a significant issue in the Victorian Aboriginal population, contributing to the health disparity and reduced life expectancy. Community food programs are a strategy used to minimise individual level food insecurity, with little evidence regarding their effectiveness for Aboriginal populations. The aim of this study was to explore the role of community food programs operating for Aboriginal people in Victoria and their perceived influence on food access and nutrition. Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff (n=23) from a purposive sample of 18 community food programs across Victoria. Interviews explored the programs' operation, key benefits to the community, challenges and recommendations for setting up a successful community food program. Results were analysed using a qualitative thematic approach and revealed three main themes regarding key factors for the success of community food programs: (1) community food programs for Aboriginal people should support access to safe, affordable, nutritious food in a socially and culturally acceptable environment; (2) a community development approach is essential for program sustainability; and (3) there is a need to build the capacity of community food programs as part of a strategy to ensure sustainability. Community food programs may be an effective initiative for reducing food insecurity in the Victorian Aboriginal population. PMID:25116591

  18. Photo-catalytic activity of Plasmonic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles (synthesized via a green route) for the effective degradation of Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Begum, Shamima; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-07-01

    This study reports a green process for the fabrication of Ag@AgCl (silver@silver chloride) nanoparticles by using Aquilaria agallocha (AA) leaves juice without using any external reagents. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of Aquilaria agallocha leaves juice in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. From the FTIR spectra of leaves juice and phytochemicals test, it was found that flavonoids present in the leaves are responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions to Ag(0) species and leads to the formation of Ag@AgCl NPs. The synthesized Ag@AgCl NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase. Approximately, 99.46% degradation of Victoria Blue B dye were observed with Ag@AgCl NPs. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles was unchanged after 5cycles of operation. PMID:27152674

  19. Ongoing soil arsenic exposure of children living in an historical gold mining area in regional Victoria, Australia: Identifying risk factors associated with uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rachael; Dowling, Kim; Pearce, Dora; Bennett, John; Stopic, Attila

    2013-11-01

    Elevated levels of arsenic have been observed in some mine wastes and soils around historical gold mining areas in regional Victoria, Australia. Arsenic uptake from soil by children living in these areas has been demonstrated using toenail arsenic concentration as a biomarker, with evidence of some systemic absorption associated with periodic exposures. We conducted a follow-up study to ascertain if toenail arsenic concentrations, and risk factors for exposure, had changed over a five year period in an historical gold mining region in western regional Victoria, Australia. Residential soil samples (N = 14) and toenail clippings (N = 24) were analyzed for total arsenic using instrumental neutron activation analysis, including 19 toenail clippings samples that were obtained from the same study cohort in 2006. Toenail arsenic concentrations in 2011 (geometric mean, 0.171 μg/g; range, 0.030-0.540 μg/g) were significantly lower than those in 2006 (geometric mean, 0.464 μg/g; range, 0.150-2.10 μg/g; p < 0.001). However, toenail arsenic concentrations were again correlated with soil arsenic levels (Spearman's rho = 0.630; p = 0.001). Spending time outdoors more often and for longer periods correlates with increased arsenic uptake (p < 0.05). Mining-influenced residential soils represent a long-term continuing source for potential arsenic exposure for children living in this historical mining region.

  20. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis among Adult Population in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Siza, Julius E.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs. PMID:26537031

  1. Rehabilitation Utilization following a Work-Related Traumatic Brain Injury: A Sex-Based Examination of Workers’ Compensation Claims in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, E. Niki; Smith, Peter M.; Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To report on and examine differences in the use of four types of rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech therapy) by men and women following a work-related traumatic brain injury in Victoria, Australia; and to examine the importance of demographic, need, work-related and geographic factors in explaining these differences. Methods A retrospective cohort design was used to analyze 1786 work-related traumatic brain injury workers’ compensation claims lodged between 2004 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. ZINB regressions were conducted for each type of rehabilitation service to examine the relationship between sex and rehabilitation use. Covariates included demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors. Results Out of all claims (63% male, 37% female), 13% used occupational therapy, 23% used physiotherapy, 9% used psychology, and 2% used speech therapy at least once during the first year of service utilization. After controlling for demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors, women were more likely to use physiotherapy compared to men. Men and women were equally likely to use occupational therapy and psychology services. The number of visits in the first year for each type of service did not differ between male and female users. Conclusions Our findings support a sex-based approach to studying rehabilitation utilization in work-related populations. Future research is needed to examine other factors associated with rehabilitation utilization and to determine the implications of different rehabilitation utilization patterns on health and return-to-work outcomes. PMID:26982491

  2. Insights into past atmospheric lead emissions using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in historic lichens and fungi (1852-2008) from central and southern Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K.; Gulson, Brian L.

    2016-08-01

    Lead concentrations and lead isotopic compositions were determined in historic central and southern Victoria, Australia lichen (Cladonia and Usnea) and fungi (Trametes) samples collected between 1852 and 2008 to evaluate long-term atmospheric lead contamination sources. The data are grouped into four time intervals of 1850-1931, 1932-1984, 1985-2001 and 2002-2008 corresponding to the history of leaded petrol use in Australia. Elevated lichen and fungi lead concentrations and relatively high isotopic compositions from the period 1850-1931 are attributed to lithogenic sources, gold mining activities and early industrialisation. Significant increases in lichen and fungi lead concentrations and concomitant lower lead isotopic compositions correspond to the marked increase in lead emissions from leaded petrol use after 1932. Following the end of leaded petrol use in 2002 lead isotopic composition values 'recover' toward more lithogenic values. However, the lead isotopic composition data indicate that the environmental impact from leaded petrol emissions persists in contemporary samples dated to 2002-2008. Overall, the data reveal that herbarium lichens and fungi from central and southern Victoria can be used as proxies for environmental lead emissions over the past 150 years.

  3. Hydro-climatic trends and water resource management implications based on multi-scale data for the Lake Victoria region, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Destouni, G.; Jarsjö, J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable rainfall may be a main cause of poverty in rural areas, such as the Kisumu district by Lake Victoria in Kenya. Climate change may further increase the negative effects of rainfall uncertainty. These effects could be mitigated to some extent through improved and adaptive water resource management and planning, which relies on our interpretations and projections of the coupled hydro-climatic system behaviour and its development trends. In order to identify and quantify the main differences and consistencies among such hydro-climatic assessments, this study investigates trends and exemplifies their use for important water management decisions for the Lake Victoria drainage basin (LVDB), based on local scale data for the Orongo village in the Kisumu district, and regional scale data for the whole LVDB. Results show low correlation between locally and regionally observed hydro-climatic trends, and large differences, which in turn affects assessments of important water resource management parameters. However, both data scales converge in indicating that observed local and regional hydrological discharge trends are primarily driven by local and regional water use and land use changes.

  4. Male mating preferences pre-date the origin of a female trait polymorphism in an incipient species complex of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Pierotti, M E R; Seehausen, O

    2007-01-01

    Disruptive sexual selection on colour patterns has been suggested as a major cause of diversification in the cichlid species flock of Lake Victoria. In Neochromis omnicaeruleus, a colour and sex determination polymorphism is associated with a polymorphism in male and female mating preferences. Theoretical work on this incipient species complex found conditions for rapid sympatric speciation by selection on sex determination and sexual selection on male and female colour patterns, under restrictive assumptions. Here we test the biological plausibility of a key assumption of such models, namely, the existence of a male preference against a novel female colour morph before its appearance in the population. We show that most males in a population that lacks the colour polymorphism exhibit a strong mating preference against the novel female colour morph and that reinforcement is not a likely explanation for the origin of such male preferences. Our results show that a specific condition required for the combined action of selection on sex determination and sexual selection to drive sympatric speciation is biologically justified. Finally, we suggest that Lake Victoria cichlids might share an ancestral female recognition scheme, predisposing colour monomorphic populations/species to similar evolutionary pathways leading to divergence of colour morphs in sympatry. PMID:17210017

  5. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Morbidity Associated with Schistosomiasis among Adult Population in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a community survey on schistosomiais and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to suggest feasible and effective intervention strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. A total of 37 communities selected from 23 districts of the 4 regions in the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania were involved in the study. From each of the selected locality, 50 adult community members, 25 males and 25 females, were recruited for the study. Each study participant was requested to submit stool and urine specimens. From each stool specimen, duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STH eggs. Urine specimens were processed by the filtration technique and microscopically examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Ultrasound examination for morbidity due to schistosomiasis was performed. Mass treatment was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosome and STHs infections, respectively. Out of 1,606 adults who provided stool specimens, 199 (12.4%) were positive for S. mansoni, 349 (21.7%) for hookworms, 133 (8.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 33 (2.0%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 1,400 participants who provided urine specimens, 25 (1.8%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. Because of the co-endemicity of these afflictions and their impact on vulnerable population groups, the helminthiasis could be simultaneously treated with 2 drugs, praziquantel for schistosomiasis and albendazole for STHs. PMID:26537031

  6. Reassessing the Effects of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use on Later Antisocial Behavior: A Longitudinal Study of Students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Smith, Rachel; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-04-01

    The effect of early adolescent alcohol use on antisocial behavior was examined at one- and two-year follow-up in Washington, United States and Victoria, Australia. Each state used the same methods to survey statewide representative samples of students (N = 1,858, 52% female) in 2002 (Grade 7 [G7]), 2003 (Grade 8 [G8]), and 2004 (Grade 9 [G9]). Rates of lifetime, current, frequent, and heavy episodic alcohol use were higher in Victoria than Washington State, whereas rates of five antisocial behaviors were generally comparable across states. After controlling for established risk factors, few associations between alcohol use and antisocial behavior remained, except that G7 current use predicted G8 police arrests and stealing and G9 carrying a weapon and stealing; G7 heavy episodic use predicted G8 and G9 police arrests; and G7 lifetime use predicted G9 carrying a weapon. Hence, risk factors other than alcohol were stronger predictors of antisocial behaviors. PMID:25132702

  7. Evolution of the Lake Victoria basin in the context of coeval rift initiation in East Africa: a 3D numerical model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichura, Henry; Quinteros, Javier; Melnick, Daniel; Brune, Sascha; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-04-01

    Over the last four years sedimentologic and thermochronologic studies in the western and eastern branches of the Cenozoic East African Rift System (EARS) have supported the notion of a broadly contemporaneous onset of normal faulting and rift-basin formation in both segments. These studies support previous interpretations based on geophysical investigations from which an onset of rifting during the Paleogene had been postulated. In light of these studies we explore the evolution of the Lake Victoria basin, a shallow, unfaulted sedimentary basin centered between both branches of the EARS and located in the interior of the East African Plateau (EAP). We quantify the fluvial catchment evolution of the Lake Victoria basin and assess the topographic response of African crust to the onset of rifting in both branches. Furthermore, we evaluate and localize the nature of strain and flexural rift-flank uplift in both branches. We use a 3D numerical forward model that includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology. The model is able to reproduce the flexural response of variably thick lithosphere to rift-related deformation processes such as lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling. The model domain covers the entire EAP and integrates extensional processes in a heterogeneous, yet cold and thick cratonic block (Archean Tanzania craton), which is surrounded by mechanically weaker Proterozoic mobile belts, which are characterized by thinner lithosphere ("thin spots"). The lower limits of the craton (170 km) and the mobile belts (120 km) are simulated by different depths of the 1300 °C lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. We assume a constant extension rate of 4 mm/a throughout the entire simulation of 30 Ma and neglect the effect of dynamic topography and magmatism. Even though the model setup is very simple and the resolution is not high enough to calculate realistic rift-flank uplift, it intriguingly reveals important topographic

  8. Triumphs Show: What Makes Art History? Year 7 Exploit the Resources of the Victoria and Albert Museum's Medieval Gallery to Create and Curate Their Own Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copsey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    What do 14 Year 7 students, an art teacher, a history teacher and the Victoria and Albert Museum have in common? They are all part of the "Stronger Together" Museum Champion project run by The Langley Academy and the River & Rowing Museum and supported by Arts Council England, designed to engage students, teachers and museum staff…

  9. Modern stromatolites in a saline maar in the Western District of Victoria, Australia: a possible analogue for Precambrian marine carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, J. E.; Wallace, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Stromatolites and thrombolites are microbially-mediated, sedimentary structures of various size and morphology, found throughout the rock record. Although they do not always contain fossils of microbial cells, ancient stromatolitic structures are considered biogenic in origin and, therefore, evidence of early life. Modern, living stromatolites are found in lacustrine and marine environments and can provide a window in which to observe some of Earth's earliest biological processes. However, secular variation in marine chemistry over geological time means that modern marine settings are not always the best analogues for ancient carbonates. This study describes the occurrence of modern stromatolites in a saline, alkaline maar in Victoria, Australia. Dolomite is a principle carbonate mineral precipitating from this lake, an unusual and poorly understood occurrence in modern environments, but one that was common in the Precambrian. The peculiar lacustrine chemistry in this volcanic region may, therefore, provide a better analogue for Precambrian marine carbonates than modern marine environments. Several types of stromatolites/thrombolites are observed occurring around this maar. Living thrombolites grow just below the shoreline to ~60 cm below the surface of the water. They are nucleating on the cemented surfaces of older lake carbonates, as well as cattle skulls and fence wires that have become submerged. Distinct microbial mats are observed, the uppermost being cyanobacteria, followed by purple sulfur bacteria, and underlain by sulfate reducing bacteria. Older exposed stromatolites are more consolidated and have a more clearly defined laminated and columnar morphology. The thickness ranges from a few to 15 cm and each column is up to a centimeter in diameter. Together these give the surface of the rock a "bubbly" appearance. Along the shore, a sandy-gravel composed of stromatolite remnants has formed, indicating that wind-generated surface waves of substantial

  10. Holistic view to integrated climate change assessment and extreme weather adaptation in the Lake Victoria Basin East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutua, F.; Koike, T.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme weather events have been the leading cause of disasters and damage all over the world.The primary ingredient to these disasters especially floods is rainfall which over the years, despite advances in modeling, computing power and use of new data and technologies, has proven to be difficult to predict. Also, recent climate projections showed a pattern consistent with increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme events in the East African region.We propose a holistic integrated approach to climate change assessment and extreme event adaptation through coupling of analysis techniques, tools and data. The Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) in East Africa supports over three million livelihoods and is a valuable resource to five East African countries as a source of water and means of transport. However, with a Mesoscale weather regime driven by land and lake dynamics,extreme Mesoscale events have been prevalent and the region has been on the receiving end during anomalously wet years in the region. This has resulted in loss of lives, displacements, and food insecurity. In the LVB, the effects of climate change are increasingly being recognized as a significant contributor to poverty, by its linkage to agriculture, food security and water resources. Of particular importance are the likely impacts of climate change in frequency and intensity of extreme events. To tackle this aspect, this study adopted an integrated regional, mesoscale and basin scale approach to climate change assessment. We investigated the projected changes in mean climate over East Africa, diagnosed the signals of climate change in the atmosphere, and transferred this understanding to mesoscale and basin scale. Changes in rainfall were analyzed and similar to the IPCC AR4 report; the selected three General Circulation Models (GCMs) project a wetter East Africa with intermittent dry periods in June-August. Extreme events in the region are projected to increase; with the number of wet days

  11. An Integrated Hydrological and Water Management Study of the Entire Nile River System - Lake Victoria to Nile Delta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Zaitchik, Benjamin; Alo, Clement; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Anderson, Martha; Policelli, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    The Nile basin River system spans 3 million km(exp 2) distributed over ten nations. The eight upstream riparian nations, Ethiopia, Eretria, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania and Kenya are the source of approximately 86% of the water inputs to the Nile, while the two downstream riparian countries Sudan and Egypt, presently rely on the river's flow for most of the their needs. Both climate and agriculture contribute to the complicated nature of Nile River management: precipitation in the headwaters regions of Ethiopia and Lake Victoria is variable on a seasonal and inter-annual basis, while demand for irrigation water in the arid downstream region is consistently high. The Nile is, perhaps, one of the most difficult trans-boundary water issue in the world, and this study would be the first initiative to combine NASA satellite observations with the hydrologic models study the overall water balance in a to comprehensive manner. The cornerstone application of NASA's Earth Science Research Results under this project are the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) and the USDA Atmosphere-land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. These two complementary research results are methodologically independent methods for using NASA observations to support water resource analysis in data poor regions. Where an LDAS uses multiple sources of satellite data to inform prognostic simulations of hydrological process, ALEXI diagnoses evapotranspiration and water stress on the basis of thermal infrared satellite imagery. Specifically, this work integrates NASA Land Data Assimilation systems into the water management decision support systems that member countries of the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) and Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD, located in Nairobi, Kenya) use in water resource analysis, agricultural planning, and acute drought response to support sustainable development of Nile Basin water resources. The project is motivated by the recognition that

  12. Ground ice recharge via brine transport in frozen soils of Victoria Valley, Antarctica: Insights from modeling δ 18O and δD profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, Birgit; Sletten, Ronald S.; Hallet, Bernard; McTigue, David F.; Steig, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica contain ice and considerable amounts of salt. Ice often occurs at shallow depth throughout the Dry Valleys and other areas of hyperarid permafrost, notably on Mars. This common occurrence of shallow ice is enigmatic; however, since according to published sublimation models it should disappear relatively quickly (at rates of order 0.1 mm a -1) due to vapor loss to the atmosphere. This loss may be offset by recharge from snowmelt infiltrating and freezing in the soil. Herein, we present a first quantitative estimate of this recharge based on measured vertical profiles of δD and δ 18O that reveal considerable detail about the sources and sinks of ice. We model these profiles, taking into account the salt content and a soil temperature record along a 1.6 m depth profile of ˜10 ka old ice-cemented soils in Victoria Valley, Antarctica. The stable isotopes of ice are enriched in heavy isotopes at the top of the ice cement (20 cm depth); both δD and δ 18O values plotted against depth exhibit a concave upward curve. At depth, the isotope composition is similar to that of Lake Victoria and modern meteoric water. The concave shape of the isotope profile is suggestive of downward advection-dispersion of snowmelt water enriched in heavy isotopes into the ice cement. Our advection-dispersion model, coupled with field data, enables us to quantify the advective flux and dispersion of melt water into the ice. The advective velocity and dispersion coefficient depend on the time since advection began and the ice-to-brine ratio; they are, respectively, of the order of 10 -11-10 -10 m s -1 and 10 -12-10 -11 m 2 s -1. These values suggest that over the ˜10 ka time period, a total of 190 mm water infiltrated into the ice-cemented ground. The isotope composition and deuterium excess values of the uppermost ice cement can be modeled from snowmelt water enriched in salts using open system-Rayleigh fractionation. To develop the isotopic

  13. High fluoride water in Bondo-Rarieda area of Siaya County, Kenya: a hydro-geological implication on public health in the Lake Victoria Basin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only a few studies to evaluate groundwater fluoride in Eastern Africa have been undertaken outside the volcanic belt of the Great Eastern Africa Rift Valley. The extent and impact of water fluoride outside these regions therefore remain unclear. The current study evaluated fluoride levels in household water sources in Bondo-Rarieda Area in the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB) and highlighted the risk posed by water fluoride to the resident communities. The results, it was anticipated, will contribute to in-depth understanding of the fluoride problem in the region. Methods A total of 128 water samples were collected from different water sources from the entire study area and analyzed for fluoride content using ion-selective electrodes. Results Lake Victoria was the main water source in the area but dams and open pans (39.5%), boreholes and shallow wells (23.5%), and streams (18.5%) were the principal water sources outside walking distances from the lake. The overall mean fluoride content of the water exceeded recommended limits for drinking water. The mean water fluoride was highest in Uyoma (1.39±0.84 ppm), Nyang’oma (1.00±0.59 ppm) and Asembo (0.92±0.46 ppm) and lowest in Maranda Division (0.69±0.42 ppm). Ponds (1.41±0.82 ppm), springs (1.25±0.43 ppm), dams and open pans (0.96±0.79 ppm), and streams (0.95±0.41 ppm) had highest fluoride levels but lake and river water did not have elevated fluoride levels. Groundwater fluoride decreased with increasing distance from the lake indicating that water fluoride may have hydro-geologically been translocated into the region from geochemical sources outside the area. Conclusions Lake Victoria was the main water source for the residents of Bondo-Rarieda Area. Majority of in-land residents however used water from dams, open pans, boreholes, shallow wells, ponds and streams, which was generally saline and fluoridated. It was estimated that 36% of children living in this area, who

  14. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach dynamics and succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (east Africa): implications for water quality and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  15. Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach Dynamics and Succession in the Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria (East Africa): Implications for Water Quality and Biodiversity Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Gichuki, John; Omondi, Reuben; Boera, Priscillar; Okorut, Tom; Matano, Ally Said; Jembe, Tsuma; Ofulla, Ayub

    2012-01-01

    This study, conducted in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, assessed ecological succession and dynamic status of water hyacinth. Results show that water hyacinth is the genesis of macrophyte succession. On establishment, water hyacinth mats are first invaded by native emergent macrophytes, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., and Enydra fluctuans Lour., during early stages of succession. This is followed by hippo grass Vossia cuspidata (Roxb.) Griff. in mid- and late stages whose population peaks during climax stages of succession with concomitant decrease in water hyacinth biomass. Hippo grass depends on water hyacinth for buoyancy, anchorage, and nutrients. The study concludes that macrophyte succession alters aquatic biodiversity and that, since water hyacinth infestation and attendant succession are a symptom of broader watershed management and pollution problems, aquatic macrophyte control should include reduction of nutrient loads and implementing multifaceted approach that incorporates biological agents, mechanical/manual control with utilization of harvested weed for cottage industry by local communities. PMID:22619574

  16. Holocene History of the Bering Sea Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) in Its Beaufort Sea Summer Grounds off Southwestern Victoria Island, Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Arthur S.; Savelle, James M.

    2001-05-01

    The fossil remains of 43 bowhead whales were mapped on the raised beaches of western Wollaston Peninsula, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic, near the historic summer range limit of the Bering Sea stock in the Beaufort Sea. The elevations and radiocarbon ages of the remains demonstrate that the bowhead ranged commonly into the region following the submergence of Bering Strait at ca. 10,000 14C yr B.P. until ca. 8500 14C yr B.P. During the same interval, bowheads ranged widely from the Beaufort Sea to Baffin Bay. Subsequently, no whales reached Wollaston Peninsula until ca. 1500 14C yr B.P. Late Holocene populations evidently were small, or occupations were brief, in comparison to those of the early Holocene. Although the late Holocene recurrence may relate to the expansion of pioneering Thule whalers eastward from Alaska, there are few Thule sites and limited evidence of Thule whaling in the area surveyed to support this suggestion.

  17. Population normative data for the CERAD Word List and Victoria Stroop Test in younger- and middle-aged adults: Cross-sectional analyses from the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Hankee, Lisa D.; Preis, Sarah R.; Piers, Ryan J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Liu, Yulin; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide baseline normative data on tests of verbal memory and executive function for non-demented young to middle age adults. Methods The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Word List task (CERAD-WL) and Victoria Stroop Test (VST) were administered to 3362 Framingham Heart Study (FHS) volunteer participants aged 24-78 years. Analyses of the effects of age, sex and education were conducted. Normative data on traditional measures and error responses are reported for each test. Results Traditional measures were significantly associated with both age and education in this younger-aged cohort. Error responses also evidenced significant age and education effects. Conclusion These data provide a normative comparison for assessment of verbal memory and executive functioning capabilities in young adults and may be utilized as a tool for preclinical studies of disease in younger aged adults. PMID:27410241

  18. Late Miocene terrestrial record of East Antarctic Ice Sheet configuration and dynamics recorded by volcanic lithofacies and sequence characteristics in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, John; Rocchi, Sergio; Gemelli, Maurizio; di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Armienti, Pietro

    2010-05-01

    Late Miocene (c. 12-5 Ma) volcanic sequences crop out extensively along > 250 km of northern Victoria Land coastline, at the Ross Sea margin of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). The sequences are dominantly glaciovolcanic and two main types are present. The commonest and most representative comprises multiple mafic aa lava-fed deltas, a type of glaciovolcanic sequence not previously described. The second sequence type resembles mafic glaciovolcanic sheet-like sequences of Mt Pinafore type (sensu Smellie, 2006, Earth-Science Reviews, 74, 241-268) but includes felsic examples as well, and there are additional minor occurrences of pyroclastic cones and an ice-marginal lacustrine deposit. Interpretation of the glaciovolcanic sequences enables estimates of past ice thicknesses that were coeval with eruptions to be made with considerable certainty. The sequences were formed in association with a glacial cover that was typically, and probably never much more than, a few hundred metres thick. Despite gaps in the record, no evidence was observed for subaerial (i.e. fully ice-free) eruptive conditions, suggesting either that ice-free conditions did not occur or else were of such short duration that they left no record. These observations are consistent with the presence of a late Miocene ice dome or regional ice sheet situated in northern Victoria Land for the period, although it may have been confluent with the EAIS similar to conditions present today. The basal glacial thermal regime varied from wet-based and dynamic, to cold-based (frozen to its bed) and presumably relatively stable. A major change from wet-based ice to cold-based ice is evident but its timing is not precisely determined. There is also evidence that temporary changes in thermal regime might have occurred before and after the principal transition.

  19. Paleoenvironmental context of the Middle Stone Age record from Karungu, Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, and its implications for human and faunal dispersals in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Faith, J Tyler; Tryon, Christian A; Peppe, Daniel J; Beverly, Emily J; Blegen, Nick; Blumenthal, Scott; Chritz, Kendra L; Driese, Steven G; Patterson, David

    2015-06-01

    The opening and closing of the equatorial East African forest belt during the Quaternary is thought to have influenced the biogeographic histories of early modern humans and fauna, although precise details are scarce due to a lack of archaeological and paleontological records associated with paleoenvironmental data. With this in mind, we provide a description and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age (MSA) artifact- and fossil-bearing sediments from Karungu, located along the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. Artifacts recovered from surveys and controlled excavations are typologically MSA and include points, blades, and Levallois flakes and cores, as well as obsidian flakes similar in geochemical composition to documented sources near Lake Naivasha (250 km east). A combination of sedimentological, paleontological, and stable isotopic evidence indicates a semi-arid environment characterized by seasonal precipitation and the dominance of C4 grasslands, likely associated with a substantial reduction in Lake Victoria. The well-preserved fossil assemblage indicates that these conditions are associated with the convergence of historically allopatric ungulates from north and south of the equator, in agreement with predictions from genetic observations. Analysis of the East African MSA record reveals previously unrecognized north-south variation in assemblage composition that is consistent with episodes of population fragmentation during phases of limited dispersal potential. The grassland-associated MSA assemblages from Karungu and nearby Rusinga Island are characterized by a combination of artifact types that is more typical of northern sites. This may reflect the dispersal of behavioral repertoires-and perhaps human populations-during a paleoenvironmental phase dominated by grasslands. PMID:25883052

  20. Lithospheric influences on magma compositions of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic intraplate basalts (the Older Volcanics) of Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Richard C.; Nicholls, Ian A.; Day, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and extending across the southern part of the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanism has continued sporadically since that time with major breaks in activity occurring between 77 and 62 Ma and 18 and 7 Ma. Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 95 to 18 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and they have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. They have been referred to as the “Older Volcanics” to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (mainly < 4.6 Ma) lava fields comprising the “Newer Volcanics” of the Western District Province to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated nephelinites, basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene and quartz normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between depleted (DM) and enriched (EM1 and EM2) end member mantle components in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y and the overall patterns of major and trace element behaviour can be explained in general terms by petrogenetic models involving partial melting of a complex spectrum of mantle compositions with subsequent but limited additional modification by fractional crystallisation with or without assimilation of crust. Among basalts with relatively high Mg# [100 ∗ Mol. MgO/(MgO + FeO) > 65], two distinct end member compositions can be differentiated using primitive mantle normalised extended element patterns. Group 1 basalts have convex upward patterns with enrichment of light over heavy REE and depletion of Rb, Ba, Th and U relative to Nb. Group 2 basalts also have

  1. A comparison of the intradermal and subcutaneous routes of influenza vaccination with A/New Jersey/76 (swine flu) and A/Victoria/75: report of a study and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, W; Weiss, W I; Altman, R; Diamond, M A; Black, K J; Iaci, A W; Black, H C; Goldfield, M

    1979-01-01

    A trail of influenza vaccination, with use of bivalent split virus vaccine (A/New Jersey/76 and A/Victoria/75), was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and reactions when vaccine was given by the subcutaneous and intradermal routes. Volunteers 18 to 24 years old were randomized into equal groups, one group receiving 0.1 ml of vaccine intradermally and the other receiving 0.5 ml subcutaneously. For the A/Victoria vaccine, the immunogenicity of the intradermal route seemed superior; for A/New Jersey vaccine, the routes were equivalent. Adverse reactions were minimal and equivalent for both groups. In times of vaccine shortage, the intradermal route is considered to stretch vaccine supplies. Field trials of new influenza vaccines should include evaluation of the immunogenicity of and adverse reactions caused by the same vaccine given by different routes in varied dosages. PMID:507256

  2. Time series analysis of satellite multi-sensors imagery to study the recursive abnormal grow of floating macrophyte in the lake victoria (central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusilli, Lorenzo; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Laneve, Giovanni; Pignatti, Stefano; Santilli, Giancarlo; Santini, Federico

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing allows multi-temporal mapping and monitoring of large water bodies. The importance of remote sensing for wetland and inland water inventory and monitoring at all scales was emphasized several times by the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands and from EU projects like SALMON and ROSALMA, e.g. by (Finlayson et al., 1999) and (Lowry and Finlayson, 2004). This paper aims at assessing the capability of time series of satellite imagery to provide information suitable for enhancing the understanding of the temporal cycles shown by the macrophytes growing in order to support the monitor and management of the lake Victoria water resources. The lake Victoria coastal areas are facing a number of challenges related to water resource management which include growing population, water scarcity, climate variability and water resource degradation, invasive species, water pollution. The proliferation of invasive plants and aquatic weeds, is of growing concern. In particular, let us recall some of the problems caused by the aquatic weeds growing: Ø interference with human activities such as fishing, and boating; Ø inhibition or interference with a balanced fish population; Ø fish killing due to removal of too much oxygen from the water; Ø production of quiet water areas that are ideal for mosquito breeding. In this context, an integrated use of medium/high resolution images from sensors like MODIS, ASTER, LANDSAT/TM and whenever available CHRIS offers the possibility of creating a congruent time series allowing the analysis of the floating vegetation dynamic on an extended temporal basis. Although MODIS imagery is acquired daily, cloudiness and other sources of noise can greatly reduce the effective temporal resolution, further its spatial resolution can results not always adequate to map the extension of floating plants. Therefore, the integrated use of sensors with different spatial resolution, were used to map across seasons the evolution of the phenomena. The

  3. Petrology, geochronology and emplacement model of the giant 1.37 Ga arcuate Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm on the margin of a large igneous province in eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkitie, Hannu; Data, Gabriel; Isabirye, Edward; Mänttäri, Irmeli; Huhma, Hannu; Klausen, Martin B.; Pakkanen, Lassi; Virransalo, Petri

    2014-09-01

    A comprehensive description of the petrography, geochemical composition, Sm-Nd data and intrinsic field relationships of a giant arcuate Mesoproterozoic mafic dyke swarm in SW Uganda is presented for the first time. The swarm is ∼100 km wide and mainly hosted in the Palaeoproterozoic Rwenzori Belt between the Mesoproterozoic Karagwe-Ankole Belt and the Archaean Uganda Block. The dykes trend NW-SE across Uganda, but can be correlated across Lake Victoria to another set of arcuate aeromagnetic anomalies that continue southwards into Tanzania, resulting in a remarkably large semi-circular swarm with an outer diameter of ∼500 km. We propose that this unique giant dyke structure be named the Lake Victoria Dyke Swarm (LVDS). The dykes are tholeiites with Mg numbers between 0.69 and 0.44, and with inherited marked negative Nb and P anomalies in spider diagrams. Two dykes provide Sm-Nd mineral ages of 1368 ± 41 Ma and 1374 ± 42 Ma, with initial εNd values of -2.3 and -3.2, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of ∼0.706-0.709. Geotectonic discrimination diagrams for the swarm exhibit more arc type than within-plate tectonic signatures, but this is in accordance with systematic enrichments in LREE, U and Th in the dolerites, more likely due to the involvement of the continental lithosphere during their petrogenesis. The LVDS is coeval with a regional ∼1375 Ma bimodal magmatic event across nearby Burundi, Rwanda and NW Tanzania, which can collectively be viewed as a large igneous province (LIP). It also indicates that the nearby Karagwe-Ankole Belt sequences - bracketed between 1.78 and 1.37 Ga and assumed by some to have been deposited within intracratonic basins - were capped by flood basalts that have subsequently been removed by erosion. Different geochemical signatures (e.g. LaN/SmN) suggest that most of the arcuate swarm was derived from an enriched SCLM, whereas related intrusions in the centre of this semi-circular segment have more or less enriched asthenospheric mantle

  4. Miocene-to-Quaternary oblique rifting signature in the Western Ross Sea from fault patterns in the McMurdo Volcanic Group, north Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Giordano, Guido; Rossetti, Federico; Storti, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    Mt. Overlord and Mt. Melbourne are part of the fossil-to-active eruptive centre belt of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, located along the western shoulder of the West Antarctic Rift System in north Victoria Land (Antarctica). The formation and localisation of these volcanic centres are intimately connected to the regional fault patterns associated with Neogene transtensional stretching in the West Antarctic Rift System. This study reports about 900 structural data of faults and fault-related joints affecting the Miocene-Pliocene deposits of Mt. Overlord and the Plio-Quaternary deposits of Mt. Melbourne. Fault surfaces strike along three main directions (NW-SE, NE-SW, and N-S) with high (> 70°) dip angles. The reconstructed fault geometries and kinematics document a NW-SE strike-slip fault system having dextral motion in the Mt. Overlord area, which evolves into a more complex structural architecture characterised by transtensional deformations in the Mt. Melbourne area, where volcanism is still active. The fault array can be reconciled with principal and subordinate deformation structures developed at the termination region of NW-SE intraplate strike-slip fault systems inducing oblique rifting in the West Antarctic Rift System. The structural dataset, integrated with available geochronological constraints, gives rise to a two-step (Miocene-to-Holocene) tectonic scenario in which the spatial migration of the volcanic activity towards the eastern boundary of the Transantarctic Mountains occurred during the evolution of the West Antarctic Rift System.

  5. Using rapid assessment and demographic methods to evaluate the effects of fishing on Heterodontus portusjacksoni off far-eastern Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Ávila, J; Day, R W; Walker, T I

    2010-11-01

    A rapid semi-quantitative ecological risk assessment method (productivity and susceptibility analysis) indicated that, despite its low biological productivity, the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni is at low risk to all fishing methods in far-eastern Victoria, Australia, under the present fishing practices, because of its low catch susceptibility. The risk to this population, however, would increase if the shark gillnet fishery operating in the region were to retain the species as a by-product. Demographic analysis indicated that the species has medium intrinsic population growth rate and potential rebound in comparison with other chondrichthyan species, juveniles have higher elasticity than mature females and both juvenile and mature females have higher elasticities than hatchlings. Because of its low biological productivity and moderate resilience to the effects of fishing, cautious management measures will be necessary to ensure the sustainable use of H. portusjacksoni if its marketing increases in the future. Information on the dynamics of a population that is valuable to provide management advice can be obtained through demographic methods, but rapid assessment methods can also provide complementary information on the effects of fishing by considering the catch susceptibility of the population to each fishing method. PMID:21078019

  6. Argon-40/argon-39 whole-rock slate ages from the Robertson Bay terrane, northern Victoria Land: Documenting diachronous orogeny as a result of terrane accretion

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1987-09-01

    In models of tectonic convergence, oceanic material enters subduction zones, descends, and is deformed. Over time subduction cuts across areas of deformation and should become younger in a direction opposite the dip of the subduction zone. Typically, geologists have found it difficult to document this because of insufficient cross-strike exposure, uncertainties in interpretation of radiometric ages, and overprinting of later tectonothermal events. The Robertson Bay and Bowers terranes of northern Victoria Land, which were accreted to the east antarctic craton (Gondwana margin) during the Ordovician Ross Orogeny, offer a unique opportunity to document a potentially diachronous deformation associated with an Ordovician orogeny. Exposed over a large area, these terranes display nearly uniform lithology, low metamorphic grade, and structural style and are combined with the absence of a regionally significant tectonothermal over print. Reconnaissance age analysis by potassium/argon and argon-40/argon-39 methods suggests that ages decrease eastward across the Robertson Bay terrane. The objective is systematically to collect samples of and perform argon-40/argon-39 age analysis on a whole-rock suite from the Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes. The resultant ages would more clearly document the suggested diachronism and allow more rigorous evaluation of the various tectonothermal models proposed for the evolution of the Gondwana margin.

  7. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    In forensic neuropsychological settings, maintaining test security has become critically important, especially in regard to symptom validity tests (SVTs). Coaching, which can entail providing patients or litigants with information about the cognitive sequelae of head injury, or teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of symptom dissimulation has been examined experimentally in many research studies. Emerging evidence supports that coaching strategies affect psychological and neuropsychological test performance to differing degrees depending on the coaching paradigm and the tests administered. The present study sought to examine Internet coverage of SVTs because it is potentially another source of coaching, or information that is readily available. Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test. Results indicated that there is a variable amount of information available about each test that could threaten test security and validity should inappropriately interested parties find it. Steps that could be taken to improve this situation and limitations to this exploration are discussed. PMID:16122901

  8. The Comparative Molecular Epidemiology of GII.P7_GII.6 and GII.P7_GII.7 Norovirus Outbreaks in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Leesa D; Moselen, Jean M; Marshall, John A

    2016-01-01

    The comparative molecular epidemiology of the related GII.P7_GII.6 and GII.P7_GII.7 noroviruses has not been examined in detail. ORF 1, ORF 2 and ORF 1/ORF 2 RT-PCR as well as sequencing and phylogeny analysis were carried out on faecal specimens from 873 gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia (2012-2014). There were 575 (66%) detected as positive for norovirus by means of ORF 1 RT-PCR and/or ORF 2 RT-PCR. Of these, 24 (4.2%) were GII.6 (ORF 2) outbreaks, 7 (1.2%) were GII.7 (ORF 2) outbreaks, and 1 outbreak (0.2%) involved both GII.6 (ORF 2) and GII.7 (ORF 2) noroviruses. The median age of patients identified with GII.6 (ORF 2) (84 years) was significantly different from that of patients identified with GII.7 (ORF 2) (39 years). ORF 2 GII.6 and ORF 2 GII.7 sequences were always associated with a GII.P7 ORF 1 sequence, and GII.P7 sequences fell into two clusters, with one corresponding to the GII.6 ORF 2 genotype and the other to the GII.7 ORF 2 genotype, thereby indicating that the ORF 1 has been evolving separately for the two viruses. Thus, two closely related noroviruses can have a markedly different incidence and epidemiology. PMID:27553653

  9. The geochemical effects of olivine slurry replenishment and dolostone assimilation in the plumbing system of the Franklin Large Igneous Province, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Ben; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bédard, Jean H.; Beard, Charlie

    2015-02-01

    The Neoproterozoic (~723-716 Ma) Franklin Large Igneous Province exposed on Victoria Island in the Canadian Arctic is comprised of a sill-dominated magma plumbing system overlain by the coeval Natkusiak flood basalts. We have investigated three sections, separated by a total of >50 km of distance, of a sill (the Fort Collinson Sill Complex) emplaced just above a prominent sedimentary marker unit. The sill is characterized by a basal olivine-enriched layer (OZ: up to 55 % olivine) and an upper gabbroic unit. The observed diversity of olivine compositions in the OZ implies that bulk-rock MgO versus FeO arrays reflect accumulation of a heterogeneous olivine crystal cargo. We suggest that the OZ was formed as a late olivine slurry replenishment in a partially crystallized gabbroic sill, propagating for over 50 km along strike. This interpretation is consistent with Pb-isotope data, which show that at least three geochemically distinct magmas were emplaced into the Fort Collinson Sill Complex. The OZs exhibit a gradual westward evolution toward more Fe-rich bulk compositions. This is best explained by progressive mixing of the replenishing olivine slurry with a resident gabbroic mush during westward flow. Pb-isotopic signatures suggest that magmas near the inferred conduit feeder assimilated small amounts (<10 %) of dolostone country rock, which may have locally buffered olivine compositions to high-Fo contents.

  10. Innovative 'Artificial Mussels' technology for assessing spatial and temporal distribution of metals in Goulburn-Murray catchments waterways, Victoria, Australia: effects of climate variability (dry vs. wet years).

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    The "Artificial mussel" (AM), a novel passive sampling technology, was used for the first time in Australia in freshwater to monitor and assess the risk of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn). AMs were deployed at 10 sites within the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments, Victoria, Australia during a dry year (2009-2010) and a wet year (2010-2011). Our results showed that the AMs accumulated all the five metals. Cd, Pb, Hg were detected during the wet year but below detection limits during the dry year. At some sites close to orchards, vine yards and farming areas, elevated levels of Cu were clearly evident during the dry year, while elevated levels of Zn were found during the wet year; the Cu indicates localized inputs from the agricultural application of copper fungicide. The impacts from old mines were significantly less compared 'hot spots'. Our study demonstrated that climate variability (dry, wet years) can influence the metal inputs to waterways via different transport pathways. Using the AMs, we were able to identify various 'hot spots' of heavy metals, which may pose a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems (sub-lethal effects to fish) and public (via food chain metal bioaccumulation and biomagnification) in the Goulburn-Murray Water catchments. The State Protection Policy exempted artificial channels and drains from protection of beneficial use (including protection of aquatic ecosystems) and majority of sites ('hot spots') were located within artificial irrigation channels. PMID:23070068

  11. A Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characterization of dust source areas in Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakowski, Molly A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Delmonte, Barbara; Baroni, Carlo; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Sims, Kenneth W. W.

    2016-06-01

    Determining the geographical provenance of dust provides crucial insight into the global dust cycle. For the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), the importance of Southern hemisphere potential dust sources has been thoroughly investigated using radiogenic isotopes, whereas proximal dust source areas located on the periphery of the ice sheet remain poorly documented from a geochemical standpoint. In this work, we expand the existing isotopic (Srsbnd Nd) catalogue of dust and sand-sized sediments from Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector, and incorporate Hf isotopic data to place additional constraints on dust source identification. The isotopic field for materials considered in this study is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.703 to 0.783, εNd between -12.01 and 6.36, and εHf from -16.77 to 6.89. As reported in previous works, the data reveal close relationships between Antarctic sediments and distinct parent lithologies; in addition, our findings emphasize the background presence of very fine dusts originating from dominant global sources and regional volcanic activity as barriers to direct source-to-sink comparison of isotopic signatures. Thus, geochemical characterizations of dust sources to the Antarctic ice sheet involving multiple size fractions, including coarser-grained particles more susceptible to short-range transport, can help us to rule out global sources of dust when examining local sediment cores and ice cores.

  12. Influences of ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen on lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis: laboratory evaluation and field validation in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fang, J K H; Wu, R S S; Chan, A K Y; Yip, C K M; Shin, P K S

    2008-12-01

    Lysosomal integrity in mussels has been applied as a biomarker to detect the pollution of trace organics and metals in the natural environments. However, few studies have examined the effects of water quality on the response of lysosomal integrity, in particular total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) and dissolved oxygen (DO). This study demonstrated that high level of TAN (2.0mg/l) and low DO (2.5mg O(2)/l) could significantly reduce the lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, respectively by 33% and 38%, whereas the mussel lysosomal integrity decreased by 70% in the combined treatment of TAN and low DO under laboratory conditions after one week. The mussel lysosomal integrity of all treatment groups could return to the control level after a three week recovery period. In the field validation in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong during an one-year study period, lysosomal integrity in P. viridis identified the cleanest site east to the harbour, where the lowest TAN and highest DO concentrations were found. While lysosomal integrity in mussels seemed not affected by seasonal changes, approximately 40% of the variation of this biomarker could be attributable to the changes in TAN and DO in seawater. In conclusion, the response of the mussel lysosomal integrity can be confounded by both TAN and DO prevailing in the natural environments and thus caution must be exercised in relating the observed changes in lysosomal integrity to any specific pollutant in coastal water quality monitoring studies. PMID:18789457

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of iron-doped titania/silane based hydrogel for the adsorptional photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue under visible light.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, Thayyath S; Divya, Peethambaran L; Nima, Jayachandran; Sandeep, Sadanandan

    2014-11-15

    Novel photocatalyst, poly(itaconic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonic acid) iron doped titania/silane was successfully prepared by the polymerization of iron doped titania/silane and two functional monomers, itaconic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonic acid in aqueous solution using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and benzoylperoxide as initiator. The sample was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. Effects of various factors like pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity of photocatalyst for Victoria blue (VB) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic data were found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetic model with low chi square, χ(2) values and R(2) values closer to unity. The equilibrium data were in well agreement with Langmuir isotherm model and maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 153.89 mg/g. The swelling capacity of the adsorbent with changes in pH, time and temperature was also investigated. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of VB by the photocatalyst found to follow first-order kinetics. The regeneration and repeated use of photocatalyst were also examined upto four cycles. The prepared photocatalyst was found to be efficient photocatalyst-cum-adsorbent for the degradation of VB from aqueous solutions under solar light. PMID:25168582

  14. Excessive Copper(II) and Zinc(II) Levels in Drinkable Water Sources in Areas Along the Lake Victoria Shorelines in Siaya County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wambu, Enos W; Omwoyo, Wesley N; Akenga, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) and zinc(II) levels in drinkable water sources in the alluvium areas of the Lake Victoria Basin in Siaya County of Kenya were evaluated to assess the risk posed to resident communities by hydrogeological accumulation of toxic residues in the sedimentary regions of the lake basin. The levels of the metals in water were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Metal concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 4.29 mg/L for Cu(II) and 0.03 to 1.62 mg/L for Zn(II), which were both higher than those normally recorded in natural waters. The Cu(II) levels also exceeded WHO guidelines for drinking water in 27% of the samples. The highest prevalence of excessive Cu(II) was found among dams and open pans (38%), piped water (33%) and spring water (25%). It was estimated that 18.2% of the resident communities in the current study area are exposed to potentially toxic levels of Cu(II) through their drinking water. PMID:26615531

  15. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  16. A Sr-Nd-Hf isotope characterization of dust source areas in Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakowski, Molly A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Delmonte, Barbara; Baroni, Carlo; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Sims, Kenneth W. W.

    2016-06-01

    Determining the geographical provenance of dust provides crucial insight into the global dust cycle. For the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS), the importance of Southern hemisphere potential dust sources has been thoroughly investigated using radiogenic isotopes, whereas proximal dust source areas located on the periphery of the ice sheet remain poorly documented from a geochemical standpoint. In this work, we expand the existing isotopic (Srsbnd Nd) catalogue of dust and sand-sized sediments from Victoria Land and the McMurdo Sound sector, and incorporate Hf isotopic data to place additional constraints on dust source identification. The isotopic field for materials considered in this study is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.703 to 0.783, εNd between -12.01 and 6.36, and εHf from -16.77 to 6.89. As reported in previous works, the data reveal close relationships between Antarctic sediments and distinct parent lithologies; in addition, our findings emphasize the background presence of very fine dusts originating from dominant global sources and regional volcanic activity as barriers to direct source-to-sink comparison of isotopic signatures. Thus, geochemical characterizations of dust sources to the Antarctic ice sheet involving multiple size fractions, including coarser-grained particles more susceptible to short-range transport, can help us to rule out global sources of dust when examining local sediment cores and ice cores.

  17. Fluvial sedimentology and basin analyses of the Permian Fairchild and Buckley formations, Beardmore Glacier region, and the Weller Coal Measures, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Isbell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Beardmore Glacier region contains a 1-km-thick Permian fluvial sequence that was deposited in an elongate basin along the margin of the East Antarctica craton. Fluvial architecture, sandstone composition and paleocurrents within the basin record a change from an early Permian cratonic to a late Permian foreland basin. The Lower Permian Fairchild Formation consists entirely of overlapping channel-form sandstone bodies deposited by braided streams. Arkosic sandstone was deposited by SE flowing streams. Fairchild strata record slow subsidence within a broad cratonic basin. The Lower to Upper Permian Buckley Formation consists of an arkosic lower member and a volcaniclastic upper member. Paleocurrents which consist of transverse and longitudinal paleocurrents, suggest a cratonward migration of the basin axis through time. The Buckley Formation was deposited within a braided stream setting and is an important unit because it contains interstratified channel-sandstone sheets, shale and coal, along with evidence of channel-belt avulsions. Sandstone sheets predominate at the base of the formation, while flood-plain deposits thicken and increase in abundance upward. The interaction between fluvial processes and subsidence rates produced this alluvial stratigraphy. The Lower Permian Weller Coal Measures in southern Victoria Land were deposited within a narrow basin located cratonward of the foreland basin. Basin geometry and depositional patterns are similar to those of fault-bounded basins. Although basin formation is not constrained, deposition of the Weller was contemporaneous with the development of the foreland basin. This suggests a relationship between subsidence within the two basins.

  18. Analysis of bacterial diversity and efficiency of continuous removal of Victoria Blue R from wastewater by using packed-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Guey-Horng; Tseng, I-Hung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2016-02-01

    The characteristics of a packed-bed bioreactor (PBB) for continuously removing Victoria Blue R (VBR) from an aqueous solution were determined. The effects of various factors including liquid retention time (RT), VBR concentration, shock loading, and coexisting compounds on the VBR removal and bacterial community in a continuous system were investigated. The intermediates of degraded VBR and the acute toxicity of the effluent from PBB were analyzed. When the VBR concentration was lower than 400 mg/l for a two-day retention time (RT), 100% removal was achieved. During continuous operation, the efficiency initially varied with the VBR concentration and RT, but gradually increased in one to two days. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of the effluent reduced by a factor of 21.25-49.61, indicating that the PBB can be successfully operated under turbulent environmental conditions. VBR degradation involved stepwise demethylation and yielded partially dealkylated VBR species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the dominant phylum in the PBB was Proteobacteria and that Aeromonas hydrophila dominated during the entire operating period. The characteristics of the identified species showed that the PBB is suitable for processes such as demethylation, aromatic ring opening, carbon oxidation, nitrification, and denitrification. PMID:26657084

  19. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    PubMed Central

    Sheryl, A. Hemphill; Stephanie, M. Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students’ learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  20. Effects of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school performance and connection: A longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States

    PubMed Central

    Heerde, Jessica Anne; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty Elizabeth; Herrenkohl, Todd Ian; Toumbourou, John Winston; Catalano, Richard Francis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the effect of early adolescent alcohol use on mid-adolescent school suspension, truancy, commitment, and academic failure in Washington State, United States (US) and Victoria, Australia. Also of interest was whether associations remain after statistically controlling for other factors known to predict school outcomes. METHODS State-representative student samples were surveyed in 2002 (grade 7; N = 1858) and followed up annually to 2004 (grade 9) in both venues. Students completed a modified version of the Communities That Care survey to report alcohol use, school outcomes and risk and protective factors. Response rates were above 74% and retention rates exceeded 98% in both places. RESULTS Controlling for grade 7 risk factors, grade 7 current alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking were associated with grade 8 school suspension. Grade 7 current and frequent alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking were linked to grade 9 truancy. In fully adjusted analyses, associations between early alcohol use and academic failure and low school commitment did not remain. CONCLUSIONS Although alcohol use is one factor influencing school performance and connection, there are other risk factors that need to be targeted to improve school outcomes. PMID:25274170

  1. A validation of the use of names to screen for risk of chronic hepatitis B in Victoria, Australia, 2001 to 2010.

    PubMed

    MacLachlan, J H; Wang, Y J; Cowie, B C

    2013-01-01

    The burden of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is increasing in Australia, particularly in those born in the Asia-Pacific region, and nearly half are undiagnosed. Primary care clinicians have a key role in diagnosing CHB, however identification of patients at risk is hindered by lack of awareness and limited information on country of birth in patient records. This study evaluates the potential of a validated list of names associated with Asian country of birth as a screening tool to predict risk of CHB, by comparing it with surveillance records for all people diagnosed with CHB or salmonellosis in Victoria from 2001 to 2010, and analysed using standard screening tools. Name list match was associated with CHB notification, with over 60% of cases having one name matching the list (sensitivity), and nearly one third matching both given name and surname; less than 15% and 2% of salmonellosis notifications matched for one name and both names, respectively (false positives). These results show that more than half of notified cases of CHB would have been identified by this name list, and that it could be used in support of initiatives to improve diagnosis of patients with diseases associated with country of birth when limited information is available. PMID:24300885

  2. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Agnes; Mfilinge, Prosper; Limbu, Samwel M.; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F = 6.19,  P = 0.001). The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F = 0.652,  P = 0.583). The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. PMID:25610654

  3. Does school suspension affect subsequent youth nonviolent antisocial behavior? A longitudinal study of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Smith, Rachel; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2013-12-01

    School suspension has been not only associated with negative behaviours but is predictive of future poor outcomes. The current study investigates a) whether school suspension is a unique predictor of youth nonviolent antisocial behaviour (NVAB) relative to other established predictors, and b) whether the predictors of NVAB are similar in Australia and the United States (U.S.). The data analysed here draws on two state-wide representative samples of Grade 7 and 9 students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, U.S., resurveyed at 12-month follow-up (N = 3,677, 99% retention). School suspension did not uniquely predict NVAB in the final model. The predictors of NVAB, similar across states, included previous student NVAB; current alcohol and tobacco use; poor family management; association with antisocial friends; and low commitment to school. An implication of the findings is that U.S. evidence-based prevention programs targeting the influences investigated here could be trialled in Australia. PMID:24860192

  4. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    PubMed

    Sheryl, A Hemphill; Stephanie, M Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students' learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension. PMID:24860205

  5. Historical deposition of persistent organic pollutants in Lake Victoria and two alpine equatorial lakes from East Africa: Insights into atmospheric deposition from sedimentation profiles.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Rose, Neil L; Muir, Derek C G; Kiremire, Bernard T; Balirwa, John S; Teixeira, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Information on historical deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for African lakes is very limited. We investigated historical deposition trends and sources of POPs in sediment cores from Lakes Victoria (SC1), Bujuku (Buju2) and Mahoma (Maho2). The latter two lakes are situated in the Rwenzori mountain range in western Uganda. SC1 was taken from a central depositional area within the Ugandan part of the lake. Profiles in Buju2 and Maho2 were used as a reference for historical atmospheric deposition. For the post-1940 sediment deposits in SC1, average focusing factor-adjusted fluxes (FFFs) of ΣDDTs, polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and chlordanes (ΣCHLs) were 390, 230, 210 and 120 ng m(-2) yr(-1). Higher fluxes of ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, and ΣCHLs were observed in Buju2 and Maho2. The average FFF of HCB in Buju2 was the highest while the values for Maho2 and SC1 were similar. The endosulfan FFFs in SC1 were lower than in the alpine lake cores. Generally, Buju2 was a better reference for historical atmospheric deposition of POPs than Maho2 probably due to distortion of the latter's profile by Lake Mahoma's forested catchment. Profiles of p,p'-DDE, ΣCHLs and HCB in SC1 were consistent with atmospheric deposition while profiles of PCBs and HCHs were indicative of particle-bound loadings from additional sources. Profiles of endosulfans, DDTs, and chlordanes were consistent with influence of other factors such as anoxia, and dilution. Further studies of spatial resolution of historical deposition, especially in near-shore deposition areas of the lake are recommended. PMID:26539705

  6. Timing and causes of gully erosion in the riparian zone of the semi-arid tropical Victoria River, Australia: Management implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, G. L.; Wasson, R. J.; Boggs, G. S.; Douglas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Gully erosion in the seasonally wet tropics of Australia is a major source of sediment in rivers. Stabilization of gullies to reduce impacts on aquatic ecosystems and water storages is a focus for management. However, the cause of the gully erosion is poorly understood and so a critical context for soil conservation is missing. It is uncertain if they are the result of post-European cattle grazing or are they much older and related to non-human factors. The causes of riparian gully erosion along a reach of the Victoria River in the semi-arid tropics of Australia were investigated using several methods. Gully complexes were described and characterised by two major components: a Flood Drainage Channel (FDC) and upslope of this an Outer Erosion Feature (OEF) characterised by badlands set within an amphitheatre. The OEF is likely to be a major source of sediment that appears to be of recent origin. A review of historical records, combined with Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, showed that the FDCs were well established prior to the introduction of domestic stock. It also showed that the badlands began to develop about 90 years ago; that is, about 40 years after the arrival of domestic stock. In addition, an analysis of aerial photos coupled with an on-ground survey and analysis of fallout radionuclides revealed that erosion processes are still active within the gully complexes. While the FDCs are natural drainage channels, cattle grazing probably triggered the badland formation, with the expansion aided by increased rainfall in the past 40 years. Therefore, the OEFs are of human origin and protection from grazing of the riparian zone should slow badland erosion and reduce sediment input to the river.

  7. A Climatology of Wildfire Weather for Victoria, Australia: Based on a Hi-Resolution 40-year Mesoscale Gridded Fire Weather Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Weather and climate are essential components in understanding wildfire characteristics and improving fire management. A high spatial and temporal resolution climatology of fire weather is vital for examining relationships, determining wildfire risks and basing fire management decisions upon. A homogeneous 41-year (1972-2012) hourly 4-km gridded climate dataset for the fire-prone state of Victoria, Australia has been generated using a combination of mesoscale modelling, global reanalysis data, surface observations, and historic observed rainfall analyses. Outputs include surface weather variables such as hourly temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction. In addition, daily drought indices have been calculated and these have been used to calculate a commonly used fire danger index. This new dataset allows for an almost limitless opportunity for hitherto unavailable analyses - such as fields of percentiles of fire danger indices values, analysis of periods exceeding thresholds at any location, inter-annual and regional variations of fire season characteristics, analysis of prescribed burning windows, and identifying trends over the 41-year period. Furthermore, the hourly mesoscale wind fields provide a homogeneous long-period data set with which to drive fire spread models. The opportunities to advance wildfire research for this region and thereby provide information to improve risk analysis and fire management are immense. This presentation describes the generation of the dataset, evaluation of the outputs and highlights its use and relevance for fire management. In particular, frequency of exceedance of both extreme values (for resource allocation planning), and also frequencies whereby multiple parameters mutually fall within the prescribed burning guidelines, and its interannual variation, will be discussed.

  8. A Very High Infection Intensity of Schistosoma mansoni in a Ugandan Lake Victoria Fishing Community Is Required for Association with Highly Prevalent Organ Related Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Magnussen, Pascal; Madsen, Henry; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Nuwaha, Fred; Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In schistosomiasis control programmes using mass chemotherapy, epidemiological and morbidity aspects of the disease need to be studied so as to monitor the impact of treatment, and make recommendations accordingly. These aspects were examined in the community of Musoli village along Lake Victoria in Mayuge district, highly endemic for Schistosoma mansoni infection. Methodology and Principal Findings A cross sectional descriptive study was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of 217 females and 229 males, with a mean age of 26 years (SD ±16, range 7–76 years). The prevalence of S. mansoni was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.6–91.5). The geometric mean intensity (GMI) of S. mansoni was 236.2 (95% CI: 198.5–460.9) eggs per gram (epg) faeces. Males had significantly higher GMI (370.2 epg) than females (132.6 epg) and age was also significantly associated with intensity of infection. Levels of water contact activities significantly influenced intensity of infection and the highest intensity of infection was found among people involved in fishing. However, organomegaly was not significantly associated with S. mansoni except for very heavy infection (>2000 epg). Liver image patterns C and D indicative of fibrosis were found in only 2.2% and 0.2%, respectively. S. mansoni intensity of infection was associated with portal vein dilation and abnormal spleen length. Anaemia was observed in 36.4% of the participants but it was not associated with S. mansoni infection intensity. Considering growth in children as one of the morbidity indicators of schistosomiasis, intensity of S. mansoni was significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion Although organ-related morbidity, with the exception of periportal fibrosis, and S. mansoni infections were highly prevalent, the two were only associated for individuals with very high infection intensities. These results contrast starkly with reports from Ugandan Lake Albert fishing communities in which periportal fibrosis is more

  9. Residue levels and discharge loads of antibiotics in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), hospital lagoons, and rivers within Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimosop, Selly Jemutai; Getenga, Z M; Orata, F; Okello, V A; Cheruiyot, J K

    2016-09-01

    The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented. Sludge and wastewater samples were collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and hospital lagoons within the study area. Samples were extracted and cleaned by solid-phase extraction, and analysis was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All wastewater samples and sludge collected contained quantifiable levels of the selected antibiotics. The highest concentrations were recorded for AMP with WWTPs and hospitals having 0.36 ± 0.04 and 0.79 ± 0.07 μg/L, respectively. In sludge samples, SMX recorded the highest concentrations of 276 ± 12 ng/g. The high levels in sludge indicate the preferential partition of antibiotics onto solid phase, posing great danger to consumers of crops grown in biosolid-amended soils. The daily discharge loads of antibiotics from nine WWTPs ranged between 80.75 and 3044.9 mg day(-1) with a total discharge of 6395.85 mg day(-1), signifying a high potential of water resource pollution within the region. This report will aid in the assessment of the risks posed by antibiotics released into the environment. PMID:27553946

  10. The relationship between electronic gaming machine accessibility and police-recorded domestic violence: A spatio-temporal analysis of 654 postcodes in Victoria, Australia, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Markham, Francis; Doran, Bruce; Young, Martin

    2016-08-01

    An emerging body of research has documented an association between problem gambling and domestic violence in a range of study populations and locations. Yet little research has analysed this relationship at ecological scales. This study investigates the proposition that gambling accessibility and the incidence of domestic violence might be linked. The association between police-recorded domestic violence and electronic gaming machine accessibility is described at the postcode level. Police recorded family incidents per 10,000 and domestic-violence related physical assault offenses per 10,000 were used as outcome variables. Electronic gaming machine accessibility was measured as electronic gaming machines per 10,000 and gambling venues per 100,000. Bayesian spatio-temporal mixed-effects models were used to estimate the associations between gambling accessibility and domestic violence, using annual postcode-level data in Victoria, Australia between 2005 and 2014, adjusting for a range of covariates. Significant associations of policy-relevant magnitudes were found between all domestic violence and EGM accessibility variables. Postcodes with no electronic gaming machines were associated with 20% (95% credibility interval [C.I.]: 15%, 24%) fewer family incidents per 10,000 and 30% (95% C.I.: 24%, 35%) fewer domestic-violence assaults per 10,000, when compared with postcodes with 75 electronic gaming machine per 10,000. The causal relations underlying these associations are unclear. Quasi-experimental research is required to determine if reducing gambling accessibility is likely to reduce the incidence of domestic violence. PMID:27344352

  11. Replacement of native by non-native animal communities assisted by human introduction and management on Isla Victoria, Nahuel Huapi National Park

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Martin A.; Amico, Guillermo C.

    2015-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of biological invasions is the decrease of native species abundances or their replacement by non-native species. In Andean Patagonia, southern Argentina and Chile, many non-native animals have been introduced and are currently spreading. On Isla Victoria, Nahuel Huapi National Park, many non-native vertebrates were introduced ca. 1937. Records indicate that several native vertebrates were present before these species were introduced. We hypothesize that seven decades after the introduction of non-native species and without appropriate management to maintain native diversity, non-native vertebrates have displaced native species (given the known invasiveness and impacts of some of the introduced species). We conducted direct censuses in linear transects 500 m long (n = 10) in parallel with camera-trapping (1,253 camera-days) surveys in two regions of the island with different levels of disturbance: high (n = 4) and low (n = 6) to study the community of terrestrial mammals and birds and the relative abundances of native and non-native species. Results show that currently non-native species are dominant across all environments; 60.4% of census records and 99.7% of camera trapping records are of non-native animals. We detected no native large mammals; the assemblage of large vertebrates consisted of five non-native mammals and one non-native bird. Native species detected were one small mammal and one small bird. Species with the highest trapping rate were red and fallow deer, wild boar, silver pheasant (all four species are non-native) and chucao (a native bird). These results suggest that native species are being displaced by non-natives and are currently in very low numbers. PMID:26623176

  12. Identifying coherent patterns of environmental change between multiple, multivariate records: an application to four 1000-year diatom records from Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Jonathan J.; Mills, Keely; Barr, Cameron; Sniderman, J. M. Kale; Gell, Peter A.; Karoly, David J.

    2015-07-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of indirect archives of environmental change are increasingly used to identify coherent trends between palaeoclimate records, to separate externally forced patterns from locally driven idiosyncrasies. Lake sediments are particularly suited to such syntheses: they are abundant in most landscapes and record a wide array of information, yet local complexities often conceal or confuse the climate signal recorded at individual sites. Lake sediment parameters usually exhibit non-linear, multivariate and indirect responses to climate, therefore identifying coherent patterns between two or more lake records presents a complex challenge. Ideally, the selection of representative variables should be non-subjective and inclusive of as many different variables as possible, allowing for unexpected correlations between sites. In order to meet such demands, we propose a two-tier ordination procedure whereby site-specific (local) ordinations, obtained using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA), are nested within a second, regional EOF. Using the local DCAs as representative variables allows the retention of a larger fraction of variance from each site, removes any subjectivity from variable selection and retains the potential for observing multiple, coherent signals from within and between each dataset. We explore this potential using four decadally resolved diatom records from volcanic lakes in Western Victoria, Australia. The records span the 1000 years prior to European settlement in CE 1803. Our analyses reveal at least two coherent patterns of ecological change that are manifest in each of the four datasets, patterns which may have been overlooked by a single-variable, empirical orthogonal function approach. This intra-site coherency provides a valuable step towards understanding multi-decadal hydroclimate variability in southeastern Australia.

  13. Replacement of native by non-native animal communities assisted by human introduction and management on Isla Victoria, Nahuel Huapi National Park.

    PubMed

    Martin-Albarracin, Valeria L; Nuñez, Martin A; Amico, Guillermo C

    2015-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of biological invasions is the decrease of native species abundances or their replacement by non-native species. In Andean Patagonia, southern Argentina and Chile, many non-native animals have been introduced and are currently spreading. On Isla Victoria, Nahuel Huapi National Park, many non-native vertebrates were introduced ca. 1937. Records indicate that several native vertebrates were present before these species were introduced. We hypothesize that seven decades after the introduction of non-native species and without appropriate management to maintain native diversity, non-native vertebrates have displaced native species (given the known invasiveness and impacts of some of the introduced species). We conducted direct censuses in linear transects 500 m long (n = 10) in parallel with camera-trapping (1,253 camera-days) surveys in two regions of the island with different levels of disturbance: high (n = 4) and low (n = 6) to study the community of terrestrial mammals and birds and the relative abundances of native and non-native species. Results show that currently non-native species are dominant across all environments; 60.4% of census records and 99.7% of camera trapping records are of non-native animals. We detected no native large mammals; the assemblage of large vertebrates consisted of five non-native mammals and one non-native bird. Native species detected were one small mammal and one small bird. Species with the highest trapping rate were red and fallow deer, wild boar, silver pheasant (all four species are non-native) and chucao (a native bird). These results suggest that native species are being displaced by non-natives and are currently in very low numbers. PMID:26623176

  14. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11–13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Results Of 243 students, 63% (n= 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. Conclusion A change of school environment has negative effects on children’s obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments. PMID:26355826

  15. Cenozoic magmatism of north Victoria Land, Antarctica: an experimental study on the mantle source of a primary basanite from the McMurdo Volcanic Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armienti, P.; Freda, C.; Misiti, V.; Perinelli, C.

    2009-04-01

    Volcanoes of the McMurdo Vocanic Group (MMVG) (Antarctica) dot the eastern shoulder of Ross Sea Rift System giving rise to alkaline transitional volcanic suites which in north Victoria Land are emplaced since Early Cenozoic. Geochemical geological, geophysical and geochronological data on Cenozoic volcanic activity in NVL suggest that the region is a site of passive astenospheric rise, rather than affected by a thermally active mantle plume. Furthermore the comparison of geochemical and isotopical data of basic lavas with those provided by mantle xenoliths they carry to the surface, document the compositional heterogeneity of sublithospheric mantle caused by the coupled action of partial melting and metasomatism. In particular the metasomatic episode is probably linked to the amagmatic extensional event that affected the West Antarctic Rift System in the Late Cretaceous. The astenospheric melts generated during this event, moving through the upper mantle, can have crystallized as veins or may have led to the formation of metasomatic minerals such as amphibole or phlogopite. In this scenario the mineralogical and chemical composition of sources responsible for Cenozoic magmatism, amphibole-bearing spinel-peridotite versus pyroxenite in the garnet stability field, it is still a matter of debate. To shed light on this argument a previous experimental study on a basanite of MMVG, representative of primary magma (Orlando et al., 2000) has been integrated with new experimental investigation on the same basanitic composition. The preliminary experiments were conducted to pressures of 1.0 - 2.0GPa in the presence of 0-1% of added water and indicate olivine on the liquidus at 1.0 GPa that is substitute by clinopyroxene at 2.0GPa. The addition of 1% of water induces a decrease of liquidus temperature of about 40°C shifting its value in the T range (1280-1310°C) the same that was inferred by melt inclusions hosted in the olivine phenocrysts of the studied basanite.

  16. A dynamic marine iron cycle module coupled to the University of Victoria Earth System Model: the Kiel Marine Biogeochemical Model 2 for UVic 2.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickelsen, L.; Keller, D. P.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-05-01

    Marine biological production as well as the associated biotic uptake of carbon in many ocean regions depends on the availability of nutrients in the euphotic zone. While large areas are limited by nitrogen and/or phosphorus, the micronutrient iron is considered the main limiting nutrient in the North Pacific, equatorial Pacific and Southern Ocean. Changes in iron availability via changes in atmospheric dust input are discussed to play an important role in glacial-interglacial cycles via climate feedbacks caused by changes in biological ocean carbon sequestration. Although many aspects of the iron cycle remain unknown, its incorporation into marine biogeochemical models is needed to test our current understanding and better constrain its role in the Earth system. In the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic) iron limitation in the ocean was, until now, simulated pragmatically with an iron concentration masking scheme that did not allow a consistent interactive response to perturbations of ocean biogeochemistry or iron cycling sensitivity studies. Here, we replace the iron masking scheme with a dynamic iron cycle and compare the results to available observations and the previous marine biogeochemical model. Sensitivity studies are also conducted with the new model to test the sensitivity of the model to parameterized iron ligand concentrations, the importance of considering the variable solubility of iron in dust deposition, the importance of considering high-resolution bathymetry for the sediment release of iron, the effect of scaling the sedimentary iron release with temperature and the sensitivity of the iron cycle to a climate change scenario.

  17. Active biomonitoring of trace heavy metals using fish ( Oreochromis niloticus) as bioindicator species. The case of Nakivubo wetland along Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birungi, Z.; Masola, B.; Zaranyika, M. F.; Naigaga, I.; Marshall, B.

    The Nakivubo wetland in Uganda, which feeds Lake Victoria at Murchison bay, has become severely degraded over recent years and is particularly threatened by the expansion of industry, settlement and cultivation on its fertile fringes. The aim of this study was to actively biomonitor selected trace heavy metals using Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia was set in cages at six sampling sites in Murchison bay for a period of six weeks, and sampling was done every 2 weeks for active biomonitoring and weekly for physico-chemical variables. The control (site 7) was at the Aquaculture Research and Development centre, Uganda. Fish tissue was dissected and gills, liver and muscle removed for heavy metal analysis. Water samples and fish tissue from each site were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) to determine metal concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and manganese. Site 4 had the highest average NH 4-N of 14.28 ± 12.73 mg/l which was above effluent standards for Uganda. From the findings, there were significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in fish than in water ( p > 0.01). Fish kills were recorded highest for sites 4 (55%), 5 (77.5%) and 6 (60%) in less than six weeks indicating high levels of pollution. Gills showed the highest accumulation of copper after a period of six weeks as compared to other metals with a mean ± SE of 11.7 μg/mg wet weight. In general, the order of accumulation of metals in tissue after six weeks was in order; copper > zinc > chromium > manganese and gills > liver > muscle. In conclusion, active biomonitoring was found to be a good tool for monitoring water quality as it integrates responses to combinations of all contaminants thereby indicating overall effects in a water body. To improve the study, there is need to incorporate post mortem studies and biomarker analysis since the later can give early warning of pollution before fish kills are observed.

  18. Predominance of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genetic subclade 6B.1 and influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses at the start of the 2015/16 influenza season in Europe.

    PubMed

    Broberg, Eeva; Melidou, Angeliki; Prosenc, Katarina; Bragstad, Karoline; Hungnes, Olav

    2016-03-31

    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated in the European influenza 2015/16 season. Most analysed viruses clustered in a new genetic subclade 6B.1, antigenically similar to the northern hemisphere vaccine component A/California/7/2009. The predominant influenza B lineage was Victoria compared with Yamagata in the previous season. It remains to be evaluated at the end of the season if these changes affected the effectiveness of the vaccine for the 2015/16 season. PMID:27074657

  19. The near boiling reactor: Conceptual design of a small inherently safe nuclear reactor to extend the operational capability of the Victoria Class submarine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Christopher J. P.

    Nuclear power has several unique advantages over other air independent energy sources for nuclear combat submarines. An inherently safe, small nuclear reactor, capable of supply the hotel load of the Victoria Class submarines, has been conceptually developed. The reactor is designed to complement the existing diesel electric power generation plant presently onboard the submarine. The reactor, rated at greater than 1 MW thermal, will supply electricity to the submarine's batteries through an organic Rankine cycle energy conversion plant at 200 kW. This load will increase the operational envelope of the submarine by providing up to 28 continuous days submerged, allowing for an enhanced indiscretion ratio (ratio of time spent on the surface versus time submerged) and a limited under ice capability. The power plant can be fitted into the existing submarine by inserting a 6 m hull plug. With its simplistic design and inherent safety features, the reactor plant will require a minimal addition to the crew. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles for increased safety. The light water coolant remains at atmospheric pressure, exiting the core at 96°C. Burn-up control and limiting excess reactivity is achieved through movable reflector plates. Shut down and regulatory control is achieved through the thirteen hafnium control rods. Inherent safety is achieved through the negative prompt and delayed temperature coefficients, as well as the negative void coefficient. During a transient, the boiling of the moderator results in a sudden drop in reactivity, essentially shutting down the reactor. It is this characteristic after which the reactor has been named. The design of the reactor was achieved through modelling using computer codes such as MCNP5, WIMS-AECL, FEMLAB, and MicroShield5, in addition to specially written software for kinetics, heat transfer and fission product poisoning calculations. The work has covered a broad area of research and has highlighted additional areas

  20. What happens to coroners’ recommendations for improving public health and safety? Organisational responses under a mandatory response regime in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several countries of the British Commonwealth, including Australia and the United Kingdom, vest in coroners the power to issue recommendations for protecting public health and safety. Little is known about whether and how organisations that receive recommendations act on them. Concerns that recommendations are frequently ignored prompted the government of Victoria, Australia, to introduce a requirement in 2008 compelling organisations that receive recommendations to provide a written statement of action. Methods We conducted a prospective study of organisations that received recommendations from Victorian coroners over a 33-month period. Using an online survey, we asked representatives of "recipient organisations" what action (if any) their organisations took, and what factors influenced their decision. We also probed views of the quality of the recommendations and the mandatory response regime in general. Responses were analysed at the recommendation- and recipient organisation-level by calculating counts and proportions and using chi-square analyses to test for sub-group differences. Results Ninety of 153 recipient organisations surveyed responded (59% response rate); they received 164 recommendations (mean = 1.9; range, 1–7) from 74 cases. A total of 37% (60/164) of the recommendations were accepted and implemented, 27% (45/164) were rejected, and for 36% (59/164) the recommended action was "supplanted" (i.e., action had already been taken). In nearly half of rejected recommendations (18/45), recipient organisations indicated implementation was not logistically viable. In half of supplanted recommendations, an internal investigation had prompted the action. Three quarters (67/90) of recipient organisations believed the introduction of a mandatory response regime was a good idea, but fewer regarded the recommendations they received as appropriate (52/90) or likely to be effective in preventing death and injury (45/90). Conclusions Only a third of

  1. Structural evolution of the Currawong Pb-Zn-Cu deposit (Victoria, Australia) - new insights from 3D implicit modelling linked to structural observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Structurally controlled mineralisation commonly shows distinctive geometries, orientations and spatial distributions that derive from associated structures. These structures have the ability to effectively transport, trap and focus fluids. Moreover, structures such as faults and shear zones can offset, truncate and spatially redistribute earlier mineralisation. We present a workflow that combines structural fieldwork with state-of-the-art 3D modelling to assess the structural framework of an ore deposit. Traditional 3D models of ore deposits rely on manual digitisation of cross sections and their subsequent linkage to form 3D objects. Consequently, the geological interpretation associated with each section will be reflected in the resulting 3D models. Such models are therefore biased and should be viewed and interpreted with caution. Conversely, 3D implicit modelling minimises the modelling bias by using an implicit function that is fitted to spatial data such as drillhole data. This function defines a scalar field, from which 3D isosurfaces can be extracted. Assay data can be visualised as 3D grade shells at various threshold grade values and used to analyse and measure the shape, distribution and orientation of mineralisation. Additionally, lithology codes from drillholes can be used to extract lithological boundaries in 3D without the need for manual digitisation. In our case study at the Palaeozoic Currawong Pb-Zn-Cu deposit (Victoria, Australia), orientations extracted from ore bodies within a 3D implicit model have been compared to structural field data collected around the deposit. The data and model suggest that Currawong's massive sulfide lenses have been structurally modified. Mineralisation trends are parallel to a dominant NW dipping foliation mapped in the field. This foliation overprints earlier bedding in the host metasediments that has been deformed into upright folds. Several sets of steep faults further increase the structural complexity of the

  2. Oxo-amphiboles in mantle xenoliths: evidence for H2O-rich melt interacting with the lithospheric mantle of Harrow Peaks (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, S.; Bonadiman, C.; Biagioni, C.; Comodi, P.; Coltorti, M.; Zucchini, A.; Ottolini, L.

    2015-12-01

    Amphiboles are the most widespread hydrous metasomatic phases in spinel-bearing mantle peridotites from Harrow Peaks (HP), Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica). They occur both in veinlets and disseminated in the peridotite matrix (preferentially associated with clinopyroxene and spinel grains). Four amphibole crystals were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and micro-Mössbauer spectroscopy; these crystal-chemical data allow to constrain upper mantle conditions during growth of these amphiboles and the role of volatile circulation during metasomatic processes in the Antarctic region. The HP amphiboles have low Mg# values (69.3-84.1), high TiO2 (2.74-5.30 wt%) and FeOtot contents (3.40 to 6.90 wt%). The Fe3+/Fetot ratios are significantly high (0.53-0.66). The W-site is mainly occupied by O2- (0.984-1.187 apfu) plus OH (H2O: 0.70-1.01 wt%) and minor F (0.04-0.24 wt%) and Cl (0.03-0.08 wt%). Consequently, HP amphiboles are actually characterized by a significant oxo component. The aH2O values were calculated at 1.5 GPa by dehydration equilibrium equations written as H2O-buffering equilibria among end-member components of amphibole and coexisting peridotite phases. Three out of four HP amphibole-bearing peridotites have values of aH2O ranging from 0.122 to 0.335; whereas one sample has aH2O remarkably higher (0.782) approaching an ideal H2O basalt solubility. The HP fO2 values, determined by the olivine-spinel-orthopyroxene oxygeobarometer (ΔQFM = -1.77 : +0.01), are remarkably different from those calculated on the basis of the amphibole dehydration equilibrium and the application of the dissociation reaction (ΔQFM = -2.60 : +6.8). The high aH2O and the extremely high fO2 values, determined by the oxy-amphibole equilibrium with respect to the redox conditions recorded by the co-existing anhydrous minerals (close to QFM buffer), revealed that: i) the amphibole

  3. High prevalence of fasciolosis and evaluation of drug efficacy against Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in the Maffra and Bairnsdale districts of Gippsland, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T P; Kelley, J M; Rawlin, G; Spithill, T W

    2015-04-15

    Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) is a common parasite amongst grazing livestock in the south-eastern region of Australia and is responsible for significant production losses in the beef and dairy industries. Gippsland in Victoria is a major region for dairy production but no fluke prevalence data in livestock has been obtained in this region since the late 1970s prior to the introduction of Triclabendazole (TCBZ). TCBZ resistance is also now widespread in cattle in south east Australia. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence and intensity of liver fluke infections in dairy cattle in Gippsland and assessed the efficacy of TCBZ and other drenches against F. hepatica on one farm. We obtained 30 individual faecal samples from each of 15 different farms and, using the liver fluke coproantigen ELISA, tested bulk faecal samples pooled from each farm. Any farm that returned a positive bulk sample had all of the samples tested individually to assess the intra-herd prevalence. One farm in the Maffra district also had a coproantigen reduction test and faecal egg count reduction test to assess the efficacy of TCBZ, Clorsulon (CLOR) and Oxyclozanide (OXY). The coproantigen ELISA proved to be a highly sensitive test for liver fluke with a high correlation (R(2)=0.8849) observed between ELISA data from bulk samples and individual samples, suggesting that future larger scale screening on farms for fasciolosis could use the bulk analysis technique. The ELISA data revealed that animals on six of the 15 farms were infected with F. hepatica and the herd prevalence of the infected herds ranged from 47 to 100% (mean 81%) which exceeds the prevalence value for production losses of 25%. The intensity of fluke infection in cattle varied considerably both within and between herds with a proportion of animals exhibiting a positive control value in the coproantigen ELISA of 50-88%. We also confirmed that TCBZ resistance was present on one farm but that CLOR or OXY can be used to remove the

  4. Landscape aridity, fire severity and rainfall intensity as controls on debris flow frequency after the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfires in Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sherwin, Christopher; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This study uses aerial imagery and field surveys to develop a statistical model for determining debris flow susceptibility in a landscape with variable terrain, soil and vegetation properties. A measure of landscape scale debris flow response was obtained by recording all debris flow affected drainage lines in the first year after fire in a ~258 000 ha forested area that was burned by the 2009 Black Saturday Wildfire in Victoria. A total of 12 500 points along the drainage network were sampled from catchments ranging in size from 0.0001 km2to 75 km2. Local slope and the attributes of the drainage areas (including the spatially averaged peak intensity) were extracted for each sample point. A logistic regression was used to model how debris flow susceptibility varies with the normalised burn ratio (dNBR, from Landsat imagery), rainfall intensity (from rainfall radar), slope (from DEM) and aridity (from long-term radiation, temperature and rainfall data).The model of debris flow susceptibility produced a good fit with the observed debris flow response of drainage networks within the burned area and was reliable in distinguishing between drainage lines which produced debris flows and those which didn't. The performance of the models was tested through multiple iterations of fitting and testing using unseen data. The local channel slope captured the effect of scale on debris flow susceptibility with debris flow probability approaching zero as the channel slope decreased with increasing drainage area. Aridity emerged as an important predictor of debris flow susceptibility, with increased likelihood of debris flows in drier parts of the landscape, thus reinforcing previous research in the region showing that post-fire surface runoff from wet Eucalypt forests is insufficient for initiating debris flows. Fire severity, measured as dNBR, was also a very important predictor. The inclusion of local channel slope as a predictor of debris flow susceptibility proved to be an

  5. Gossan Hill, Victoria Island, Northwest Territories: An analogue for mine waste reactions within permafrost and implication for the subsurface mineralogy of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ronald C.; Williamson, Marie-Claude; Rainbird, Robert H.

    2014-08-01

    Gossan Hill is located within the Minto Inlier in central Victoria Island, Northwest Territories (N 71.36697°, W 114.95155°). A study of the mineralogical associations and geological setting of this deposit indicates that it is an arrested hydrothermal system frozen in permafrost. From above, the hill stands out because of the topographic relief of 75 m and the orange-brown color of the surficial material. The surface of the hill is marked by areas of concentric color zonation up to 3 m across, with light gray centers surrounded by a yellow-orange ring that is surrounded by an orange-brown color that covers the rest of the surface of the hill. Trenches dug into these areas reveal that the central zone contains quartz and pyrite +/- native sulfur in a loose aggregate of sand-sized grains. This central area is surrounded by a zone dominated by gypsum and quartz with some jarosite. Beyond this, the surrounding surface consists of quartz, hematite, and amorphous iron oxides. The radial arrangement of the mineral assemblage indicates an increase in oxidation of sulfur from the center outward. Analysis of isotopic composition of the sulfur indicates the source of sulfur could be the underlying strata. The hill is underlain by inter-bedded carbonate and sulfate-evaporite sedimentary rocks of the Kilian formation in the upper part of the Neoproterozoic Shaler Super group. The sedimentary rocks were intruded by diabase sills of the 720 Ma Franklin igneous event, which crop out 2 km to the south of Gossan Hill. The soft friable nature of the deposit and the topographic relief of the hill indicate a post-glacial (Pleistocene) age of formation. Permafrost has maintained the disequilibrium mineral assemblage since the cessation of fluid flow. Extraction of the permafrost ice from the central zone yields a liquid with a pH of 2.3. The observed long-term persistence of pyrite encased within the acidic permafrost indicates that oxidation and dissolution reactions common in mine

  6. The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the offshore Gippsland Basin, Victoria, Australia---results from 3D seismic interpretation and 2D section restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Mitchell

    The Gippsland Basin is located primarily offshore Victoria, Australia (between the Australian mainland and Tasmania) approximately 200 km east of Melbourne. The formation of the east-west trending Gippsland Basin is associated with the break-up of Gondwana during the late Jurassic/early Cretaceous and the basin has endured multiple rifting and inversion events. Strong tectonic control on the sedimentary development of the basin is reflected in the deposition of several major, basin scale sequences ranging in age from the early Cretaceous to Neogene, which are usually bounded by angular unconformities. Schlumberger's Petrel software package has been used to structurally and stratigraphically interpret a basin-wide 3D seismic data set provided by the Australian Government (Geoscience Australia) and four 2D kinematic reconstruction/restorations through the basin have been completed with Midland Valley's Move software to achieve a better understanding of the structural evolution of the Gippsland Basin. Rift phase extension calculated from the restorations (5.0--10.5%) appears anomalously low to accommodate the amount of sediment that has been deposited in the basin (>10km). Distributed extension on small faults and subsidence history from backstripping are employed to answer this anomaly. The 2D restorations completed illustrate structural time relationships across the basin and allow for a minimum estimate of erosion that has occurred along the inverted northern basin margin. Differences between previous work completed by Power et al. (2001) and this study as well as several extension models and associated implications are discussed as they relate to the interpretation carried out in this study. Extension calculated from section restorations ranged from approximately 5.0--10.5%. These measured extensional values appear too low to wholly accommodate the accumulated sediment thickness in the basin. Subsidence modelling and backstripping estimates approximately 50

  7. The impact of socio-economic disadvantage on rates of hospital separations for diabetes-related foot disease in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information describing variation in health outcomes for individuals with diabetes related foot disease, across socioeconomic strata is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in rates of hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease and the relationship with levels of social advantage and disadvantage. Methods Using the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Disadvantage (IRSD) each local government area (LGA) across Victoria was ranked from most to least disadvantaged. Those LGAs ranked at the lowest end of the scale and therefore at greater disadvantage (Group D) were compared with those at the highest end of the scale (Group A), in terms of total and per capita hospital separations for peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulceration, cellulitis and osteomyelitis and amputation. Hospital separations data were compiled from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Database. Results Total and per capita separations were 2,268 (75.3/1,000 with diabetes) and 2,734 (62.3/1,000 with diabetes) for Group D and Group A respectively. Most notable variation was for foot ulceration (Group D, 18.1/1,000 versus Group A, 12.7/1,000, rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.3, 1.6) and below knee amputation (Group D 7.4/1,000 versus Group A 4.1/1,000, rate ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.5, 2.2). Males recorded a greater overall number of hospital separations across both socioeconomic strata with 66.2% of all separations for Group D and 81.0% of all separations for Group A recorded by males. However, when comparing mean age, males from Group D tended to be younger compared with males from Group A (mean age; 53.0 years versus 68.7 years). Conclusion Variation appears to exist for hospital separations for diabetes related foot disease across socioeconomic strata. Specific strategies should be incorporated into health policy and planning to combat disparities between health outcomes and social status. PMID:21682928

  8. Orbital forcing of glacial/interglacial variations in chemical weathering within the White Nile basin: stable-isotope and biomarker evidence from Lakes Victoria and Edward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockerton, Helen E.; Alayne Street-Perrott, F.; Barker, Philip A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Horstwood, Matthew S. A.; Snelling, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The continental Si cycle on Quaternary time scales has been largely neglected. Emphasis has been placed on long-term geochemical processes of silicate-rock weathering and the resulting drawdown of atmospheric CO2, rather than on shorter-term biogenic processes occurring along the land-ocean continuum. Si-accumulating plants (notably tropical rainforest hardwoods, savanna and wetland grasses, and Papyrus) and aquatic organisms (such as diatoms and sponges in lakes, rivers and swamps) have the potential to take up, store and recycle significant amounts of Si, thereby modifying the riverine flux of Si to the oceans, the productivity of siliceous marine organisms and the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown on an orbital time scale. The main aim of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of Si cycling along the Nile system during the last 20ka BP. Utilising sediment cores from Lakes Victoria and Edward, coupled measurements of stable Si and O isotopes on cleaned diatom separates were employed to reconstruct millennial-scale variations in biotic Si cycling and palaeohydrology, respectively. Abundance ratios of lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes) were used to track major changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The results have been interpreted in the light of multi-isotope analyses (2H,18O,30Si) of modern water samples collected along the courses of the modern White and Blue Niles during both wet- and dry-season conditions. During drier intervals (the Last Glacial Maximum and the late Holocene: high 18Odiatom), Si cycling was greatly reduced. Diminished vegetation cover, reduced biotic rock weathering, a declining soil stock of amorphous silica (ASi) and decreased runoff resulted in reduced dissolved silica (DSi) supply to the lakes in relation to aquatic demand (high 30Sidiatom). In contrast, enhanced monsoon rainfall (low 18Odiatom) during the early to mid-Holocene promoted a substantial increase in terrestrial biomass within the White Nile headwaters

  9. Microstructural Character and Stable Isotope Signatures of Calcite Veins in the Mis and SMS Sedimentary Rock Cores, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millan, C.; Wilson, T. J.; Paulsen, T. S.

    2010-12-01

    The two drilling projects in the ANDRILL portfolio, the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project and the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) project, successfully recovered 1285 and 1138 m respectively of Neogene sedimentary core from the Victoria Land rift basin in Antarctica. The MIS core contains 1475 faults, veins, and clastic dikes, with veins making nearly half of this population. Of the 1050 natural fractures logged in the SMS core, just over half of them were characterized as veins. This study combines microscopic study of textures and crosscutting relationships between veins, cements, and microstructures to determine the evolution of fluid sources relative to the deformation history during rifting. Isotopic analysis of carbonate fracture fills has been completed in order to discriminate whether fluids precipitated from the glacial melt-waters or from some other hydrological regime. Opening-mode fibrous veins, pressure shadows on clast margins and small and diffuse, anastomosing vein swarms are common. Most veins are filled by calcite, although zeolite and late-stage pyrite are also common. Many calcite veins are associated with discrete faults and have conjugate geometries, dip-slip slickenfibers, and calcite filled voids along pull-aparts, indicating veins formed during fault displacement. In the MIS core, fibrous opening-mode are commonly wavy to tightly folded, indicating the host sediment was cohesive enough to fracture but was not fully lithified, and accommodated vein buckling during compaction. Veins commonly exhibit multiple generations of calcite fill and many are strongly twinned. Cathodoluminescence microscopy shows minor changes in color and intensity and minimal zoning of calcite vein fill, suggesting relatively rapid crystallization of fluids of similar chemistry. However, stable isotope analyses reveal large variations in values: in the MIS core, oxygen values range from -5.35 to -11.97 (VPDB) and carbon values range from -7.15 to -21.91 (VPDB); the SMS

  10. Victoria`s wastewater discharges: Effects on the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.A.; Miller, R.A.; Pym, R.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Capital Regional District discharges screened wastewater through two long deep outfalls into Juan de Fuca Strait, a water body bordered by both Canada and the US. Concerns have been expressed about the effects of this discharge on water quality in US waters. The wastewater is released into an oceanic environment characterized by strong turbulent tidal flows. Monitoring of the receiving waters has indicated that conventional water quality parameters have not been affected by the discharges. Fecal coliform levels above the outfalls are periodically elevated but remain well below the swimming standard. Shoreline studies of fecal coliform levels have shown that the deep outfalls have not measurably affected water quality at beaches. Recently, monitoring efforts have concentrated on effects to the seafloor environment. One of the outfalls (Macaulay Point) discharges to a depositional environment. At Macaulay Point chemical levels of concern were confined to within 100--400 m of the outfall with the exception of high PAH levels associated with the shipwreck of a collier. Similarly, sediment toxicity was detected at stations up to 400 m from the diffusers. This toxicity was limited to effects on growth and development. Survival was not affected. The benthic infaunal community exhibited a typical response to organic enrichment. Within 100 m of the outfall abundance was increased and richness depressed. The other outfall (Clover Point) discharges to an area of cobble substrate. Consequently, sediment analysis was not practical. Instead, tissue chemistry of resident mussels was examined. No consistent pattern with distance from the outfall was evident. Some tissue chemicals increased with distance from the diffuser while others decreased. Overall the impact of the outfalls on the seafloor was found to be minimal and restricted in extent.

  11. Volatile content in MI from Petrological study of basic lavas and melt inclusions from Cenozoic volcanism from Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomoni, Pier Paolo; Coltorti, Massimo; Mukasa, Sam; Bonadiman, Costanza; Ferlito, Carmelo

    2014-05-01

    New data on basic lavas and melt inclusions (MI) in olivine phenocrysts from Northern Victoria Land (NVL-Antarctica) are presented aiming at comparing major element composition and volatiles content in lavas and their mantle sources. Major elements and volatile (H2O, CO2, S, F and Cl) were measured in MI from Shield Nunatak, while major and trace elements were carried out on lavas from three localities, Eldridge Bluff, Shield Nunatak and Handler Ridge. Lavas are olivine-phyric (up to 15 %vol) with minor clinopyroxene and plagioclase in a glassy to microcristalline plagioclase-dominated groundmass; opaque minerals are mostly magnetites and subordinately ilmenites. The great majority of lavas are basanites (42.20-45.02wt% SiO2, with 3.36-4.21wt% of Na2O+K2O) with Mg# (MgO/(MgO+FeO) mol%, Fe2O3=0.15FeO) ranging from 44.9 to 60.1. Lavas from Handler Ridge are the most primitive. MI compositions are comparable to those of the host lavas but encompasse a wider range from 43.68 to 48.73 wt% SiO2 and from 2.81 to 4.55 wt% Na2O+K2O, with Mg# 49.5 74.44. The great majority of olivine calculated in equilibrium with MI are more forsteritic than the enclosing crystal suggesting that MI were trapped from a less evolved magma or, most probaby, that Mg-Fe interdiffusion occurred between olivine and MI after entrapment. Most of MI have H2O content ranging from 0.70 wt% to 1.19 wt% and CO2 from 25 ppm to 341 ppm (H2O/CO2~1). At comparable H2O contents few samples show a remarkable higher CO2 values (1322 ppm to 3905 ppm) with a H2O/CO2 down to 0.8. F and Cl concentrations range from 808 to 999 ppm and from 443 to 570 ppm respectively, with a F/Cl ratio ranging between 1.4 to 2.0. S content varies from 537 ppm to 2002 ppm. The relationships between MI and basic lava compositions are investigated by means of mass balance calculation reconstructing the composition of the mantle source, including amphibole from Baker Rocks (NVL) which allow us to also constrain its volatile content

  12. The secretory membrane system studied in real-time. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture, 2001.

    PubMed

    Lippincott-Schwartz, J

    2001-08-01

    The discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, has revolutionized studies on protein localization and dynamics by allowing direct observation of a protein's life history and pathway in living cells, previously only deduced from genetic, biochemical, or immunolabeling studies. Applied to the secretory membrane system, which regulates delivery of newly synthesized proteins and lipids to the cell surface, GFP-based studies are providing important new insights into the maintenance and biogenesis of organelles, as well as the origin, pathway, and fate of secretory transport intermediates. PMID:11685538

  13. Orbital forcing of glacial/interglacial variations in chemical weathering and silicon cycling within the upper White Nile basin, East Africa: Stable-isotope and biomarker evidence from Lakes Victoria and Edward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockerton, Helen E.; Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Barker, Philip A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Ficken, Katherine J.

    2015-12-01

    On Quaternary time scales, the global biogeochemical cycle of silicon is interlocked with the carbon cycle through biotic enhancement of silicate weathering and uptake of dissolved silica by vascular plants and aquatic microalgae (notably diatoms, for which Si is an essential nutrient). Large tropical river systems dominate the export of Si from the continents to the oceans. Here, we investigate variations in Si cycling in the upper White Nile basin over the last 15 ka, using sediment cores from Lakes Victoria and Edward. Coupled measurements of stable O and Si isotopes on diatom separates were used to reconstruct past changes in lake hydrology and Si cycling, while the abundances of lipid biomarkers characteristic of terrestrial/emergent higher plants, submerged/floating aquatic macrophytes and freshwater algae document past ecosystem changes. During the late-glacial to mid-Holocene, 15-5.5 ka BP, orbital forcing greatly enhanced monsoon rainfall, forest cover and chemical weathering. Riverine inputs of dissolved silica from the lake catchments exceeded aquatic demand and may also have had lower Si-isotope values. Since 5.5 ka BP, increasingly dry climates and more open vegetation, reinforced by the spread of agricultural cropland over the last 3-4 ka, have reduced dissolved silica inputs into the lakes. Centennial-to millennial-scale dry episodes are also evident in the isotopic records and merit further investigation.

  14. Risk-based approaches to deal with uncertainty in a data-poor system: stakeholder involvement in hazard identification for marine national parks and marine sanctuaries in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carey, Janet M; Beilin, Ruth; Boxshall, Anthony; Burgman, Mark A; Flander, Louisa

    2007-02-01

    Management responsibilities for the system of marine national parks and sanctuaries declared in Victoria, Australia in 2002 have created imperatives for robust, scientifically defendable approaches to identifying threats to valued ecological attributes of the parks, setting management priorities, and developing monitoring systems. We are developing a protocol for ecological risk assessment in the parks that has due regard for the perception of risks by individuals, and ensures that stakeholder values are an intrinsic part of decision making. The inclusive and transparent protocol provides an opportunity for stakeholder involvement in the identification of valued attributes, as well as in the assessment of associated risks. Our approach brings together ideas about how science enters the community engagement domain in ways that promote collaboration and transparency in decision making. A series of stakeholder workshops across the state drew on the expertise of agency staff, community groups, fishers, industry representatives, academics, and knowledgeable park neighbors to identify hazards of major concern in the parks. Many hazards involved predictable, tangible threats like pollution and exotic species, but the approach also identified a number of less obvious threats related to governance issues and the knowledge-base for the parks. Importantly, the workshops with their broad range of stakeholders identified threats not previously considered by the management agency in its internal assessments, and several of these "new" threats are already the subject of action by the agency. The deliberate incorporation of local knowledge and local networks in the risk assessment process also provided opportunities for greater engagement of stakeholders with the management agency. PMID:17362414

  15. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): Local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K.; Bracciali, L.; Di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-11-01

    We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 m of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drill core, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. We present data on the age, composition, volcanological and depositional features of the volcanic sedimentary and tephra deposits of LSU 1 and discuss their source, mechanisms of emplacement and environment of deposition. Sedimentary features and compositional data indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Most of LSU 1 deposits are a mixture of near primary volcanic material with minor exotic clasts derived from the Paleozoic crystalline basement rocks. Among volcanic materials, glassy particles are the most abundant. They were produced by mildly explosive basaltic eruptions occurring in subaerial and subaqueous environments. The Dailey Islands group, 13 km south-southwest of the SMS drill-site, has been identified as a possible source for the volcanics on the basis of similarity in composition and age. 40Ar- 39Ar laser step-heating analyses on a lava sample from Juergens Island yields an age of 775 ± 22 ka. Yet because of the minimal reworking features of vitriclasts, preservation of fragile structures in volcaniclastic sediments and evidence for volcanic seamounts to the north of the Dailey Islands, it is likely that some of the material originated also from vents close to the drill-site. Evidence for local volcanic sources and for deposition of sediments in a shallow marine environment provides indications about the local paleogeography and implications for the subsidence history of the southern Victoria Land Basin from Pleistocene to Recent.

  16. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    -rich cement, along with the occurrence of shallow water diatoms, all indicate deposition in shallow waters agitated by waves. These results contrast strikingly with the present water depth, and let us infer rapid recent tectonic subsidence within this segment of the Victoria Land Basin (Terror Rift).

  17. Flavimarina pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae, and emended descriptions of the genus Leeuwenhoekiella, Leeuwenhoekiella aequorea and Leeuwenhoekiella marinoflava.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kukhlevskiy, Andrey D; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, Seung Bum

    2014-09-01

    A facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped and yellow pigmented bacterium, designated strain IDSW-73(T), was isolated from a seawater sample and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel strain formed a distinct phyletic line in the family Flavobacteriaceae and is most closely related to the members of the genus Leeuwenhoekiella, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 91.4-92.6 %. Strain IDSW-73(T) was found to be able to grow with 0-12 % NaCl and at 4-33 °C; and was able to hydrolyse gelatin, starch and Tweens 20, 40 and 80. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 42.2 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were identified as branched-chain saturated and unsaturated and straight-chain unsaturated fatty acids such as iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1, iso-C17:1 ω9c, C15:1 ω6c, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (as defined by MIDI), comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 ω7c. The polar lipids found were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids and one unknown lipid. The major respiratory quinone was identified as MK-6. The significant molecular distinctiveness between the novel isolate and its nearest neighbours were strongly supported by notable differences in physiological and biochemical tests. Therefore, strain IDSW-73(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species within the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Flavimarina pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IDSW-73(T) (=KCTC 32466(T) = KMM 6759(T)). Emended descriptions of the recognized species of the genus Leeuwenhoekiella are also proposed. PMID:24929933

  18. The Victoria Isolation Scale, Form A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, A. J. W.; Feletti, Grahame I.

    1976-01-01

    The authors administered the Isolation Symptomatology Questionnaire to persons living in Antarctica who were either well or maladjusted to their environment. Eliminating those items not discriminating between the two groups, the authors constructed a new isolation scale. (SE)

  19. The Ash Wednesday bushfires in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Valent, P

    1984-09-01

    The Ash Wednesday bushfires were one of the worst natural disasters in Australia's history. This paper documents observations of human reactions to the disaster started immediately after the bushfires. Two frameworks were used for classification of observations: biopsychosocial and temporal. Biological, psychological and social reactions in adults and children are described as they occurred before, during, immediately after, and two months after the disaster. Some reactions in animals are noted. Victims of the bushfires were seen to have reacted during the various phases of the experience in a predictable way: during the acute danger, when survival was paramount, and immediately afterward, the usual patterns of hierarchical structure within families and in the wider community broke down and new social structures emerged. These reverted to previously existing patterns in the ensuing months. Feelings of disorientation, unreality and anger at outside agencies, which were viewed as hostile and unhelpful, were commonplace. The findings have implications for the development of everyday stress reactions and clinical syndromes presenting to clinical practitioners. Lastly, the role of intervention for disaster reactions is examined and its usefulness noted. PMID:6472167

  20. Is Victor Better than Victoria at Maths?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Kalavana, Theano

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there are gender differences in actual maths achievement, in attitudes towards maths, and in relevant achievement attributions among early adolescents. The participants were 255 eighth grade students (mean age 14.2) from 10 randomly selected public junior high schools in Cyprus. They completed a…

  1. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, F. G.; Edmonds, J. W.; Nolan, I. F.; Shepherd, R. C.; Gocs, A.

    1977-01-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence. PMID:20473

  2. A source-to-sink, multi-proxy provenance study of CRP-1 and AND-2/2A core records: implications for sediment dispersal and ice dynamics models in the West Antarctic Rift System of South Victoria Land in Early Miocene time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, Eleonora; Florindo, Fabio; Sandroni, Sonia; Talarico, Franco Maria

    2014-05-01

    The study of the lithosphere-cryosphere system interactions in response to climate and tectonic forcings during the Cenozoic long-term cooling and the reconstruction of the past glacial volumes and regimes (ice mountains caps vs ice sheets, warm-based vs polar/cold-based) represents a priority area for recent and current geosciences and climate science research. A unique case-history to investigate these issues is represented by the South Victoria Land sector of the West Antarctic Rift System, where several high-quality sediment drill-cores provide a benchmark for integrating paleoenvironmental information stored in a cumulative ca. 4.8 km-long stratigraphic record of late Eocene to Pleistocene age, with the erosion and exhumation histories recorded in several mountain blocks in the adjacent Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). Previous provenance studies on Victoria Land Basin cores highlight the high value of different provenance tools in the reconstruction of paleoenvironmental variability during the Cenozoic glacial and paleoclimatic evolution in the Ross Embayment in a number of time windows. However, integration of different datasets has been so far very limited, particularly for what concerns correlations of key Cenozoic tectonic and paleoclimatic events across the entire length of the TAM in Victoria Land. The Cape Roberts Project CRP-1 and the ANDRILL SMS AND2-2A cores, with their correlative core sections, provide the opportunity to reconstruct ice dynamic and paleoenvironmental scenarios at a regional scale, comprising a wide area of the western Ross Sea and the adjacent segment of the TAM in Early Miocene time. Our study includes a tighter data integration of all available provenance/compositional datasets in each core, and new mineralogical data (on both silicate and opaque mineralogy and in different sedimentary grain fractions). The overall new and existing datasets consistently highlight the presence of significant differences in provenance, suggesting

  3. Fluorescent Proteins as Biomarkers and Biosensors: Throwing Color Lights on Molecular and Cellular Processes

    PubMed Central

    Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Turoverov, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria is the most extensively studied and widely used in cell biology protein. GFP-like proteins constitute a fast growing family as several naturally occurring GFP-like proteins have been discovered and enhanced mutants of Aequorea GFP have been created. These mutants differ from wild-type GFP by conformational stability, quantum yield, spectroscopic properties (positions of absorption and fluorescence spectra) and by photochemical properties. GFP-like proteins are very diverse, as they can be not only green, but also blue, orange-red, far-red, cyan, and yellow. They also can have dual-color fluorescence (e.g., green and red) or be non-fluorescent. Some of them possess kindling property, some are photoactivatable, and some are photoswitchable. This review is an attempt to characterize the main color groups of GFP-like proteins, describe their structure and mechanisms of chromophore formation, systemize data on their conformational stability and summarize the main trends of their utilization as markers and biosensors in cell and molecular biology. PMID:18691124

  4. Novel fluorescent protein from Hydnophora rigida possess cyano emission.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, H; Smith, C; Veerendra, K; Sivaraman, J; Sikaroodi, M; Gillevet, P

    2010-06-01

    Currently, a broad diversity of fluorescent proteins among marine organisms range from cyano-red emissions. Fluorescent proteins differ in their DNA sequences from green fluorescent protein (GFP). We identified cDNA encoding the gene of a new protein from the reef coral Hydnophora rigida of the Merulinidae family. Both the spectral properties and putative primary sequence of the protein has been determined. The cloned cDNA encode peptide we call HriCFP is comprised of 134 amino acids. It has characteristics of a cyano fluorescent protein (HriCFP) and its sequence is markedly different from known GFP from the hydroid jellyfish Aequorea victoria. HriCFP was cloned, expressed, purified and exist as monomer. The peptide mass finger print on the purified protein confirmed identity of HriCFP. PMID:20435020

  5. Identification of a functional nuclear export signal in the green fluorescent protein asFP499

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, Huseyin . E-mail: huseyinm@hotmail.com; Strasser, Bernd; Rauth, Sabine; Irving, Robert A.; Wark, Kim L.

    2006-04-21

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) asFP499 from Anemonia sulcata is a distant homologue of the GFP from Aequorea victoria. We cloned the asFP499 gene into a mammalian expression vector and showed that this protein was expressed in the human lymphoblast cell line Ramos RA1 and in the embryonic kidney 293T cell line (HEK 293T). In HEK 293T cells, asFP499 was localized mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that the protein was excluded from the nucleus. We identified {sub 194}LRMEKLNI{sub 201} as a candidate nuclear export signal in asFP499 and mutated the isoleucine at position 201 to an alanine. Unlike the wildtype form, the mutant protein was distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus. This is First report of a GFP that contains a functional NES.

  6. Fluorescence imaging in the last two decades

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the molecular cloning of the gene for the green fluorescent protein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, I would like to reflect on the development of new fluorescence imaging technology in the last two decades. As this technology has become increasingly diversified, it has become more and more of a challenge to come up with a comprehensive and exhaustive review of it. Here I will focus on optogenetics and large-scale, three-dimensional reconstruction. Those two technological innovations have been achieved in the neuroscience community owing to the combined efforts of molecular biologists and light microscopists. In addition, modern fluorescence imaging has indeed improved our understanding of the spatiotemporal regulation of fundamental biological functions at cellular level. As an example, I will introduce some findings we made regarding the movement of biomolecules across the nuclear membrane. The above-mentioned imaging approaches are possible today but were impossible two decades ago. PMID:23393311

  7. A Fluorogenic Red Fluorescent Protein Heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Spencer C.; Abdelfattah, Ahmed S.; Ding, Yidan; Campbell, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The expanding repertoire of genetically encoded biosensors constructed from variants of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) enable the imaging of a variety of intracellular biochemical processes. To facilitate the imaging of multiple biosensors in a single cell, we undertook the development of a dimerization-dependent red fluorescent protein (ddRFP) that provides an alternative strategy for biosensor construction. An extensive process of rational engineering and directed protein evolution led to the discovery of a ddRFP with a Kd of 33 μM and a 10-fold increase in fluorescence upon heterodimer formation. We demonstrate that the dimerization-dependent fluorescence of ddRFP can be used for detection of a protein-protein interaction in vitro, imaging of the reversible Ca2+-dependent association of calmodulin and M13 in live cells, and imaging of caspase-3 activity during apoptosis. PMID:22444590

  8. Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor) treatment of amphipod parasites (Hyperiidae) from several host jellyfish species.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Koneval, Maureen E; Clark, James D; Schick, Mark; Smith, Malissa; Stark, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    Wild-caught crystal jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) arrived at the John G. Shedd Aquarium infested with hyperiid amphipods (Hyperia medusarum), which were inadvertently introduced into a system containing several jellyfish species. Affected systems were treated with milbemycin oxime (Interceptor tablets for dogs 51-100 lbs, Novartis Animal Health US, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina 27408, USA), a treatment prescribed for red bug (Tegastes acroporanus) infestation in corals. Two treatments using one 25-mg aliquot of Interceptor per 10 gallons of tank water administered 6-7 days apart were completed. Overall, treatment to eradicate the parasite from the affected systems was successful. Further studies evaluating the tolerance of jellyfish to milbemycin oxime, particularly in small juvenile Eutonina indicans and Aurelia aurita, are warranted. Based on clinical observations, there were more negative effects associated with the treatment in the hydrozoans than in the scyphozoans. PMID:25831592

  9. From jellyfish to biosensors: the use of fluorescent proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Voss, Ute; Larrieu, Antoine; Wells, Darren M

    2013-01-01

    The milestone discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, its optimisation for efficient use in plantae, and subsequent improvements in techniques for fluorescent detection and quantification have changed plant molecular biology research dramatically. Using fluorescent protein tags allows the temporal and spatial monitoring of dynamic expression patterns at tissue, cellular and subcellular scales. Genetically-encoded fluorescence has become the basis for applications such as cell-type specific transcriptomics, monitoring cell fate and identity during development of individual organs or embryos, and visualising protein-protein interactions in vivo. In this article, we will give an overview of currently available fluorescent proteins, their applications in plant research, the techniques used to analyse them and, using the recent development of an auxin sensor as an example, discuss the design principles and prospects for the next generation of fluorescent plant biosensors. PMID:24166435

  10. Fluid Dynamic Constraints on Morphology and Propulsion of Medusae at Low Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabiri, J. O.; Colin, S. P.; Costello, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    A recently developed mathematical model for physical constraints on the size and morphology of medusae was extended to include viscous effects that dominate at low Reynolds numbers. This fluid dynamic regime is experienced by all medusae during development and also by some adults. The lack of inertia in the flow field generated by medusae at low Reynolds numbers limits the vortex formation that is ubiquitous at higher Reynolds numbers. This consequently leads to the need for large oblate rowing medusae to use different propulsive solutions during their juvenile stages of development. Specifically, empirical observations of scyphomedusae (e.g., Aurelia sp.) and hydromedusae (e.g., Aequorea victoria and Obelia sp.) indicate distinct wake structures and swimming kinematics for each body type that exists during different stages of development. These differences can be explained by the extended mathematical model. In addition, ontogenetic changes can be visualized as trajectories within a plot of the new model.

  11. Development of Plant Gene Vectors for Tissue-Specific Expression Using GFP as a Reporter Gene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jacquelyn; Egnin, Marceline; Xue, Qi-Han; Prakash, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reporter genes are widely employed in plant molecular biology research to analyze gene expression and to identify promoters. Gus (UidA) is currently the most popular reporter gene but its detection requires a destructive assay. The use of jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequorea Victoria holds promise for noninvasive detection of in vivo gene expression. To study how various plant promoters are expressed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), we are transcriptionally fusing the intron-modified (mGFP) or synthetic (modified for codon-usage) GFP coding regions to these promoters: double cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV 35S) with AMV translational enhancer, ubiquitin7-intron-ubiquitin coding region (ubi7-intron-UQ) and sporaminA. A few of these vectors have been constructed and introduced into E. coli DH5a and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105. Transient expression studies are underway using protoplast-electroporation and particle bombardment of leaf tissues.

  12. Role of Coherent Low-Frequency Motion in Excited-State Proton Transfer of Green Fluorescent Protein Studied by Time-Resolved Impulsive Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Kuramochi, Hikaru; Hosoi, Haruko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-03-30

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria, an essential bioimaging tool, luminesces via excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) in which the phenolic proton of the p-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolinone chromophore is transferred to Glu222 through a hydrogen-bond network. In this process, the ESPT mediated by the low-frequency motion of the chromophore has been proposed. We address this issue using femtosecond time-resolved impulsive stimulated Raman spectroscopy. After coherently exciting low-frequency modes (<300 cm(-1)) in the excited state of GFP, we examined the excited-state structural evolution and the ESPT dynamics within the dephasing time of the low-frequency vibration. A clear anharmonic vibrational coupling is found between one high-frequency mode of the chromophore (phenolic CH bend) and a low-frequency mode at ∼104 cm(-1). However, the data show that this low-frequency motion does not substantially affect the ESPT dynamics. PMID:26943852

  13. Biomimetic jellyfish-inspired underwater vehicle actuated by ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najem, Joseph; Sarles, Stephen A.; Akle, Barbar; Leo, Donald J.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a biomimetic jellyfish robot that uses ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) as flexible actuators for propulsion. The shape and swimming style of this underwater vehicle are based on the Aequorea victoria jellyfish, which has an average swimming speed of 20 mm s-1 and which is known for its high swimming efficiency. The Aequorea victoria is chosen as a model system because both its bell morphology and kinematic properties match the mechanical properties of IPMC actuators. This medusa is characterized by its low swimming frequency, small bell deformation during the contraction phase, and high Froude efficiency. The critical components of the robot include the flexible bell that provides the overall shape and dimensions of the jellyfish, a central hub and a stage used to provide electrical connections and mechanical support to the actuators, eight distinct spars meant to keep the upper part of the bell stationary, and flexible IPMC actuators that extend radially from the central stage. The bell is fabricated from a commercially available heat-shrinkable polymer film to provide increased shape-holding ability and reduced weight. The IPMC actuators constructed for this study demonstrated peak-to-peak strains of ˜0.7% in water across a frequency range of 0.1-1.0 Hz. By tailoring the applied voltage waveform and the flexibility of the bell, the completed robotic jellyfish with four actuators swam at an average speed 0.77 mm s-1 and consumed 0.7 W. When eight actuators were used the average speed increased to 1.5 mm s-1 with a power consumption of 1.14 W.

  14. The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may…

  15. Creating "Community"? Preparing for Bushfire in Rural Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Peter; Tyler, Meagan; Hart, Alison; Mees, Bernard; Phillips, Richard; Stratford, Julie; Toh, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The term "community" has a long and contested lineage in social analysis and debate. This lineage, however, is not generally recognized in policy and public debates on community and bushfire in Australia. "Community" is thought to be central to bushfire preparedness in Australia, especially in rural areas, but what "community" actually means in…

  16. Influential Pioneers of Creative Music Education in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, societies have been fascinated with creativity and the creative personality. Researching creativity and its place in music education however has been fraught with difficulties. After sixty years of intensive study mainly in the USA, there is still no accepted methodology for researching creativity or an agreed definition. In…

  17. Graduate Teacher Preparation for Rural Schools in Victoria and Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Jodie; Walker-Gibbs, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Graduate teachers' preparedness for working in rural settings are mediated by the development of pedagogical expertise, professional engagement with parents and the community, and broader notions of preparation to teach in rural contexts. The Studying the Effectiveness of Teacher Education (SETE) project is a four-year longitudinal study tracking…

  18. The Hyperbaric Chamber at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Duff, John H.; Gundel, Walter D.; Vignoul, Henri G.; MacLean, Lloyd D.

    1964-01-01

    The single apparent and potential benefit of hyperbaric oxygen is the great increase in the blood content of dissolved oxygen achieved when pure oxygen is breathed at increased pressure. The design of an economical chamber for this purpose is presented. A large number of physiological measurements (cardiac output, electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, etc.) can be performed on patients or experimental animals within the chamber by use of unique electronic connections in the chamber wall which permits all recording equipment to remain outside. Expected arterial blood oxygen tensions have been achieved in patients studied at 2, 3, and 4 atmospheres. Safety features are emphasized. No complication has resulted in 113 dives over the period January to June 1964, one-half of which were for treatment of patients. The chamber has been used clinically as an adjunct to treatment of shock, certain forms of malignancy, anaerobic infections, coronary occlusion, and problems of ischemia, and for preservation of organs for transplantation. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14214227

  19. Reformers and Reform: Towards Free Public Libraries in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The "Victorian Free Library Service Board Act" of 1946 was the culmination of a long campaign to replace the mechanics' institute model of library provision with free libraries funded by state and local government. Given that library reform required legislation by the state government, this paper is mainly concerned with the political campaign…

  20. Implementation of Active Support in Victoria, Australia: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansell, Jim; Beadle-Brown, Julie; Bigby, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Active support is an effective intervention to support engagement of residents with intellectual disability in group homes. This survey explored resident characteristics of the people supported by organisations implementing active support, the provision of active support, its procedures and systems, and resident engagement in…