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Sample records for aequorea victoria green

  1. Crystal structure of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Ormö, M; Cubitt, A B; Kallio, K; Gross, L A; Tsien, R Y; Remington, S J

    1996-09-06

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the Pacific Northwest jellyfish Aequorea victoria has generated intense interest as a marker for gene expression and localization of gene products. The chromophore, resulting from the spontaneous cyclization and oxidation of the sequence -Ser65 (or Thr65)-Tyr66-Gly67-, requires the native protein fold for both formation and fluorescence emission. The structure of Thr65 GFP has been determined at 1.9 angstrom resolution. The protein fold consists of an 11-stranded beta barrel with a coaxial helix, with the chromophore forming from the central helix. Directed mutagenesis of one residue adjacent to the chromophore, Thr203, to Tyr or His results in significantly red-shifted excitation and emission maxima.

  2. Crystal Structure of the Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormo, Mats; Cubitt, Andrew B.; Kallio, Karen; Gross, Larry A.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Remington, S. James

    1996-09-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the Pacific Northwest jellyfish Aequorea victoria has generated intense interest as a marker for gene expression and localization of gene products. The chromophore, resulting from the spontaneous cyclization and oxidation of the sequence -Ser65 (or Thr65)-Tyr66-Gly67-, requires the native protein fold for both formation and fluorescence emission. The structure of Thr65 GFP has been determined at 1.9 angstrom resolution. The protein fold consists of an 11-stranded β barrel with a coaxial helix, with the chromophore forming from the central helix. Directed mutagenesis of one residue adjacent to the chromophore, Thr203, to Tyr or His results in significantly red-shifted excitation and emission maxima.

  3. Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria green-fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Prasher, D C; Eckenrode, V K; Ward, W W; Prendergast, F G; Cormier, M J

    1992-02-15

    Many cnidarians utilize green-fluorescent proteins (GFPs) as energy-transfer acceptors in bioluminescence. GFPs fluoresce in vivo upon receiving energy from either a luciferase-oxyluciferin excited-state complex or a Ca(2+)-activated phosphoprotein. These highly fluorescent proteins are unique due to the chemical nature of their chromophore, which is comprised of modified amino acid (aa) residues within the polypeptide. This report describes the cloning and sequencing of both cDNA and genomic clones of GFP from the cnidarian, Aequorea victoria. The gfp10 cDNA encodes a 238-aa-residue polypeptide with a calculated Mr of 26,888. Comparison of A. victoria GFP genomic clones shows three different restriction enzyme patterns which suggests that at least three different genes are present in the A. victoria population at Friday Harbor, Washington. The gfp gene encoded by the lambda GFP2 genomic clone is comprised of at least three exons spread over 2.6 kb. The nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and the gene will aid in the elucidation of structure-function relationships in this unique class of proteins.

  4. Deletion mapping of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Dopf, J; Horiagon, T M

    1996-01-01

    Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a promising fluorescent marker which is active in a diverse array of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. A key feature underlying the versatility of GFP is its capacity to undergo heterocyclic chromophore formation by cyclization of a tripeptide present in its primary sequence and thereby acquiring fluorescent activity in a variety of intracellular environments. In order to define further the primary structure requirements for chromophore formation and fluorescence in GFP, a series of N- and C-terminal GFP deletion variant expression vectors were created using the polymerase chain reaction. Scanning spectrofluorometric analyses of crude soluble protein extracts derived from eleven GFP expression constructs revealed that amino acid (aa) residues 2-232, of a total of 238 aa in the native protein, were required for the characteristic emission and absorption spectra of native GFP. Heterocyclic chromophore formation was assayed by comparing the absorption spectrum of GFP deletion variants over the 300-500-nm range to the absorption spectra of full-length GFP and GFP deletion variants missing the chromophore substrate domain from the primary sequence. GFP deletion variants lacking fluorescent activity showed no evidence of heterocyclic ring structure formation when the soluble extracts of their bacterial expression hosts were studied at pH 7.9. These observations suggest that the primary structure requirements for the fluorescent activity of GFP are relatively extensive and are compatible with the view that much of the primary structure serves an autocatalytic function.

  5. Detection of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein by capillary electrophoresis laser induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Craig, D B; Wong, J C; Dovichi, N J

    1997-01-01

    Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein was assayed by capillary electrophoresis using post-capillary laser-induced fluorescence detection in a sheath flow cuvette. The limit of detection was 3.0 x 10(-12) M protein in an injection volume of 17 nL, corresponding to a mass of 3100 molecules.

  6. The first mutant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that forms a red chromophore.

    PubMed

    Mishin, Alexander S; Subach, Fedor V; Yampolsky, Ilia V; King, William; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2008-04-22

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from a jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, and its mutants are widely used in biomedical studies as fluorescent markers. In spite of the enormous efforts of academia and industry toward generating its red fluorescent mutants, no GFP variants with emission maximum at more than 529 nm have been developed during the 15 years since its cloning. Here, we used a new strategy of molecular evolution aimed at generating a red-emitting mutant of GFP. As a result, we have succeeded in producing the first GFP mutant that substantially matures to the red-emitting state with excitation and emission maxima at 555 and 585 nm, respectively. A novel, nonoxidative mechanism for formation of the red chromophore in this mutant that includes a dehydration of the Ser65 side chain has been proposed. Model experiments showed that the novel dual-color GFP mutant with green and red emission is suitable for multicolor flow cytometry as an additional color since it is clearly separable from both green and red fluorescent tags.

  7. Structural and spectral response of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent proteins to chromophore fluorination.

    PubMed

    Pal, Prajna P; Bae, Jae Hyun; Azim, M Kamran; Hess, Petra; Friedrich, Rainer; Huber, Robert; Moroder, Luis; Budisa, Nediljko

    2005-03-15

    Global replacements of tyrosine by 2- and 3-fluorotyrosine in "enhanced green" and "enhanced yellow" mutants of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent proteins (avGFPs) provided protein variants with novel biophysical properties. While crystallographic and modeled structures of these proteins are indistinguishable from those of their native counterparts (i.e., they are perfectly isomorphous), there are considerable differences in their spectroscopic properties. The fluorine being an integral part of the avGFP chromophore induces changes in the titration curves, variations in the intensity of the absorbance and fluorescence, and spectral shifts in the emission maxima. Furthermore, targeted fluorination in close proximity to the fluorinated chromophore yielded additional variants with considerably enhanced spectral changes. These unique spectral properties are intrinsic features of the fluorinated avGFPs, in the context of the rigid chromophore-microenvironment interactions. The availability of the isomorpohous crystal structures of fluorinated avGFPs allowed mapping of novel, unusual interaction distances created by the presence of fluorine atoms. In addition, fluorine atoms in the ortho position of the chromophore tyrosyl moiety exhibit a single conformation, while in the meta position two conformer states were observed in the crystalline state. Such global replacements in chromophores of avGFPs and similar proteins result in "atomic mutations" (i.e., H --> F replacements) in the structures, offering unprecedented opportunities to understand and manipulate the relationships between protein structure and spectroscopic properties.

  8. The Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein can be used as a reporter in live zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, A; Lin, S; Hopkins, N

    1995-09-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the cnidarian Aequorea victoria is capable of producing fluorescence without an exogenously added substrate. Here we demonstrate that a cDNA for GFP driven by a Xenopus elongation factor 1 alpha enhancer-promoter can confer fluorescence upon live zebrafish embryos, either as an injected plasmid or as a transgene after passage through the germline. When injected into zebrafish embryos at the one-cell stage, this construct starts to express detectable GFP after about 4 hr of development at 28 degrees C, about 1 hr after the midblastula transition. Fluorescence can be observed in cells of many tissue types in the embryo for at least 3 weeks after injection. We used three different expression constructs, each employing a modified ef1 alpha enhancer-promoter, to generate 12 transgenic lines. Eight of the 12 lines, including 5 of 5 derived from one construct with an intron, express detectable fluorescence in the F1 and, where tested, in the F2 generation. Most expressing lines showed very similar expression patterns. Generally, fluorescence is not seen in the transgenic embryos before 20 hr postfertilization, at which point it appears uniformly throughout the embryo. Fluorescence is most visible between 24-36 hr, and it becomes less visible after this, except that in many lines strong fluorescence remains visible in the eye for at least 5 days. A single inherited copy of the transgene is sufficient to produce detectable fluorescence in hemizygous F1 and F2 embryos.

  9. Probing the role of tryptophans in Aequorea victoria green fluorescent proteins with an expanded genetic code.

    PubMed

    Budisa, Nediljko; Pal, Prajna Paramita; Alefelder, Stefan; Birle, Petra; Krywcun, Tatjana; Rubini, Marina; Wenger, Waltraud; Bae, Jae Hyun; Steiner, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The expanded genetic code in combination with site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe spectroscopic and structural roles of tryptophan (Trp) residues in Aequorea victoria green fluorescent proteins (avGFPs). Nine different halogen-, chalcogen-, and methyl-containing Trp isosteric analogues and surrogates were incorporated into avGFPs containing indole moieties in, and outside of, the chromophore, by the use of the selective pressure incorporation method. Such isosteric replacements introduced minimal local geometry changes in indole moieties, often to the level of single atomic exchange ('atomic mutation') and do not affect three-dimensional structures of avGFPs but induce changes in spectral properties. Our approach offers a new platform to re-evaluate issues like resonance transfer, mechanisms of chromophore formation and maturation, as well as the importance of local geometry and weak sulphur-aromatic interactions for avGFP spectral properties and structural stability. The library of novel tailor-made avGFP mutants and variants generated in this work has demonstrated not only the potentials of the expanded genetic code to study spectroscopic functions, but also a new approach to generate tailor-made proteins with interesting and useful spectral properties.

  10. Examination of Listeria monocytogenes intracellular gene expression by using the green fluorescent protein of Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Freitag, N E; Jacobs, K E

    1999-04-01

    The ActA protein of Listeria monocytogenes is an essential virulence factor and is required for intracellular bacterial motility and cell-to-cell spread. plcB, cotranscribed with actA, encodes a broad-specificity phospholipase C that contributes to lysis of host cell vacuoles and cell-to-cell spread. Construction of a transcriptional fusion between actA-plcB and the green fluorescent protein gene of Aequorea victoria has facilitated the detailed examination of patterns of actA/plcB expression within infected tissue culture cells. actA/plcB expression began approximately 30 min postinfection and was dependent upon entry of L. monocytogenes into the host cytosol. L. monocytogenes Deltahly mutants, which are unable to escape from host cell vacuoles, did not express actA/plcB at detectable levels within infected tissue culture cells; however, complementation of the hly defect allowed entry of the bacteria into the host cytoplasm and subsequent actA/plcB expression. These results emphasize the ability of L. monocytogenes to sense the different host cell compartment environments encountered during the course of infection and to regulate virulence gene expression in response.

  11. Deletions of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein define the minimal domain required for fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, G; Ngo, N; Zhao, X; Kain, S R; Huang, C C

    1997-11-07

    The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is a widely used marker for gene expression and protein localization studies. Dissection of the structure of the protein would be expected to shed light on its potential applications to other fields such as the detection of protease activity. Using deletion analysis, we have defined the minimal domain in GFP required for fluorescence to amino acids 7-229. This domain starts at the middle of the first small alpha helix at the N terminus of GFP and ends immediately following the last beta sheet. Studies of the amino acids at both termini of the minimal domain revealed that positions 6 and 7 at the N terminus are Glu-specific. Change of the Glu residues to other amino acids results in reduction of GFP fluorescence. Position 229 at the C terminus of GFP, however, is nonspecific: the Ile can be replaced with other amino acids with no measurable loss of fluorescence. A total of only 15 terminal amino acids can be deleted from GFP without disrupting fluorescence, consistent with findings of a previous study of GFP crystal structure (Ormo, M., Cubitt, A. B., Kallio, K., Gross, L. A., Tsien, R. Y., Remington, S. J. (1996) Science 273, 1392-1395 and Yang, F., Moss, L. G., and Phillips, G. N., Jr. (1996) Nat. Biotechnol. 14, 1246-1251) that a tightly packed structure exists in the protein. We also generated internal deletions within the loop regions of GFP according to its crystal structure and found that all such deletions eliminated GFP fluorescence.

  12. Functional expression of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Reiländer, H; Haase, W; Maul, G

    1996-02-06

    A DNA fragment encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was isolated via PCR from a jellyfish Aequorea victoria cDNA, cloned and sequenced. Subsequently, a recombinant baculovirus bearing the coding region of the GFP under the transcriptional control of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) polyhedrin gene promoter was constructed and isolated. High-level expression of GFP could be easily monitored in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells after infection with recombinant baculovirus, due to the intrinsic fluorescence (lambda(max) = 508 nm) of the recombinant protein after excitation with blue light (lambda(max) = 400 nm). The functional recombinant GFP displayed an apparent molecular mass of approximately 43 kDa and the fluorescence emission spectrum of the recombinant protein was virtually identical to that of the native green fluorescent protein.

  13. [Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene of Aequorea victoria [correction of Aequoria victoria] in Lactobacillus plantarum bacterium ].

    PubMed

    Shkoporov, A N; Khokhlova, E V; Efimov, B A; Kafarskaia, L I

    2008-01-01

    Results of development of shuttle expressing plasmid vector Escherichia coli-Lactobacillus which allowed high level expression of heterologous genes in lactobacilli are represented. Vector pTRKH2 which is able to replicate in E. coli and in wide range of Gram-positive bacteria was used as the base. In order to provide high level of cloned gene expression constitutive-active synthetic promoter, site of initiation of translation, and terminator of transcription were introduced in the vector. Functional activity of this vector was confirmed using green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene from Aequoria victoria. Transformation of model strain by gfp gene-carrying plasmid resulted in appearance of typical fluorescent phenotype.

  14. Structural basis for dual excitation and photoisomerization of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Brejc, K; Sixma, T K; Kitts, P A; Kain, S R; Tsien, R Y; Ormö, M; Remington, S J

    1997-03-18

    The 2.1-A resolution crystal structure of wild-type green fluorescent protein and comparison of it with the recently determined structure of the Ser-65 --> Thr (S65T) mutant explains the dual wavelength absorption and photoisomerization properties of the wild-type protein. The two absorption maxima are caused by a change in the ionization state of the chromophore. The equilibrium between these states appears to be governed by a hydrogen bond network that permits proton transfer between the chromophore and neighboring side chains. The predominant neutral form of the fluorophore maximally absorbs at 395 nm. It is maintained by the carboxylate of Glu-222 through electrostatic repulsion and hydrogen bonding via a bound water molecule and Ser-205. The ionized form of the fluorophore, absorbing at 475 nm, is present in a minor fraction of the native protein. Glu-222 donates its charge to the fluorophore by proton abstraction through a hydrogen bond network, involving Ser-205 and bound water. Further stabilization of the ionized state of the fluorophore occurs through a rearrangement of the side chains of Thr-203 and His-148. UV irradiation shifts the ratio of the two absorption maxima by pumping a proton relay from the neutral chromophore's excited state to Glu-222. Loss of the Ser-205-Glu-222 hydrogen bond and isomerization of neutral Glu-222 explains the slow return to the equilibrium dark-adapted state of the chromophore. In the S65T structure, steric hindrance by the extra methyl group stabilizes a hydrogen bonding network, which prevents ionization of Glu-222. Therefore the fluorophore is permanently ionized, causing only a 489-nm excitation peak. This new understanding of proton redistribution in green fluorescent protein should enable engineering of environmentally sensitive fluorescent indicators and UV-triggered fluorescent markers of protein diffusion and trafficking in living cells.

  15. Structural Basis for Dual Excitation and Photoisomerization of the Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brejc, Katjusa; Sixma, Titia K.; Kitts, Paul A.; Kain, Steven R.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ormo, Mats; Remington, S. James

    1997-03-01

    The 2.1- angstrom resolution crystal structure of wild-type green fluorescent protein and comparison of it with the recently determined structure of the Ser-65 --> Thr (S65T) mutant explains the dual wavelength absorption and photoisomerization properties of the wild-type protein. The two absorption maxima are caused by a change in the ionization state of the chromophore. The equilibrium between these states appears to be governed by a hydrogen bond network that permits proton transfer between the chromophore and neighboring side chains. The predominant neutral form of the fluorophore maximally absorbs at 395 nm. It is maintained by the carboxylate of Glu-222 through electrostatic repulsion and hydrogen bonding via a bound water molecule and Ser-205. The ionized form of the fluorophore, absorbing at 475 nm, is present in a minor fraction of the native protein. Glu-222 donates its charge to the fluorophore by proton abstraction through a hydrogen bond network, involving Ser-205 and bound water. Further stabilization of the ionized state of the fluorophore occurs through a rearrangement of the side chains of Thr-203 and His-148. UV irradiation shifts the ratio of the two absorption maxima by pumping a proton relay from the neutral chromophore's excited state to Glu-222. Loss of the Ser-205-Glu-222 hydrogen bond and isomerization of neutral Glu-222 explains the slow return to the equilibrium dark-adapted state of the chromophore. In the S65T structure, steric hindrance by the extra methyl group stabilizes a hydrogen bonding network, which prevents ionization of Glu-222. Therefore the fluorophore is permanently ionized, causing only a 489-nm excitation peak. This new understanding of proton redistribution in green fluorescent protein should enable engineering of environmentally sensitive fluorescent indicators and UV-triggered fluorescent markers of protein diffusion and trafficking in living cells.

  16. Aequorea victoria bioluminescence moves into an exciting new era.

    PubMed

    Kendall, J M; Badminton, M N

    1998-05-01

    Bioluminescence has revolutionized research into many cellular and molecular-biological processes, ranging from intracellular signalling to gene transcription. This article focuses on the chemistry and biotechnological exploitation of the two proteins involved in bioluminescence of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria--aequorin and green fluorescent protein. Engineered recombinant aequorin has led to a novel technological approach to monitoring calcium signals in organelles and subcellular domains. A new generation of intracellular calcium indicators has been produced in which engineered variants of green fluorescent protein are used to probe their ionic environment using intramolecular fluorescence-resonance-energy transfer.

  17. Enhanced green fluorescence by the expression of an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein mutant in mono- and dicotyledonous plant cells.

    PubMed

    Reichel, C; Mathur, J; Eckes, P; Langenkemper, K; Koncz, C; Schell, J; Reiss, B; Maas, C

    1996-06-11

    The expression of the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) in plants was analyzed by transient expression in protoplasts from Nicotiana tabacum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Hordeum vulgare, and Zea mays. Expression of GFP was only observed with a mutated cDNA, from which a recently described cryptic splice site had been removed. However, detectable levels of green fluorescence were only emitted from a small number of protoplasts. Therefore, other mutations in the GFP cDNA leading to single-amino acid exchanges in the chromophore region, which had been previously studied in Escherichia coli, were tested in order to improve the sensitivity of this marker protein. Of the mutations tested so far, the exchange of GFP amino acid tyrosine 66 to histidine (Y66H) led to detection of blue fluorescence in plant protoplasts, while the exchange of amino acid serine 65 to cysteine (S65C) and threonine (S65T) increased the intensity of green fluorescence drastically, thereby significantly raising the detection level for GFP. For GFP S65C, the detectable number of green fluorescing tobacco (BY-2) protoplasts was raised up to 19-fold, while the fluorimetricly determined fluorescence was raised by at least 2 orders of magnitude.

  18. Bacterial plasmid conjugation on semi-solid surfaces monitored with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria as a marker.

    PubMed

    Christensen, B B; Sternberg, C; Molin, S

    1996-01-01

    Horizontal transfer of the TOL plasmid was examined in Pseudomonas putida (Pp) KT2442 micro-colonies on semi-solid agar surfaces. Horizontal gene transfer is usually studied in large populations where all information is based on average estimates of the transfer events in the entire population. We have used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria as a plasmid marker, in combination with single-cell observations. This provided hitherto unknown details on the distribution of cells active in conjugation. In the present study, donor cells containing the gfp gene expressed from the bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter on the TOL plasmid, and recipient cells expressing the corresponding phage RNA polymerase allowed us to monitor the occurrence of ex-conjugants as green fluorescent cells upon illumination with blue light (470-490 nm). Further, the recipients were labeled with the luxAB genes to distinguish micro-colonies of donor cells from recipient cells. We conclude that conjugal plasmid transfer in Pp KT2442 cells on semi-solid surfaces occurs mainly during a short period of time after the initial contact of donors and recipients, indicating that spread of the TOL plasmid is limited in static, but viable cultures.

  19. Development of a photoactivatable fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria GFP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, George H.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2004-06-01

    Photoactivation, the rapid conversion of photoactivatable molecules to a fluorescent state by intense irradiation, can be used to mark and monitor selected molecules within cells1. We report a photoactivatable variant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) based on a mutation at position 203 that upon intense irradiation with 413 nm light exhibits a stable 60-100 fluorescence increase under 488 nm excitation. The photoactivated form of this mutant named photoactivatable GFP (PA-GFP), is stable under a number of conditions. PA-GFP can be used to analyze protein dynamics in living cells, offering enormous potential for addressing outstanding questions in protein trafficking and turnover, organelle dynamics, and cell lineage patterns.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 Å, α = 90.96, β = 103.41, γ = 101.79°. The Matthews coefficient (V M = 2.10 Å3 Da−1) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit. PMID:20054132

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a monomeric mutant of Azami-Green (mAG), an Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein-like green-emitting fluorescent protein from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Tatsuki; Yamamura, Akihiro; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-12-01

    Monomeric Azami-Green (mAG) from the stony coral Galaxea fascicularis is the first monomeric green-emitting fluorescent protein that is not a derivative of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (avGFP). mAG and avGFP are 27% identical in amino-acid sequence. Diffraction-quality crystals of recombinant mAG were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The mAG crystal diffracted X-rays to 2.20 A resolution on beamline AR-NW12A at the Photon Factory (Tsukuba, Japan). The crystal belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.78, b = 51.72, c = 52.89 A, alpha = 90.96, beta = 103.41, gamma = 101.79 degrees. The Matthews coefficient (V(M) = 2.10 A(3) Da(-1)) indicated that the crystal contained two mAG molecules per asymmetric unit.

  2. Expression of Aequorea green fluorescent protein in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Cheng, C L

    1995-08-07

    The coding region of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria has been fused to the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced into maize leaf protoplasts. Transient expression of GFP was observed. In addition, the coding region of GFP was fused to an Arabidopsis heat shock promoter and co-transformed with another construct in which GFP has been replaced with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). The heat-induced expression of GFP in maize protoplasts parallels that of CAT. While GFP was expressed in both dark-grown and green maize leaf protoplasts, no green fluorescence was observed in similarly transformed Arabidopsis protoplasts.

  3. Sound scattering by the gelatinous zooplankters Aequorea victoria and Pleurobrachia bachei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monger, B. C.; Chinniah-Chandy, S.; Meir, E.; Billings, S.; Greene, C. H.; Wiebe, P. H.

    Target strengths were determined for individual Aequorea victoria and Pleurobrachia bachei using separate 200, 420 and 1,000 kHz transducers in an enclosure deployed off the dock of the Friday Harbor Laboratories in northern Puget Sound, Washington, USA. The target strength for Aequorea, when averaged over all animal sizes and all three trnasducer frequencies, was -72.6 dB. The target strength for Pleurobrachia was -75.9 dB when similarly averaged. Average reduced target strengths for Aequorea and Pleurobrachia were -43.3 and -33.1 dB, respectively. Differences in the sound scattering contrasts for Pleurobrachia and Aequorea are proposed to explain the larger reduced target strength of Pleurobrachia, relative to that of Aequorea. A new sound scattering model was developed to predict the backscattering cross-section of Aequorea. The model takes into account expected variations in target strength due to changes in shape of the jellyfish as it propels itself through the water. The scattering model was tuned specifically for Aequorea in the present study, but has a general formulation that is widely applicable to any medusa-shaped gelatinous zooplankter.

  4. Aequorea green fluorescent protein analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ropp, J D; Donahue, C J; Wolfgang-Kimball, D; Hooley, J J; Chin, J Y; Hoffman, R A; Cuthbertson, R A; Bauer, K D

    1995-12-01

    The isolation and expression of the cDNA for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria has highlighted its potential use as a marker for gene expression in a variety of cell types (Chalfie et al.: Science 263: 802-805, 1994). The longer wavelength peak (470 nm) of GFP's bimodal absorption spectrum better matches standard fluorescein filter sets; however, it has a considerably lower amplitude than the major absorption peak at 395. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of GFP with routinely available instrumentation, Heim et al. (Nature 373:663-664, 1995) have generated a GFP mutant (serine-65 to threonine; S65T-GFP) which possesses a single absorption peak centered at 490 nm. We have constructed this mutant in order to determine whether it or wild-type GFP (wt-GFP) afforded greater sensitivity when excited near their respective absorption maxima. Using the conventionally available 488 nm and ultraviolet (UV) laser lines from the argon ion laser as well as the 407 nm line from a krypton ion laser with enhanced violet emission, we were able to closely match the absorption maxima of both the S65T and wild-type forms of Aequorea GFP and analyze differences in fluorescence intensity of transiently transfected 293 cells with flow cytometry. The highest fluorescence signal was observed with 488 nm excitation of S65T-GFP relative to all other laser line/GFP pairs. The wt-GFP fluorescence intensity, in contrast, was significantly higher at 407 nm relative to either 488 nm or UV. These results were consistent with parallel spectrofluorometric analysis of the emission spectrum for wt-GFP and S65T-GFP. The relative contribution of cellular autofluorescence at each wavelength was also investigated and shown to be significantly reduced at 407 nm relative to either UV or 488 nm.

  5. Aequorea green fluorescent protein analysis by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ropp, J.D.; Cuthbertson, R.A.; Donahue, C.J.; Wolfgang-Kimball, D.

    1995-12-01

    The isolation and expression of the cDNA for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea victoria has highlighted its potential use as a marker for gene expression in a variety of cell types. The longer wavelength peak (470 nm) of GFP`s bimodal absorption spectrum better matches standard fluorescein filter sets; however, it has a considerably lower amplitude than the major absorption peak at 395. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of GFP with routinely available instrumentation, Heim et al. have generated a GFP mutant (serine-65 to threonine; S65T-GFP) which possesses a single absorption peak centered at 490 nm. We have constructed this mutant in order to determine whether it or wild-type GFP (wt-GFP) afforded greater sensitivity when excited near their respective absorption maxima. Using the conventionally available 488 nm and ultraviolet (UV) laser lines from the argon ion laser as well as the 407 nm line from a krypton ion laser with enhanced violet emission, we were able to closely match the absorption maxima of both the S65T and wild-type forms of Aequorea GFP and analyze differences in fluorescence intensity of transiently transfected 293 cells with flow cytometry. The highest fluorescence signal was observed with 488 nm excitation of S65T-GFP relative to all other laser line/GFP pairs. The wt-GFP fluorescence intensity, in contrast, was significantly higher at 407 nm relative to either 488 nm or UV. These results were consistent with parallel spectrofluorometric analysis of the emission spectrum for wt-GFP and S65T- GFP. The relative contribution of cellular autofluorescence at each wavelength was also investigated and shown to be significantly reduced at 407 nm relative to either UV or 488 nm. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Detection of protein-protein interactions using Aequorea victoria bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, Leonid M.; Gorokhovatsky, Andrey Y.; Rudenko, Natalia V.; Marchenkov, Victor V.; Skosyrev, Vitaly S.; Arzhanov, Maxim A.; Zakharov, Mikhail V.; Burkhardt, Nils; Semisotnov, Gennady V.; Alakhov, Yuli B.

    2003-07-01

    Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is a naturally occurring phenomenon taking place in some marine coelenterates. Emission of light in these organisms involves the energy transfer between chromophores of donor luciferase and acceptor fluorescent protein. Due to the strict dependence of BRET efficiency on the inter-chromophore distance, the phenomenon has been applied to study protein-protein interactions by fusing interacting partners with either donor or acceptor proteins. Here we describe a BRET-based homogeneous protein-protein interaction assay exploiting novel donor-acceptor pair formed by photoproteins of jellyfish Aequorea victoria bioluminescent system, aequorin and green fluorescent protein enhanced variant (EGFP). Two known interacting proteins, streptavidin (SAV) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) were fused, respectively, with aequorin and EGFP. The fusions were purified after expression of the corresponding genes in Escherichia coli cells. Association of SAV-Aequorin and BCCP-EGFP was followed by BRET between aequorin (donor) and EGFP (acceptor) resulting in significantly increasing 510 nm and decreasing 470 nm bioluminescence intensity. It was shown that free biotin inhibited BRET due to its competition with BCCP-EGFP for binding to SAV-Aequorin. These properties were exploited to demonstrate competitive homogeneous BRET assay for biotin.

  7. Luminescent proteins from Aequorea victoria: applications in drug discovery and in high throughput analysis.

    PubMed

    Deo, S K; Daunert, S

    2001-02-01

    Recent progress in generating a vast number of drug targets through genomics and large compound libraries through combinatorial chemistry have stimulated advancements in drug discovery through the development of new high throughput screening (HTS) methods. Automation and HTS techniques are also highly desired in fields such as clinical diagnostics. Luminescence-based assays have emerged as an alternative to radiolabel-based assays in HTS as they approach the sensitivity of radioactive detection along with ease of operation, which makes them amenable to miniaturization. Luminescent proteins provide the advantage of reduced reagent and operating costs because they can be produced in unlimited amounts through the use of genetic engineering tools. In that regard, the use of two naturally occurring and recombinantly produced luminescent proteins from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, namely, aequorin and the green fluorescent protein (GFP), has attracted attention in a number of analytical applications in diverse research areas. Aequorin is naturally bioluminescent and has therefore, virtually no associated background signal, which allows its detection down to attomole levels. GFP has become the reporter of choice in a variety of applications given that it is an autofluorescent protein that does not require addition of any co-factors for fluorescence emission. Furthermore, the generation of various mutants of GFP with differing luminescent and spectral properties has spurred additional interest in this protein. In this review, we focus on the use of aequorin and GFP in the development of highly sensitive assays that find applications in drug discovery and in high throughput analysis.

  8. Preparation and initial characterization of crystals of the photoprotein aequorin from Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Hannick, L I; Prasher, D C; Schultz, L W; Deschamps, J R; Ward, K B

    1993-01-01

    Crystals of recombinant aequorin, the photoprotein from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, have been grown from solutions containing sodium phosphate. The crystals grow as thin plates which diffract to beyond 2.2 A resolution. The crystals are orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1); the axes are a = 89.1(1), b = 88.4(1), and c = 52.7(1) A. The asymmetric unit contains two molecules. Crystals exposed to calcium ion solutions emit a steady glow and slowly deteriorate, confirming that the crystals consist of a charged, competent photoprotein. This represents the first successful preparation of single crystals of a photoprotein suitable for diffraction analysis.

  9. Control of swimming in the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria: subumbrellar organization and local inhibition.

    PubMed

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    The subumbrella of the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequorea victoria (previously classified as Aequorea aequorea) is divided by numerous radial canals and attached gonads, so the subumbrellar musculature is partitioned into subumbrellar segments. The ectoderm of each segment includes two types of muscle: smooth muscle with a radial orientation, used for local (feeding and righting) and widespread (protective) radial responses, and striated muscle with a circular orientation which produces swim contractions. Two subumbrellar nerve nets were found, one of which stained with a commercial antibody produced against the bioactive peptide FMRFamide. Circular muscle cells produce a single, long-duration action potential with each swim, triggered by a single junctional potential. In addition, the circular cells are electrically coupled so full contractions require both electrotonic depolarization from adjacent cells and synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net. The radial cells, which form a layer superficial to the circular cells, are also activated by a subumbrellar nerve net, and produce short-duration action potentials. The radial muscle cells are electrically coupled to one another. No coupling exists between the two muscle layers. Spread of excitation between adjacent segments is decremental, and nerve net-activated junctional potentials disappear during local inhibition of swimming (such as with a radial response). Variable swim contractions are controlled by a combination of synaptic input from the motor network of the inner nerve ring, synaptic input from a subumbrellar nerve net, and electrotonic depolarization from adjacent, active muscle cells.

  10. Flow structures and fluid transport for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2009-08-01

    The flow structures produced by the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria are examined using direct numerical simulation and Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). Body motion of each hydromedusa is digitized and input to a CFD program. Sarsia tubulosa uses a jetting type of propulsion, emitting a single, strong, fast-moving vortex ring during each swimming cycle while a secondary vortex of opposite rotation remains trapped within the subumbrellar region. The ejected vortex is highly energetic and moves away from the hydromedusa very rapidly. Conversely, A. victoria, a paddling type hydromedusa, is found to draw fluid from the upper bell surface and eject this fluid in pairs of counter-rotating, slow-moving vortices near the bell margins. Unlike S. tubulosa, both vortices are ejected during the swimming cycle of A. victoria and linger in the tentacle region. In fact, we find that A. victoria and S. tubulosa swim with Strouhal numbers of 1.1 and 0.1, respectively. This means that vortices produced by A. victoria remain in the tentacle region roughly 10 times as long as those produced by S. tubulosa, which presents an excellent feeding opportunity during swimming for A. victoria. Finally, we examine the pressure on the interior bell surface of both hydromedusae and the velocity profile in the wake. We find that S. tubulosa produces very uniform pressure on the interior of the bell as well as a very uniform jet velocity across the velar opening. This type of swimming can be well approximated by a slug model, but A. victoria creates more complicated pressure and velocity profiles. We are also able to estimate the power output of S. tubulosa and find good agreement with other hydromedusan power outputs. All results are based on numerical simulations of the swimming jellyfish.

  11. Chemical structure of the hexapeptide chromophore of the Aequorea green-fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Cody, C W; Prasher, D C; Westler, W M; Prendergast, F G; Ward, W W

    1993-02-09

    The green-fluorescent proteins (GFP) are a unique class of proteins involved in bioluminescence of many cnidaria. The GFPs serve as energy-transfer acceptors, receiving energy from either a luciferase-oxyluciferin complex or a Ca(2+)-activated photoprotein, depending on the organism. Upon mechanical stimulation of the organism, GFP emits green light spectrally identical to its fluorescence emission. These highly fluorescent proteins are unique due to the nature of the covalently attached chromophore, which is composed of modified amino acid residues within the polypeptide. This report describes the characterization of the Aequorea victoria GFP chromophore which is released as a hexapeptide upon digestion of the protein with papain. The chromophore is formed upon cyclization of the residues Ser-dehydroTyr-Gly within the polypeptide. The chromophore structure proposed here differs from that described by Shimomura [(1979) FEBS Lett. 104, 220] in a number of ways.

  12. Single amino acid replacement makes Aequorea victoria fluorescent proteins reversibly photoswitchable.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Ranieri; Serresi, Michela; Cardarelli, Francesco; Abbruzzetti, Stefania; Campanini, Barbara; Viappiani, Cristiano; Beltram, Fabio

    2010-01-13

    Reversibly photoswitchable (i.e., photochromic) fluorescent proteins open the way to a number of advanced bioimaging techniques applicable to living-cell studies such as sequential photolabeling of distinct cellular regions, innovative FRET schemes, or nanoscopy. Owing to the relevance of fluorescent proteins from Aequorea victoria (AFPs) for cell biology, a photochromic "toolbox" constituted by several AFPs is highly desirable. Here we introduce four new photochromic AFPs whose reversible photoswitching occurs between the native bright and a dark state at low illumination power, on account of a very efficient cis-trans photoisomerization. Most remarkably, the optical bistability of these AFPs derives from the single E222Q mutation in the primary sequence. Apparently, the E222Q substitution can restore the intrinsic photochromic behavior of the isolated chromophore. The significance of these mutants for high-resolution in vivo cell imaging is shown by means of photochromic FRET experiments.

  13. X-ray diffraction and time-resolved fluorescence analyses of Aequorea green fluorescent protein crystals.

    PubMed

    Perozzo, M A; Ward, K B; Thompson, R B; Ward, W W

    1988-06-05

    The energy transfer protein, green fluorescent protein, from the hydromedusan jellyfish Aequorea victoria has been crystallized in two morphologies suitable for x-ray diffraction analysis. Hexagonal plates have been obtained in the P6122 or P6522 space group with a = b = 77.5, c = 370 A, and no more than three molecules per asymmetric unit. Monoclinic parallel-epipeds have been obtained in the C2 space group with a = 93.3, b = 66.5, c = 45.5 A, beta = 108 degrees, and one molecule per asymmetric unit. The monoclinic form is better suited for use in a structure determination, and a data set was collected from the native crystal. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements of large single crystals are possible due to the unique, covalently bound chromophore present in this molecule. Fluorescence emission spectra of Aequorea green fluorescent protein in solution and from either the hexagonal or monoclinic single crystal show similar profiles suggesting that the conformations of protein in solution and in the crystal are similar. Multifrequency phase fluorimetric data obtained from a single crystal were best fit by a single fluorescence lifetime very close to that exhibited by the protein in solution. The complementary structural data obtained from fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction crystallography will aid in the elucidation of this novel protein's structure-function relationship.

  14. Identifying and modeling motion primitives for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Isaac; Krieg, Michael; Lipinski, Doug; Mohseni, Kamran

    2015-10-23

    The movements of organisms can be thought of as aggregations of motion primitives: motion segments containing one or more significant actions. Here, we present a means to identify and characterize motion primitives from recorded movement data. We address these problems by assuming that the motion sequences can be characterized as a series of dynamical-system-based pattern generators. By adopting a nonparametric, Bayesian formalism for learning and simplifying these pattern generators, we arrive at a purely data-driven model to automatically identify breakpoints in the movement sequences. We apply this model to swimming sequences from two hydromedusa. The first hydromedusa is the prolate Sarsia tubulosa, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell cavity pressurization, jet formation, jetting, cavity fluid refill, and coasting. The second hydromedusa is the oblate Aequorea victoria, for which we obtain five motion primitives that correspond to bell compression, vortex separation, cavity fluid refill, vortex formation, and coasting. Our experimental results indicate that the breakpoints between primitives are correlated with transitions in the bell geometry, vortex formation and shedding, and changes in derived dynamical quantities. These dynamics quantities include terms like pressure, power, drag, and thrust. Such findings suggest that dynamics information is inherently present in the observed motions.

  15. Effect of fixation procedures on the fluorescence lifetimes of Aequorea victoria derived fluorescent proteins.

    PubMed

    Joosen, L; Hink, M A; Gadella, T W J; Goedhart, J

    2014-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy can be used to study protein-protein interactions by Förster Resonance Energy Transfer or to perform lifetime-based multiplexing. Fixation of samples with cells producing fluorescent fusion proteins is commonly used for preservation of samples and for staining with membrane impermeable reagents such as antibodies. However, the effect of fixation methods and mounting media on fluorescence lifetime is poorly documented so far. Here, we demonstrate that fixation by formaldehyde or methanol itself does not affect the lifetime of fluorescent proteins produced in cells but that several widely used mounting media decrease the fluorescence lifetime by up to 20%. It is shown that fixed cells producing Aequorea victoria derived fluorescent proteins mounted in Tris buffer have fluorescence lifetimes indistinguishable from values measured in living cells. Tris buffer also allows accurate Förster Resonance Energy Transfer quantification in fixed cells, as shown with an mTurquoise2-SYFP2 fusion protein. Moreover, identical lifetime contrasts are measured in living and fixed cells mounted in Tris buffer after introducing a single plasmid expressing two lifetime variants of cyan fluorescent proteins, each targeted to different locations in the cell. Our findings will aid the preparation of fixed cells producing fluorescent proteins for reliable measurement of fluorescence lifetimes for Förster Resonance Energy Transfer determination, lifetime based multiplexing and for instrument calibration for standardization purposes.

  16. Chemical nature of the light emitter of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Niwa, H; Inouye, S; Hirano, T; Matsuno, T; Kojima, S; Kubota, M; Ohashi, M; Tsuji, F I

    1996-11-26

    The jellyfish Aequorea victoria possesses in the margin of its umbrella a green fluorescent protein (GFP, 27 kDa) that serves as the ultimate light emitter in the bioluminescence reaction of the animal. The protein is made up of 238 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain and produces a greenish fluorescence (lambda max = 508 nm) when irradiated with long ultraviolet light. The fluorescence is due to the presence of a chromophore consisting of an imidazolone ring, formed by a post-translational modification of the tripeptide -Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67-. GFP has been used extensively as a reporter protein for monitoring gene expression in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, but relatively little is known about the chemical mechanism by which fluorescence is produced. To obtain a better understanding of this problem, we studied a peptide fragment of GFP bearing the chromophore and a synthetic model compound of the chromophore. The results indicate that the GFP chromophore consists of an imidazolone ring structure and that the light emitter is the singlet excited state of the phenolate anion of the chromophore. Further, the light emission is highly dependent on the microenvironment around the chromophore and that inhibition of isomerization of the exo-methylene double bond of the chromophore accounts for its efficient light emission.

  17. Early history, discovery, and expression of Aequorea green fluorescent protein, with a note on an unfinished experiment.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Frederick I

    2010-08-01

    The bioluminescent hydromedusan jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, emits a greenish light (lambda(max) = 508 nm) when stimulated electrically or mechanically. The light comes from photocytes located along the margin of its umbrella. The greenish light depends on two intracellular proteins working in consort: aequorin (21.4 kDa) and a green fluorescent protein (27 kDa). An excited state green fluorescent protein molecule results, which, on returning to the ground state, emits a greenish light. Similarly, a green light emission may be induced in the green fluorescent protein by exposing it to ultraviolet or blue light. Because the green light can be readily detected under a fluorescence microscope, the green fluorescent protein, tagged to a protein of interest, has been used widely as a marker to locate proteins in cells and to monitoring gene expression. This article reviews the work that took place leading to the discovery, cloning, and expression of the green fluorescent protein, with a note on an unfinished experiment.

  18. Fusion of Aequorea victoria GFP and aequorin provides their Ca(2+)-induced interaction that results in red shift of GFP absorption and efficient bioluminescence energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Gorokhovatsky, Andrey Yu; Marchenkov, Victor V; Rudenko, Natalia V; Ivashina, Tanya V; Ksenzenko, Vladimir N; Burkhardt, Nils; Semisotnov, Gennady V; Vinokurov, Leonid M; Alakhov, Yuli B

    2004-07-30

    The bioluminescence emitted by Aequorea victoria jellyfish is greenish while its single bioluminescent photoprotein aequorin emits blue light. This phenomenon may be explained by a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) from aequorin chromophore to green fluorescent protein (GFP) co-localized with it. However, a slight overlapping of the aequorin bioluminescence spectrum with the GFP absorption spectrum and the absence of marked interaction between these proteins in vitro pose a question on the mechanism providing the efficient BRET in A. victoria. Here we report the in vitro study of BRET between homologous Ca(2+)-activated photoproteins, aequorin or obelin (Obelia longissima), as bioluminescence energy donors, and GFP, as an acceptor. The fusions containing donor and acceptor proteins linked by a 19 aa peptide were purified after expressing their genes in Escherichia coli cells. It was shown that the GFP-aequorin fusion has a significantly greater BRET efficiency, compared to the GFP-obelin fusion. Two main factors responsible for the difference in BRET efficiency of these fusions were revealed. First, it is the presence of Ca(2+)-induced interaction between the donor and acceptor in the aequorin-containing fusion and the absence of the interaction in the obelin-containing fusion. Second, it is a red shift of GFP absorption toward better overlapping with aequorin bioluminescence induced by the interaction of aequorin with GFP. Since the connection of the two proteins in vitro mimics their proximity in vivo, Ca(2+)-induced interaction between aequorin and GFP may occur in A. victoria jellyfish providing efficient BRET in this organism.

  19. The numerical comparison of flow patterns and propulsive performances for the hydromedusae Sarsia tubulosa and Aequorea victoria.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mehmet; Mohseni, Kamran; Colin, Sean P

    2009-08-01

    The thrust-generating mechanism of a prolate hydromedusa Sarsia tubulosa and an oblate hydromedusa Aequorea victoria was investigated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the swirl-free cylindrical coordinates. The calculations clearly show the vortex dynamics related to the thrust-generating mechanism, which is very important for understanding the underlying propulsion mechanism. The calculations for the prolate jetting hydromedusa S. tubulosa indicate the formation of a single starting vortex ring for each pulse cycle with a relatively high vortex formation number. However, the calculations for the oblate jet-paddling hydromedusa A. victoria indicate shedding of the opposite-signed vortex rings very close to each other and the formation of large induced velocities along the line of interaction as the vortices move away from the hydromedusa in the wake. In addition to this jet propulsion mechanism, the hydromedusa's bell margin acts like a paddle and the highly flexible bell margin deforms in such a way that the low pressure leeward side of the bell margin has a projected area in the direction of motion. This thrust is particularly important during refilling of the subumbrella cavity where the stopping vortex causes significant pressure drag. The swimming performances based on our numerical simulations, such as swimming velocity, thrust, power requirement and efficiency, were computed and support the idea that jet propulsion is very effective for rapid body movement but is energetically costly and less efficient compared with the jet-paddling propulsion mechanism.

  20. Reversible dimerization of Aequorea victoria fluorescent proteins increases the dynamic range of FRET-based indicators.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Ippei; Iwasaki, Takuya; Imamura, Hiromi; Noji, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Takeharu

    2010-02-19

    Fluorescent protein (FP)-based Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) technology is useful for development of functional indicators to visualize second messenger molecules and activation of signaling components in living cells. However, the design and construction of the functional indicators require careful optimization of their structure at the atomic level. Therefore, routine procedures for constructing FRET-based indicators currently include the adjustment of the linker length between the FPs and the sensor domain and relative dipole orientation of the FP chromophore. Here we report that, in addition to these techniques, optimization of the dimerization interface of Aequorea FPs is essential to achieve the highest possible dynamic range of signal change by FRET-based indicators. We performed spectroscopic analyses of various indicators (cameleon, TN-XL, and ATeam) and their variants. We chose variants containing mutant FPs with different dimerization properties, i.e., no, weak, or enhanced dimerization of the donor or acceptor FP. Our findings revealed that the FPs that dimerized weakly yielded high-performance FRET-based indicators with the greatest dynamic range.

  1. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for the numerical simulation of flow patterns generated by the hydromedusa Aequorea victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Mohseni, Kamran

    2009-07-01

    A new geometrically conservative arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation is presented for the moving boundary problems in the swirl-free cylindrical coordinates. The governing equations are multiplied with the radial distance and integrated over arbitrary moving Lagrangian-Eulerian quadrilateral elements. Therefore, the continuity and the geometric conservation equations take very simple form similar to those of the Cartesian coordinates. The continuity equation is satisfied exactly within each element and a special attention is given to satisfy the geometric conservation law (GCL) at the discrete level. The equation of motion of a deforming body is solved in addition to the Navier-Stokes equations in a fully-coupled form. The mesh deformation is achieved by solving the linear elasticity equation at each time level while avoiding remeshing in order to enhance numerical robustness. The resulting algebraic linear systems are solved using an ILU(k) preconditioned GMRES method provided by the PETSc library. The present ALE method is validated for the steady and oscillatory flow around a sphere in a cylindrical tube and applied to the investigation of the flow patterns around a free-swimming hydromedusa Aequorea victoria (crystal jellyfish). The calculations for the hydromedusa indicate the shed of the opposite signed vortex rings very close to each other and the formation of large induced velocities along the line of interaction while the ring vortices moving away from the hydromedusa. In addition, the propulsion efficiency of the free-swimming hydromedusa is computed and its value is compared with values from the literature for several other species.

  2. Homogeneous assay for biotin based on Aequorea victoria bioluminescence resonance energy transfer system.

    PubMed

    Gorokhovatsky, Andrey Yu; Rudenko, Natalia V; Marchenkov, Victor V; Skosyrev, Vitaly S; Arzhanov, Maxim A; Burkhardt, Nils; Zakharov, Mikhail V; Semisotnov, Gennady V; Vinokurov, Leonid M; Alakhov, Yuli B

    2003-02-01

    Here we describe a homogeneous assay for biotin based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between aequorin and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The fusions of aequorin with streptavidin (SAV) and EGFP with biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) were purified after expression of the corresponding genes in Escherichia coli cells. Association of SAV-aequorin and BCCP-EGFP fusions was followed by BRET between aequorin (donor) and EGFP (acceptor), resulting in significantly increasing 510 nm and decreasing 470 nm bioluminescence intensity. It was shown that free biotin inhibited BRET due to its competition with BCCP-EGFP for binding to SAV-aequorin. These properties were exploited to demonstrate competitive homogeneous BRET assay for biotin.

  3. Thermal effect on Aequorea green fluorescent protein anionic and neutral chromophore forms fluorescence.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Andrea Martins

    2012-01-01

    The emission behaviour of Aequorea green fluorescent protein (A-GFP) chromophore, in both neutral (N) and anionic (A) form, was studied in the temperature range from 20 °C to 75 °C and at pH = 7. Excitation wavelengths of 399 nm and 476 nm were applied to probe the N and A forms environment, respectively. Both forms exhibit distinct fluorescence patterns at high temperature values. The emission quenching rate, following a temperature increase, is higher for the chromophore N form as a result of the hydrogen bond network weakening. The chromophore anionic form emission maximum is red shifted, upon temperature increase, due to a charge transfer process occurring after A form excitation.

  4. Structure of a fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria bearing the obligate-monomer mutation A206K.

    PubMed

    von Stetten, David; Noirclerc-Savoye, Marjolaine; Goedhart, Joachim; Gadella, Theodorus W J; Royant, Antoine

    2012-08-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequoria victoria has been shown to dimerize at high concentrations, which could lead to artefacts in imaging experiments. To ensure a truly monomeric state, an A206K mutation has been introduced into most of its widely used variants, with minimal effect on the spectroscopic properties. Here, the first structure of one of these variants, the cyan fluorescent protein mTurquoise, is presented and compared with that of its dimeric version mTurquoise-K206A. No significant structural change is detected in the chromophore cavity, reinforcing the notion that this mutation is spectroscopically silent and validating that the structural analysis performed on dimeric mutants also applies to monomeric versions. Finally, it is explained why cyan versions of GFP containing the Y66W and N146I mutations do not require the A206K mutation to prevent dimerization at high concentrations.

  5. Use of the A. victoria green fluorescent protein to study protein dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kahana, J A; Silver, P A

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescent molecules serve as valuable tools for the detection of a variety of biochemical phenomena. Such reagents have been employed for protein localization, quantitation of gene expression, detection of nucleic acids, cell sorting, and determination of chemical concentrations. Although fluorescence is a useful tool for detecting molecules within cells, its application in vivo has been limited. The ideal vital fluorescent tag should (1) be detectable without causing cytological damage, (2) be able to label a wide variety of cell types readily, and (3) be able to be targeted to virtually any subcellular region. The recently cloned green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is such a molecule. This overview describes the use of this proteinaceous fluorophore for in vivo observation of cellular phenomena, including applications and problems with the use of GFP, a discussion of mutant GFPs with altered fluorescence characteristics, and also some details on microscopy requirements.

  6. Use of the A. victoria green fluorescent protein to study protein dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kahana, J A; Silver, P A

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescent molecules serve as valuable tools for the detection of a variety of biochemical phenomena. Such reagents have been employed for protein localization, quantitation of gene expression, detection of nucleic acids, cell sorting, and determination of chemical concentrations. Although fluorescence is a useful tool for detecting molecules within cells, its application in vivo has heretofore been limited. The ideal vital fluorescent tag should (1) be detectable without causing cytological damage, (2) be able to label a wide variety of cell types readily, and (3) be able to be targeted to virtually any subcellular region. The recently cloned green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is such a molecule. This overview describes the use of this proteinaceous fluorophore for in vivo observation of cellular phenomena, including applications and problems with the use of GFP, a discussion of mutant GFPs with altered fluorescence characteristics, and also some details on microscopy requirements.

  7. pH-dependent fluorescence of a heterologously expressed Aequorea green fluorescent protein mutant: in situ spectral characteristics and applicability to intracellular pH estimation.

    PubMed

    Robey, R B; Ruiz, O; Santos, A V; Ma, J; Kear, F; Wang, L J; Li, C J; Bernardo, A A; Arruda, J A

    1998-07-14

    The green fluorescent protein of Aequorea victoria (GFP) is a natural peptide chromophore without substrate or cofactor requirements for fluorescence. In vitro, a recombinant F64L/S65T GFP mutant (GFPmut1) exhibited pH sensitive fluorescence within the physiologic range. When heterologously expressed in BS-C-1 cells or rabbit proximal tubule cells, uniform cytosolic and nuclear fluorescence was observed. Cytosolic fluorescence constituted over 80% of the total. Excitation scanning of transfected cells revealed two GFPmut1-specific regions that were pH-sensitive over the physiologic range, and each region exhibited a unique pH "bias" in fluorescence emission. Excitation at or near the expected maximum of 488 nm (region II) uniformly resulted in fluorescence that was preferentially altered at acidic pH. In contrast, a novel "wild-type" excitation peak at 400 nm (region I) resulted in alkaline-biased fluorescence similar to that described for the wild-type chromophore in vitro, suggesting that wild-type spectral features disrupted in vitro by mutagenesis may be recovered in intact cells. Calibration of intracellular pH (pHi) with in situ fluorescence following excitation in either region revealed a semilogarithmic relationship between fluorescence intensity and pH within the physiologic range. We therefore measured pHi changes attributable to altered Na/HCO3 cotransport (NBC) activity both in GFPmut1-expressing cells and in paired untransfected cells loaded with BCECF. Basal NBC activity was the same in each group, as was the stimulation of activity by 10% CO2, thus validating the utility of GFPmut1 as a fluorescent probe for pHi and establishing a novel, useful, and practical application for GFPmut1 in monitoring pHi in real time.

  8. Bioluminescence of Aequorea macrodactyla, a common jellyfish species in the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning-Shao; Luo, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Jun; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Hai-Jie; Li, Shao-Wei; Chen, Ming; Ng, Mun-Hon

    2002-03-01

    Studies of the bioluminescent mechanisms of jellyfish have been mainly confined to one species, Aequorea victoria. We describe the luminescent system of another species, Aequorea macrodactyla, which is commonly found in the warmer waters on the coastal region of East China Sea. The luminescent system of this species consists of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) and one or more aequorins. The GFP gene is 1042 bp. It encompasses a coding sequence of 717 bp organized as 3 exons, and it is predicted to specify a 27-kDa peptide, which shares 80% amino acid sequence identity with the GFP of A. victoria. The entire coding sequence was cloned into the pTO-T7 expression vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. Compared with GFP of A. victoria, the purified expressed protein exhibited an excitation peak at a higher wavelength of 476 nm and an emission peak at a lower wavelength of 496 nm, with a higher quantum yield of 1.0. The other photoprotein, aequorin, is encoded in a single open reading frame of 585 bp specifying a 23-kDa apoprotein. The gene was cloned in to the same expression vector and expressed in E. coli. The activity of the photoprotein was reconstituted by incubating the expressed apoprotein with coelenterazine f. In the presence of Ca(2+) the reconstituted aequorin exhibits an emission peak at 470 nm. The kinetics of regeneration and the photoactivities of the reconstituted aequorins of the 2 species of jellyfish are similar. Nevertheless, Aequorea macrodactyla is expected to appear brighter and more "blue" than Aequorea victorea because of the differences in the photoactivity of their GFPs.

  9. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopic studies of segmental mobility in aequorin and a green fluorescent protein from Aequorea forskalea

    SciTech Connect

    Nageswara Rao, B.D.; Kemple, M.D.; Prendergast, F.G.

    1980-10-01

    Aequorin is a protein of low molecular weight (20,000) isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea forskalea which emits blue light upon the binding of Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. This bioluminescence requires neither exogenous oxygen nor any other cofactors. The light emission occurs from an excited state of a chromophore (an imidazolopyrazinone) which is tightly and noncovalently bound to the protein. Apparently the binding of Ca/sup 2 +/ by the protein induces changes in the protein conformation which allow oxygen, already bound or otherwise held by the protein, to react with and therein oxidize the chromophore. The resulting discharged protein remains intact, with the Ca/sup 2 +/ and the chromophore still bound, but is incapable of further luminescence. The fluorescence spectrum of this discharged protein and the bioluminescence spectrum of the original charged aequorin are identical. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) of approx. 30,000 mol wt isolated from the same organism, functions in vivo as an acceptor of energy from aequorin and subsequently emits green light. We are applying proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy to examine structural details of, and fluctuations associated with the luminescent reaction of aequorin and the in vivo energy transfer from aequorin to the GFP.

  10. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Marker for Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfie, Martin; Tu, Yuan; Euskirchen, Ghia; Ward, William W.; Prasher, Douglas C.

    1994-02-01

    A complementary DNA for the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) produces a fluorescent product when expressed in prokaryotic (Escherichia coli) or eukaryotic (Caenorhabditis elegans) cells. Because exogenous substrates and cofactors are not required for this fluorescence, GFP expression can be used to monitor gene expression and protein localization in living organisms.

  11. Room temperature spectrally resolved single-molecule spectroscopy reveals new spectral forms and photophysical versatility of aequorea green fluorescent protein variants.

    PubMed

    Blum, Christian; Meixner, Alfred J; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2004-12-01

    It is known from ensemble spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures that variants of the Aequorea green fluorescent protein (GFP) occur in interconvertible spectroscopically distinct forms which are obscured in ensemble room temperature spectroscopy. By analyzing the fluorescence of the GFP variants EYFP and EGFP by spectrally resolved single-molecule spectroscopy we were able to observe spectroscopically different forms of the proteins and to dynamically monitor transitions between these forms at room temperature. In addition to the predominant EYFP B-form we have observed the blue-shifted I-form thus far only seen at cryogenic temperatures and have followed transitions between these forms. Further we have identified for EYFP and for EGFP three more, so far unknown, forms with red-shifted fluorescence. Transitions between the predominant forms and the red-shifted forms show a dark time which indicates the existence of a nonfluorescent intermediate. The spectral position of the newly-identified red-shifted forms and their formation via a nonfluorescent intermediate hint that these states may account for the possible photoactivation observed in bulk experiments. The comparison of the single-protein spectra of the red-shifted EYFP and EGFP forms with single-molecule fluorescence spectra of DsRed suggest that these new forms possibly originate from an extended chromophoric pi-system analogous to the DsRed chromophore.

  12. A Practical Teaching Course in Directed Protein Evolution Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from "Aequorea victoria" by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase…

  13. Imaging individual green fluorescent proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Daniel W.; Hom-Booher, Nora; Vale, Ronald D.

    1997-07-01

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy techniques have allowed the video-time imaging of single molecules of fluorescent dyes covalently bound to proteins in aqueous environments. However, the techniques have not been exploited fully because proteins can be difficult to label, and dye modification may cause partial or complete loss of activity. These difficulties could be circumvented by fusing proteins to green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Here we report that single S65T mutant GFP molecules can be imaged using total internal reflection microscopy, and that ATP-driven movement of an individual kinesin molecule (a microtubule motor protein) fused to GFP can be readily observed.

  14. Photoactivation in green to red converting EosFP and other fluorescent proteins from the GFP family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenmann, Jörg; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2006-02-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the hydromedusa Aequorea victoria and its derivatives have become indispensable imaging devices in cell biology. In previous years, a wide variety of GFP-like proteins were discovered in non-bioluminescent anthozoa. Some of them displayed exciting new properties, including photoactivated changes of the fluorescence emission intensity and wavelength. Photoactivatable proteins offer a high potential as tools for regional optical marking in live cells and tissues. This review aims to give an overview of photoactivatable marker proteins, focusing on the molecular basis of light-induced green to red photoconversion in EosFP.

  15. A bright monomeric green fluorescent protein derived from Branchiostoma lanceolatum

    PubMed Central

    Shaner, Nathan C.; Lambert, Gerard G.; Chammas, Andrew; Ni, Yuhui; Cranfill, Paula J.; Baird, Michelle A.; Sell, Brittney R.; Allen, John R.; Day, Richard N.; Israelsson, Maria; Davidson, Michael W.; Wang, Jiwu

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of fluorescent proteins spanning the entire visual spectrum, the bulk of modern imaging experiments continue to rely on variants of the green fluorescent protein derived from Aequorea victoria. Meanwhile, a great deal of recent effort has been devoted to engineering and improving red fluorescent proteins, and relatively little attention has been given to green and yellow variants. Here we report a novel monomeric yellow-green fluorescent protein, mNeonGreen, which is derived from a tetrameric fluorescent protein from the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum. This fluorescent protein is the brightest monomeric green or yellow fluorescent protein yet described, performs exceptionally well as a fusion tag for traditional imaging as well as stochastic single-molecule superresolution imaging, and is an excellent FRET acceptor for the newest generation of cyan fluorescent proteins. PMID:23524392

  16. A practical teaching course in directed protein evolution using the green fluorescent protein as a model.

    PubMed

    Ruller, Roberto; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Silva, Artur; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Ward, Richard John

    2011-01-01

    Protein engineering is a powerful tool, which correlates protein structure with specific functions, both in applied biotechnology and in basic research. Here, we present a practical teaching course for engineering the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria by a random mutagenesis strategy using error-prone polymerase chain reaction. Screening of bacterial colonies transformed with random mutant libraries identified GFP variants with increased fluorescence yields. Mapping the three-dimensional structure of these mutants demonstrated how alterations in structural features such as the environment around the fluorophore and properties of the protein surface can influence functional properties such as the intensity of fluorescence and protein solubility.

  17. Photo-catalytic activity of Plasmonic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles (synthesized via a green route) for the effective degradation of Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Begum, Shamima; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-07-01

    This study reports a green process for the fabrication of Ag@AgCl (silver@silver chloride) nanoparticles by using Aquilaria agallocha (AA) leaves juice without using any external reagents. The effect of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time and concentration of Aquilaria agallocha leaves juice in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. From the FTIR spectra of leaves juice and phytochemicals test, it was found that flavonoids present in the leaves are responsible for the reduction of Ag(+) ions to Ag(0) species and leads to the formation of Ag@AgCl NPs. The synthesized Ag@AgCl NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Victoria Blue B from aqueous phase. Approximately, 99.46% degradation of Victoria Blue B dye were observed with Ag@AgCl NPs. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the Ag@AgCl nanoparticles was unchanged after 5cycles of operation.

  18. Use of the A. victoria green fluorescent protein to study protein dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kahana, J A; Silver, P A

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescent molecules serve as valuable tools for the detection of numerous biochemical phenomena and have been employed for protein localization, quantitation of gene expression, detection of nucleic acids, cell sorting and determination of chemical concentrations. However, the use of such techniques generally requires significant nonphysiological perturbations to the biological system being studied; therefore, they are not always appropriate for the observation of dynamic phenomena. Green fluorescent protein (GFP), cloned from jellyfish, has been used to overcome many of these problems. It is a small, extremely stable fluorescent protein that has been successfully expressed and detected in a wide variety of organisms, both in intact form and fused to other proteins. This overview unit describes the use of this proteinaceous fluorophore for in vivo observation of cellular phenomena.

  19. The role of localized cell surface-associated glycoproteins during fertilization in the hydrozoan Aequorea.

    PubMed

    Freeman, G

    1996-10-10

    Hydrozoan eggs can be fertilized only at the site of polar body formation and first acquire this ability during second polar body formation. The eggs of Aequorea victoria form a discrete Triticum lectin binding moiety in the jelly coat near the first polar body as it is being given off and also a discrete concanavalin A binding moiety associated with the egg surface where the second polar body forms, which disappears immediately after fertilization. The germinal vesicle has an eccentric position in full grown Aequorea oocytes. The region of oocyte surface closest to the germinal vesicle is the site where the polar bodies normally form. When oocytes are centrifuged during oocyte maturation, the meiotic apparatus sometimes shifts to a different position with reference to the egg surface and polar bodies are given off at this new site. There is a corresponding shift in the position of the Triticum and concanavalin A lectin binding moieties, indicating that their formation is associated with local events occurring at the site of polar body formation. Treatment of Aequorea eggs with Triticum or concanavalin A causes a marked reduction in the ability of these eggs to be fertilized, suggesting that sugar-containing moieties, to which the lectins bind, play a role in fertilization. Removal of sugars on these moieties with mannosidase or N-acetylglucosaminidase, or the cleavage of the protein the sugars are attached to with trypsin, results in eggs that do not bind Triticum or concanavalin A and also show a marked reduction in the ability to be fertilized. These experiments suggest that the lectin binding moieties are glycoproteins.

  20. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  1. Victoria Cowling.

    PubMed

    Cowling, Victoria; Bobrowska, Anna

    2015-08-15

    Victoria Cowling received her BA from the University of Cambridge. She completed her PhD with Julian Downward and Gerard Evan at Cancer Research UK in London, and then moved to the US for a postdoctoral position at Princeton University and Dartmouth College with Michael Cole. Since 2008, she has been running a lab at Dundee University. She is an MRC Senior Research Fellow, a Lister Institute Research Fellow and an EMBO Young Investigator and, in 2015, she was the first recipient of the Women in Cell Biology medal, awarded by the British Society for Cell Biology.

  2. Influences of ammonia-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen on lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis: laboratory evaluation and field validation in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Fang, J K H; Wu, R S S; Chan, A K Y; Yip, C K M; Shin, P K S

    2008-12-01

    Lysosomal integrity in mussels has been applied as a biomarker to detect the pollution of trace organics and metals in the natural environments. However, few studies have examined the effects of water quality on the response of lysosomal integrity, in particular total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN) and dissolved oxygen (DO). This study demonstrated that high level of TAN (2.0mg/l) and low DO (2.5mg O(2)/l) could significantly reduce the lysosomal integrity in green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, respectively by 33% and 38%, whereas the mussel lysosomal integrity decreased by 70% in the combined treatment of TAN and low DO under laboratory conditions after one week. The mussel lysosomal integrity of all treatment groups could return to the control level after a three week recovery period. In the field validation in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong during an one-year study period, lysosomal integrity in P. viridis identified the cleanest site east to the harbour, where the lowest TAN and highest DO concentrations were found. While lysosomal integrity in mussels seemed not affected by seasonal changes, approximately 40% of the variation of this biomarker could be attributable to the changes in TAN and DO in seawater. In conclusion, the response of the mussel lysosomal integrity can be confounded by both TAN and DO prevailing in the natural environments and thus caution must be exercised in relating the observed changes in lysosomal integrity to any specific pollutant in coastal water quality monitoring studies.

  3. Dimerization between aequorea fluorescent proteins does not affect interaction between tagged estrogen receptors in living cells.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Eric M; Guerbadot, Martin; Schaufele, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) detection of protein interaction in living cells is commonly measured following the expression of interacting proteins genetically fused to the cyan (CFP) and yellow (YFP) derivatives of the Aequorea victoria fluorescent protein (FP). These FPs can dimerize at mM concentrations, which may introduce artifacts into the measurement of interaction between proteins that are fused with the FPs. Here, FRET analysis of the interaction between estrogen receptors (alpha isoform, ERalpha) labeled with "wild-type" CFP and YFP is compared with that of ERalpha labeled with "monomeric" A206K mutants of CFP and YFP. The intracellular equilibrium dissociation constant for the hormone-induced ERalpha-ERalpha interaction is similar for ERalpha labeled with wild-type or monomeric FPs. However, the measurement of energy transfer measured for ERalpha-ERalpha interaction in each cell is less consistent with the monomeric FPs. Thus, dimerization of the FPs does not affect the kinetics of ERalpha-ERalpha interaction but, when brought close together via ERalpha-ERalpha interaction, FP dimerization modestly improves FRET measurement.

  4. Structural basis for the fast maturation of Arthropoda green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Artem G; Pokross, Matthew E; Egorov, Nikolay S; Zaraisky, Andrey G; Yampolsky, Ilya V; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Shkoporov, Andrey N; Sander, Ian; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2006-10-01

    Since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 1992, a family of known GFP-like proteins has been growing rapidly. Today, it includes more than a hundred proteins with different spectral characteristics cloned from Cnidaria species. For some of these proteins, crystal structures have been solved, showing diversity in chromophore modifications and conformational states. However, we are still far from a complete understanding of the origin, functions and evolution of the GFP family. Novel proteins of the family were recently cloned from evolutionarily distant marine Copepoda species, phylum Arthropoda, demonstrating an extremely rapid generation of fluorescent signal. Here, we have generated a non-aggregating mutant of Copepoda fluorescent protein and solved its high-resolution crystal structure. It was found that the protein beta-barrel contains a pore, leading to the chromophore. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this feature is critical for the fast maturation of the chromophore.

  5. Protein cyclization enhanced thermostability and exopeptidase-resistance of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhonglin; Ma, Xin; Li, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Ping, Shuzhen; Xu, Ming-Qun; Lin, Min

    2010-03-01

    A mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFPmut3*) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria was cyclized in vitro and in vivo by the use of a naturally split intein from the dnaE gene of Synechocystis species PCC6803 (Ssp). Cyclization of GFPmut3* was confirmed by amino acid sequencing and resulted in an increased electrophoretic mobility compared with the linear GFPmut3*. The circular GFPmut3* was 5 degrees C more thermostable than the linear form and significantly more resistant to proteolysis of exopeptidase. The circular GFPmut3* also displayed increased relative fluorescence intensity. In addition, chemical stability of GFPmut3* against GdnHCl revealed more stability of the circular form compared with the linear form.

  6. A codon-optimized green fluorescent protein for live cell imaging in Zymoseptoria tritici☆

    PubMed Central

    Kilaru, S.; Schuster, M.; Studholme, D.; Soanes, D.; Lin, C.; Talbot, N.J.; Steinberg, G.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools to investigate intracellular dynamics and protein localization. Cytoplasmic expression of FPs in fungal pathogens allows greater insight into invasion strategies and the host-pathogen interaction. Detection of their fluorescent signal depends on the right combination of microscopic setup and signal brightness. Slow rates of photo-bleaching are pivotal for in vivo observation of FPs over longer periods of time. Here, we test green-fluorescent proteins, including Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP), enhanced GFP (eGFP) from Aequorea victoria and a novel Zymoseptoria tritici codon-optimized eGFP (ZtGFP), for their usage in conventional and laser-enhanced epi-fluorescence, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We show that eGFP, expressed cytoplasmically in Z. tritici, is significantly brighter and more photo-stable than AcGFP. The codon-optimized ZtGFP performed even better than eGFP, showing significantly slower bleaching and a 20–30% further increase in signal intensity. Heterologous expression of all GFP variants did not affect pathogenicity of Z. tritici. Our data establish ZtGFP as the GFP of choice to investigate intracellular protein dynamics in Z. tritici, but also infection stages of this wheat pathogen inside host tissue. PMID:26092799

  7. A codon-optimized green fluorescent protein for live cell imaging in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Kilaru, S; Schuster, M; Studholme, D; Soanes, D; Lin, C; Talbot, N J; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are powerful tools to investigate intracellular dynamics and protein localization. Cytoplasmic expression of FPs in fungal pathogens allows greater insight into invasion strategies and the host-pathogen interaction. Detection of their fluorescent signal depends on the right combination of microscopic setup and signal brightness. Slow rates of photo-bleaching are pivotal for in vivo observation of FPs over longer periods of time. Here, we test green-fluorescent proteins, including Aequorea coerulescens GFP (AcGFP), enhanced GFP (eGFP) from Aequorea victoria and a novel Zymoseptoria tritici codon-optimized eGFP (ZtGFP), for their usage in conventional and laser-enhanced epi-fluorescence, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We show that eGFP, expressed cytoplasmically in Z. tritici, is significantly brighter and more photo-stable than AcGFP. The codon-optimized ZtGFP performed even better than eGFP, showing significantly slower bleaching and a 20-30% further increase in signal intensity. Heterologous expression of all GFP variants did not affect pathogenicity of Z. tritici. Our data establish ZtGFP as the GFP of choice to investigate intracellular protein dynamics in Z. tritici, but also infection stages of this wheat pathogen inside host tissue.

  8. Photoacid Behaviour in a Fluorinated Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore: Ultrafast Formation of Anion and Zwitterion States.(†).

    PubMed

    Laptenok, S P; Conyard, J; Page, P C Bulman; Chan, Y; You, M; Jaffrey, S R; Meech, S R

    2016-01-01

    The photophysics of the chromophore of the green fluorescent protein in Aequorea victoria (avGFP) are dominated by an excited state proton transfer reaction. In contrast the photophysics of the same chromophore in solution are dominated by radiationless decay, and photoacid behaviour is not observed. Here we show that modification of the pKa of the chromophore by fluorination leads to an excited state proton transfer on an extremely fast (50 fs) time scale. Such a fast rate suggests a barrierless proton transfer and the existence of a pre-formed acceptor site in the aqueous solution, which is supported by solvent and deuterium isotope effects. In addition, at lower pH, photochemical formation of the elusive zwitterion of the GFP chromophore is observed by means of an equally fast excited state proton transfer from the cation. The significance of these results for understanding and modifying the properties of fluorescent proteins are discussed.

  9. Overview of Approach to 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft shows an overview of 'Victoria Crater' and a portion of the area NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has covered to reach the enormous depression.

    Images such as this one from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor are helping scientists and engineers decide the best path for NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity as it approaches 'Victoria Crater.'

    In figure 1, a blue dot indicates 'Cape Verde' and a red dot 'Cabo Frio.' These two points mark the extent of the crater visible from the rover's position on its 945th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 20, 2006), a location it had reached two sols earlier and from which much of this monster depression was still out of sight. The green annotations indicate 'Duck Bay,' a location expected to allow a view to the other side of the crater. A dune, or ripple, is to the left of the crater, right in front of the green dot location. This is where the team initially talked about sending Opportunity for the rover's first view down into the crater. After further consideration, the team opted for a drive to the right of that ripple (south of the green dot) near the rim.

    The yellow lines that surround and intersect Victoria Crater are used to measure the crater and the distance to the far 'bays.' North is up. Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

  10. Role of Coherent Low-Frequency Motion in Excited-State Proton Transfer of Green Fluorescent Protein Studied by Time-Resolved Impulsive Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Kuramochi, Hikaru; Hosoi, Haruko; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-03-30

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria, an essential bioimaging tool, luminesces via excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) in which the phenolic proton of the p-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolinone chromophore is transferred to Glu222 through a hydrogen-bond network. In this process, the ESPT mediated by the low-frequency motion of the chromophore has been proposed. We address this issue using femtosecond time-resolved impulsive stimulated Raman spectroscopy. After coherently exciting low-frequency modes (<300 cm(-1)) in the excited state of GFP, we examined the excited-state structural evolution and the ESPT dynamics within the dephasing time of the low-frequency vibration. A clear anharmonic vibrational coupling is found between one high-frequency mode of the chromophore (phenolic CH bend) and a low-frequency mode at ∼104 cm(-1). However, the data show that this low-frequency motion does not substantially affect the ESPT dynamics.

  11. [The green fluorescent protein that glows in bioscience].

    PubMed

    Millán, María Inés; Becú-Villalobos, Damasia

    2009-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a protein produced by the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, that emits bioluminescence in the green zone of the visible spectrum. The GFP gene has been cloned and is used in molecular biology as a marker. The three researchers that participated independently in elucidating the structure and function of this and its related proteins, Drs. Shimomura, Chalfie and Tsien were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008. Dr. Shimomura discovered and studied the properties of GFP. Using molecular biological techniques, Chalfie succeeded in introducing the GFP gene into the DNA of the small, almost transparent worm C. elegans, and initiated an era in which GFP would be used as a glowing marker for cellular biology. Finally, Dr.Tsien found precisely how GFP's structure produces the observed green fluorescence, and succeeded in modifying the structure to generate molecules that emit light at slightly different wavelengths, which gave tags of different colors. Fluorescent proteins are very versatile and are being used in many areas, such as microbiology, biotechnology, physiology, environmental engineering, development, etc. They can, for example, illuminate growing cancer tumours; show the development of Alzheimer's disease, or detect arsenic traces in water. Finding the key to how a marine organism produces light unexpectedly ended up providing researchers with a powerful array of tools with which to visualize cell biology in action.

  12. From green to blue: site-directed mutagenesis of the green fluorescent protein to teach protein structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Girón, María D; Salto, Rafael

    2011-07-01

    Structure-function relationship studies in proteins are essential in modern Cell Biology. Laboratory exercises that allow students to familiarize themselves with basic mutagenesis techniques are essential in all Genetic Engineering courses to teach the relevance of protein structure. We have implemented a laboratory course based on the site-directed mutagenesis of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The GFP is ideal because the students are able to correlate the changes introduced into the structure of the protein with the observable modification of its fluorescence properties. By using noncommercial kits, we set up a non PCR-thermocycling reaction using mutagenic primers, followed by removal of the original plasmid template by DpnI digestion. By introducing only one (Y66H) or two mutations (Y66H/Y145F) in the "cycle 3" variant of GFP (F99S, M153T, and V163A) or GFPuv, students are able to analyze the changes from green to blue in the fluorescence emission of the mutated proteins and to correlate these differences in fluorescence with the structural changes using three-dimensional structure visualization software. This inexpensive laboratory course familiarizes the students with the design of mutagenic oligonucleotides, site-directed mutagenesis, bacterial transformation, restriction analysis of the mutated plasmids, and protein characterization by SDS-PAGE and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  13. Modified Aequorin Shows Increased Bioluminescence Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-18

    LW. Schultz, J.R. Deschamps, and KB. Ward. Preparation and Initial Characterization of Crystals of the Photoprotein Aequorin from Aequorea victoria ...C. Prasher, Virginia K Eckenrode, William W. Ward, Frank G. Prendergast, and Milton J. Cormier. Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria green...Prendergast, and William W. Ward. Chemical Structure of the Hexapeptide Chromophore of the Aequorea Green- Fluorescent Protein. Biochemistry 32: 1 212

  14. Modified Aequorin Shows Increased Bioluminescence Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-18

    and Initial Characterization of Crystals of the Photoprotein Aequorin from Aequorea victoria . Proteins, Structure, & Genetics 15: 103-107. RELATED...Frank G. Prendergast, and Milton J. Cormier. Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria green-fluorescent protein. Gene 111 (2):229-233. PATENTS U.S...Hexapeptide Chromophore of the Aequorea Green- Fluorescent Protein. Biochemistry 32: 1212-1218. 1992 Dennis J. O’Kane, and Douglas C. Prasher

  15. Expression-Enhanced Fluorescent Proteins Based on Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein for Super-resolution Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duwé, Sam; De Zitter, Elke; Gielen, Vincent; Moeyaert, Benjamien; Vandenberg, Wim; Grotjohann, Tim; Clays, Koen; Jakobs, Stefan; Van Meervelt, Luc; Dedecker, Peter

    2015-10-27

    "Smart fluorophores", such as reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins, are crucial for advanced fluorescence imaging. However, only a limited number of such labels is available, and many display reduced biological performance compared to more classical variants. We present the development of robustly photoswitchable variants of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), named rsGreens, that display up to 30-fold higher fluorescence in E. coli colonies grown at 37 °C and more than 4-fold higher fluorescence when expressed in HEK293T cells compared to their ancestor protein rsEGFP. This enhancement is not due to an intrinsic increase in the fluorescence brightness of the probes, but rather due to enhanced expression levels that allow many more probe molecules to be functional at any given time. We developed rsGreens displaying a range of photoswitching kinetics and show how these can be used for multimodal diffraction-unlimited fluorescence imaging such as pcSOFI and RESOLFT, achieving a spatial resolution of ∼70 nm. By determining the first ever crystal structures of a negative reversibly switchable FP derived from Aequorea victoria in both the "on"- and "off"-conformation we were able to confirm the presence of a cis-trans isomerization and provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying the photochromism. Our work demonstrates that genetically encoded "smart fluorophores" can be readily optimized for biological performance and provides a practical strategy for developing maturation- and stability-enhanced photochromic fluorescent proteins.

  16. Azatryptophans as tools to study polarity requirements for folding of green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Hoesl, Michael Georg; Larregola, Maud; Cui, Haissi; Budisa, Nediljko

    2010-10-01

    Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein and its widely used mutants enhanced green fluorescent protein and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP) are ideal target proteins to study protein folding. The spectral signals of their chromophores are directly correlated with the folding status of the surrounding protein matrix. Previous studies revealed that tryptophan at position 57 (Trp57) plays a crucial role for the green fluorescent protein's structural and functional integrity. To precisely dissect its role in ECFP folding, we performed its substitution with the isosteric analogs 4-azatryptophan [(4-Aza)Trp] and 7-azatryptophan [(7-Aza)Trp]. Although Trp is moderately hydrophobic, these isosteric analogs are hydrophilic, which makes them an almost ideal tool to study the role of Trp57 in ECFP folding. We achieved high-level expression of both (4-Aza)Trp-ECFP and (7-Aza)Trp-ECFP. However, great portions (70-90%) of protein samples were insoluble and did not contain a maturated chromophore. All attempts to refold the insoluble protein fractions failed. Nevertheless, low amounts of fully labeled, soluble, chromophore containing fractions with altered spectral features were also isolated and identified. The most probable reason for the high yield of misfolding is the introduction of strong hydrophilicity at position 57 which strongly interferes with productive and efficient folding of ECFP. In addition, the results support a strong correlation between translational kinetics of non-canonical amino acids in the ribosome and in vivo folding of the related modified protein sequence.

  17. Wavelength Mutations and Posttranslational Autoxidation of Green Fluorescent Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Roger; Prasher, Douglas C.; Tsien, Roger Y.

    1994-12-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is an unusual protein with strong visible absorbance and fluorescence from a p-hydroxybenzylidene-imidazolidinone chromophore, which is generated by cyclization and oxidation of the protein's own Ser-Tyr-Gly sequence at positions 65-67. Cloning of the cDNA and heterologous expression of fluorescent protein in a wide variety of organisms indicate that this unique posttranslational modification must be either spontaneous or dependent only on ubiquitous enzymes and reactants. We report that formation of the final fluorophore requires molecular oxygen and proceeds with a time constant (≈4 hr at 22^circC and atmospheric pO_2) independent of dilution, implying that the oxidation does not require enzymes or cofactors. GFP was mutagenized and screened for variants with altered spectra. The most striking mutant fluoresced blue and contained histidine in place of Tyr-66. The availability of two visibly distinct colors should significantly extend the usefulness of GFP in molecular and cell biology by enabling in vivo visualization of differential gene expression and protein localization and measurement of protein association by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

  18. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  19. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  20. Multiphoton molecular spectroscopy and excited-state dynamics of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP): acid base specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikal, Ahmed A.; Hess, Samuel T.; Webb, Watt W.

    2001-12-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP), isolated from Aequorea victoria jellyfish, has been used extensively as a noninvasive intracellular pH indicator and site-specific fluorescent marker in biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular genetics. Numerous mutations, aimed at optimizing spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of GFP, have been created for different applications. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) reveals that the enhanced green fluorescent protein mutant (EGFP; S65T/F64L) undergoes external proton exchange with the buffer on ˜45-300 μs time scale with p Ka=5.8±0.1 [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 13573]. This contribution represents a comprehensive characterization of pH and excitation mode (wavelength, one and two photon (2P)) effects on the spectroscopy, excited-state dynamics, and rotational mobility of EGFP aiming at elucidating the significant electronic states of this molecular system. EGFP exhibits a large 2P action cross-section and, therefore, is well suited for intracellular imaging using 2P fluorescence microscopy.

  1. Green Fluorescent Protein as a Model for Protein Crystal Growth Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, Sabine; Smith, Lori; Karr, Laurel; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea Victoria has become a popular marker for e.g. mutagenesis work. Its fluorescent property, which originates from a chromophore located in the center of the molecule, makes it widely applicable as a research too]. GFP clones have been produced with a variety of spectral properties, such as blue and yellow emitting species. The protein is a single chain of molecular weight 27 kDa and its structure has been determined at 1.9 Angstrom resolution. The combination of GFP's fluorescent property, the knowledge of its several crystallization conditions, and its increasing use in biophysical and biochemical studies, all led us to consider it as a model material for macromolecular crystal growth studies. Initial preparations of GFP were from E.coli with yields of approximately 5 mg/L of culture media. Current yields are now in the 50 - 120 mg/L range, and we hope to further increase this by expression of the GFP gene in the Pichia system. The results of these efforts and of preliminary crystal growth studies will be presented.

  2. Observation of Structural Phase Transition in Ferroelectric Crystals Using Green Fluorescence Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedarous, Salah; Wessels, William

    1998-03-01

    The Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea Victoria has attracted widespread interest as a biomolecular marker. It has created many applications in a variety of systems ranging from cell biology to biomedicine. One important application of GFP fluorescence is the detection of structural transitions in biomolecules.In order to examine the sensitivity of the protein fluorescence to structural changes, we sequestered GFP in ferroelectric crystals such as Triglycine sulfate (TGS) and Rochelle salt (RS). TGS has a second order phase transition at 49 C while RS has two phase transitions at -18 and +24 C. The peak of the fluorescence spectrum changes from 510 nm in solution to 470 nm in the crystal indicating a shift of the two absorption bands in the protein upon crystallization. The fluorescence intensity of GFP in TGS decreases as the temperature of the crystal approaches T_C, while its spectrum in RS shows complex changes with temperature. The changes in the time-resolved data are similar to that of the steady state data. Our data show that the onset of structural phase transition in these crystals is clearly detectable from the spectral changes of this chromophore. Other applications of this protein in time-resolved solid state dynamics will be discussed.

  3. Ultra-Fast Excited State Dynamics in Green Fluorescent Protein: Multiple States and Proton Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattoraj, Mita; King, Brett A.; Bublitz, Gerold U.; Boxer, Steven G.

    1996-08-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea Victoria has attracted widespread interest since the discovery that its chromophore is generated by the autocatalytic, posttranslational cyclization and oxidation of a hexapeptide unit. This permits fusion of the DNA sequence of GFP with that of any protein whose expression or transport can then be readily monitored by sensitive fluorescence methods without the need to add exogenous fluorescent dyes. The excited state dynamics of GFP were studied following photo-excitation of each of its two strong absorption bands in the visible using fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy (about 100 fs time resolution). It is shown that excitation of the higher energy feature leads very rapidly to a form of the lower energy species, and that the excited state interconversion rate can be markedly slowed by replacing exchangeable protons with deuterons. This observation and others lead to a model in which the two visible absorption bands correspond to GFP in two ground-state conformations. These conformations can be slowly interconverted in the ground state, but the process is much faster in the excited state. The observed isotope effect suggests that the initial excited state process involves a proton transfer reaction that is followed by additional structural changes. These observations may help to rationalize and motivate mutations that alter the absorption properties and improve the photo stability of GFP.

  4. On/off blinking and switching behaviour of single molecules of green fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Robert M.; Cubitt, Andrew B.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Moerner, W. E.

    1997-07-01

    Optical studies of individual molecules at low and room temperature can provide information about the dynamics of local environments in solids, liquids and biological systems unobscured by ensemble averaging. Here we present a study of the photophysical behaviour of single molecules of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) derived from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. Wild-type GFP and its mutant have attracted interest as fluorescent biological labels because the fluorophore may be formed in vivo. GFP mutants immobilized in aereated aqueous polymer gels and excited by 488-nm light undergo repeated cycles of fluorescent emission (`blinking') on a timescale of several seconds-behaviour that would be unobservable in bulk studies. Eventually the individual GFP molecules reach a long-lasting dark state, from which they can be switched back to the original emissive state by irradiation at 405 nm. This suggests the possibility of using these GFPs as fluorescent markers for time-dependent cell processes, and as molecular photonic switches or optical storage elements, addressable on the single-molecule level.

  5. Stability of green fluorescent protein using luminescence spectroscopy: is GFP applicable to field analysis of contaminants?

    PubMed

    Smith, C B; Anderson, J E; Fischer, R L; Webb, S R

    2002-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was first isolated in the early 1970s for experimental use from coelenterates or the Pacific jellyfish. Aequorea victoria (Morin and Hastings, 1971). GFP has since become a favored biomarker in the photophysical analysis of molecular and cell biology because of its strong intrinsic visible fluorescence and the feasibility of fusing it to other proteins without affecting their normal functions (Creemers et al., 2000). Here we report using Bacillus subtilis expressing GFP to evaluate the influence of different environmental pH conditions on GFP fluorescence. Emission acquisitions were configured to excite at 471 nm and detect at an emission from 490 to 650 nm at 1-nm increments. Fluorescence intensity was significantly better at pH 7 (4.2 x 105 cps; P-value < 0.01) than at acid or alkaline conditions. GFP is a good biomarker for environments near netural conditions: however, GFP may be unsuitable where soils or waters are below or above pH 7 because of loss in fluorescence intensity. Alternative fluorescent markers and delivery systems must be examined in different environments to optimize responses from bioreporter molecules.

  6. The role of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transgenic plants to reduce gene silencing phenomena.

    PubMed

    El-Shemy, Hany A; Khalafalla, Mutasim M; Ishimoto, Masao

    2009-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) has significant advantages over other reporter genes, because expression can be detected in living cells without any substrates. Recently, epigenetic phenomena are important to consider in plant biotechnology experiments for elucidate unknown mechanism. Therefore, soybean immature cotyledons were generated embryogenesis cells and engineered with two different gene constructs (pHV and pHVS) using gene gun method. Both constructs contain a gene conferring resistance to hygromycin (hpt) as a selective marker and a modified glycinin (11S globulin) gene (V3-1) as a target. However, sGFP(S65T) as a reporter gene was used only in pHVS as a reporter gene for study the relation between using sGFP(S65T) and gene silencing phenomena. Fluorescence microscopic was used for screening after the selection of hygromycin, identified clearly the expression of sGFP(S65T) in the transformed soybean embryos bombarded with the pHVS construct. Protein analysis was used to detect gene expression overall seeds using SDS-PAGE. Percentage of gene down regulation was highly in pHV construct compared with pHVS. Thus, sGFP(S65T ) as a reporter gene in vector system may be play useful role for transgenic evaluation and avoid gene silencing in plants for the benefit of plant transformation system.

  7. Mutagenic stabilization of the photocycle intermediate of green fluorescent protein (GFP).

    PubMed

    Wiehler, Jens; Jung, Gregor; Seebacher, Christian; Zumbusch, Andreas; Steipe, Boris

    2003-11-07

    The optical spectra of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) are governed by an equilibrium between three different chromophore states. Mutants that predominantly show either the protonated (A) or the deprotonated (B) form of the chromophore have previously been described. In contrast, the I form, which is formed by rapid excited-state deprotonation of the A form of the chromophore, has only been described as an obligatory photochemical intermediate. We report the design of a new GFP mutant with a stabilized I form. For this purpose, we introduced two isosteric point mutations, Thr203Val and Glu222Gln, that selectively raise the potential energy of both the A and the B form. Knowledge of the absorption spectrum of the I form at room temperature allows the detailed analysis of concentration dependent changes in bulk wild-type(wt)-GFP spectra, as well as the determination of the dimerization constant of GFP. This information expands the use of GFP to that of a spectral probe for protein concentration. We determined energy differences between the chromophore ground states in the monomer and the dimer and reconstructed part of the potential energy surface.

  8. Soluble, highly fluorescent variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP) for use in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Davis, S J; Vierstra, R D

    1998-03-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria has rapidly become a standard reporter in many biological systems. However, the use of GFP in higher plants has been limited by aberrant splicing of the corresponding mRNA and by protein insolubility. It has been shown that GFP can be expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana after altering the codon usage in the region that is incorrectly spliced, but the fluorescence signal is weak, possibly due to aggregation of the encoded protein. Through site-directed mutagenesis, we have generated a more soluble version of the codon-modified GFP called soluble-modified GFP (smGFP). The excitation and emission spectra for this protein are nearly identical to wild-type GFP. When introduced into A. thaliana, greater fluorescence was observed compared to the codon-modified GFP, implying that smGFP is 'brighter' because more of it is present in a soluble and functional form. Using the smGFP template, two spectral variants were created, a soluble-modified red-shifted GFP (smRS-GFP) and a soluble-modified blue-fluorescent protein (smBFP). The increased fluorescence output of smGFP will further the use of this reporter in higher plants. In addition, the distinct spectral characters of smRS-GFP and smBFP should allow for dual monitoring of gene expression, protein localization, and detection of in vivo protein-protein interactions.

  9. Reporter system for the detection of in vivo gene conversion: changing colors from blue to green using GFP variants.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Jeffrey R; Alderson, Jon; Laible, Goetz; Petters, Robert M

    2006-06-01

    We have devised a system for the study of in vivo gene correction based on the detection of color variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. The intensity and spectra of the fluorescence emitted by the blue (BFP) and red-shifted (EGFP) variants of GFP differ from each other. We modified one nucleotide from an EGFP expression vector that we predicted would yield a blue variant (TAC-CAC, Tyr(66)-His(66)). Cells that were either transiently or stably transfected with the reporter system were used to test the functionality and feasibility of the detection of in vivo gene correction. A thio-protected single-stranded oligonucleotide designed to convert the genotype of the blue variant to that of the EGFP variant by the correction of a single base pair was delivered to the reporter cells using a variety of methodologies and strategies.Conversion events were easily observed using fluorescent microscopy because of the enhanced emission intensity and different spectra of the EGFP variant.

  10. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) function in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Mattingly, C J; McLachlan, J A; Toscano, W A

    2001-08-01

    We developed an inducible in vivo reporter system to examine expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) during development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxic actions of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Induction of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is an early biomarker of AhR activation. A 1905 base pair region of the human CYP1A1 promoter/enhancer region was regulated by AhR in zebrafish liver cells after exposure to TCDD (10 nM) in a transient transfection assay. This regulatory region was fused to the cDNA sequence encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) of jellyfish (Aequorea victoria). Transgenic zebrafish were generated to express this AhR-regulated GFP construct. Injected fish exposed to TCDD exhibited induction of GFP in the eye, nose, and vertebrae of zebrafish embryos (48 and 72 hr after fertilization) compared to vehicle controls (DMSO), which did not express GFP. To investigate whether AhR-regulated GFP expression correlated with sites of TCDD toxicity, we exposed wild-type zebrafish to DMSO or TCDD and examined them for morphologic abnormalities. By 5 days after fertilization, TCDD-exposed fish exhibited gross dysmorphogenesis in cranio-facial and vertebral development.

  11. [The epilepsy of Guadalupe Victoria].

    PubMed

    Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Guadalupe Victoria, the first President of Mexico, passed away in 1843 uictim of an ailment that, at the time, was diagnosed as epilepsy. The clinical data and the pathologic findings, however, suggest the possibility that Victoria had an underlying disease that was responsible for the seizures that affected him. In this article I propose that Guadalupe Victoria had in fact Chagas Disease, and that he was infected with this parasitic malady while he lived in the tropical jungles of Veracruz, in eastern Mexico. Even though there aren't many published works regarding seizures secondary to chronic Chagas Disease, there are good descriptions of epileptic syndromes in patients with this infection. At the same time, the cardiac findings in Victoria's autopsy support the idea that he had some kind of cardiac pathology; in this case Chagasic dilated cardiomyopathy, which ultimately led to his death.

  12. Synthetic Biomimetic Fluorophores for Micro/Nanosensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    as a companion protein to aequorin, the famous chemiluminescent protein from the brightly luminescent Aequorea jellyfish , with glowing points...peaked near 470 nm, which was close to one of the excitation peaks of GFP. Aequorin, isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, is a complex of...partially homologous to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (Matz et al. 1999, Dove et al. 2000), first found in the luminescent jellyfish Aequorea and used

  13. 'Victoria' After Sol 950 Drive (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08778

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08778 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Cylindrical view for PIA08778

    A drive of about 30 meters (about 100 feet) on the 950th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 25, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 20 meters (about 66 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' From that position, the rover's navigation camera took the exposures combined into this stereo anaglyph, which appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green glasses. The scalloped shape of the crater is visible on the left edge. Due to a small dune or ripple close to the nearest part of the rim, the scientists and engineers on the rover team planned on sol 951 to drive to the right of the ripple, but not quite all the way to the rim, then to proceed to the rim the following sol. The image is presented in cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

    Victoria Crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter, about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  14. Local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Sarkisyan, Karen S; Bolotin, Dmitry A; Meer, Margarita V; Usmanova, Dinara R; Mishin, Alexander S; Sharonov, George V; Ivankov, Dmitry N; Bozhanova, Nina G; Baranov, Mikhail S; Soylemez, Onuralp; Bogatyreva, Natalya S; Vlasov, Peter K; Egorov, Evgeny S; Logacheva, Maria D; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Chudakov, Dmitry M; Putintseva, Ekaterina V; Mamedov, Ilgar Z; Tawfik, Dan S; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Kondrashov, Fyodor A

    2016-05-19

    Fitness landscapes depict how genotypes manifest at the phenotypic level and form the basis of our understanding of many areas of biology, yet their properties remain elusive. Previous studies have analysed specific genes, often using their function as a proxy for fitness, experimentally assessing the effect on function of single mutations and their combinations in a specific sequence or in different sequences. However, systematic high-throughput studies of the local fitness landscape of an entire protein have not yet been reported. Here we visualize an extensive region of the local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria (avGFP) by measuring the native function (fluorescence) of tens of thousands of derivative genotypes of avGFP. We show that the fitness landscape of avGFP is narrow, with 3/4 of the derivatives with a single mutation showing reduced fluorescence and half of the derivatives with four mutations being completely non-fluorescent. The narrowness is enhanced by epistasis, which was detected in up to 30% of genotypes with multiple mutations and mostly occurred through the cumulative effect of slightly deleterious mutations causing a threshold-like decrease in protein stability and a concomitant loss of fluorescence. A model of orthologous sequence divergence spanning hundreds of millions of years predicted the extent of epistasis in our data, indicating congruence between the fitness landscape properties at the local and global scales. The characterization of the local fitness landscape of avGFP has important implications for several fields including molecular evolution, population genetics and protein design.

  15. Local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarkisyan, Karen S.; Bolotin, Dmitry A.; Meer, Margarita V.; Usmanova, Dinara R.; Mishin, Alexander S.; Sharonov, George V.; Ivankov, Dmitry N.; Bozhanova, Nina G.; Baranov, Mikhail S.; Soylemez, Onuralp; Bogatyreva, Natalya S.; Vlasov, Peter K.; Egorov, Evgeny S.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.; Chudakov, Dmitry M.; Putintseva, Ekaterina V.; Mamedov, Ilgar Z.; Tawfik, Dan S.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.

    2016-01-01

    Fitness landscapes1,2, depictions of how genotypes manifest at the phenotypic level, form the basis for our understanding of many areas of biology2–7 yet their properties remain elusive. Studies addressing this issue often consider specific genes and their function as proxy for fitness2,4, experimentally assessing the impact on function of single mutations and their combinations in a specific sequence2,5,8–15 or in different sequences2,3,5,16–18. However, systematic high-throughput studies of the local fitness landscape of an entire protein have not yet been reported. Here, we chart an extensive region of the local fitness landscape of the green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria (avGFP) by measuring the native function, fluorescence, of tens of thousands of derivative genotypes of avGFP. We find that its fitness landscape is narrow, with half of genotypes with two mutations showing reduced fluorescence and half of genotypes with five mutations being completely non-fluorescent. The narrowness is enhanced by epistasis, which was detected in up to 30% of genotypes with multiple mutations arising mostly through the cumulative impact of slightly deleterious mutations causing a threshold-like decrease of protein stability and concomitant loss of fluorescence. A model of orthologous sequence divergence spanning hundreds of millions of years predicted the extent of epistasis in our data, indicating congruence between the fitness landscape properties at the local and global scales. The characterization of the local fitness landscape of avGFP has important implications for a number of fields including molecular evolution, population genetics and protein design. PMID:27193686

  16. Time-resolved detection of the one- and two-photon excited fluorescence of single molecules of a folding enhanced green fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotlet, Mircea; Goodwin, Peter M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Werner, James H.

    2006-02-01

    We use time-resolved single molecule fluorescence detection (MSMD) to investigate the fluorescence dynamics of a mutant of the wild-type Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria, the folding enhanced GFP (FEGFP). The folding enhanced GFP is a novel and robust variant designed for in vivo high-throughput screening of protein expression levels. This variant shows increased thermal stability and the ability to retain its fluorescence when fused to poorly folding proteins. Here we apply one- (OPE) and two- (TPE) photon excitation on freely diffusing FEGFP molecules. Under OPE, single FEGFP molecules undergo fluorescence flickering in the time scale of μs and tens of μs due to triplet formation and ground-state protonation-deprotonation, respectively. OPE fluorescence lifetimes of single FEGFP molecules show evidence for the presence of different emitting species, the I and B forms of FEGFP chromophore. TPE single FEGFP molecules flicker in fluorescence in the time scale of μs due to singlet-triplet transitions of the chromophore. Two-photon excitation of single FEGFP molecules results in the creation of a photoconverted species with a fluorescence lifetime of 2.5 ns, a species which is bright enough to be detected at the single molecule level. Our results indicate FEGFP is a promising fusion reporter for intracellular applications when using OPE and TPE microscopy with single molecule sensitivity.

  17. 33 CFR 165.837 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, Texas. 165.837 Section 165.837 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.837 Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria,...

  18. The Role of Protein Kinase-C in Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    the jellyfish Aequorea victoria . A modified form of this protein has been generated that has altered excitation and emission spectra so that it...relatively new reporter molecule that is being increasingly used in a variety of studies is the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea ... victoria . A modified form of this protein has been generated that has altered excitation and emission spectra so that it works well with detection

  19. Space Radar Image of Victoria, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This three-frequency spaceborne radar image shows the southern end of Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada. The white area in the lower right is the city of Victoria, the capital of the province of British Columbia. The three radar frequencies help to distinguish different land use patterns. The bright pink areas are suburban regions, the brownish areas are forested regions, and blue areas are agricultural fields or forest clear-cuts. Founded in 1843 as a fur trading post, Victoria has grown to become one of western Canada's largest commercial centers. In the upper right is San Juan Island, in the state of Washington. The Canada/U.S. border runs through Haro Strait, on the right side of the image, between San Juan Island and Vancouver Island. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 6, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 37 kilometers by 42 kilometers (23 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 123.3 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is X-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  20. Early dentistry in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Henry

    2015-01-01

    At the time of settlement and in the years leading up to the establishment in 1884 of the Odontological Society of Victoria, dentistry was an unregulated activity practised simultaneously by those that had received the best apprenticeship training and those that had no training what-so-ever. Under the influence of dentists such as John Iliffe however, this situation was soon to change. In 1887 the first Dental Act was passed making it a legal requirement for anyone practicing dentistry to be registered. In 1890, the Melbourne Dental Hospital opened its doors to its first patients, and in 1897, the Australian College of Dentistry, later to become a school within the University of Melbourne, began teaching a dental course. Combined, these three moments in history lead to the eradication of the unscrupulous practitioner and laid the path for the development and professionalization of dentistry in the state of Victoria.

  1. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Sharon A.; Grant, John A.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Golombek, Mathew P.; Geissler, Paul E.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Parker, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The $\\sim$750 m diameter and $\\sim$75 m deep Victoria crater in Meridiani Planum, Mars, presents evidence for significant degradation including a low, serrated, raised rim characterized by alternating alcoves and promontories, a surrounding low relief annulus, and a floor partially covered by dunes. The amount and processes of degradation responsible for the modified appearance of Victoria crater were evaluated using images obtained in situ by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in concert with a digital elevation model created using orbital HiRISE images. Opportunity traversed along the north and northwest rim and annulus, but sufficiently characterized features visible in the DEM to enable detailed measurements of rim relief, ejecta thickness, and wall slopes around the entire degraded, primary impact structure. Victoria retains a 5 m raised rim consisting of 1-2 m of uplifted rocks overlain by 3 m of ejecta at the rim crest. The rim is $\\sim$120 to 220 m wide and is surrounded by a dark annulus reaching an average of 590 m beyond the raised rim. Comparison between observed morphology and that expected for pristine craters 500 to 750 m across indicate the original, pristine crater was close to 600 m in diameter. Hence, the crater has been erosionally widened by approximately 150 m and infilled by about 50 m of sediments. Eolian processes are responsible for modification at Victoria, but lesser contributions from mass wasting or other processes cannot be ruled out. Erosion by prevailing winds is most significant along the exposed rim and upper walls and accounts for $\\sim$50 m widening across a WNW-ESE diameter. The volume of material eroded from the crater walls and rim is $\\sim$20% less than the volume of sediments partially filling the crater, indicating eolian infilling from sources outside the crater over time. The annulus formed when $\\sim$1 m deflation of the ejecta created a lag of more resistant hematite spherules that trapped darker, regional

  2. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. A.; Grant, J. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.; Kirk, R. L.; Parker, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    The approximately 750 m diameter and 75 m deep Victoria crater in Meridiani Planum, Mars, presents evidence for significant degradation including a low, serrated, raised rim characterized by alternating alcoves and promontories, a surrounding low relief annulus, and a floor partially covered by dunes. The amount and processes of degradation responsible for the modified appearance of Victoria crater were evaluated using images obtained in situ by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in concert with a digital elevation model (DEM) created using orbital HiRISE images. Opportunity traversed along the north and northwest rim and annulus and sufficiently characterized features visible in the DEM, thereby enabling detailed measurements of rim relief, ejecta thickness, and wall slopes around the entire degraded, primary impact structure. Victoria retains a 5 m raised rim consisting of 1 to 2 m of uplifted rocks overlain by 3 m of ejecta at the rim crest. The rim is 120 to 220 m wide and is surrounded by a dark annulus reaching an average of 590 m beyond the raised rim. Comparison between observed morphology and that expected for pristine craters 500 to 750 m across indicate the original, pristine crater was close to 600 m in diameter. Hence, the crater has been erosionally widened by approximately 150 m and infilled by about 50 m of sediments. Eolian processes are responsible for modification at Victoria, but lesser contributions from mass wasting or other processes cannot be ruled out. Erosion by prevailing winds is most significant along the exposed rim and upper walls and accounts for roughly 50 m widening across a WNW to ESE diameter. The volume of material eroded from the crater walls and rim is about 20 percent less than the volume of sediments partially filling the crater, indicating eolian infilling from sources outside the crater over time. The annulus formed when less than 1 m deflation of the ejecta created a lag of more resistant hematite spherules that

  3. vVICTORIA Console Development: Design and Fabrication of VICTORIA Console Emulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Canada vVICTORIA Console Development Design and Fabrication of VICTORIA Console Emulations Contract Project Manager: Keith Bowden, 902 832 7862...intentionally left blank. vVICTORIA Console Development Design and Fabrication of VICTORIA Console Emulations Keith Bowden Earl Gosse Prepared...integration, optimum equipment configurations and human factors. Résumé …..... Le présent rapport porte sur le développement et la fabrication de

  4. Fluorescence imaging of angiogenesis in green fluorescent protein-expressing tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Meng; Baranov, Eugene; Jiang, Ping; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Jin W.; Li, Lingna; Yagi, Shigeo; Moossa, A. R.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2002-05-01

    The development of therapeutics for the control of tumor angiogenesis requires a simple, reliable in vivo assay for tumor-induced vascularization. For this purpose, we have adapted the orthotopic implantation model of angiogenesis by using human and rodent tumors genetically tagged with Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) for grafting into nude mice. Genetically-fluorescent tumors can be readily imaged in vivo. The non-luminous induced capillaries are clearly visible against the bright tumor fluorescence examined either intravitally or by whole-body luminance in real time. Fluorescence shadowing replaces the laborious histological techniques for determining blood vessel density. High-level GFP-expressing tumor cell lines made it possible to acquire the high-resolution real-time fluorescent optical images of angiogenesis in both primary tumors and their metastatic lesions in various human and rodent tumor models by means of a light-based imaging system. Intravital images of angiogenesis onset and development were acquired and quantified from a GFP- expressing orthotopically-growing human prostate tumor over a 19-day period. Whole-body optical imaging visualized vessel density increasing linearly over a 20-week period in orthotopically-growing, GFP-expressing human breast tumor MDA-MB-435. Vessels in an orthotopically-growing GFP- expressing Lewis lung carcinoma tumor were visualized through the chest wall via a reversible skin flap. These clinically-relevant angiogenesis mouse models can be used for real-time in vivo evaluation of agents inhibiting or promoting tumor angiogenesis in physiological micro- environments.

  5. 75 FR 13433 - Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Invista Inc Facility Docks, Victoria Barge Canal, Victoria, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone for a partial blockage of the Victoria Barge...

  6. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Degradation of Victoria crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, John A.; Wilson, Sharon A.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Geissler, Paul E.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Parker, Timothy J.

    2008-11-01

    The ~750 m diameter and ~75 m deep Victoria crater in Meridiani Planum, Mars, is a degraded primary impact structure retaining a ~5 m raised rim consisting of 1-2 m of uplifted rocks overlain by ~3 m of ejecta at the rim crest. The rim is 120-220 m wide and is surrounded by a dark annulus reaching an average of 590 m beyond the raised rim. Comparison between observed morphology and that expected for pristine craters 500-750 m across indicates that the original, pristine crater was close to 600 m in diameter. Hence, the crater has been erosionally widened by ~150 m and infilled by ~50 m of sediments. Eolian processes are responsible for most crater modification, but lesser mass wasting or gully activity contributions cannot be ruled out. Erosion by prevailing winds is most significant along the exposed rim and upper walls and accounts for ~50 m widening across a WNW-ESE diameter. The volume of material eroded from the crater walls and rim is ~20% less than the volume of sediments partially filling the crater, indicating eolian infilling from sources outside the crater over time. The annulus formed when ~1 m deflation of the ejecta created a lag of more resistant hematite spherules that trapped <10-20 cm of darker, regional basaltic sands. Greater relief along the rim enabled meters of erosion. Comparison between Victoria and regional craters leads to definition of a crater degradation sequence dominated by eolian erosion and infilling over time.

  8. A comparison of the fluorescence dynamics of single molecules of a green fluorescent protein: one- versus two-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Cotlet, Mircea; Goodwin, Peter M; Waldo, Geoffrey S; Werner, James H

    2006-01-16

    We report on the dynamics of fluorescence from individual molecules of a mutant of the wild-type green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria, super folder GFP (SFGFP). SFGFP is a novel and robust variant designed for in vivo high-throughput screening of protein expression levels. It shows increased thermal stability and is able to retain its fluorescence when fused to poorly folding proteins. We use a recently developed single-molecule technique which combines fluorescence-fluctuation spectroscopy and time-correlated single photon counting in order to characterize the photophysical properties of SFGFP under one- (OPE) and two- (TPE) photon excitation conditions. We use Rhodamine 110 as a model chromophore to validate the methodology and to explain the single-molecule results of SFGFP. Under OPE, single SFGFP molecules undergo fluorescence flickering on the time scale of micros and tens of micros due to triplet formation and ground-state protonation-deprotonation, respectively, as demonstrated by excitation intensity- and pH-dependent experiments. OPE single-molecule fluorescence lifetimes indicate heterogeneity in the population of SFGFP, indicating the presence of the deprotonated I and B forms of the SFGFP chromophore. TPE of single SFGFP molecules results in the photoconversion of the chromophore. TPE of single SFGFP molecules show fluorescence flickering on the time scale of micros due to triplet formation. A flicker connected with protonation-deprotonation of the SFGFP chromophore is detected only at low pH. Our results show that SFGFP is a promising fusion reporter for intracellular applications using OPE and TPE microscopy.

  9. Degradation of Victoria crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S.A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M.P.; Geissler, P.E.; Sullivan, R.J.; Kirk, R.L.; Parker, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ???750 m diameter and ???75 m deep Victoria crater in Meridiani Planum, Mars, is a degraded primary impact structure retaining a ???5 m raised rim consisting of 1-2 m of uplifted rocks overlain by ???3 m of ejecta at the rim crest. The rim is 120-220 m wide and is surrounded by a dark annulus reaching an average of 590 m beyond the raised rim. Comparison between observed morphology and that expected for pristine craters 500-750 m across indicates that the original, pristine crater was close to 600 m in diameter. Hence, the crater has been erosionally widened by ???150 m and infilled by ???50 m of sediments. Eolian processes are responsible for most crater modification, but lesser mass wasting or gully activity contributions cannot be ruled out. Erosion by prevailing winds is most significant along the exposed rim and upper walls and accounts for ???50 m widening across a WNW-ESE diameter. The volume of material eroded from the crater walls and rim is ???20% less than the volume of sediments partially filling the crater, indicating eolian infilling from sources outside the crater over time. The annulus formed when ???1 m deflation of the ejecta created a lag of more resistant hematite spherules that trapped <10-20 cm of darker, regional basaltic sands. Greater relief along the rim enabled meters of erosion. Comparison between Victoria and regional craters leads to definition of a crater degradation sequence dominated by eolian erosion and infilling over time. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  11. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce an approximately true-color panorama. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

    Opportunity landed on Jan. 25, 2004, Universal Time, (Jan. 24, Pacific Time) inside a much smaller crater about 6 kilometers (4 miles) north of Victoria Crater, to begin a surface mission designed to last 3 months and drive about 600 meters (0.4 mile).

  12. Subcellular localization and functional expression of the glycerol uptake protein 1 (GUP1) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae tagged with green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Bleve, Gianluca; Zacheo, Giuseppe; Cappello, Maria Stella; Dellaglio, Franco; Grieco, Francesco

    2005-08-15

    GFP (green fluorescent protein) from Aequorea victoria was used as an in vivo reporter protein when fused to the N- and C-termini of the glycerol uptake protein 1 (Gup1p) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The subcellular localization and functional expression of biologically active Gup1-GFP chimaeras was monitored by confocal laser scanning and electron microscopy, thus supplying the first study of GUP1 dynamics in live yeast cells. The Gup1p tagged with GFP is a functional glycerol transporter localized at the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum levels of induced cells. The factors involved in proper localization and turnover of Gup1p were revealed by expression of the Gup1p-GFP fusion protein in a set of strains bearing mutations in specific steps of the secretory and endocytic pathways. The chimaerical protein was targeted to the plasma membrane through a Sec6-dependent process; on treatment with glucose, it was endocytosed through END3 and targeted for degradation in the vacuole. Gup1p belongs to the list of yeast proteins rapidly down-regulated by changing the carbon source in the culture medium, in agreement with the concept that post-translational modifications triggered by glucose affect proteins of peripheral functions. The immunoelectron microscopy assays of cells expressing either Gup1-GFP or GFP-Gup1 fusions suggested the Gup1p membrane topology: the N-terminus lies in the periplasmic space, whereas its C-terminal tail has an intracellular location. An extra cytosolic location of the N-terminal tail is not generally predicted or determined in yeast membrane transporters.

  13. Transformation of Escherichia coli K-12 with a high-copy plasmid encoding the green fluorescent protein reduces growth: implications for predictive microbiology.

    PubMed

    Oscar, T P; Dulal, K; Boucaud, D

    2006-02-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria has been widely used as a biomarker and has potential for use in developing predictive models for growth of pathogens on naturally contaminated food. However, constitutive production of GFP can reduce growth of transformed strains. Consequently, a high-copy plasmid with gfp under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (pTGP) was constructed. The plasmid was first introduced into a tetracycline-resistant strain of Escherichia coli K-12 to propagate it for subsequent transformation of tetracycline-resistant strains of Salmonella. In contrast to transformed E. coli K-12, which only fluoresced in response to tetracycline, transformed Salmonella fluoresced maximally without tetracycline induction of gfp. Although pTGP did not function as intended in Salmonella, growth of parent and GFP E. coli K-12 was compared to test the hypothesis that induction of GFP production reduced growth. Although GFP production was not induced during growth on sterile chicken in the absence of tetracycline, maximum specific growth rate (mumax) of GFP E. coli K-12 was reduced 40 to 50% (P < 0.05) at 10, 25, and 40 degrees C compared with the parent strain. When growth of parent and GFP strains of E. coli K-12 was compared in sterile broth at 40 degrees C, mumax and maximum population density of the GFP strain were reduced (P < 0.05) to the same extent (50 to 60%) in the absence and presence of tetracycline. These results indicated that transformation reduced growth of E. coli K-12 independent of gfp induction. Thus, use of a low-copy plasmid or insertion of gfp into the chromosome may be required to construct valid strains for development of predictive models for growth of pathogens on naturally contaminated food.

  14. Effect of starvation and the viable-but-nonculturable state on green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence in GFP-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens A506.

    PubMed

    Lowder, M; Unge, A; Maraha, N; Jansson, J K; Swiggett, J; Oliver, J D

    2000-08-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, gfp, of the jellyfish Aequorea victoria is being used as a reporter system for gene expression and as a marker for tracking prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Cells that have been genetically altered with the gfp gene produce a protein that fluoresces when it is excited by UV light. This unique phenotype allows gfp-tagged cells to be specifically monitored by nondestructive means. In this study we determined whether a gfp-tagged strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens continued to fluoresce under conditions under which the cells were starved, viable but nonculturable (VBNC), or dead. Epifluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, and spectrofluorometry were used to measure fluorescence intensity in starved, VBNC, and dead or dying cells. Results obtained by using flow cytometry indicated that microcosms containing VBNC cells, which were obtained by incubation under stress conditions (starvation at 37.5 degrees C), fluoresced at an intensity that was at least 80% of the intensity of nonstressed cultures. Similarly, microcosms containing starved cells incubated at 5 and 30 degrees C had fluorescence intensities that were 90 to 110% of the intensity of nonstressed cells. VBNC cells remained fluorescent during the entire 6-month incubation period. In addition, cells starved at 5 or 30 degrees C remained fluorescent for at least 11 months. Treatment of the cells with UV light or incubation at 39 or 50 degrees C resulted in a loss of GFP from the cells. There was a strong correlation between cell death and leakage of GFP from the cells, although the extent of leakage varied depending on the treatment. Most dead cells were not GFP fluorescent, but a small proportion of the dead cells retained some GFP at a lower concentration than the concentration in live cells. Our results suggest that gfp-tagged cells remain fluorescent following starvation and entry into the VBNC state but that fluorescence is lost when the cells die, presumably because

  15. Pervasive, tholeiitic refertilisation and heterogeneous metasomatism in Northern Victoria Land lithospheric mantle (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Faccini, Barbara; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of peridotite xenoliths in the Cenozoic volcanics from Greene Point (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica) provides new constraints on the characterisation of the lithospheric mantle beneath the West Antarctic Rift. Based on mineral major and trace element models, this mantle domain is proposed to represent a residuum after 10% and 20% partial melting. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results for Sr and Nd systematics highlight the substantial contribution of tholeiitic melts percolating through peridotites. Close correlation with trace element contents in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from Ferrar and Karoo tholeiites allows us to ascribe this refertilisation event to the Jurassic. This asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to the Northern Victoria Land mantle segment. The rare presence of glass and secondary phases indicate that Greene Point xenoliths were heterogeneously affected by alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening; this has also been widely observed in other Northern Victoria Land localities (i.e., Baker Rocks). Temperature and fO2 were calculated (950 °C; Δlog fO2 (QFM), - 1.70 to - 0.39) at a fixed pressure of 15 kbar, confirming the tendency of the anhydrous Greene Point xenolith population to have higher equilibration temperatures and comparable redox conditions, compared to the nearby amphibole-bearing peridotites from Baker Rocks.

  16. Mandatory bicycle helmet use--Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    1993-05-14

    On July 1, 1990, the first statewide law in Australia requiring wearing of an approved safety helmet by all bicyclists became effective in Victoria (1989 population: approximately 4.3 million) (Figure 1). Implementation of the law was preceded by a decade-long campaign to promote helmet use among the estimated 2.2 million persons who ride bicycles; the campaign included educational programs; mass media publicity; financial incentives; and efforts by professional, community, and bicycle groups (1,2). This report assesses helmet law enforcement, helmet use, and injuries related to bicycling in Victoria.

  17. Opportunity at Work Inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock in a bright-toned layer inside Victoria Crater.

    The image was taken during the rover's 1,322nd Martian day, or sol (Oct. 13, 2007).

    Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  18. Looking Forward: Community Gateways at Victoria University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountford, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The mission and values of Victoria University provide the underlying criteria for the development and implementation of the Community Gateways initiative, which aims to transform the lives of those living in the west of Melbourne through the power of further education. Community Gateways takes the university into the community by providing career…

  19. View from Southwest of Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This mosaic of frames from the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity gives a view to the northeast from the rover's position on its 1,687th Martian day, or sol (Oct. 22, 2008).

    By that date, Opportunity had driven southwestward from Victoria Crater, beginning a long trek toward a larger crater, Endeavour.

  20. Deselection: At the University of Victoria Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signori, Donna

    1985-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of weeding history at the University of Victoria library, an outline and evaluation of criteria and methodology proposed by a deselection task group and adopted for 1982 weeding project, and a summary of results and observations from pilot projects and policy proposals. Sixteen references are cited. (EJS)

  1. Adaptive Control of Two-Photon Excitation of Green Fluorescent Protein with Shaped Femtosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Hiroyuki; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Suda, Akira; Oishi, Yu; Mizuno, Hideaki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    For many years, it has been believed that a Fourier-transform-limited (FTL) laser pulse is the most effective light source for the generation of nonlinear phenomena, since the FTL pulse has the shortest pulse duration, that is, the highest intensity, that can be limited by the spectral width due to the principle of uncertainty. Recently, many reports have been published on the adaptive control of nonlinear phenomena with shaped femtosecond excitation laser pulses [1, 2]. Their reports have shown that the modification of the spectral and temporal phases of excitation pulses can increase or decrease the probabilities and efficiencies of such nonlinear phenomena. This method has been widely applied to studies on the active control of molecular motions or chemical reactions [3,4]. Considering further novel biological applications, we focus on the two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria. GFP is spontaneously fluorescent and is relatively nontoxic compared with other organic dyes used as optical markers. Therefore, it has been widely used as a "tag" material for the fluorescence observation of living cells [5]. Two-photon excitation microscopy (TPEM) is a powerful tool for biological real-time observation due to its various advantages, such as a clear contrast, good S/N ratio, and high spatial resolution [7]. From a practical point of view, however, there is a serious problem with TPEM, which is the photobleaching of a dye. The intensity of a fluorescence signal decreases significantly during observation. One of the reasons for this is that the chromophore structure is degraded by intense excitation laser pulses that are required for efficient two-photon excitation. In this study, therefore, we attempted to determine the optimal phase for maximizing the fluorescence efficiency of a GFP variant with excitation laser pulses of minimal intensity. We considered that GFP can be an ideal dye for the

  2. Computational prediction of absorbance maxima for a structurally diverse series of engineered green fluorescent protein chromophores.

    PubMed

    Timerghazin, Qadir K; Carlson, Haley J; Liang, Chen; Campbell, Robert E; Brown, Alex

    2008-02-28

    By virtue of its self-sufficiency to form a visible wavelength chromophore within the confines of its tertiary structure, the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) is single-handedly responsible for the ever-growing popularity of fluorescence imaging of recombinant fusion proteins in biological research. Engineered variants of GFP with altered excitation or emission wavelength maxima have helped to expand the range of applications of GFP. The engineering of the GFP variants is usually done empirically by genetic modifications of the chromophore structure and/or its environment in order to find variants with new photophysical properties. The process of identifying improved variants could be greatly facilitated if augmented or guided by computational studies of the chromophore ground and excited-state properties and dynamics. In pursuit of this goal, we now report a thorough investigation of computational methods for prediction of the absorbance maxima for an experimentally validated series of engineered GFP chromophore analogues. The experimental dataset is composed of absorption maxima for 10 chemically distinct GFP chromophore analogues, including a previously unreported Y66D variant, measured under identical denaturing conditions. For each chromophore analogue, excitation energies and oscillator strengths were calculated using configuration interaction with single excitations (CIS), CIS with perturbative correction for double substitutions [CIS(D)], and time-dependent density functional theory (TD DFT) using several density functionals with solvent effects included using a polarizable continuum model. Comparison of the experimental and computational results show generally poor quantitative agreement with all methods attempted. However, good linear correlations between the calculated and experimental excitation energies (R2>0.9) could be obtained. Oscillator strengths obtained with TD DFT using pure density functionals also correlate well with the

  3. Homicide-suicide in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Milroy, C M; Dratsas, M; Ranson, D L

    1997-12-01

    Thirty-nine incidents of homicide-suicide occurring in Victoria, Australia between 1985 and 1989 were examined. In 33 cases the assailants were men. The victims were spouses or women living in a de facto marriage. The majority of the victims were shot, and this was also the most frequent method of suicide. Breakdown in a relationship was the most frequent reason for killing. Mental illness of the assailant accounted for the killing in approximately 20% of cases. Physical ill health and financial stress were identified as important associative factors, particularly in the elderly. The pattern of homicide-suicide in Victoria is similar to that observed in other jurisdictions and represents an important and distinct subgroup of homicide.

  4. Pancam Peek into 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08776

    A drive of about 60 meters (about 200 feet) on the 943rd Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's exploration of Mars' Meridiani Planum region (Sept. 18, 2006) brought the NASA rover to within about 50 meters (about 160 feet) of the rim of 'Victoria Crater.' This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months. Opportunity reached a location from which the cameras on top of the rover's mast could begin to see into the interior of Victoria. This stereo anaglyph was made from frames taken on sol 943 by the panoramic camera (Pancam) to offer a three-dimensional view when seen through red-blue glasses. It shows the upper portion of interior crater walls facing toward Opportunity from up to about 850 meters (half a mile) away. The amount of vertical relief visible at the top of the interior walls from this angle is about 15 meters (about 50 feet). The exposures were taken through a Pancam filter selecting wavelengths centered on 750 nanometers.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is the expectation that a thick stack of geological layers will be exposed in the crater walls, potentially several times the thickness that was previously studied at Endurance and therefore, potentially preserving several times the historical record.

  5. Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole P M

    2016-09-23

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria, where thousands of fishermen die every year because of intense night-time thunderstorms. Yet how these thunderstorms will evolve in a future warmer climate is still unknown. Here we show that Lake Victoria is projected to be a hotspot of future extreme precipitation intensification by using new satellite-based observations, a high-resolution climate projection for the African Great Lakes and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Land precipitation on the previous day exerts a control on night-time occurrence of extremes on the lake by enhancing atmospheric convergence (74%) and moisture availability (26%). The future increase in extremes over Lake Victoria is about twice as large relative to surrounding land under a high-emission scenario, as only over-lake moisture advection is high enough to sustain Clausius-Clapeyron scaling. Our results highlight a major hazard associated with climate change over East Africa and underline the need for high-resolution projections to assess local climate change.

  6. Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria, where thousands of fishermen die every year because of intense night-time thunderstorms. Yet how these thunderstorms will evolve in a future warmer climate is still unknown. Here we show that Lake Victoria is projected to be a hotspot of future extreme precipitation intensification by using new satellite-based observations, a high-resolution climate projection for the African Great Lakes and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Land precipitation on the previous day exerts a control on night-time occurrence of extremes on the lake by enhancing atmospheric convergence (74%) and moisture availability (26%). The future increase in extremes over Lake Victoria is about twice as large relative to surrounding land under a high-emission scenario, as only over-lake moisture advection is high enough to sustain Clausius–Clapeyron scaling. Our results highlight a major hazard associated with climate change over East Africa and underline the need for high-resolution projections to assess local climate change. PMID:27658848

  7. Opportunity Traverse Map, 'Eagle' to 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Image

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' on Sept. 27, 2006, during the 951st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work in the Meridian Planum region of Mars. Opportunity drove 9.28 kilometers (5.77 miles) in the explorations that took it from 'Eagle Crater,' where it landed in January 2004, eastward to 'Endurance Crater,' which it investigated for about half of 2004, then southward to Victoria.

    This map of Opportunity's trek so far is overlaid onto images taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Victoria is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter, or about five times wider than Endurance and 40 times wider than Eagle. The scale bar at lower right shows the length of 800 meters (0.50 mile). North is up.

    The Martian sol dates in the annotated image are as follows: sol 58 was March 24, 2004 sol 315 was December 12, 2004 sol 446 was April 26, 2005 sol 654 was November 25, 2005 sol 833 was May 28, 2006 sol 898 was August 3, 2006 sol 952 was September 28, 2006

  8. Hazardous thunderstorm intensification over Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole P. M.

    2016-09-01

    Weather extremes have harmful impacts on communities around Lake Victoria, where thousands of fishermen die every year because of intense night-time thunderstorms. Yet how these thunderstorms will evolve in a future warmer climate is still unknown. Here we show that Lake Victoria is projected to be a hotspot of future extreme precipitation intensification by using new satellite-based observations, a high-resolution climate projection for the African Great Lakes and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Land precipitation on the previous day exerts a control on night-time occurrence of extremes on the lake by enhancing atmospheric convergence (74%) and moisture availability (26%). The future increase in extremes over Lake Victoria is about twice as large relative to surrounding land under a high-emission scenario, as only over-lake moisture advection is high enough to sustain Clausius-Clapeyron scaling. Our results highlight a major hazard associated with climate change over East Africa and underline the need for high-resolution projections to assess local climate change.

  9. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2014-04-01

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2015-07-14

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Nucleic acid encoding a self-assembling split-fluorescent protein system

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-07

    The invention provides a protein labeling and detection system based on self-complementing fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins. The system of the invention is exemplified with various combinations of self-complementing fragments derived from Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), which are used to detect and quantify protein solubility in multiple assay formats, both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Teaching Molecular Biology to Undergraduate Biology Students: An Illustration of Protein Expression and Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Cesar Adolfo; Silva, Flavio Henrique; Novo, Maria Teresa Marques

    2004-01-01

    Practical classes on protein expression and purification were given to undergraduate biology students enrolled in the elective course "Introduction to Genetic Engineering." The heterologous expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)* of "Aequorea victoria" is an interesting system for didactic purposes because it can be viewed easily during…

  13. Molecular Determinants of Antiestrogen and Drug Sensitivity in Breast Carcinoma Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    the present project. A particularly attractive selectable marker is the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), originally isolated from fish Aequorea ... victoria (8). Cells expressing this protein can be isolated through a non-toxic process of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, very shortly after gene

  14. Monitoring transgenic plants using in vivo markers

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, C.N. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The gene coding for green fluorecent protein (GFP), isolated and cloned from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, is an ideal transgene for the monitoring of any plant species. It has the ability to fluoresce without added substrate, enzyme, or cofactor; it does not introduce morphological or sexual aberrations when expressed. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  15. THE NEWARK VICTORIA PLAN, A REPORT TO THE VICTORIA FOUNDATION ON THE STATUS OF THE PLAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIEDRICHS, ROBERT W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS EVALUATION IS CONCERNED WITH THE FIRST YEAR OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE VICTORIA PLAN IN A NEWARK, N.J., ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. THE COMPONENTS OF THIS IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM WHICH ARE DISCUSSED ARE CLASS TRIPS AND ASSEMBLIES, THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER, THE NURSERY SCHOOL, AND MATERIALS AND SUPPLIES. MOST OF THE EVALUATION IS DEVOTED TO THE PROBLEMS WHICH…

  16. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Polar Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. 'Victoria Crater' from 'Duck Bay' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity edged 3.7 meters (12 feet) closer to the top of the 'Duck Bay' alcove along the rim of 'Victoria Crater' during the rover's 952nd Martian day, or sol (overnight Sept. 27 to Sept. 28), and gained this vista of the crater. The rover's navigation camera took the seven exposures combined into this mosaic view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    The far side of the crater is about 800 meters (one-half mile) away. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves, such as Duck Bay. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind. The rocky cliffs in the foreground have been informally named 'Cape Verde,' on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' on the right.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed. The great lure of Victoria is an expectation that the thick stack of geological layers exposed in the crater walls could reveal the record of past environmental conditions over a much greater span of time than Opportunity has read from rocks examined earlier in the mission.

    The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Inside Victoria Crater for Extended Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    After a finishing an in-and-out maneuver to check wheel slippage near the rim of Victoria Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity re-entered the crater during the rover's 1,293rd Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 13, 2007) to begin a weeks-long exploration of the inner slope.

    Opportunity's front hazard-identification camera recorded this wide-angle view looking down into and across the crater at the end of the day's drive. The rover's position was about six meters (20 feet) inside the rim, in the 'Duck Bay' alcove of the crater.

  20. Uranium mineralization in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    For the past 10 antarctic field seasons, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey has been conducted over widely separated parts of the continent. Localized accumulations of both primary and secondary uranium minerals have been discovered at several localities scattered along the Transantarctic Mountains from the Scott Glacier to northern Victoria Land. A number of highly significant radiation anomalies have been discovered in the area between the Koettlitz Glacier and the Pyramid Trough. The occurrences consist of pegmatite vein complexes which contain an association of primary uranium and thorium minerals. Of still greater significance is the fact that abundant secondary uranium minerals were found in association with the primary deposits, and they indicate clearly that uranium is geochemically mobile under the conditions imposed by the arid polar climate that now exists in southern Victoria Land. Preliminary results of a uranium analysis performed by neutron activation indicate a concentration of 0.12% uranium in a composite sample from the two veins. Even higher levels of thorium are present. The nature of the primary uranium mineralization is currently under investigation. Preliminary results are discussed.

  1. At Bright Band Inside Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A layer of light-toned rock exposed inside Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars appears to mark where the surface was at the time, many millions of years ago, when an impact excavated the crater. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drove to this bright band as the science team's first destination for the rover during investigations inside the crater.

    Opportunity's left front hazard-identification camera took this image just after the rover finished a drive of 2.25 meters (7 feet, 5 inches) during the rover's 1,305th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 25, 2007). The rocks beneath the rover and its extended robotic arm are part of the bright band.

    Victoria Crater has a scalloped shape of alternating alcoves and promontories around the crater's circumference. Opportunity descended into the crater two weeks earlier, within an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' Counterclockwise around the rim, just to the right of the arm in this image, is a promontory called 'Cabo Frio.'

  2. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    Victoria crater (2.05N, 354.51E) is ~750 m in diameter and the largest crater on Mars observed in situ. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed NW to SE across a broad annulus dominated by dark sand that at least partially surrounds the crater before navigating the northern crater rim. Rover observations of the crater and ejecta deposits are complemented by images with 26-52 cm/pixel scales from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable assessment of degradation state. The present depth/diameter ratio for Victoria is 0.1, less than the 0.2 expected for a pristine primary impact structure. Together with the eroded, serrated rim, this implies an originally smaller crater diameter and/or considerable infilling consistent with occurrence of a large dune field and few exposed rocks on the crater floor. The height and width of the raised rim is generally 4-5 m and 150-225 m, respectively, less than the 30 m and 500-600 m, respectively, expected for a pristine 750 m diameter crater. Ejecta thicknesses around the rim were derived using rover-based and HiRISE images and yield consistent estimates averaging ~3 m. The serrated rim plan creates a series of promontories extending up to 50 m into the crater and generally fronted by 30-60 degree slopes that are locally vertical and are separated by bays whose floors typically slope 15-25 degrees. A crater originally on order of 600-650 m in diameter and subsequently enlarged by mass wasting and aeolian erosion may yield a structure resembling Victoria today. The steep expression of the promontories and local outcroppings of rocks in the ejecta blanket points to some ongoing mass wasting, but the relative paucity of associated flanking talus indicates derived blocks of sulfate sandstone are not resistant to saltating sand and are rapidly broken down by the wind or are completely covered/filled in by aeolian drift. At Cape St. Vincent, the promontory appears undercut

  4. Prokaryotic Abundance and Activity in Permafrost of the Northern Victoria Land and Upper Victoria Valley (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    La Ferla, Rosabruna; Azzaro, Maurizio; Michaud, Luigi; Caruso, Gabriella; Lo Giudice, Angelina; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Cabral, Anderson S; Conte, Antonella; Cosenza, Alessandro; Maimone, Giovanna; Papale, Maria; Rappazzo, Alessandro Ciro; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2017-03-13

    Victoria Land permafrost harbours a potentially large pool of cold-affected microorganisms whose metabolic potential still remains underestimated. Three cores (BC-1, BC-2 and BC-3) drilled at different depths in Boulder Clay (Northern Victoria Land) and one sample (DY) collected from a core in the Dry Valleys (Upper Victoria Valley) were analysed to assess the prokaryotic abundance, viability, physiological profiles and potential metabolic rates. The cores drilled at Boulder Clay were a template of different ecological conditions (different temperature regime, ice content, exchanges with atmosphere and with liquid water) in the same small basin while the Dry Valleys site was very similar to BC-2 conditions but with a complete different geological history and ground ice type. Image analysis was adopted to determine cell abundance, size and shape as well as to quantify the potential viable and respiring cells by live/dead and 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride staining, respectively. Subpopulation recognition by apparent nucleic acid contents was obtained by flow cytometry. Moreover, the physiological profiles at community level by Biolog-Ecoplate™ as well as the ectoenzymatic potential rates on proteinaceous (leucine-aminopeptidase) and glucidic (ß-glucosidase) organic matter and on organic phosphates (alkaline-phosphatase) by fluorogenic substrates were tested. The adopted methodological approach gave useful information regarding viability and metabolic performances of microbial community in permafrost. The occurrence of a multifaceted prokaryotic community in the Victoria Land permafrost and a large number of potentially viable and respiring cells (in the order of 10(4)-10(5)) were recognised. Subpopulations with a different apparent DNA content within the different samples were observed. The physiological profiles stressed various potential metabolic pathways among the samples and intense utilisation rates of polymeric carbon compounds and carbohydrates

  5. The Bands Culture in Victoria, Australia: Live Music Benefits Career Paths, Employment and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the career paths, employment, business opportunities and community contributions made available through the provision and development of the contemporary performance bands' culture in the State of Victoria. It is framed with the support given to live music performers by Arts Victoria, Small Business Victoria and Music Victoria.…

  6. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  8. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an approximately true color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Satellite View of Opportunity's Journey around 'Victoria Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Three years after embarking on a historic exploration of the red planet and six miles away from its landing site, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is traversing 'Victoria Crater' ridge by ridge, peering at layered cliffs in the interior. To identify various alcoves and cliffs along the way, science team members are using names of places visited by the 16th-century Earth explorer Ferdinand Magellan and his crew aboard the ship Victoria, who proved the Earth is round. (All names are unofficial unless approved by the International Astronomical Union.) This orbital view of 'Victoria Crater' was taken by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  10. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view incorporates many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). It combines a stereo pair so that it appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

    Opportunity landed on Jan. 25, 2004, Universal Time, (Jan. 24, Pacific Time) inside a much smaller crater about 6 kilometers (4 miles) north of Victoria Crater, to begin a surface mission designed to last 3 months and drive about 600 meters (0.4 mile).

  11. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a stereo pair for PIA08780

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Ecological Biogeography of the Terrestrial Nematodes of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Byron J.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Broos, Emma; Knox, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The terrestrial ecosystems of Victoria Land, Antarctica are characteristically simple in terms of biological diversity and ecological functioning. Nematodes are the most commonly encountered and abundant metazoans of Victoria Land soils, yet little is known of their diversity and distribution. Herein we present a summary of the geographic distribution, habitats and ecology of the terrestrial nematodes of Victoria Land from published and unpublished sources. All Victoria Land nematodes are endemic to Antarctica, and many are common and widely distributed at landscape scales. However, at smaller spatial scales, populations can have patchy distributions, with the presence or absence of each species strongly influenced by specific habitat requirements. As the frequency of nematode introductions to Antarctica increases, and soil habitats are altered in response to climate change, our current understanding of the environmental parameters associated with the biogeography of Antarctic nematofauna will be crucial to monitoring and possibly mitigating changes to these unique soil ecosystems. PMID:25061360

  13. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. A review of the Victoria, Australia granny flat program.

    PubMed

    Lazarowich, N M

    1990-04-01

    The 10-year-old Victoria, Australia granny flat program has about 3000 units in place. Granny flats, designed as standardized units using panels, offer privacy yet proximity to family members. There are suggestions they be considered as affordable housing for younger people. This review of the Victoria program suggests that state initiatives are more successful than local ones, and that decentralized administration is associated with increased ability to delivery the granny flat units.

  15. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

    Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

    This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce this view, which is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

  16. Opportunity's First Dip into Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity entered Victoria Crater during the rover's 1,291st Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 11, 2007). The rover team commanded Opportunity to drive just far enough into the crater to get all six wheels onto the inner slope, and then to back out again and assess how much the wheels slipped on the slope. The driving commands for the day included a precaution for the rover to stop driving if the wheels were slipping more than 40 percent. Slippage exceeded that amount on the last step of the drive, so Opportunity stopped with its front pair of wheels still inside the crater. The rover team planned to assess results of the drive, then start Opportunity on an extended exploration inside the crater.

    This wide-angle view taken by Opportunity's front hazard-identification camera at the end of the day's driving shows the wheel tracks created by the short dip into the crater. The left half of the image looks across an alcove informally named 'Duck Bay' toward a promontory called 'Cape Verde' clockwise around the crater wall. The right half of the image looks across the main body of the crater, which is 800 meters (half a mile) in diameter.

  17. The Victoria (Australia) Certificate of Education (VCE) in Geology for Senior Secondary-School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovics, Gabor

    1990-01-01

    The state of precollege earth science education in Victoria is described. The unit structure and content for the Victoria Certificate of Education in geology is detailed. The relationship between society and technological development is stressed in this curriculum. (CW)

  18. Geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle, Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, Valentina; Di Achille, Gaetano; Ferranti, Luigi; Rothery, David A.; Palumbo, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a new geologic map and structural analysis of the Victoria quadrangle (H2) of Mercury, along with a reconnaissance study of the geometry and kinematics of lobate scarps in this area. To this end, we produced a 1:3,000,000 geologic map of the area using the images provided by the NASA spacecraft MESSENGER, which has been orbiting the planet since March, 2011. The geologic map shows the distribution of smooth plains, intermediate plains, intercrater plains units and a classification of crater materials based on an empirical distinction among three stages of degradation. Structural mapping shows that the H2 quadrangle is dominated by N-S faults (here grouped into the Victoria system) to the east and NE-SW faults (Larrocha system) to the west, with the secondary existence of NW-SE-trending faults (Carnegie system) in the north-western area of the quadrangle. A systematic analysis of these systems has led to the following results. 1) the Victoria system is characterized by a main array of faults located along Victoria Rupes - Endeavour Rupes - Antoniadi Dorsum. The segmentation of this array into three different sectors changes from north to south and is spatially linked to the presence of three volcanic vents located at the boundaries between each sector and at the northern end of the Victoria Rupes sector , suggesting that volcanism and faulting are interrelated 2) The main array of Carnegie system is kinematically linked and antithetical to the Victoria system. Both systems have arguably controlled the growth of a longitudinal, fault-free, crustal and gravimetric bulge in the central area of the Victoria quadrangle, which is interpreted as a regional contractional pop-up. 3) The Larrocha system is interrupted against the central bulge and thus is probably older than the Victoria and Carnegie systems. Buffered crater counting performed on the Victoria system confirms the young relative age of its fault segments with respect to the map units

  19. [Fluorescent proteins: physical-chemical properties and application in cell biology].

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, O V; Verkhusha, V V; Kuznetsova, I M; Turoverov, K K

    2007-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria is the most extensively studied and widely used in cell biology protein. At present novel naturally occurring GFP-like proteins have been discovered and enhanced mutants of Aequorea GFP have been created. These mutants differ from wild-type GFP by stability, value of quantum yield, absorption and fluorescence spectra position and photochemical properties. GFP-like proteins are the fast growing family. This review is an attempt to characterize the main groups of GFP-like proteins, describe their structure and mechanisms of chromophore formation and summarize the main trends of their utilization as markers and biosensors in cell and molecular biology.

  20. Hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria: climate change and early warnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Bedka, Kristopher; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Severe thunderstorms and associated high waves represent a constant threat to the 200,000 fishermen operating on Lake Victoria. According to the International Red Cross, presumably 3000 to 5000 fishermen die every year on the lake, thereby substantially contributing to the global death toll from natural disasters. Despite the long-known bad reputation of Lake Victoria, operational early warning systems are lacking and possible future changes of these extreme thunderstorms are unknown. Here we present the first dedicated high-resolution, coupled lake-land-atmosphere climate projection for the African Great Lakes region and analyse it in combination with new satellite data and coarser-scale ensemble projections. Our model projections for the end-of-the-century indicate that Lake Victoria amplifies the future intensification of extreme precipitation seen over the surrounding land. Under a high-emission scenario (RCP8.5), the 1% most extreme over-lake precipitation may intensify up to four times faster compared to surrounding land. Our findings are consistent with an ensemble of coarser-scale climate projections for Africa, but the lower skill of the ensemble over Lake Victoria constrains its applicability. Interestingly, the change in extremes contrasts to the change in average over-lake precipitation, which is projected to decrease by -6% for the same period. By further analyzing the high-resolution output we are able to explain this different response: while mesoscale circulation changes cause the average precipitation decline, the response of extremes is essentially thermodynamic. Finally, the study of the satellite-based detection of severe thunderstorms revealed a strong dependency of the nighttime storm intensity over Lake Victoria on the antecedent daytime land storm activity. This highlights the potential of this new satellite product for predicting intense storms over Lake Victoria. Overall, our results indicate a new major hazard associated with climate

  1. 78 FR 55215 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old River, Between Victoria Island and Byron Tract, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old River, Between Victoria Island... State Highway 4 Drawbridge across Old River, mile 14.8 between Victoria Island and Byron Tract, CA. The..., between Victoria Island and Byron Tract, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides 12 feet...

  2. 77 FR 61645 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Victoria County Station Site; Notice of Withdrawal of Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Victoria County Station Site; Notice of Withdrawal of Application...) submitted an application for an Early Site Permit (ESP) for the Victoria County Station (VCS) site located in Victoria County, Texas to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission)...

  3. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.136 Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) consists of the...

  4. 78 FR 65873 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old River, Between Victoria Island and Byron Tract, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old River, Between Victoria Island... State Highway 4 Drawbridge across Old River, mile 14.8 between Victoria Island and Byron Tract, CA. The... Highway 4 Drawbridge, mile 14.8, over Old River, between Victoria Island and Byron Tract, CA....

  5. Bistable isoelectric point photoswitching in green fluorescent proteins observed by dynamic immunoprobed isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alex J; Tentori, Augusto M; Herr, Amy E

    2012-10-24

    We describe a novel isoelectric point photoswitching phenomenon in both wild-type Aequorea victoria (av) GFP and the amino acid 222 E-to-G mutant Aequorea coerulescens (ac) GFP. A combination of time-resolved microfluidic isoelectric focusing (IEF) and in situ antibody blotting IEF was employed to monitor dark (nonfluorescent) and bright (fluorescent) GFP populations. Through IEF, each population was observed to exhibit distinct isoelectric points (pI) and, thus, distinct formal electrostatic charges. Experimentally observed interconversion between the dark, higher pI and bright, lower pI GFP populations is tightly controlled by differential UV and blue light exposure. The stoichiometry and kinetics of charge transfer tied to this reversible photobleaching process are deduced. In concert with a reaction-transport model of bistable reversible charge and fluorescence photoswitching, the on-chip measurements of population interconversion rates suggest the potential for both rheostatic and discrete switch-like modulation of the electrostatic charge of GFPs depending on the illumination profile. We estimate that 3-4 formal charges distinguish the bright and dark populations of avGFP, as compared to one charge for those of acGFP. Given the proposed role of E222 as a bridge between internal and exit hydrogen-bond clusters within the GFP β-barrel, the difference in charge switching magnitude between the two mutants provides intriguing evidence for the proton wire hypothesis of proton transport within the GFP structure, and of proton exchange with the bulk solvent. Our facile dynamic and probed IEF assays should find widespread use in analytical screening and quantitative kinetic analysis of photoswitching and other charge switching processes in response to stimuli including light, temperature, or binding/cleavage events.

  6. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  7. Persistence of neutral polymorphisms in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Nagl, Sandra; Tichy, Herbert; Mayer, Werner E.; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees for groups of closely related species often have different topologies, depending on the genes used. One explanation for the discordant topologies is the persistence of polymorphisms through the speciation phase, followed by differential fixation of alleles in the resulting species. The existence of transspecies polymorphisms has been documented for alleles maintained by balancing selection but not for neutral alleles. In the present study, transspecific persistence of neutral polymorphisms was tested in the endemic haplochromine species flock of Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Putative noncoding region polymorphisms were identified at four randomly selected nuclear loci and tested on a collection of 12 Lake Victoria species and their putative riverine ancestors. At all loci, the same polymorphism was found to be present in nearly all the tested species, both lacustrine and riverine. Different polymorphisms at these loci were found in cichlids of other East African lakes (Malawi and Tanganyika). The Lake Victoria polymorphisms must have therefore arisen after the flocks now inhabiting the three great lakes diverged from one another, but before the riverine ancestors of the Lake Victoria flock colonized the Lake. Calculations based on the mtDNA clock suggest that the polymorphisms have persisted for about 1.4 million years. To maintain neutral polymorphisms for such a long time, the population size must have remained large throughout the entire period. PMID:9826684

  8. Persistence of neutral polymorphisms in Lake Victoria cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Nagl, S; Tichy, H; Mayer, W E; Takahata, N; Klein, J

    1998-11-24

    Phylogenetic trees for groups of closely related species often have different topologies, depending on the genes used. One explanation for the discordant topologies is the persistence of polymorphisms through the speciation phase, followed by differential fixation of alleles in the resulting species. The existence of transspecies polymorphisms has been documented for alleles maintained by balancing selection but not for neutral alleles. In the present study, transspecific persistence of neutral polymorphisms was tested in the endemic haplochromine species flock of Lake Victoria cichlid fish. Putative noncoding region polymorphisms were identified at four randomly selected nuclear loci and tested on a collection of 12 Lake Victoria species and their putative riverine ancestors. At all loci, the same polymorphism was found to be present in nearly all the tested species, both lacustrine and riverine. Different polymorphisms at these loci were found in cichlids of other East African lakes (Malawi and Tanganyika). The Lake Victoria polymorphisms must have therefore arisen after the flocks now inhabiting the three great lakes diverged from one another, but before the riverine ancestors of the Lake Victoria flock colonized the Lake. Calculations based on the mtDNA clock suggest that the polymorphisms have persisted for about 1.4 million years. To maintain neutral polymorphisms for such a long time, the population size must have remained large throughout the entire period.

  9. Vocabulary Size Research at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul; Coxhead, Averil

    2014-01-01

    The English Language Institute (now the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies) at Victoria University of Wellington has a long history of corpus-based vocabulary research, especially after the arrival of the second director of the institute, H. V. George, and the appointment of Helen Barnard, whom George knew in India. George's…

  10. The Free Kindergarten Union of Victoria, 1908-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Lyndsay

    The social history of the Free Kindergarten Union of the State of Victoria, Australia, from inception in 1908 to the year 1980 is recorded in this book. Growth of the union is described within the context of the World Wars, the Depression, and urbanization and industrialization. The story begins with volunteerism and philanthropy, and with four…

  11. Molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of Schistosoma mansoni around Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Standley, C J; Kabatereine, N B; Lange, C N; Lwambo, N J S; Stothard, J R

    2010-11-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and is endemic in communities around Lake Victoria. Interest is growing in the molecular evolution and population genetic structure of Schistosoma mansoni and we describe a detailed analysis of the molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of S. mansoni from Lake Victoria. In total, 388 cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) sequences were obtained from 25 sites along the Ugandan, Tanzanian and Kenyan shorelines of Lake Victoria, and 122 unique barcodes were identified; 9 corresponded to previously discovered barcodes from Lakes Victoria and Albert. A subset of the data, composed of COI sequences from miracidia from 10 individual children, was used for population genetics analyses; these results were corroborated by microsatellite analysis of 4 isolates of lab-passaged adult worms. Overall, 12 barcodes were found to be shared across all 3 countries, whereas the majority occurred singly and were locally restricted. The population genetics analyses were in agreement in revealing high diversity at the level of the human host and negligible population structuring by location. The lack of correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance in these data may be attributed to the confounding influence of high intra-individual diversity as well as human migration between communities.

  12. Catalogue Use at the State Library of Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Philip

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey conducted at the State Library of Victoria indicates that users in general, and not just scholars, value the standard elements of bibliographic data found in the Library's catalogues, and consider all these elements useful for finding, identifying and selecting items. Rather than making do with less, users wanted more…

  13. Reaching Year 12 in Victoria, Australia: Student and School Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…

  14. Information Brokers in Victoria: Doing What, for Whom and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Marianne; Kelson, Deborah

    1984-01-01

    Reports findings of study of information brokers in Victoria, Australia, which identified services offered by individual brokers and information brokerage businesses, resources used to provide those services, their clientele and pricing strategies, the attributes needed for a successful broker, and relationships between brokers and traditional…

  15. Metasomatism vs Refertilisation: New Insights from Northern Victoria Land mantle xenoliths (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Gregoire, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The petrology of anhydrous (Greene Point, Handler Ridge) and amphibole-bearing (Harrow Peaks, Baker Rocks) xenolith populations from Cenozoic volcanics of Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica, provide new geochemical/geodynamic constraints on the nature and evolution of the NVL lithospheric mantle. Based on mineral major and trace element modelling applied on the various xenolith suites, this mantle domain is supposed to represent a residuum after 10 to 20% of partial melting, with Handler Ridge showing the most fertile character. Moreover, melting models and isotopic results evidence the large geochemical contribution of melt infiltration acting in different times, from at least Jurassic to Cenozoic. The close correlation between Greene Point clinopyroxene trace element contents and those from phenocrysts of Ferrar tholeiites, allows to ascribe the first refertilisation event to the Jurassic Ferrar magmatism; this asthenospheric melt was also able to transfer a garnet signature to some NVL mantle segment. The rare presence of glassy patches and related secondary phases in Greene Point and Handler Ridge, as well as the amphibole presence in Harrow Peaks and Baker Rocks xenoliths prove that alkaline metasomatism, probably related to the West Antarctic Rift System opening, heterogeneously affected the NVL lithospheric domain. At a fixed P of 15 Kbar, T and fO2 were calculated; data reveal that the presence of amphibole (always < 3% modal content) does not influence the ambient redox conditions (comparable in amphibole-bearing and anhydrous Greene Point peridotites [ Δlog fO2 (QFM) -0.7)] but the anhydrous suite presents systematic higher temperature (950-1050 °C) than those amphibole bearing (850 °C).

  16. Investigation of a steam generator tube rupture sequence using VICTORIA

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Erickson, C.M.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    VICTORIA-92 is a mechanistic computer code for analyzing fission product behavior within the reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe reactor accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radionuclides and nonradioactive materials from the core and transport of these materials within the RCS. The modeling accounts for the chemical and aerosol processes that affect radionuclide behavior. Coupling of detailed chemistry and aerosol packages is a unique feature of VICTORIA; it allows exploration of phenomena involving deposition, revaporization, and re-entrainment that cannot be resolved with other codes. The purpose of this work is to determine the attenuation of fission products in the RCS and on the secondary side of the steam generator in an accident initiated by a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). As a class, bypass sequences have been identified in NUREG-1150 as being risk dominant for the Surry and Sequoyah pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants.

  17. Regional climate model performance in the Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Karina; Chamberlain, Jill; Buontempo, Carlo; Bain, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater lake in the world, plays a crucial role in the hydrology of equatorial eastern Africa. Understanding how climate change may alter rainfall and evaporation patterns is thus of vital importance for the economic development and the livelihood of the region. Regional rainfall distribution appears, up to a large extent, to be controlled by local drivers which may be not well resolved in general circulation model simulations. We investigate the performance over the Lake Victoria basin of an ensemble of UK Met Office Hadley Centre regional climate model (HadRM3P) simulations at 50 km, driven by five members of the Hadley Centre global perturbed-physics ensemble (QUMP). This is part of the validation of an ensemble of simulations that has been used to assess the impacts of climate change over the continent over the period 1950-2099. We find that the regional climate model is able to simulate a lake/land breeze over Lake Victoria, which is a significant improvement over the driving global climate model and a vital step towards reproducing precipitation characteristics in the region. The local precipitation correlates well with large-scale processes in the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean, which is in agreement with observations. We find that the spatial pattern of precipitation in the region and the diurnal cycle of convection is well represented although the amount of rainfall over the lake appears to be overestimated in most seasons. Reducing the observational uncertainty in precipitation over the lake through future field campaigns would enable this model bias to be better quantified. We conclude that increasing the spatial resolution of the model significantly improves its ability to simulate the current climate of the Lake Victoria basin. We suggest that, despite the higher computational costs, the inclusion of a model which allows two-way interactions between the lake and its surroundings should be seriously considered for

  18. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006).

  19. ROSSMAP; Regional Seismic Stratigraphic Correlations in the Victoria Land Basin and the Timing of Rifting Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, B. W.; Henrys, S. A.; Wilson, T. J.; Fielding, C. R.; Levy, R. H.; Andrill Mis-Science Team

    2010-12-01

    ROSSMAP aims to produce a new series of digital seismic stratigraphic and structural maps for the Ross Sea region, and develop reconstructions of past sedimentary volumes and paleo-bathymetry that will be used in numerical models to help identify tectonic and climate feedbacks. In particular, ROSSMAP will define targets for future drilling initiatives in the Ross Sea region, and provide a legacy of web-based electronic databases that will be available to other researcher. Interpretation in the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) has focused on establishing links to new and existing drill holes. Several regional seismic reflectors were mapped throughout the southern portion of the Victoria Land Basin (VLB) and are tied to the ANDRILL McMurdo Sound drill cores. The age of one prominent reflector (Ri - red, correlative with RSU-2) is 4.7-4.3 Ma based on a tie to AND-1B and extensively mapped in the VLB. Mapping, together with quantitative biostratigraphic correlation techniques, indicates that the red reflector is associated with relative sea-level fall resulting from ice-sheet growth and/or local tectonic uplift. Correlative sediments preserved in AND-1B indicate regional climatic warmth, which suggests that the red reflector is more likely related to a tectonic event. Furthermore, the onset of sediment accumulation at CIROS-2 post-dates 4.5 Ma, suggesting that local subsidence and creation of accommodation space began at this time. Two other stratigraphic horizons (Rh and Rg) have been extensively mapped where seismic data image above the seafloor multiple. Reflector Rh (dark green and correlative with RSU-4a marks a basin-wide unconformity. Near the western margin of the Victoria Land Basin, this horizon is a marked angular discordance with angularity increasing westward. In AND-1B Rh is correlated with the base of a ~180-m-thick interval of late Miocene-early Pliocene, pyrite-cemented, high-velocity volcanic sandstone and mudstone. Volcanic rocks in a tongue extending from

  20. Transcriptome pyrosequencing of the Antarctic brittle star Ophionotus victoriae.

    PubMed

    Burns, Gavin; Thorndyke, Michael C; Peck, Lloyd S; Clark, Melody S

    2013-03-01

    Brittle stars are included within a whole range of species, which contribute to knowledge in the medically important area of tissue regeneration. All brittle stars regenerate lose limbs, but the rate at which this occurs is highly variable and species-specific. One of the slowest rates of arm regeneration reported so far is that of the Antarctic Ophionotus victoriae. Additionally, O. victoriae also has an unusual delay in the onset of regeneration of about 5months. Both processes are of interest for the areas of regeneration biology and adaptation to cold environments. One method of understanding the details of regeneration events in brittle stars is to characterise the genes involved. In the largest transcriptome study of any ophiuroid to date, we describe the results of mRNA pyrosequencing from pooled samples of regenerating arms of O. victoriae. The sequencing reads resulted in 18,000 assembled contiguous sequences of which 19% were putatively annotated by blast sequence similarity searching. We focus on the identification of major gene families and pathways with potential relevance to the regenerative processes including the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, Hox genes, the SOX gene family and the TGF beta signalling pathways. These data significantly increase the amount of ophiuroid sequences publicly available and provide candidate transcripts for the further investigation of the unusual regenerative process in this Antarctic ophiuroid.

  1. Recent MELCOR and VICTORIA Fission Product Research at the NRC

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, N.E.; Cole, R.K.; Gauntt, R.O.; Schaperow, J.H.; Young, M.F.

    1999-01-21

    The MELCOR and VICTORIA severe accident analysis codes, which were developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are designed to estimate fission product releases during nuclear reactor accidents in light water reactors. MELCOR is an integrated plant-assessment code that models the key phenomena in adequate detail for risk-assessment purposes. VICTORIA is a more specialized fission- product code that provides detailed modeling of chemical reactions and aerosol processes under the high-temperature conditions encountered in the reactor coolant system during a severe reactor accident. This paper focuses on recent enhancements and assessments of the two codes in the area of fission product chemistry modeling. Recently, a model for iodine chemistry in aqueous pools in the containment building was incorporated into the MELCOR code. The model calculates dissolution of iodine into the pool and releases of organic and inorganic iodine vapors from the pool into the containment atmosphere. The main purpose of this model is to evaluate the effect of long-term revolatilization of dissolved iodine. Inputs to the model include dose rate in the pool, the amount of chloride-containing polymer, such as Hypalon, and the amount of buffering agents in the containment. Model predictions are compared against the Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiments conduced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), specifically International Standard Problem 41. Improvements to VICTORIA's chemical reactions models were implemented as a result of recommendations from a peer review of VICTORIA that was completed last year. Specifically, an option is now included to model aerosols and deposited fission products as three condensed phases in addition to the original option of a single condensed phase. The three-condensed-phase model results in somewhat higher predicted fission product volatilities than does the single-condensed-phase model. Modeling of U02

  2. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. Drowning deaths between 1861 and 2000 in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify the long-term patterns of drowning mortality in the state of Victoria, Australia, and to describe the historical context in which the decrease occurred. Methods We obtained data on drowning deaths and population statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and its predecessors for the period 1861 to 2000. From these data, we calculated drowning death rates per 100 000 population per year, by gender and age. We reviewed primary and secondary historical resources, such as government and newspaper archives, books and the Internet, to identify changes or events in the state that may have affected drowning mortality. Findings From 1861 to 2000, at least 18 070 people drowned in Victoria. Male drowning rates were higher than those for females in all years and for all ages. Both sexes experienced the highest drowning rate in 1863 (79.5 male deaths per 100 000 population and 18.8 female death per 100 000 population). The lowest drowning rate was documented in 2000 (1.4 male deaths per 100 000 population and 0.3 female deaths per 100 000 population). The reduction patterns of drowning mortality occurred within a historical context of factors that directly affected drowning mortality, such as the improvement in people’s water safety skills, or those that incidentally affected drowning mortality, like infrastructure development. Conclusion We identified patterns of reduction in drowning mortality, both in males and females and across age groups. These patterns could be linked to events and factors that happened in Victoria during this period. These findings may have relevance to current developing communities. PMID:28250530

  4. Details of Layers in Victoria Crater's Cape St. Vincent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity rover spent about 300 sols (Martian days) during 2006 and 2007 traversing the rim of Victoria Crater. Besides looking for a good place to enter the crater, the rover obtained images of rock outcrops exposed at several cliffs along the way.

    The cliff in this image from Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) is informally named Cape St. Vincent. It is a promontory approximately 12 meters (39 feet) tall on the northern rim of Victoria crater, near the farthest point along the rover's traverse around the rim. Layers seen in Cape St. Vincent have proven to be among the best examples of meter scale cross-bedding observed on Mars to date. Cross-bedding is a geologic term for rock layers which are inclined relative to the horizontal and which are indicative of ancient sand dune deposits. In order to get a better look at these outcrops, Pancam 'super-resolution' imaging techniques were utilized. Super-resolution is a type of imaging mode which acquires many pictures of the same target to reconstruct a digital image at a higher resolution than is native to the camera. These super-resolution images have allowed scientists to discern that the rocks at Victoria Crater once represented a large dune field, not unlike the Sahara desert on Earth, and that this dune field migrated with an ancient wind flowing from the north to the south across the region. Other rover chemical and mineral measurements have shown that many of the ancient sand dunes studied in Meridiani Planum were modified by surface and subsurface liquid water long ago.

    This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image acquired on sol 1167 (May 7, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 16 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  5. A conceptual model for recruitment and retention: allied health workforce enhancement in Western Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Adrian M; Stagnitti, Karen E; Mercer, Catherine; Dunbar, James

    2005-01-01

    Attracting and retaining allied health professionals in rural areas is a recognised problem in both Australia and overseas. Predicted increases in health needs will require strategic actions to enhance the rural workforce and its ability to deliver the required services. A range of factors in different domains has been associated with recruitment and retention in the allied health workforce. For example, factors can be related to the nature of the work, the personal needs, or the way an organisation is led. Some factors cannot be changed (eg geographical location of extended family) whereas others can be influenced (eg education, support, management styles). Recruitment and retention of allied health professionals is a challenging problem that deserves attention in all domains and preparedness to actively change established work practices, both individually as well as collectively, in order to cater for current and predicted health needs. Changes to enhance workforce outcomes can be implemented and evaluated using a cyclic model. The Allied Health Workforce Enhancement Project of the Greater Green Triangle University Department of Rural Health (GGT UDRH) is working towards increasing the number of allied health professionals in the south west of Victoria. Based on themes identified in the literature, an interactive model is being developed that addresses recruitment and retention factors in three domains: (1) personal or individual; (2) organisation; and (3) community.

  6. Exploration of Victoria crater by the Mars rover Opportunity.

    PubMed

    Squyres, S W; Knoll, A H; Arvidson, R E; Ashley, J W; Bell, J F; Calvin, W M; Christensen, P R; Clark, B C; Cohen, B A; de Souza, P A; Edgar, L; Farrand, W H; Fleischer, I; Gellert, R; Golombek, M P; Grant, J; Grotzinger, J; Hayes, A; Herkenhoff, K E; Johnson, J R; Jolliff, B; Klingelhöfer, G; Knudson, A; Li, R; McCoy, T J; McLennan, S M; Ming, D W; Mittlefehldt, D W; Morris, R V; Rice, J W; Schröder, C; Sullivan, R J; Yen, A; Yingst, R A

    2009-05-22

    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, an approximately 750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those approximately 6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  7. Exploration of Victoria crater by the mars rover opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; De Souza, P.A.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, J. W.; Schroder, C.; Sullivan, R.J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ???750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ???6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  8. View of 'Bottomless Bay' on Rim of 'Victoria' (Altered Contrast)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a section of the scalloped rim called 'Bottomless Bay' (or 'Bahia sin Fondo'). This view shows the northeastern side of Bottomless Bay as seen from the southwest. The exposures combined into this mosaic were taken by the rover's panoramic camera through a 750-nanometer filter during the 1,019th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Dec. 5, 2006). Contrast has been altered to improve the visibility of details in shadowed areas.

  9. Bigger Crater Farther South of 'Victoria' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated version

    The team operating NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has chosen southeast as the direction for the rover's next extended journey, toward a crater more than 20 times wider than 'Victoria Crater.' Opportunity exited Victoria Crater on Aug. 28, 2008, after nearly a year investigating the interior.

    The crater to the southeast is about 22 kilometers (13.7 miles) in diameter and about 300 meters (1,000 feet) deep, exposing a much thicker stack of rock layers than those examined in Victoria Crater.

    The rover team informally calls the bigger crater 'Endeavour' and emphasizes that Opportunity may well never reach it. The rover has already operated more than 18 times longer than originally planned, and the distance to the big crater, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) matches the total distance Opportunity has driven since landing in early 2004. Driving southeastward is expected to take Opportunity to exposures of younger rock layers than is has previously seen and to provide access to rocks on the plain that were thrown long distances by impacts that excavated even deeper, more distant craters.

    The crater that Opportunity will drive toward dominates this orbital view from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter. The much smaller Victoria Crater is the most prominent circle near the upper left corner of the image. This view is a mosaic of about 50 separate visible-light images taken by THEMIS.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey and Mars Exploration Rover missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. THEMIS was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the

  10. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    PubMed

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  11. Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult to…

  12. A Snapshot: Multicultural Music Teaching in Schools in Victoria, Australia, Portrayed by School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethsinghe, Rohan Nishantha

    2012-01-01

    Due to the changing demographic factors and as demanded by the governmental policies and regulations, schools in Victoria, Australia, are expected to foster multicultural educational programs that address the diverse needs of students. Research has found that school teachers in Victoria struggle to provide the aspired to multicultural education…

  13. Events Management Education through CD-ROM Simulation at Victoria University of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Marcia; And Others

    There has been a rapid growth in the events industry in Victoria and Australia over the past five years with an increase in large scale events--resulting in substantive economic impact. The growth in events in Australia is projected to continue to beyond 2001. The Department of Management at Victoria University of Technology (VU) received a…

  14. 78 FR 48373 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Victoria County; 1997 8...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Texas; Victoria... Implementation Plan (SIP). The revision consists of a maintenance plan for Victoria County developed to...

  15. 78 FR 76403 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VICTORIA; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel VICTORIA... of the vessel VICTORIA is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``Carrying up to 12 passengers for...

  16. Analysis of continuous GPS measurements from southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Several years of continuous data have been collected at remote bedrock Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Annual to sub-annual variations are observed in the position time-series. An atmospheric pressure loading (APL) effect is calculated from pressure field anomalies supplied by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model loading an elastic Earth model. The predicted APL signal has a moderate correlation with the vertical position time-series at McMurdo, Ross Island (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) station MCM4), produced using a global solution. In contrast, a local solution in which MCM4 is the fiducial site generates a vertical time series for a remote site in Victoria Land (Cape Roberts, ROB4) which exhibits a low, inverse correlation with the predicted atmospheric pressure loading signal. If, in the future, known and well modeled geophysical loads can be separated from the time-series, then local hydrological loading, of interest for glaciological and climate applications, can potentially be extracted from the GPS time-series.

  17. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Vertical Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. On the Rim of 'Victoria Crater' (Polar Projection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars rover Opportunity reached the rim of 'Victoria Crater' in Mars' Meridiani Planum region with a 26-meter (85-foot) drive during the rover's 951st Martian day, or sol (Sept. 26, 2006). After the drive, the rover's navigation camera took the three exposures combined into this view of the crater's interior. This crater has been the mission's long-term destination for the past 21 Earth months.

    A half mile in the distance one can see about 20 percent of the far side of the crater framed by the rocky cliffs in the foreground to the left and right of the image. The rim of the crater is composed of alternating promontories, rocky points towering approximately 70 meters (230 feet) above the crater floor, and recessed alcoves. The bottom of the crater is covered by sand that has been shaped into ripples by the Martian wind.

    The position at the end of the sol 951 drive is about six meters from the lip of an alcove called 'Duck Bay.' The rover team planned a drive for sol 952 that would move a few more meters forward, plus more imaging of the near and far walls of the crater.

    Victoria Crater is about five times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' which Opportunity spent six months examining in 2004, and about 40 times wider than 'Eagle Crater,' where Opportunity first landed.

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  2. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (Enhanced)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is a false color rendering (enhanced to bring out details from within the shadowed regions of the scene) of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  3. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  4. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is a red-blue stereo anaglyph generated from images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 430-nanometer filters.

  5. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  6. Re-evaluation of the kinematics of Victoria Block using continuous GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Miranda, J. M.; Delvaux, D.; Stamps, D. S.; Saria, E.

    2013-04-01

    The divergent boundary between the Somalia and Nubia plates is a complex tectonic domain where extensional processes are localized along narrow rift structures, isolating small blocks imbedded within the East African Rift. One of these tectonic units is the Victoria Block, which is the subject of this study. Here we process space-geodetic data for 37 permanent GNSS stations distributed along Nubia, Somalia and Victoria to (1) compute the motion of the three tectonic units in the ITRF2008 reference frame and (2) deduce the relative motion of Victoria with respect to its neighbouring plates. The Nubia Plate motion is computed from a set of 25 stations, the Somalia Plate motion from a set of 7 stations and the Victoria motion from a set of 5 stations. Although the number and distribution of the used stations is still not optimal, the good adjustment between observed and predicted motions confirms that Victoria acts as a rigid tectonic block. The instantaneous relative Euler poles for the Nubia-Victoria and Somalia-Victoria pairs are now evaluated as 10.66°N, 32.98E°, 0.120° Myr-1 and 8.02°S, 32.29°E, 0.159° Myr-1, respectively. The computation of the relative interplate velocities along Victoria's boundary is straightforward in most situations because the western and northeastern boundary segments correspond to well-developed rift basins, where extension is mostly normal to rift basin flanks and seismicity concentrates along narrow structures. This is particularly evident on the Western Branch between Victoria and Nubia. The southeastern limit of the Victoria Block is poorly defined, and geodetic data indicate that differential motion between Somalia and Victoria may be accommodated by a complex boundary area, which roughly encompasses the Masai Terrain. Geodetic observations of the Victoria-Somalia boundary along the Eastern Branch, particularly in the Manyara Rift, reveal highly oblique horizontal extension. In this region seismicity is sparse which suggests

  7. Health promotion in local churches in Victoria: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ayton, Darshini; Manderson, Lenore; Smith, Ben J; Carey, Gemma

    2016-11-01

    Church-based health promotion has increasingly gained attention in strategies to address health disparities. In Australia, we have limited understanding of the role of local churches in health promotion and without this, how they might be involved in meaningful partnerships to tackle public health challenges. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how churches are involved in health promotion in the state of Victoria. The research involved in-depth interviews with ministers from 30 churches in urban and rural Victoria, and case studies with 10 of these churches to enable further exploration. These case studies, conducted in 2010, included interviews with church staff, focus groups with volunteers, participant observation and document analysis. Analysis was iterative, utilising open, axial and thematic coding. Three different expressions of church - traditional, new modern and emerging - were identified and found to differentiate the levels and types of health promotion activity. Case studies illustrate the different expressions of how church mission influences health promotion activity. The traditional churches were involved particularly in disease screening and health education activities with their own, predominantly older congregation members. The new modern churches tended to have the material and human resources to be harnessed in health promotion activities involving congregation members and others. Emerging churches, in contrast, engaged in broad health-promoting activities, including disease prevention, lifestyle activities and socio-ecological approaches at a community level. These research findings highlight the opportunities and challenges of engaging with local churches in health promotion efforts and public health programmes to address health inequities.

  8. Offshore investigations on Wilkes land-Victoria land margin, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Eittreim, S.L.

    1984-04-01

    In January 1984, the US Geological Survey research vessel S. P. Lee carried out investigations of the Antarctic continental margin in the Wilkes Land Victoria Land areas, using 24-channel and high-resolution seismic, sonobuoy refraction, gravity, magnetic, and bottom-sampling methods. This investigation augmented previous surveys of the Dumont d'Urville area by the French Petroleum Institute and explored new areas west and east to the boundary between the onshore Wilkes basin and the Victoria Land highlands. These surveys defined sediment thickness distribution and seismic stratigraphy in this frontier area. The tectonic style of the boundary between the East Antarctic craton and the younger crust of West Antarctica in the Ross Sea is revealed by one multichannel seismic line across this important boundary. The initial breakup of Antarctical from Australia occurred as a slowly spreading phase during the middle Cretaceous. According to Deep Sea Drilling Project results on the Tasman Rise, conditions of restricted circulation existed in the growing basin between the continents before the late Eocene. After the late Eocene, the major oceanic circulation pattern was established. Before that time, conditions were favorable for preservation of organic-carbon deposits on the sea floor. Among the questions to be addressed with this data are the following. How do apparent subsidence rates of this passive margin compare with others around the world. Does the onshore subglacial Wilkes basins to the Otway and Ceduna basins of Australia exists. What is the effect of the ice cap on the stratigraphy of this margin. Do the two major Tertiary ice advances have conspicuous seismic-stratigraphic signatures.

  9. PCBs in fish and their cestode parasites in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Oluoch-Otiego, John; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Kiptoo, Kipkorir Koross Godfrey; Chemoiwa, Emily J; Ngugi, Charles C; Simiyu, Gelas; Omutange, Elijah S; Ngure, Veronica; Opiyo, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3 μg/kg dw and 300-3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs.

  10. Impact of Land Use on Soil Respiration in Southwestern Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodosio, B.; Daly, E.; Pauwels, V. R. N.

    2015-12-01

    Land use management is one of the key contributors to the global environmental change. Considerable changes in landscapes have been experienced in Southwestern Victoria, Australia in the past two decades. Eucalyptus globulus (blue gum) plantations have expanded, resulting in possible changes in the water and carbon balances of catchments. The shift from pastures to plantations could have a significant impact on the local carbon balance with possible effects on atmospheric CO2 concentration and vegetation productivity. We present preliminary measurements from a field study comparing soil respiration in a plantation and a pasture. Adjacent catchments in Southwestern Victoria, near Gatum, were used as study areas; the prominent difference between the two catchments is the land use, with one catchment being used as a pasture for livestock grazing and the other catchment being mainly planted with blue gums. The variability of soil respiration in the pasture is governed by differences in soil moisture and substrate content due to local features of the topography and livestock grazing. Soil respiration measurements in the plantation were taken on mounds, access tracks, and open spaces. Most observations on mounds had higher soil respiration possibly due to root and mycorrhizal respiration. The measurements in open spaces had comparable values with mound measurements; this might be due to a less limited radiation. The soil respiration between trees had lower values, possibly because of radiation limitation due to the canopy cover. These preliminary measurements allow us to compare soil respiration variability across catchments with different land uses. This is important to estimate CO2 fluxes from soil to the atmosphere in large areas and will be valuable in estimating gross primary production from measurements of net ecosystem exchange.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the GNSS derived Victoria plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apolinário, João; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel

    2014-05-01

    Fernandes et al. (2013) estimated the angular velocity of the Victoria tectonic block from geodetic data (GNSS derived velocities) only.. GNSS observations are sparse in this region and it is therefore of the utmost importance to use the available data (5 sites) in the most optimal way. Unfortunately, the existing time-series were/are affected by missing data and offsets. In addition, some time-series were close to the considered minimal threshold value to compute one reliable velocity solution: 2.5-3.0 years. In this research, we focus on the sensitivity of the derived angular velocity to changes in the data (longer data-span for some stations) by extending the used data-span: Fernandes et al. (2013) used data until September 2011. We also investigate the effect of adding other stations to the solution, which is now possible since more stations became available in the region. In addition, we study if the conventional power-law plus white noise model is indeed the best stochastic model. In this respect, we apply different noise models using HECTOR (Bos et al. (2013), which can use different noise models and estimate offsets and seasonal signals simultaneously. The seasonal signal estimation is also other important parameter, since the time-series are rather short or have large data spans at some stations, which implies that the seasonal signals still can have some effect on the estimated trends as shown by Blewitt and Lavellee (2002) and Bos et al. (2010). We also quantify the magnitude of such differences in the estimation of the secular velocity and their effect in the derived angular velocity. Concerning the offsets, we investigate how they can, detected and undetected, influence the estimated plate motion. The time of offsets has been determined by visual inspection of the time-series. The influence of undetected offsets has been done by adding small synthetic random walk signals that are too small to be detected visually but might have an effect on the

  12. Analysis of the water balance of Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossent, J.; de Brabanter, W.; Bauwens, W.

    2009-04-01

    Lake Victoria is situated within an elevated plateau in the western part of Africa's Great Rift Valley and lies within the territory of three countries: Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya. It is Africa's largest lake and the second widest fresh water lake in the world in terms of surface area. It is also the source of the longest branch of the River Nile, the White Nile. The lake's shallowness, limited river inflow, and large surface area relative to its volume make it vulnerable to climate changes and fluctuations of the water level. This affects the surrounding countries and their people a lot, especially in terms of their food supply and economy. The aim of this study was to get more information on the causes of these fluctuations by analysing the water balance of the lake for the period 1970-1974. It was based both on historical data and measurements and new calculations, and compared with previous studies (e.g. Suttcliffe and Parks, 1999). Precipitation and evaporation over the lake surface were calculated with the Thiessen Polygons method, using measurements from stations around the lake and on the islands. The total inflow of the lake is the sum of the contributions of twelve subbasins. One of these subcatchments, the Nzoia-catchment, was modeled with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), a physically based, semi-distributed river basin simulator, as a contribution to the development of a water balance model for Lake Victoria. To calculate the outflow at the Owen Falls Dam in Jinja (Uganda), gauge heights of the lake were used in combination with the "Agreed Curve" (the relationship between water level and flow that was set by the policy makers). As the lake is assumed to be a system with a closed mass balance, the combination of the variations in the above mentioned components resulted in changes of the lake's storage, leading to fluctuations of the water level. For the period 1970-1974 the calculated mean monthly evaporation is 133 mm, with a standard deviation

  13. Trends and disparities in sepsis hospitalisations in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ore, Timothy

    2015-12-14

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with sepsis admitted to hospitals in Victoria, Australia, during the period 2004-14. The data include incidence, severity and mortality.Methods In all, 44 222 sepsis hospitalisations were identified between 2004-05 and 2013-14 from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset. The dataset contains clinical and demographic information on all admissions to acute public and private hospitals. Using the International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) Australian Modification codes, incidence rates, severity of disease and mortality were calculated.Results Sepsis hospitalisation rates per 10 000 population increased significantly (P < 0.01) over the period, from 6.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-7.8) to 10.0 (95% CI 9.1-11.1), an annual growth rate of 3.8%. The age-standardised in-hospital death rates per 100 000 population grew significantly (P < 0.01) from 9.2 (95% CI 7.8-10.4) in 2004-05 to 13.0 (95% CI 11.7-14.6) in 2013-14, an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Among people under 45 years of age, the 0-4 years age group had the highest hospitalisation rate (3.0 per 10 000 population; 95% CI 2.7-3.4). Nearly half (46.2%) of all sepsis hospitalisations were among patients born overseas, with a rate of 14.5 per 10 000 population (95% CI 12.4-16.2) in that group compared with a rate of 5.9 per 10 000 population (95% CI 5.3-6.7) for patients born in Australia. The age-standardised sepsis hospitalisation rate was 2.6-fold greater in the lowest compared with highest socioeconomic areas (12.7 per 10 000 population (95% CI 11.2-13.8) vs 4.8 per 10 000 population (95% CI 4.1-5.7), respectively).Conclusion This paper shows a significant upward trend in both sepsis separation rates and in-hospital death rates over the period; unlike sepsis, in-hospital death rates from all diagnoses fell over the same period. The results can be used to stimulate review of

  14. What do Victoria family physicians think about housecalls?

    PubMed Central

    Hammett, Tess

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of family physicians doing housecalls, the types of patients they think are appropriate to visit at home, whether physicians are satisfied with the number of housecalls they make, reasons family physicians list for not doing housecalls, and what they consider acceptable remuneration and travel time for housecalls. Design A 12-question paper survey was formulated specifically for this study and piloted by 6 family physicians in British Columbia. It was then mailed with a cover letter to 250 physicians' offices and faxed back anonymously. Setting Family physicians' private offices in Victoria, BC, between December 1 and 19, 2010. Participants A total of 250 randomly selected family physicians from a list of 552 physicians practising in Victoria on the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia website. Main outcome measures Proportion of physicians doing housecalls, reasons stated for not doing housecalls, and mean acceptable remuneration and travel time for a housecall. Results A total of 73 surveys (29.2%) were returned, 5 of which were not fully completed but were included for the questions that were answered. Sixty-four physicians (87.7%) did at least 1 housecall in the past year, 23 (31.5%) did housecalls at least once a month, and 12 (16.4%) did them at least once a week. Of 71 respondents, 64 physicians (90.1%) listed lack of time as a barrier to performing housecalls, 37 (52.1%) listed unsatisfactory remuneration, and 35 (49.3%) listed lengthy travel times. Most physicians indicated that appropriate remuneration for a housecall was either $142.21 (n = 30, 42.9%) or $108.41 (n = 26, 37.1%). Thirty-seven physicians (52.9%) noted that 20 minutes was an acceptable maximum 1-way travel time for a housecall, while 29 (41.4%) listed 10 minutes. Conclusion Several systemic factors, including lack of time, unsatisfactory remuneration, and large geographic catchment areas, make it difficult for urban family physicians

  15. Victorias energy efficiency and cogeneration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-31

    This report describes a two-phase energy project currently contemplated for joint implementation at the Victorias Milling Company, a large sugar mill and refinery on the island of Negros in the Visayas region of the Philippines. The Energy Efficiency (EE) phase is expected to reduce of eliminate VMC`s fossil fuel consumption, which will have a direct and substantial impact on carbon emissions. Phase I is an EE project which involves the installation of equipment to reduce steam and electricity demand in the factories. Phase II, will involve retrofitting and increasing the capacity of the steam and power generation systems, and selling power to the grid. By increasing efficiency and output, the cogeneration project will allow the factory to use only bagasse sugar cane fiber waste as fuel for energy needs. The cogeneration project will also eliminate VMC`s electricity purchases and supply additional power for the island, which will offset generation capacity expansion on the island and the Visayas region.

  16. Establishing a sustainable childhood obesity monitoring system in regional Victoria.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Nicholas; Strugnell, Claudia; Bell, Colin; Allender, Steve

    2016-12-19

    Issue addressed: Childhood obesity poses a significant immediate and long-term burden to individuals, societies and health systems. Infrequent and inadequate monitoring has led to uncertainty about trends in childhood obesity prevalence in many countries. High-quality data, collected at regular intervals, over extended timeframes, with high response rates and timely feedback are essential to support prevention efforts. Our aim was to establish a sustainable childhood obesity monitoring system in regional Australia to collect accurate anthropometric and behavioural data, provide timely feedback to communities and build community engagement and capacity.Methods: All schools from six government regions of South-West Victoria were invited to participate. Passive (opt-out) consent was used to collect measured anthropometric and self-reported behavioural data from children in years 2, 4, and 6, aged 7-12 years.Results: We achieved a 70% school participation rate (n=46) and a 93% student response rate (n=2198) among government and independent schools. Results were reported within 10 weeks post data collection. Harnessing high levels of community engagement throughout the planning, data collection and reporting phases increased community capacity and data utility.Conclusions: The monitoring system achieved high response rates, community engagement and community capacity building, and delivered results back to the community in a timely manner.So what?: This system has the potential to provide sustainable monitoring of childhood obesity that is not dependent on external funding. The results of this monitoring will likely inform health promotion efforts in communities across the region.

  17. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this stereo view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. It is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Mandatory bicycle helmet use: experience in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vulcan, A P; Cameron, M H; Watson, W L

    1992-01-01

    On July 1, 1990, the legislation requiring wearing of an approved bicycle (safety) helmet by all pedal cyclists, unless exempted, came into effect in Victoria, Australia. The paper describes the more important activities which paved the way for this initiative and presents some preliminary information about the effect of the legislation on wearing rates and head injuries. Since 1980 there has been promotion of helmet use through bicycle education in schools, mass media publicity, support by professional organizations and community groups, bulk purchase schemes, and government rebates for helmet purchases. The Australian Standard for bicycle safety helmets has also been changed to meet community demands for lighter helmets with more provision for ventilation. There has been a steady increase in voluntary helmet use in Melbourne from 1983 to March 1990, as follows: 5% to 70% in primary school children; 2% to 20% in secondary students; and 27% to 40% in adults. In the period after the legislation, with relatively little enforcement, these three groups have shown substantial increases in helmet use rates, rising to 70-90% in most cases. Preliminary data show that the numbers of bicyclists with a head injury have dropped in the period since the legislation came into effect. The possible contributions to this reduction, of less bicycle use and lower risk of head injury in an accident, are discussed.

  19. Stratigraphie relations of australites in the Port Campbell Embayment, Victoria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemakeri, E.M.; Ralph, Uhlherr H.

    1999-01-01

    In the Port Campbell Embayment of Victoria, australites have been found in situ in channel deposits of the Hanson Plain Sand of Pliocene and Pleistocene age. The large majority of the australites, however, occur as a lag deposit at the basal contact of the Sturgess Sand of late Pleistocene and Holocene age and are spatially correlated with ferruginous sandstone clasts that are derived from the Hanson Plain Sand. Some of the tektites are imbedded in or bonded to the ferruginous sandstone clasts, but most are found as individual tektite fragments. A few percent of the tektites have nearly perfectly preserved, complete aerodynamically shaped forms. The sandstone clasts and associated tektites have been reworked from the much older underlying Hanson Plain and have been locally concentrated in the lag deposit. Some tektites also occur at higher levels in the Sturgess Sand, almost invariably in association with stone flakes, exotic stones transported by the aborigines and, locally, with middens of mollusc shells. Circumstantial evidence indicates that the aborigines transported the tektites found in the upper part of the Sturgess, particularly at Stanhope Bay. As Port Campbell australites unequivocally occur in strata much older than the late Pleistocene and Holocene Sturgess, there is no longer any conflict between the apparent stratigraphie age of the tektites and the middle Pleistocene ages obtained by various Chronometrie methods. ?? Meteoritical Society, 1999.

  20. Injuries associated with fireworks in Victoria: an epidemiological overview

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwadud, O.; Ozanne-Smith, J.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the epidemiological features of injuries associated with fireworks. Design—A retrospective study of reported cases. Subjects—Subjects were those who attended selected Victorian hospital emergency departments (n=17) and those admitted for firework related injuries (n=16). Results—The mean (SD) age of attenders at emergency department between January 1988 and June 1996, was 8.9 (6.2) years and most (88%) were under 18 years of age. Males accounted for 71% of the cases. The most common anatomical sites and types of injury were head (47%) and burns (88%), respectively. About 53% of the injuries were caused by firecrackers, the remainder by sparklers and penny bangers. Among those admitted to hospital between July 1987 and June 1996, the mean (SD) age was 22.9 (14.8) years and 50% were under 18 years of age. Males accounted for 87% of the cases. There was a significant difference in mean age between those admitted and not admitted to hospital, the former being significantly older. Conclusions—Although relatively rare, injuries from fireworks still occur in Victoria after legislative restrictions on their sale in 1985. Consequently, there is a potential risk for injuries among children, particularly from firecrackers. More enforcement of the regulations, education, and parental supervision are needed to prevent injuries from fireworks. PMID:9887417

  1. Remote sensing water observation for supporting Lake Victoria weed management.

    PubMed

    Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Laneve, Giovanni; Fusilli, Lorenzo; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico

    2009-05-01

    This paper aims to assess the suitability of remote sensing for enhancing the management of water body resources and for providing an inexpensive way to gather, on a wide area, weed infestation extent and optical parameter linked to the water body status. Remotely sensed satellite images and ancillary ground true data were used to produce land cover maps, trough classification techniques, and water compounds maps, applying radiative transfer models. The study proposed within the framework of the cooperation between Italian Foreign Affair Ministry (through the University of Rome) and Kenyan Authorities has been carried out on the Kenyan part of the Lake Victoria. This lake is one of the largest freshwater bodies of the world where, over the last few years environmental challenges and human impact have perturbed the ecological balance affecting the biodiversity. The objective of this research study is to define the thematic products, retrievable from satellite images, like weed abundance maps and water compound concentrations. These products, if provided with an appropriate time frequency, are useful to identify the preconditions for the occurrence of hazard events like abnormal macrophyte proliferation and to develop an up-to-date decision support system devoted to an apprised territory, environment and resource management.

  2. Spectral analysis of storm surge in Hong Kong Victoria Harbour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tou, Stephen K. W.; Arumugam, K.

    Based on a linear model the dynamic characteristics of Victoria Harbour (Hong Kong) is obtained by means of spectral analysis of the storm surge hydrographs. The results show that the harbour is an ideal one which has a small gain factor and a flat response in the frequency range from 0 to 6 × 10 -5 Hz. The results also show that the power spectra possess the narrow band features which indicates that the periodic components associated with tidal motions are predominant over the random components. The power spectrum corresponding to a frequency of 2.3 × 10 -5 Hz is likely to be associated with the astronomical tides. The peaks in the power spectra at zero frequency suggest that the pumping mode of oscillations is dominant in a storm surge. This mode of oscillations represents the temporal variations in mean sea level. To demonstrate the full potential of the present model, more case studies should be conducted when surge as well as non-surge data are available.

  3. Mossbauer study of sediment cores from Victoria harbour, Hong Kong

    PubMed

    Tanner; Leong; Pan; Yu

    2000-12-01

    The concentrations of Fe and other abundant metals in 6 m-long sediment cores from four locations in the world's largest container port, Hong Kong, have been determined, in addition to physical characteristics and 210Pb activities. Fe is generally present at concentrations between 2% and 3% (depending on the particle size), similar to values found in granitic rocks. Its speciation was studied by room temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy. Two Fe(II) species and one Fe(III) species were found to be present in the cores. The relative proportions of Fe(II) and Fe(III) generally changed with the depth of sediment. Most noticeably, for the core taken from near the Star Ferry Pier at the Kowloon side of Victoria harbour, the proportion of Fe(II) was fairly constant down to 4.75 m, but then decreased with depth, so that near the core base (6 m depth), the iron was present almost exclusively as Fe(III). The colour of the core changed from olive grey to olive yellow between 5 and 6 m. According to the core chronology, this depth represents ca. 1900, before the ferry pier construction, when the harbour was unpolluted.

  4. Management of glioblastoma in Victoria, Australia (2006-2008).

    PubMed

    Gan, Hui K; Rosenthal, Mark A; Cher, Lawrence; Dally, Michael; Drummond, Katharine; Murphy, Michael; Thursfield, Vicky

    2015-09-01

    We describe the management of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in a population-based cohort and compare this to a previously studied cohort. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with GBM from 2006-2008 in Victoria, Australia. Patients were identified from the population-based Victorian Cancer Registry and their treating doctors surveyed by questionnaire. Outcomes were then compared to a study of GBM patients who were diagnosed between 1998 and 2000 using an identical methodology. We reviewed 351 eligible patients. There were slightly more males (62%) and a minority had multifocal disease (13%). Total macroscopic resection, partial resection or biopsy only was performed in 32%, 37% and 24% of patients, respectively. The majority of patients were referred to a radiation oncologist and medical oncologist postoperatively. A total of 56% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy with concurrent and sequential temozolomide and had a median survival of 14.4 months. This was significantly better than patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy alone in the current or earlier cohorts (2006-2008: median survival 6.2 months, p<0.0001 versus 1998-2000: 8.9 months, p<0.0001). This study demonstrates that postoperative chemoradiation has become the standard of care in this Victorian population with an associated improvement in median survival.

  5. Diversity of soil yeasts isolated from South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Scorzetti, G.; Iszard, M.; Rodriguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Unicellular fungi, commonly referred to as yeasts, were found to be components of the culturable soil fungal population in Taylor Valley, Mt. Discovery, Wright Valley, and two mountain peaks of South Victoria Land, Antarctica. Samples were taken from sites spanning a diversity of soil habitats that were not directly associated with vertebrate activity. A large proportion of yeasts isolated in this study were basidiomycetous species (89%), of which 43% may represent undescribed species, demonstrating that culturable yeasts remain incompletely described in these polar desert soils. Cryptococcus species represented the most often isolated genus (33%) followed by Leucosporidium (22%). Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression using stepwise selection was used to model the relation between abiotic variables (principle component 1 and principle component 2 scores) and yeast biodiversity (the number of species present at a given site). These analyses identified soil pH and electrical conductivity as significant predictors of yeast biodiversity. Species-specific PCR primers were designed to rapidly discriminate among the Dioszegia and Leucosporidium species collected in this study. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  7. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  8. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  9. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  10. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  11. Impact of cruise ship emissions in Victoria, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poplawski, Karla; Setton, Eleanor; McEwen, Bryan; Hrebenyk, Dan; Graham, Mark; Keller, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Characterization of the effects of cruise ship emissions on local air quality is scarce. Our objective was to investigate community level concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and sulphur dioxide (SO 2) associated with cruise ships in James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. Data obtained over four years (2005-2008) at the nearest air quality network site located 3.5 km from the study area, a CALPUFF modeling exercise (2007), and continuous measurements taken in the James Bay community over a three-month period during the 2009 cruise ship season were examined. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and nitrogen oxide (NO) were elevated on weekends with ships present with winds from the direction of the terminal to the monitoring station. SO 2 displayed the greatest impact from the presence of cruise ships in the area. Network data showed peaks in hourly SO 2 when ships were in port during all years. The CALPUFF modeling analysis found predicted 24-hour SO 2 levels to exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines of 20 μg m -3 for approximately 3% of 24-hour periods, with a maximum 24-hour concentration in the community of 41 μg m -3; however, the CALPUFF model underestimated concentrations when predicted and measured concentrations were compared at the network site. Continuous monitoring at the location in the community predicted to experience highest SO 2 concentrations measured a maximum 24-hour concentration of 122 μg m -3 and 16% of 24-hour periods were above the WHO standard. The 10-minute concentrations of SO 2 reached up to 599 μg m -3 and exceeded the WHO 10-minute SO 2 guideline (500 μg m -3) for 0.03% of 10-minute periods. No exceedences of BC Provincial or Canadian guidelines or standards were observed.

  12. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma.

  13. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  14. Green Power Partnership Videos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  15. Stratigraphic architecture of bedrock reference section, Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, Lauren A.; Grotzinger, John P.; Hayes, Alex G.; Rubin, David M.; Squyres, Steve W.; Bell, James F.; Herkenhoff, Ken E.

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has investigated bedrock outcrops exposed in several craters at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in an effort to better understand the role of surface processes in its geologic history. Opportunity has recently completed its observations of Victoria crater, which is 750 m in diameter and exposes cliffs up to ~15 m high. The plains surrounding Victoria crater are ~10 m higher in elevation than those surrounding the previously explored Endurance crater, indicating that the Victoria crater exposes a stratigraphically higher section than does the Endurance crater; however, Victoria strata overlap in elevation with the rocks exposed at the Erebus crater. Victoria crater has a well-developed geomorphic pattern of promontories and embayments that define the crater wall and that reveal thick bedsets (3–7m) of large-scale cross-bedding, interpreted as fossil eolian dunes. Opportunity was able to drive into the crater at Duck Bay, located on the western margin of Victoria crater. Data from the Microscopic Imager and Panoramic Camera reveal details about the structures, textures, and depositional and diagenetic events that influenced the Victoria bedrock. A lithostratigraphic subdivision of bedrock units was enabled by the presence of a light-toned band that lines much of the upper rim of the crater. In ascending order, three stratigraphic units are named Lyell, Smith, and Steno; Smith is the light-toned band. In the Reference Section exposed along the ingress path at Duck Bay, Smith is interpreted to represent a zone of diagenetic recrystallization; however, its upper contact also coincides with a primary erosional surface. Elsewhere in the crater the diagenetic band crosscuts the physical stratigraphy. Correlation with strata present at nearby promontory Cape Verde indicates that there is an erosional surface at the base of the cliff face that corresponds to the erosional contact below Steno. The erosional contact at the base of Cape Verde

  16. Monitoring the water balance of Lake Victoria, East Africa, from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Sean; Wahr, John

    2009-05-01

    SummaryUsing satellite gravimetric and altimetric data, we examine trends in water storage and lake levels of multiple lakes in the Great Rift Valley region of East Africa for the years 2003-2008. GRACE total water storage estimates reveal that water storage declined in much of East Africa, by as much as 60 {mm}/{year}, while altimetric data show that lake levels in some large lakes dropped by as much as 1-2 m. The largest declines occurred in Lake Victoria, the Earth's second largest freshwater body. Because the discharge from the outlet of Lake Victoria is used to generate hydroelectric power, the role of human management in the lake's decline has been questioned. By comparing catchment water storage trends to lake level trends, we confirm that climatic forcing explains only about 50decline. This analysis provides an independent means of assessing the relative impacts of climate and human management on the water balance of Lake Victoria that does not depend on observations of dam discharge, which may not be publically available. In the second part of the study, the individual components of the lake water balance are estimated. Satellite estimates of changes in lake level, precipitation, and evaporation are used with observed lake discharge to develop a parameterization for estimating subsurface inflows due to changes in groundwater storage estimated from satellite gravimetry. At seasonal timescales, this approach provides closure to Lake Victoria's water balance to within 17 {mm}/{month}. The third part of this study uses the water balance of a downstream water body, Lake Kyoga, to estimate the outflow from Lake Victoria remotely. Because Lake Kyoga is roughly 20 times smaller in area than Lake Victoria, its water balance is strongly influenced by inflow from Lake Victoria. Lake Kyoga has been shown to act as a linear reservoir, where its outflow is proportional to the height of the lake. This model can be used with satellite altimetric lake levels to estimate a

  17. Assessing Human Impacts on the Water Balance of Lake Victoria Using GRACE and Altimeters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, S. C.; Wahr, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    GRACE has provided global estimates of vertically integrated water storage anomalies at monthly intervals with a useful spatial resolution of 300-500 km. Water levels of large lakes are now routinely monitored by satellite altimeters. By combining these datasets, it may be possible to separate the effects of climate and human management on lake levels. During the period 2002-2006, the levels of Lake Victoria dropped about two meters. Water storage changes of Lake Victoria and other large lakes in the East African Rift Valley are compared, and the relative impacts of climate and human management are shown to be of similar magnitude.

  18. Chemodenitrification in the cryoecosystem of Lake Vida, Victoria Valley, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, N E; Gandhi, H; Trubl, G; Murray, A E

    2016-11-01

    Lake Vida, in the Victoria Valley of East Antarctica, is frozen, yet harbors liquid brine (~20% salt, >6 times seawater) intercalated in the ice below 16 m. The brine has been isolated from the surface for several thousand years. The brine conditions (permanently dark, -13.4 °C, lack of O2 , and pH of 6.2) and geochemistry are highly unusual. For example, nitrous oxide (N2 O) is present at a concentration among the highest reported for an aquatic environment. Only a minor (17) O anomaly was observed in N2 O, indicating that this gas was predominantly formed in the lake. In contrast, the (17) O anomaly in nitrate (NO3-) in Lake Vida brine indicates that approximately half or more of the NO3- present is derived from atmospheric deposition. Lake Vida brine was incubated in the presence of (15) N-enriched substrates for 40 days. We did not detect microbial nitrification, dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to ammonium (NH4+), anaerobic ammonium oxidation, or denitrification of N2 O under the conditions tested. In the presence of (15) N-enriched nitrite (NO2-), both N2 and N2 O exhibited substantial (15) N enrichments; however, isotopic enrichment declined with time, which is unexpected. Additions of (15) N-NO2- alone and in the presence of HgCl2 and ZnCl2 to aged brine at -13 °C resulted in linear increases in the δ(15) N of N2 O with time. As HgCl2 and ZnCl2 are effective biocides, we interpret N2 O production in the aged brine to be the result of chemodenitrification. With this understanding, we interpret our results from the field incubations as the result of chemodenitrification stimulated by the addition of (15) N-enriched NO2- and ZnCl2 and determined rates of N2 O and N2 production of 4.11-41.18 and 0.55-1.75 nmol L(-1)  day(-1) , respectively. If these rates are representative of natural production, the current concentration of N2 O in Lake Vida could have been reached between 6 and 465 years. Thus, chemodenitrification alone is sufficient to explain the

  19. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  20. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  1. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  2. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  3. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  4. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  5. Structural Analysis of the Victoria Quadrangle (H2) of Mercury based on NASA MESSENGER Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Objective of this thesis is the mapping and structural analysis of the H2 quadrangle, “Victoria”, and a reconnaissance study of the geometry and kinematics of lobate scarps on Mercury. To this end, I produced a 1:3,000,000 geologic map of the area using the images provided by the NASA spacecraft MESSENGER, which has been orbiting the planet since March, 2011. The geologic map shows the distribution of smooth plains, intermediate plains, intercrater plains units and a classification of crater materials based on an empirical distinction among three stages of degradation. Structural mapping shows that the H2 quadrangle is dominated by N-S faults (here grouped into the Victoria system) to the east and NE-SW faults (Larrocha system) to the west, with the secondary existence of NW-SE-trending faults (Carnegie system) in the north-western area of the quadrangle. A systematic analysis of these systems has led to the following results. 1) The Victoria system is characterized by a main array of faults located along Victoria Rupes - Endeavour Rupes - Antoniadi Dorsum. The segmentation of this array into three different sectors changes from north to south and is spatially linked to the presence of three volcanic vents located at the boundaries between each sector and at the northern end of the Victoria Rupes sector, suggesting that volcanism and faulting are interrelated. 2) The main array of Carnegie system is kinematically linked and antithetical to the Victoria system. Both systems have arguably controlled the growth of a longitudinal, fault-free, crustal and gravimetric bulge in the central area of the Victoria quadrangle, which is interpreted as a regional contractional pop-up. 3) The Larrocha system is interrupted against the central bulge and thus is probably older than the Victoria and Carnegie systems. Buffered crater counting performed on the Victoria system confirms the young relative age of its fault segments with respect to the map units. The faults of the

  6. GFP-like proteins stably accumulate in lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Mizushima, Noboru; Yoshimori, Tamotsu; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, its GFP variants (Aequorea GFPs), and more recently the novel GFP-like proteins from Anthozoa have greatly advanced our technologies for fluorescently labeling cells, organelles, and proteins. It has been shown, however, that some GFP-like proteins have a tendency to oligomerize and aggregate. Transfection of GFP-like proteins into cultured mammalian cells results in bright punctate structures, which are thought to be cytosolic protein aggregates. In this study, we demonstrate that these structures are not cytosolic aggregates but lysosomes that have accumulated the GFP-like proteins. Our biochemical and immunocytochemical experiments have revealed that certain GFP-like proteins expressed in the cytosol enter lysosomes possibly by an autophagy-related mechanism, but retain their fluorescence because of resistance not only to acidity but also to lysosomal proteases.

  7. Equity Indicators: Measures of Socio-Economic Status at Victoria University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Genevieve; Doughney, James; Palermo, Josephine

    After a review of relevant literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and the ways in which is used for higher education institutional research and policy, a detailed data analysis of Victoria University (VU), Australia student data was undertaken. Between 10,000 and 15,000 domestic student addresses were geocoded to Australian Bureau of Statistics…

  8. A Survey of People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Webber, R.; Bowers, B.; McKenzie-Green, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Australia's national ageing policy recognises that people ageing with intellectual disability (ID) require particular attention, yet there is no policy framework concerning this population. This study describes the distribution and characteristics of people with ID in residential aged care in Victoria, provides insights into the…

  9. The Killing of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria: A Myth Challenged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadswell, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    On 21 March 1941, the Council of the Workers' Educational Association of Victoria, Australia, (the Association) voted the organisation out of existence. The demise was in no way contemplated, and there was no practical reason why the Council acted in the way it did. This paper is the story of the destruction of a successful adult education…

  10. Connections '96. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (2nd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton-Sakari, Mary, Ed.; Miller, Carole S., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 19 papers presented at the second annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines, including preschool education, classroom communication, mathematics instruction, theater, attention deficit disorders, distance learning by rural home schoolers,…

  11. Increase in Meningococcal Serogroup W Disease, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Kerrie; Sohail, Asma; Franklin, Lucinda J.; Bond, Katherine A.; Brahmi, Aicha; Romanes, Finn; Ong, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, invasive meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W increased from 4% of all cases in 2013 to 30% in 2015. This increase resulted largely from strains similar to those in the serogroup W sequence type 11 clonal complex, previously described in the United Kingdom and South America. PMID:27648521

  12. Visy Cares Hub and Victoria University: Making the Door of a University Open to the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, a group of men embarked on a remarkable project that resulted in building a two million dollar youth centre in one of Melbourne's most disadvantaged communities. From the outset, Victoria University (VU) was a keen partner in the project. This project had key synergies with the current experiences of the University--a dual sector higher…

  13. Perception of Aquaculture Education to Support Further Growth of Aquaculture Industry in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awal, Sadiqul; Christie, Andrew; Watson, Matthew; Hannadige, Asanka G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The central aim of this study was to determine the perception of aquaculture educational provisions in the state of Victoria, and whether they are sufficient to ultimately support further growth of the industry. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were formulated and distributed to participants in a variety of ways, including via…

  14. Employment Shifts in the TAFE Workforce in Victoria, 1993-98. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra

    Data on the work force in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes in Victoria, Australia, for 1993-1998 reveal a number of structural changes. First, the number of women staff increased from 46% to 53%, although men still constitute 54% of the teaching staff. As full-time staff employment dropped an average of 1.1% annually, part-time…

  15. Vulnerability to Bushfires in Rural Australia: A Case Study from East Gippsland, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Joshua; Handmer, John; Mercer, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature and causes of vulnerability to bushfires in the Wulgulmerang district of East Gippsland, Victoria, in south-eastern Australia. In 2003 bushfires devastated the small population of this isolated farming district, destroying homes, agricultural assets and public infrastructure. The fires also adversely affected the…

  16. History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Verschuren, Dirk; Johnson, Thomas C; Kling, Hedy J; Edgington, David N; Leavitt, Peter R; Brown, Erik T; Talbot, Michael R; Hecky, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    Lake Victoria, the largest tropical lake in the world, suffers from severe eutrophication and the probable extinction of up to half of its 500+ species of endemic cichlid fishes. The continuing degradation of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has serious long-term consequences for the ecosystem services it provides, and may threaten social welfare in the countries bordering its shores. Evaluation of recent ecological changes in the context of aquatic food-web alterations, catchment disturbance and natural ecosystem variability has been hampered by the scarcity of historical monitoring data. Here, we present high-resolution palaeolimnological data, which show that increases in phytoplankton production developed from the 1930s onwards, which parallels human-population growth and agricultural activity in the Lake Victoria drainage basin. Dominance of bloom-forming cyanobacteria since the late 1980s coincided with a relative decline in diatom growth, which can be attributed to the seasonal depletion of dissolved silica resulting from 50 years of enhanced diatom growth and burial. Eutrophication-induced loss of deep-water oxygen started in the early 1960s, and may have contributed to the 1980s collapse of indigenous fish stocks by eliminating suitable habitat for certain deep-water cichlids. Conservation of Lake Victoria as a functioning ecosystem is contingent upon large-scale implementation of improved land-use practices. PMID:11839198

  17. From Aspiration to Destination: Understanding the Decisions of University Applicants in Regional Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Andrew; Burnheim, Catherine; Joschko, Lucie; Luckman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the choices and destinations of prospective university students from three regional areas in Victoria. The study is based on information collected for tertiary applicants in the Gippsland, Bendigo and Mildura areas, all of which host a local university campus. Using application and enrollment data, we examine the choices that…

  18. 75 FR 9114 - FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas AGENCY: Federal... counterproposal filed by Fort Bend Broadcasting Company, licensee of Station KHTZ(FM), Ganado, Texas, to upgrade Station KHTZ(FM) from Channel 284C2 to Channel 235C and to modify its license accordingly....

  19. History and timing of human impact on Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Verschuren, Dirk; Johnson, Thomas C; Kling, Hedy J; Edgington, David N; Leavitt, Peter R; Brown, Erik T; Talbot, Michael R; Hecky, Robert E

    2002-02-07

    Lake Victoria, the largest tropical lake in the world, suffers from severe eutrophication and the probable extinction of up to half of its 500+ species of endemic cichlid fishes. The continuing degradation of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has serious long-term consequences for the ecosystem services it provides, and may threaten social welfare in the countries bordering its shores. Evaluation of recent ecological changes in the context of aquatic food-web alterations, catchment disturbance and natural ecosystem variability has been hampered by the scarcity of historical monitoring data. Here, we present high-resolution palaeolimnological data, which show that increases in phytoplankton production developed from the 1930s onwards, which parallels human-population growth and agricultural activity in the Lake Victoria drainage basin. Dominance of bloom-forming cyanobacteria since the late 1980s coincided with a relative decline in diatom growth, which can be attributed to the seasonal depletion of dissolved silica resulting from 50 years of enhanced diatom growth and burial. Eutrophication-induced loss of deep-water oxygen started in the early 1960s, and may have contributed to the 1980s collapse of indigenous fish stocks by eliminating suitable habitat for certain deep-water cichlids. Conservation of Lake Victoria as a functioning ecosystem is contingent upon large-scale implementation of improved land-use practices.

  20. Compatibility of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni isolates with Biomphalaria snail species from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Adriko, Moses; Standley, Claire J; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Mwesigwa, Gerald; Kristensen, Thomas K; Stothard, J Russell; Kabatereine, Narcis B

    2013-11-01

    In order to investigate the capacity of being intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the Ugandan F1 generation of Biomphalaria snail species that were laboratory-bred from parent populations originally collected from either Lake Victoria or Lake Albert was challenged with sympatric and non-sympatric S. mansoni isolates. After a prepatent period of 20 days, a daily 10-hourly snail shedding for cercariae was done to determine the infection rate, cercarial production per hour and survival period of infected snails. The study suggests that when parasite strains from a different geographical origin is used for infection, survival of infected snails increase, leading to an increased transmission potential. Although earlier literature had indicated that the Lake Victoria Biomphalaria sudanica is refractory to S. mansoni, we showed that all Ugandan Biomphalaria spp., including B. sudanica from all locations, were highly susceptible to the S. mansoni isolates. Thus if B. choanomphala, which is an efficient intermediate host in Lake Victoria, is given an opportunity to occupy Lake Albert, it will most likely be compatible with the Albertine S. mansoni parasites. Equally, if B. stanleyi, currently restricted to Lake Albert invades Lake Victoria, it is likely to act as an efficient intermediate host. Future work should concentrate on intraspecific population-level differences in compatibility.

  1. What Do the Public Search for on the Catalogue of the State Library of Victoria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Vivienne

    2009-01-01

    This study examines what the public search for in the catalogue of the State Library of Victoria (SLV). As well as indicating the type of content being accessed, this gives an indication of what catalogue users expect of the State Library collection. A content analysis was undertaken of a random, stratified sample of 4,000 search queries typed in…

  2. Establishing an Online Community of Inquiry at the Distance Education Centre, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Luke C.; Jackson, Alun C.; Chambers, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot intervention focused on three courses that were redesigned to utilize the online environment to establish an online community of inquiry (CoI). The setting for this research study was the Distance Education Centre, Victoria (DECV), an Australian co-educational school with approximately 3000 students who, for a variety of reasons, are…

  3. Connections '98. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (4th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Anderson, John O., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1998 annual Faculty of Education conference at the University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). The papers are: (1) "Struggling with Re-Presentation, Voice, and Self in Narrative Research" (Marla Arvay); (2) "Women's Soccer in Canada: A Slow Road to Equity" (Meredith Bogle,…

  4. Connections '99. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (5th, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Sandra L., Ed.; Liedtke, Werner W., Ed.

    This proceedings contains 13 papers from the 1999 annual conference of the Faculty of Education, University of Victoria (British Columbia). The papers are: (1) "Sacred and the Profane in Advertising Art" (Bill Zuk, Robert Dalton); (2) "Finding the Fund$ in Fun Run: Evaluating the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Physical Activity…

  5. Connections '97. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (3rd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Werner, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 17 papers presented at the third annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines and topics, including student teaching, athletics, researcher-teacher collaboration, hands-on science instruction, violence prevention, youth violence, counseling,…

  6. Testing the Marine Hypothesis for The Opportunity Landing Site at Victoria Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Hypothesis Summary: 1. Meridiani Planum is a marine sulfate platform deposit, analogous to terrestrial carbonate platforms but with sulfate mineralogy, laid down during one or multiple marine transgressions over the landing site region. 2. Outcrop laminations, ripples, and larger, dune-scale bedforms are subaqueous in origin, produced by tidal currents. Aqueous deposits may be interbedded with crossbedded aeolian deposits of same composition derived from subjacent water-lain deposits during lowstands. At the scale of observations made by Opportunity, the marine hypothesis differs from the consensus, sabkha model, in two relatively minor ways (but with important differences in the inferred paleoenvironments). 3. Blueberry and cobble "lag" on top of outcrop is a lag, but indicates erosion of perhaps many meters, even tens of meters or more of outcrop material from the region by water. Wind erosion has been very limited over geologic time (perhaps less than a meter locally). 4. Remarkably-flat, horizontal geomorphic surface of outcrop was produced by shallow standing water locally, controlling both deposition and erosion of the sulfate outcrop material to within a few meters of sea level. 5. Craters in the landing site exhibit a continuum of degradation states, with Endurance and Victoria typifying the best preserved craters visited (or to be visited) by Opportunity, and Erebus and Terra Nova representing the most degraded craters visited that are larger than 100 meters across. Terra Nova is similar to numerous kilometer-scale "rock ring" craters in the Meridiani Planum landing site. 6. "Serrated" rim at Victoria is similar to, but fresher in expression, rim morphology at Erebus Crater, and may indicate water pouring over crater rim during tidal or storm surges in water level across the region. Predictions to be tested at Victoria Crater: 1. The crater's ejecta and raised rim have been destroyed by tidal currents in shallow standing water. There is no Endurance

  7. Pleistocene desiccation in East Africa bottlenecked but did not extirpate the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Kathryn R; Reggio, Chiara; Wirth, Thierry; Verheyen, Erik; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2009-08-11

    The Great Lakes region of East Africa, including Lake Victoria, is the center of diversity of the mega-diverse cichlid fishes (Perciformes: Teleostei). Paleolimnological evidence indicates dramatic desiccation of this lake ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. Consequently, the hundreds of extant endemic haplochromine species in the lake must have either evolved since then or refugia must have existed, within that lake basin or elsewhere, from which Lake Victoria was recolonized. We studied the population history of the Lake Victoria region superflock (LVRS) of haplochromine cichlids based on nuclear genetic analysis (12 microsatellite loci from 400 haplochomines) of populations from Lake Kivu, Lake Victoria, and the connected and surrounding rivers and lakes. Population genetic analyses confirmed that Lake Kivu haplochromines colonized Lake Victoria. Coalescent analyses show a 30- to 50-fold decline in the haplochromine populations of Lake Victoria, Lake Kivu, and the region ca. 18,000-15,000 years ago. We suggest that this coincides with drastic climatic and geological changes in the late Pleistocene. The most recent common ancestor of the Lake Victoria region haplochromines was estimated to have existed about 4.5 million years ago, which corresponds to the first radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and the origin of the tribe Haplochrominii. This relatively old evolutionary origin may explain the high levels of polymorphism still found in modern haplochromines. This degree of polymorphism might have acted as a "genetic reservoir" that permitted the explosive radiation of hundreds of haplochromines and their array of contemporary adaptive morphologies.

  8. Framework for Integrated Water, Energy, and Environmental Resources Assessment, Planning, and Management: Lake Victoria Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A.; Yao, H.; Tidwell, A.

    2006-12-01

    This article describes a recent assessment study for Lake Victoria in East Africa. The study includes three interlinked components. The first pertains to Lake Victoria regulation and includes climate and hydrologic forecasting (seasonal, inter-annual, and centennial), and outflow regulation (water resources planning). The second pertains to energy system planning, and the third to environmental and socio-economic impact assessments. These components converge at the operational level where water, energy, and environmental management are harmonized through the use of a decision support system, the Lake Victoria Decision Support Tool. Some of the broad study findings are summarized below: (1)Lake Victoria is entering a new era in which sustainable water resources management is tightly linked to and can only be achieved by proactive energy planning. To meet this new challenge, and maximize the benefit of the decision support system, water and energy sector decisions must be institutionally coordinated. (2)Climate and hydrologic forecasts of sufficient skill are critical for effective water resources and energy planning and management. More specifically, extensive assessments with several GCMs and climate scenarios indicate that Lake Victoria will most likely be adversely impacted by climate change with potentially serious local and regional consequences. Furthermore, seasonal and inter-annual forecasts are very important in meeting medium term water and energy demands and minimizing the costs of thermal energy generation. (3)Wetland ecological and socio-economic benefits are comparable to power sector benefits, underscoring the need for more comprehensive evaluations of non-power water uses and integrative water, energy, and environmental planning and management. (4)Integrated forecast-decision systems are excellent means to bring to bear and make practically available advances in various water-related disciplines for the benefit of managers and policy makers.

  9. Regional nitrogen budget of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa: syntheses, uncertainties and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minghua; Brandt, Patric; Pelster, David; Rufino, Mariana C.; Robinson, Timothy; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    Using the net anthropogenic nitrogen input (NANI) approach we estimated the N budget for the Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa. The NANI of the basin ranged from 887 to 3008 kg N km-2 yr-1 (mean: 1827 kg N km-2 yr-1) for the period 1995-2000. The net nitrogen release at basin level is due primarily to livestock and human consumption of feed and foods, contributing between 69% and 85%. Atmospheric oxidized N deposition contributed approximately 14% to the NANI of the Lake Victoria Basin, while either synthetic N fertilizer imports or biological N fixations only contributed less than 6% to the regional NANI. Due to the low N imports of feed and food products (<20 kg N km-2 yr-1), nitrogen release to the watershed must be derived from the mining of soil N stocks. The fraction of riverine N export to Lake Victoria accounted for 16%, which is much lower than for watersheds located in Europe and USA (25%). A significant reduction of the uncertainty of our N budget estimate for Lake Victoria Basin would be possible if better data on livestock systems and riverine N export were available. Our study indicates that at present soil N mining is the main source of nitrogen in the Lake Victoria Basin. Thus, sustainable N management requires increasing agricultural N inputs to guarantee food security and rehabilitation and protection of soils to minimize environmental costs. Moreover, to reduce N pollution of the lake, improving management of human and animal wastes needs to be carefully considered in future.

  10. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  11. The photochemistry of fluorescent proteins: implications for their biological applications.

    PubMed

    Seward, Harriet E; Bagshaw, Clive R

    2009-10-01

    Green fluorescent protein from Aequorea victoria, its relatives and derivatives are ubiquitous in their use as biological probes. In this tutorial review, we discuss the photochemistry of this fascinating class of proteins and illustrate some of their advantages and drawbacks in a range of applications. In particular, we focus on the ionisation states of the chromophore and how they are affected by internal and external proton transfer. Light-induced reversible and irreversible events are discussed in terms of the underlying chromophore structure. These phenomena have an influence on the interpretation of FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer), FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching), as well as single molecule studies.

  12. Laser microbeam abalation of GFP-labeled nuclear organelles in a living cell.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMorte, Vickie J.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Evans, Ronald M.; Berns, Michael W.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1997-05-01

    Cancer, development, cellular growth and differentiation are governed by gene expression. Recent molecular and cellular advances to visualize and perturb the pathways of transcriptional regulation, nascent RNA processing, and protein trafficking at the single cell level have been developed. More recently, applications utilizing the green fluorescent marker (GFP) from Aequorea victoria have facilitated visualization of these molecular events in a living cell. Specifically, we will describe a novel approach to perturb cellular processes by labeling discrete cellular components of interest with GFP and subsequently altering/ablating them with a laser microbeam.

  13. A Photoactivatable GFP for Selective Photolabeling of Proteins and Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, George H.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2002-09-01

    We report a photoactivatable variant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) that, after intense irradiation with 413-nanometer light, increases fluorescence 100 times when excited by 488-nanometer light and remains stable for days under aerobic conditions. These characteristics offer a new tool for exploring intracellular protein dynamics by tracking photoactivated molecules that are the only visible GFPs in the cell. Here, we use the photoactivatable GFP both as a free protein to measure protein diffusion across the nuclear envelope and as a chimera with a lysosomal membrane protein to demonstrate rapid interlysosomal membrane exchange.

  14. A photoactivatable GFP for selective photolabeling of proteins and cells.

    PubMed

    Patterson, George H; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2002-09-13

    We report a photoactivatable variant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) that, after intense irradiation with 413-nanometer light, increases fluorescence 100 times when excited by 488-nanometer light and remains stable for days under aerobic conditions. These characteristics offer a new tool for exploring intracellular protein dynamics by tracking photoactivated molecules that are the only visible GFPs in the cell. Here, we use the photoactivatable GFP both as a free protein to measure protein diffusion across the nuclear envelope and as a chimera with a lysosomal membrane protein to demonstrate rapid interlysosomal membrane exchange.

  15. Cell-based assays in practice: cell markers from autofluorescent proteins of the GFP-family.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Michael; Kredel, Simone; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Heilker, Ralf

    2008-09-01

    The more recently discovered anthozoan fluorescent proteins (FPs) and the classic Aequorea victoria Green Fluorescent Protein (avGFP) as well as their derivatives have become versatile tools as live cell markers in fluorescence microscopy. In this review, we show the use of these FPs in drug discovery assays. Assay examples are given for the application of FPs in multiplexed imaging, as photosensitizers, as fluorescent timers, as pulse-chase labels and for robotically integrated compound testing. The development of fast microscopic imaging devices has enabled the application of automated fluorescence microscopy combined with image analysis to pharmaceutical high throughput drug discovery assays, generally referred to as High Content Screening (HCS).

  16. 75 FR 71467 - Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings, LLC, Early Site Permit Application for the Victoria County Station...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings, LLC, Early Site Permit Application for the Victoria County Station... Contention Preparation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission). ACTION: Notice...

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of 15 Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Recovered from Raw Milk and Associated Milk Filters from Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Kate; Allnutt, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes draft whole genomes of 15 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from dairy farms located in Victoria, Australia. Two novel sequence types (ST3183 and ST3184) were identified among these isolates. PMID:28082499

  18. 78 FR 60826 - Foreign-Trade Zone 155-Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Production Activity; Caterpillar, Inc. (Excavator and Frame Assembly Production); Victoria, Texas On May 29... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Caterpillar, Inc.,...

  19. Petrological characterization of mantle xenoliths from Handler Ridge, Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelorosso, Beatrice; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo; Giacomoni, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    A study of ultramafic xenoliths in Cenozoic alkali basalts from Handler Ridge has been carried out in order to characterize the petrological features of the lithospheric mantle beneath Handler Ridge, Northern Victoria Land (NVL) and to extend the petrological knowledge of the mantle over a large portion of the Western Antarctic Rift, from M.te Melbourne (74°21'S 164°42'E) to Handler Ridge (72°31'S 167°18'E). Xenoliths are anhydrous spinel(sp) bearing lherzolites. Two textural types were recognized: i) medium to coarse grain protogranular and ii) fine grain equigranular. Some xenoliths present evidences of peridotite-melt interactions, such as spongy textures, cloudy rims and glassy patches. Large primary sp are often lobated. Newly formed, secondary crystals are referred to cpx only. Regardless textural types, olivine (ol) is forsteritic in composition with Fo varying from 87.5 to 91.0, with a more fertile group ranging between 87.6 and 88.6. NiO contents between 0.31 and 0.44 wt% match the typical mantle values. As observed in ol, orthopyroxene (opx) can be distinguished in two clusters: the more fertile group with mg# [=Mg/(Mg+Fe)*100 mol] ranging between 87.6 and 88.3 and the more residual one with mg# from 88.9 to 91.0. In cpx mg# varies between 87.06 and 91.7. Cpx in depleted lherzolite and secondary cpx are characterized by high values of Na2O (1.3-1.63 wt%) and Al2O3 (4.62-6.62 wt%). Glasses are SiO2 (≥55.50 wt%) oversaturated with TiO2 content between 0.6 and 1wt% and Na2O/K2O in the range of 0.80-2.02. Sp are characterized by mg# values between 62 and 78, and cr# [=Cr/(Cr+Al)*100 mol] from 14 to 42 with the usual negative correlation between the two parameters. The relationship between ol, opx and sp suggest that partial melting is the main process controlling the chemical variation of these three phases, while cpx were affected by metasomatic event/s. On the basis of the formalism of Brey & Kohler (1990), Liermann & Ganguly (2003) and Ballhaus (1991

  20. Green Power Partner Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  1. Green Power Community News

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page features news about EPA's Green Power Communities. GPCs are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements.

  2. Green Vehicle Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Green Vehicle Guide Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... your needs. Search for a SmartWay Vehicle Green Vehicle Guide ​What is a green vehicle? Alternative fuels ...

  3. The Cambrian Ross Orogeny in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and New Zealand: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federico, L.; Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.; Bradshaw, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Cambrian, the paleo-Pacific margin of the Gondwana supercontinent included East Antarctica, Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand and was affected by themajor Ross-Delamerian Orogeny. In Antarctica, evidence suggests that this resulted from oblique subduction and that in northern Victoria Land it was accompanied by the opening and subsequent closure of a back-arc basin. Comparison of the type and timing of sedimentary, magmatic and metamorphic events in areas noted above shows strong similarities between northern Victoria Land and New Zealand. In both regions Middle Cambrian volcanites are interpreted as arc/back-arc assemblages produced by west-directed subduction; sediments interbedded with the volcanites show provenance both from the arc and from the Gondwana margin and therefore place the basin close to the continent. Back-arc closure in the Late Cambrian was likely accomplished through a second subduction system

  4. Strain and displacement measurements for the June 9, 1980 Victoria, Mexico Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, D.; Nyland, E.; Suarez, F.; Chavez, D.; Gonzalez, J.

    A microgeodetic network 22 km south east of Est. Guadalupe Victoria, Baja California Norte, installed in late May 1980, has been resurveyed in an experiment that started 12 hours after the June 9, 1980 Victoria earthquake, which had an epicenter at 10 km depth about 12 km from the network. The resurvey was complete by June 13. Both the initial observations and the resurvey were done with HP3800 distance meter equipment. Some angular control was provided with a Wild T3 theodolite. The network underwent a compressive strain of 7 ± 3 micro strain essentially parallel the Cerro Prieto fault about the time of the earthquake. Strains of this size are associated with simple dislocation models of earthquakes of this magnitude. Its direction appears to be anomalous however. This may indicate compression related to soil liquefaction processes or strain near the end of the slip plane.

  5. Environmental impacts of cage culture in Lake Victoria: the case of Shirati Bay-Sota, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kashindye, Benedicto Boniphace; Nsinda, P; Kayanda, R; Ngupula, G W; Mashafi, C A; Ezekiel, C N

    2015-01-01

    The experimental cage culture was conducted at Shirati bay, Lake Victoria from February to August 2013, to investigate the impacts of the small scale cage culture on the environment. Three locations along the cages, at the intermediate and one in the offshore (control) were sampled for water quality parameters, phytoplankton and macro invertebrates. A notable increase in nutrient concentration was observed after the set of cages among the stations. However DO, pH, and water transparency showed no major changes and was within the recommended ranges. Cyanophytes an indicator of inorganic pollution dominated before and after the set of cages, an increase in phytoplankton numerical abundance was observed after stocking of fish in cages. In addition there was an increase in the invertebrate community especially bivalves and gastropods. In conclusion we found no consistent environmental change caused by cage culture, and therefore it can be allowed in Lake Victoria, Tanzania part, with close monitoring of its impacts.

  6. A fresh insight into transmission of schistosomiasis: a misleading tale of Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Standley, Claire J; Wade, Christopher M; Stothard, J Russell

    2011-01-01

    Lake Victoria is a known hot-spot for Schistosoma mansoni, which utilises freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria as intermediate hosts. Different species of Biomphalaria are associated with varying parasite compatibility, affecting local transmission. It is thought that two species, B. choanomphala and B. sudanica, inhabit Lake Victoria; despite their biomedical importance, the taxonomy of these species has not been thoroughly examined. This study combined analysis of morphological and molecular variables; the results demonstrated that molecular groupings were not consistent with morphological divisions. Habitat significantly predicted morphotype, suggesting that the different Lake Victorian forms of Biomphalaria are ecophentoypes of one species. The nomenclature should be revised accordingly; the names B. choanomphala choanomphala and B. c. sudanica are proposed. From a public health perspective, these findings can be utilised by policy-makers for better understanding of exposure risk, resulting in more effective and efficient control initiatives.

  7. [Occurrence and seasonal changes of antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River, South China].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-hai; Zhang, Gan; Zou, Shi-chun; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Yu-chun

    2006-12-01

    The occurrence and seasonal changes of antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The results showed that the concentrations of antibiotics were mainly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the ambient marine water of Victoria Harbour. However, except for amoxicillin, all the target antibiotics were detected in the Pearl River during high (summer) and low (early spring) water seasons with the concentrations ranging from 13 to 69 ng x L(-1) and from 70 to 489 ng x L(-1), respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the Pearl River are all higher than that in America and other western developed countries, no matter in spring or summer. The concentrations of antibiotics showed sensitive daily changes in the high water season.

  8. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-11-24

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class.

  9. VLUIS, a land use data product for Victoria, Australia, covering 2006 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Kathryn; Clark, Rob; Lewis, Hayden; Robson, Susan; Cherry, Don; Williams, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Land Use Information is a key dataset required to enable an understanding of the changing nature of our landscapes and the associated influences on natural resources and regional communities. The Victorian Land Use Information System (VLUIS) data product has been created within the State Government of Victoria to support land use assessments. The project began in 2007 using stakeholder engagement to establish product requirements such as format, classification, frequency and spatial resolution. Its genesis is significantly different to traditional methods, incorporating data from a range of jurisdictions to develop land use information designed for regular on-going creation and consistency. Covering the entire landmass of Victoria, the dataset separately describes land tenure, land use and land cover. These variables are co-registered to a common spatial base (cadastral parcels) across the state for the period 2006 to 2013; biennially for land tenure and land use, and annually for land cover. Data is produced as a spatial GIS feature class. PMID:26602150

  10. A Fresh Insight into Transmission of Schistosomiasis: A Misleading Tale of Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Standley, Claire J.; Wade, Christopher M.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2011-01-01

    Lake Victoria is a known hot-spot for Schistosoma mansoni, which utilises freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria as intermediate hosts. Different species of Biomphalaria are associated with varying parasite compatibility, affecting local transmission. It is thought that two species, B. choanomphala and B. sudanica, inhabit Lake Victoria; despite their biomedical importance, the taxonomy of these species has not been thoroughly examined. This study combined analysis of morphological and molecular variables; the results demonstrated that molecular groupings were not consistent with morphological divisions. Habitat significantly predicted morphotype, suggesting that the different Lake Victorian forms of Biomphalaria are ecophentoypes of one species. The nomenclature should be revised accordingly; the names B. choanomphala choanomphala and B. c. sudanica are proposed. From a public health perspective, these findings can be utilised by policy-makers for better understanding of exposure risk, resulting in more effective and efficient control initiatives. PMID:22046308

  11. New fossil teeth of Theropithecus oswaldi (Cercopithecoidea) from the Early Pleistocene at Cueva Victoria (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Ribot, Francesc; Gibert, Lluís

    2014-09-01

    The presence of Theropithecus oswaldi in Europe was first reported in 1995 from the Early Pleistocene site of Cueva Victoria (SE Spain), showing the dispersal of this genus above 30° north latitude and into Europe. Later claims of the presence in Italy of Theropithecus in the Early Pleistocene, based on vertebral remains, are controversial. Here we report four additional teeth of T. oswaldi from Cueva Victoria. These and the previously described tooth correspond to a minimum of two individuals. The presence of T. oswaldi in North Africa and SE Iberia during the Early Pleistocene suggests a possible faunal dispersal from Africa into Europe through the Straits of Gibraltar, which would have acted as a filter bridge.

  12. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-08-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb) revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  13. Late Pleistocene Desiccation of Lake Victoria and Rapid Evolution of Cichlid Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas C.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Talbot, Michael R.; Kelts, Kerry; Ricketts, R. D.; Ngobi, Gideon; Beuning, Kristina; Ssemmanda, Immacculate; McGill, J. W.

    1996-08-01

    Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa and harbors more than 300 endemic species of haplochromine cichlid fish. Seismic reflection profiles and piston cores show that the lake not only was at a low stand but dried up completely during the Late Pleistocene, before 12,400 carbon-14 years before the present. These results imply that the rate of speciation of cichlid fish in this tropical lake has been extremely rapid.

  14. Satellite-Based Assessment of the spatial extent of Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, W.; Aligeti, N.; Jeyaprakash, T.; Martins, M.; Stodghill, J.; Winstanley, H.

    2011-12-01

    Lake Victoria in Africa is the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is known for its abundance of aquatic wildlife. In particular over 200 different fish species are caught and sold by local fisherman. The lake is a major contributor to the local economy as a corridor of transportation, source of drinking water, and source of hydropower. However, the invasion of aquatic vegetation such as water hyacinth in the lake has disrupted each of these markets. Aquatic vegetation now covers a substantial area of the coastline blocking waterways, disrupting hydropower, hindering the collection of drinking water and decreasing the profitability of fishing. The vegetation serves as a habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes as well as snakes and snails that spread the parasitic disease bilharzia. The current control measures of invasive aquatic vegetation rely on biological, chemical and mechanical control. The objective of this study was to utilize remote sensing to map aquatic vegetation within Lake Victoria from 2000 to 2011. MODIS, Landsat 4-5TM, and Landsat 7-ETM imagery was employed to perform change detections in vegetation and identify the extent of aquatic vegetation throughout the years. The efficiency of containment efforts were evaluated and ideal time for application of such efforts were suggested. A methodology for aquatic vegetation surveillance was created. The results of this project were presented as a workshop to the Lake Victoria Fisheries Organization, SERVIR, and other partner organizations. The workshop provided instruction into the use of NASA and other satellite derived products. Time series animations of the spatial extent of aquatic vegetation within the lake were created. By identifying seasons of decreased aquatic vegetation, ideal times to employ control efforts were identified. SERVIR will subsequently utilize the methodologies and mapping results of this study to develop operational aquatic vegetation surveillance for Lake Victoria.

  15. Leuconidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from the collections of the Museum Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gerken, Sarah

    2016-01-21

    The collections of the Museum Victoria have yielded six new leuconid species in five genera from Australian waters: Austroleucon adiazetos n. sp., A. dolosolevis n. sp., Eudorellopsis mykteros n. sp., Kontiloleucon australiensis n. gen., n. sp., Leucon (Alytoleucon) dolichorhinos n. sp., Ommatoleucon megalopos n. sp. as well as the new genus Kontiloleucon. Leucon (Leucon) echinolophotos n. sp. is a new species from off Enderby Land, Antarctica. Keys to the Australian leuconid genera and species are included.

  16. Urban eutrophication and its spurring conditions in the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Kabenge, Martin; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of Lake Victoria in providing its ecosystem services to riparian states, both immediate and along the Nile river basin, is strongly related to its water quality. Over the past few decades, eutrophication has increased in the lake arising from increased inflow of nutrients. This study was carried out in the Murchison Bay area of Lake Victoria with the aims of assessing the progress of eutrophication nutrient enrichment into the lake between 1990 and 2014. Using Landsat satellite floating algae index (FAI) products and data from laboratory analysis of water samples, the study revealed that floating algae reoccurred periodically with coverage varying between 1 and 18 km(2). The findings also indicated that the range of nitrate-nitrogen concentrations increased greatly with maximum concentrations recorded at 31.2 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.084 mg l(-1) in 1990. The soluble reactive phosphorus concentration range showed a maximum of 1.45 mg l(-1) in 2007 from 0.043 mg l(-1) in 1990. The chlorophyll levels increased from an average of 17 μg l(-1) in 1992 by threefold in 1996 but had however declined and halved in intensity by 2011. The eutrophication that has occurred in Lake Victoria over the past decades has been due to pollution from industrial, residential, and agricultural areas within the catchment.

  17. Parameterization of the inherent optical properties of Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Okullo, Willy; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Oyvind; Sørensen, K; Stamnes, Jakob J; Steigen, Andreas; Stamnes, Knut

    2007-12-20

    Lake Victoria, Africa's largest freshwater lake, suffers greatly from negative changes in biomass of species of fish and also from severe eutrophication. The continuing deterioration of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has great long-term consequences for the ecosystem benefits it provides to the countries bordering its shores. However, knowledge about temporal and spatial variations of optical properties and how they relate to lake constituents is important for a number of reasons such as remote sensing, modeling of underwater light fields, and long-term monitoring of lake waters. Based on statistical analysis of data from optical measurements taken during half a year of weekly cruises in Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria, we present a three-component model for the absorption and a two-component model for the scattering of light in the UV and the visible regions of the solar spectrum along with tests of their ranges of validity. The three-component input to the model for absorption is the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total suspended materials concentrations, and yellow substance absorption, while the two-component input to the model for scattering is the Chl-a concentration and total suspended materials.

  18. Parameterization of the inherent optical properties of Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okullo, Willy; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Sørensen, K.; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Steigen, Andreas; Stamnes, Knut

    2007-12-01

    Lake Victoria, Africa's largest freshwater lake, suffers greatly from negative changes in biomass of species of fish and also from severe eutrophication. The continuing deterioration of Lake Victoria's ecological functions has great long-term consequences for the ecosystem benefits it provides to the countries bordering its shores. However, knowledge about temporal and spatial variations of optical properties and how they relate to lake constituents is important for a number of reasons such as remote sensing, modeling of underwater light fields, and long-term monitoring of lake waters. Based on statistical analysis of data from optical measurements taken during half a year of weekly cruises in Murchison Bay, Lake Victoria, we present a three-component model for the absorption and a two-component model for the scattering of light in the UV and the visible regions of the solar spectrum along with tests of their ranges of validity. The three-component input to the model for absorption is the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), total suspended materials concentrations, and yellow substance absorption, while the two-component input to the model for scattering is the Chl-a concentration and total suspended materials.

  19. Mapping dominant annual land cover from 2009 to 2013 across Victoria, Australia using satellite imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Kathryn; Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Clark, Rob; Robson, Susan; Lewis, Hayden

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for regularly updated, broad-scale, accurate land cover information in Victoria from multiple stakeholders. This paper documents the methods used to generate an annual dominant land cover (DLC) map for Victoria, Australia from 2009 to 2013. Vegetation phenology parameters derived from an annual time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Indices 16-day 250 m (MOD13Q1) product were used to generate annual DLC maps, using a three-tiered hierarchical classification scheme. Classification accuracy at the broadest (primary) class level was over 91% for all years, while it ranged from 72 to 81% at the secondary class level. The most detailed class level (tertiary) had accuracy levels ranging from 61 to 68%. The approach used was able to accommodate variable climatic conditions, which had substantial impacts on vegetation growth patterns and agricultural production across the state between both regions and years. The production of an annual dataset with complete spatial coverage for Victoria provides a reliable base data set with an accuracy that is fit-for-purpose for many applications. PMID:26602009

  20. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Miyuki; Kusumi, Junko; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Sato, Tetsu; Terai, Yohey; Okada, Norihiro; Tachida, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  1. A reinterpretation of geomorphological evidence for Glacial Lake Victoria, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Hamish A.; Neil, David T.; Speirs, Johanna C.

    2014-03-01

    The largely snow and ice free McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are one of the coldest and driest locations on Earth. It has been proposed that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the early Holocene large lakes up to 200 m deep and 100 km2 in area occupied these valleys. We present the first topographic survey of features reported to be shorelines from one such lake, Glacial Lake Victoria, in Victoria Valley. In combination with the analysis of laser altimetry data obtained from the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper system and cosmogenic dating of granite boulders we show that the features previously thought to be shorelines are not horizontally or linearly continuous. Rather, we conclude that they are scars from ancient slope mass movement deposits. 10Be cosmogenic dating indicates that their formation is on timescales of at least 160 ka before present and not 20 ka as the LGM mega-lake hypothesis suggests. We conclude that the geomorphic features believed to be shorelines and which underpin the LGM mega-lake hypothesis in Victoria Valley are mass movement deposits and not lake shorelines. Our results support an emerging body of literature unable to find evidence to verify the McMurdo Dry Valleys LGM mega-lake hypothesis. Accordingly we suggest caution in invoking such significant landscape features in discussions of the environmental past of this unique region until such time as further research provides an unequivocal history of the region's geomorphic past.

  2. Mapping dominant annual land cover from 2009 to 2013 across Victoria, Australia using satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Kathryn; Morse-McNabb, Elizabeth; Clark, Rob; Robson, Susan; Lewis, Hayden

    2015-11-24

    There is a demand for regularly updated, broad-scale, accurate land cover information in Victoria from multiple stakeholders. This paper documents the methods used to generate an annual dominant land cover (DLC) map for Victoria, Australia from 2009 to 2013. Vegetation phenology parameters derived from an annual time series of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Vegetation Indices 16-day 250 m (MOD13Q1) product were used to generate annual DLC maps, using a three-tiered hierarchical classification scheme. Classification accuracy at the broadest (primary) class level was over 91% for all years, while it ranged from 72 to 81% at the secondary class level. The most detailed class level (tertiary) had accuracy levels ranging from 61 to 68%. The approach used was able to accommodate variable climatic conditions, which had substantial impacts on vegetation growth patterns and agricultural production across the state between both regions and years. The production of an annual dataset with complete spatial coverage for Victoria provides a reliable base data set with an accuracy that is fit-for-purpose for many applications.

  3. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  4. Green chromatography.

    PubMed

    Płotka, Justyna; Tobiszewski, Marek; Sulej, Anna Maria; Kupska, Magdalena; Górecki, Tadeusz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-09-13

    Analysis of organic compounds in samples characterized by different composition of the matrix is very important in many areas. A vast majority of organic compound determinations are performed using gas or liquid chromatographic methods. It is thus very important that these methods have negligible environmental impact. Chromatographic techniques have the potential to be greener at all steps of the analysis, from sample collection and preparation to separation and final determination. The paper summarizes the approaches used to accomplish the goals of green chromatography. While complete elimination of sample preparation would be an ideal approach, it is not always practical. Solventless extraction techniques offer a very good alternative. Where solvents must be used, the focus should be on the minimization of their consumption. The approaches used to make chromatographic separations greener differ depending on the type of chromatography. In gas chromatography it is advisable to move away from using helium as the carrier gas because it is a non-renewable resource. GC separations using low thermal mass technology can be greener because of energy savings offered by this technology. In liquid chromatography the focus should be on the reduction of solvent consumption and replacement of toxic and environmentally hazardous solvents with more benign alternatives. Multidimensional separation techniques have the potential to make the analysis greener in both GC and LC. The environmental impact of the method is often determined by the location of the instrument with respect to the sample collection point.

  5. High prevalence of non-synonymous substitutions in mtDNA of cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kazumasa; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Terai, Yohey; Okada, Norihiro; Tachida, Hidenori

    2014-12-01

    When a population size is reduced, genetic drift may fix slightly deleterious mutations, and an increase in nonsynonymous substitution is expected. It has been suggested that past aridity has seriously affected and decreased the populations of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria, while geographical studies have shown that the water levels in Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi have remained fairly constant. The comparably stable environments in the latter two lakes might have kept the populations of cichlid fishes large enough to remove slightly deleterious mutations. The difference in the stability of cichlid fish population sizes between Lake Victoria and the Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi is expected to have caused differences in the nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio, ω (=dN/dS), of the evolutionary rate. Here, we estimated ω and compared it between the cichlids of the three lakes for 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes using maximum likelihood methods. We found that the lineages of the cichlids in Lake Victoria had a significantly higher ω for several mitochondrial loci. Moreover, positive selection was indicated for several codons in the mtDNA of the Lake Victoria cichlid lineage. Our results indicate that both adaptive and slightly deleterious molecular evolution has taken place in the Lake Victoria cichlids' mtDNA genes, whose nonsynonymous sites are generally conserved.

  6. Population-structure and genetic diversity in a haplochromine cichlid fish [corrected] of a satellite lake of Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Abila, Romulus; Barluenga, Marta; Engelken, Johannes; Meyer, Axel; Salzburger, Walter

    2004-09-01

    The approximately 500 species of the cichlid fish species flock of Lake Victoria, East Africa, have evolved in a record-setting 100,000 years and represent one of the largest adaptive radiations. We examined the population structure of the endangered cichlid species Xystichromis phytophagus from Lake Kanyaboli, a satellite lake to Lake Victoria in the Kenyan Yala wetlands. Two sets of molecular markers were analysed--sequences of the mitochondrial control region as well as six microsatellite loci--and revealed surprisingly high levels of genetic variability in this species. Mitochondrial DNA sequences failed to detect population structuring among the three sample populations. A model-based population assignment test based on microsatellite data revealed that the three populations most probably aggregate into a larger panmictic population. However, values of population pairwise FST indicated moderate levels of genetic differentiation for one population. Eleven distinct mitochondrial haplotypes were found among 205 specimens of X. phytophagus, a relatively high number compared to the total number of 54 haplotypes that were recovered from hundreds of specimens of the entire cichlid species flock of Lake Victoria. Most of the X. phytophagus mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were absent from the main Lake Victoria, corroborating the putative importance of satellite lakes as refugia for haplochromine cichlids that went extinct from the main lake in the last decades and possibly during the Late Pleistocene desiccation of Lake Victoria.

  7. Glacial geomorphology of the Victoria Valley System, Ross Sea Region, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockheim, James G.; McLeod, Malcolm

    2013-07-01

    During the 2011-2012 austral summer, we had the opportunity to verify a surficial geology map prepared nearly 50 years ago for the Victoria Valley system (VVS), the largest of the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We used high-resolution landsat images and a digital elevation model to identify landforms and prepare detailed maps of each of the five valleys in the VVS, including lateral and end moraines, rock glaciers, gelifluction sheets, gravel ripples, and hummocky and ice-cored drifts. Our mapping suggests that the Bull drift is less extensive than previously thought, attains a maximum elevation of ~ 750 m in Balham and Barwick Valleys and the upper Bull Pass region, and does not occur in McKelvey Valley. We found Insel drift to 850 m elevation in eastern McKelvey Valley and upper Bull Pass and were able to trace Insel drift down Bull Pass where it becomes Peleus drift in Wright Valley. The Victoria Lower Glacier likely responded to grounding of ice in the Ross Embayment and was out-of-phase with alpine glaciers elsewhere in the VVS. We amplified and quantified Calkin's relative chronology and provide here our multiple-parameter relative chronology for the McMurdo Dry Valleys that is based on surface-boulder weathering, soil weathering, salt stage, degree of development of the desert pavement, and form of patterned ground. Except for Victoria Lower Valley, we correlate Packard drift with Taylor II drift (ca., 120 ka), Vida drift with Taylor III drift (ca., 300 ka), Bull drift with Taylor IVb drift (2.7-3.5 Ma, and Insel drift with Peleus drift (> 3.7 Ma, < 5.4 Ma). The lack of a strong correlation between soil salt stage and depth of visible salts with elevation leads us to question whether a high-level lake (ca., 200 m deep) existed in the VVS during the early Holocene.

  8. Metals in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and suspended particulate matter from Lake Victoria, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Machiwa, John F

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the levels of pollutant metals in suspended particulate matter and Nile perch from Lake Victoria. The metals in particulate matter were determined to ascertain their concentrations at the base of the food chain. Nile perch samples were collected in September 2003 from five major fish processing factories at the shores of Lake Victoria in Mwanza and Musoma. The concentrations of total Hg, Pb, Cd, and Cu were generally low in particulate matter and in most locations were close to or below their limits of detection. The concentrations of Zn were high in suspended particulate matter, the highest being 219.4 +/- 153.0 microg L(-1) found in particulate matter from Nungwe Bay in the southern part of Lake Victoria. Nile perch generally contained low levels of heavy metals; the range for Pb was <0.01-0.08 microg g(-1) ww, Cd was <0.001-0.04 microg g(-1) ww, Cu was 0.01-0.97 microg g(-1) ww, and Zn was <0.01-18.94 microg g(-1) ww. The concentration of total mercury ranged between 31.0 and 684.2 ng g(-1) ww; generally, it was below the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (1000 ng total Hg g(-1) ww for piscivorous fish species) maximum allowable level. Indeed, all Nile perch samples that weighed less than 10 kg had less than 200 ng total Hg g(-1) ww and therefore are safe for regular consumption by at-risk groups such as children and pregnant women. Levels of mercury and other heavy metals in Nile perch at present is, therefore, not a severe environmental issue; however, urgent regulatory measures should be taken to minimize metal input into the lake to maintain the current levels in the fish.

  9. Irrigator responses to groundwater resource management in northern Victoria, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Bruce C.; Webb, John; Wilkinson, Roger; Cherry, Don

    2014-10-01

    In northern Victoria, farmers are the biggest users of groundwater and therefore the main stakeholders in plans that seek to sustainably manage the resource. Interviews with 30 irrigation farmers in two study areas, analysed using qualitative social research methods, showed that the overwhelming majority of groundwater users agreed with the need for groundwater management and thought that the current plans had achieved sustainable resource use. The farmers also expressed a strong need for clear technical explanations for management decisions, in particular easily understood water level data. The social licence to implement the management plans arose through effective consultation with the community during plan development. Several additional factors combined to gain acceptance for the plans: good data on groundwater usage and aquifer levels is available; irrigation farmers had been exposed to usage restrictions since the late 1990s; an ‘adaptive’ management approach is in use which allowed refinements to be readily incorporated and fortuitously, plan development coincided with the 1998-2009 drought, when declines in groundwater levels reinforced the usefulness of the plans. The imposition of a nation-wide water use reduction plan in 2012 had relatively little impact in Victoria because of the early implementation of effective groundwater management plans. However, economic difficulties that reduce groundwater users’ capacity to pay groundwater management charges mean that the future of the plans in Victoria is not assured. Nevertheless, the high level of trust that exists between Victorian irrigation farmers and the management agencies suggests that the continued use of a consultative approach will continue to produce workable outcomes. Lessons from the Victorian experience may be difficult to apply in other areas of groundwater use in Australia and overseas, where there may be a quite different history of development and culture of groundwater management.

  10. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A

    2015-05-01

    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem.

  11. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, George O; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  12. Population genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes on Lake Victoria islands, west Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Minakawa, Noboru; Beier, John; Yan, Guiyun

    2004-01-01

    Background Understanding the genetic structure of island Anopheles gambiae populations is important for the current tactics in mosquito control and for the proposed strategy using genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMM). Genetically-isolated mosquito populations on islands are a potential site for testing GMM. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic structure of A. gambiae populations on the islands in Lake Victoria, western Kenya. Methods The genetic diversity and the population genetic structures of 13 A. gambiae populations from five islands on Lake Victoria and six villages from the surrounding mainland area in the Suba District were examined using six microsatellite markers. The distance range of sampling sites varied between 2.5 and 35.1 km. Results A similar level of genetic diversity between island mosquito populations and adjacent mainland populations was found. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.3 for the island populations and 6.8 for the mainland populations. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.32 and 0.28 for the island and mainland populations, respectively. A low but statistically significant genetic structure was detected among the island populations (FST = 0.019) and between the island and mainland populations (FST = 0.003). A total of 12 private alleles were found, and nine of them were from the island populations. Conclusion A level of genetic differentiation between the island and mainland populations was found. Large extent of gene flow between the island and mainland mosquito populations may result from wind- or human-assisted dispersal. Should the islands on Lake Victoria be used as a trial site for the release program of GMM, mosquito dispersal between the islands and between the island and the mainland should be vigorously monitored. PMID:15581429

  13. Amplification of extreme precipitation response to climate change over Lake Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard; Seneviratne, Sonia; Bedka, Kristopher; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Casualties among fishermen operating on Lake Victoria are estimated to amount up to several thousand per year, leading to the dubious distinction of "world's most lethal lake". Most of the casualties are caused by severe thunderstorms occurring at night, when surface winds converge over the lake and trigger deep convection of air masses moistened by the lake. With the climate change induced raise in troposphere temperatures, the frequency and intensity of these extremes are likely to increase. However, up to now only very little is known about the processes underlying this nighttime convection, and how it will be affected by climate change. We examine the impact of climate change on hazardous thunderstorms over Lake Victoria by conducting a set of regional climate model simulations which resolve individual lakes and explicitly compute lake temperatures. The regional climate model COSMO-CLM² is used to dynamically downscale a CORDEX-Africa projection (COSMO-CLM/MPI-ESM-LR) under RCP8.5 to 7 km grid spacing for the periods 1981-2010 and 2071-2100. Based on these high resolution simulations, we project that the increase in extreme precipitation is amplified over Lake Victoria compared to surrounding land area, consistent with projections from the (courser-scale) CORDEX-Africa ensemble. Moreover, the strongest extremes are found to follow the Clausius-Clapeyron scaling over the lake surface only. Finally, we investigate controls on the occurrence of this extreme precipitation in the present-day climate using satellite observations and a dynamical reanalysis downscaling, and detect a strong relationship with antecedent daytime land thunderstorms. Besides supplying moisture, these storms also modify mesoscale circulation in favor of strong over-lake convection the following night. Extending this analysis will make it possible to attribute the projected lake amplification effect to changes in the controlling factors.

  14. Pesticide residues and heavy metals in Lake Victoria Nile perch, Lates niloticus, belly flap oil.

    PubMed

    Ogwok, P; Muyonga, J H; Sserunjogi, M L

    2009-05-01

    Oil was extracted from the belly flaps of varied sizes of Nile perch caught from Lake Victoria (Uganda). The oil was analyzed for pesticide residues and heavy metals. Total residual concentration of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, endosulfan, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, chlordane, endrin, aldrin and chlorofenvinphos increased significantly (p < 0.05) with fish size. Mercury and lead were detected in most samples while arsenic and cadmium were below detection limits. Nile perch may, therefore, accumulate significant amount of chemical contaminants. Levels of contaminants in Nile perch oil were, in general, within limits considered acceptable by the stringent German Food Law for human consumption.

  15. Shape of allied health: an environmental scan of 27 allied health professions in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Young, Gretchen; O'Callaghan, Katy; Jenkins, Mathew; Philip, Kathleen; Barlow, Kegan

    2016-08-11

    Objective In 2015, the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services commissioned the Victorian Allied Health Workforce Research Program to provide data on allied health professions in the Victorian public, private and not-for-profit sectors. Herein we present a snapshot of the demographic profiles and distribution of these professions in Victoria and discuss the workforce implications.Methods The program commenced with an environmental scan of 27 allied health professions in Victoria. This substantial scoping exercise identified existing data, resources and contexts for each profession to guide future data collection and research. Each environmental scan reviewed existing data relating to the 27 professions, augmented by an online questionnaire sent to the professional bodies representing each discipline.Results Workforce data were patchy but, based on the evidence available, the allied health professions in Victoria vary greatly in size (ranging from just 17 child life therapists to 6288 psychologists), are predominantly female (83% of professions are more than 50% female) and half the professions report that 30% of their workforce is aged under 30 years. New training programs have increased workforce inflows to many professions, but there is little understanding of attrition rates. Professions reported a lack of senior positions in the public sector and a concomitant lack of senior specialised staff available to support more junior staff. Increasing numbers of allied health graduates are being employed directly in private practice because of a lack of growth in new positions in the public sector and changing funding models. Smaller professions reported that their members are more likely to be professionally isolated within an allied health team or larger organisations. Uneven rural-urban workforce distribution was evident across most professions.Conclusions Workforce planning for allied health is extremely complex because of the lack of data, fragmented

  16. Gambling revenues as a public administration issue: electronic gaming machines in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Pickernell, David; Keast, Robyn; Brown, Kerry; Yousefpour, Nina; Miller, Chris

    2013-12-01

    Gambling activities and the revenues derived have been seen as a way to increase economic development in deprived areas. There are also, however, concerns about the effects of gambling in general and electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in particular, on the resources available to the localities in which they are situated. This paper focuses on the factors that determine the extent and spending of community benefit-related EGM-generated resources within Victoria, Australia, focusing in particular on the relationships between EGM activity and socio-economic and social capital indicators, and how this relates to the community benefit resources generated by gaming.

  17. Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in the Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, A. C.; Georgakakos, A. P.; Yao, H.

    2007-12-01

    The success of water resources planning and management decisions is predicated on decision maker access to reliable and conclusive information, including climate forecasts. This is becoming increasingly critical as climate changes are predicted to take place over the same time horizons used in water and energy resources planning. The results of climate scenario analysis for Lake Victoria in East Africa are presented and used in a detailed climate change impact assessment for water resources. This region is shown to be particularly vulnerable to climate changes through projected impacts on net basin supplies, lake levels, lake releases, and energy generation.

  18. A review of mercury in Lake Victoria, East Africa: implications for human and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Linda; Dixon, D G; Hecky, R E

    2003-01-01

    Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the site of many recent studies measuring mercury (Hg) concentrations in water, fish, sediment, soil, and humans. Most of these studies were motivated by concerns about Hg contamination from processing of gold ore on the southern shores. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in fish were usually below permissible World Health Organization (WHO) concentrations and international marketing limits and do not threaten the lucrative export industry. Nile perch 3-10 kg and most >10 kg had THg concentrations above the WHO threshold concentrations for at-risk groups (200 ng/g). Elevated THg concentrations in large Nile perch are not of major concern because Nile perch are rarely consumed by the people living on Lake Victoria and very large Nile perch are becoming increasingly rare in catches. Water THg concentrations were below Canadian drinking water guidelines but were elevated relative to those in the northern Great Lakes. Sediment and soil THg concentrations were within inter-national guidelines and are comparable to those in northern latitudes but are lower than those in the Amazon basin. Biomass burning and soil erosion are estimated to be the major sources of THg for the lake and probably constitute a larger source of THg than gold mining in Tanzania.THg concentrations in urine and hair from human volunteers indicate that while gold miners and frequent skin-bleaching cream users are at risk of inorganic mercury poisoning, the rest of the population, including fishermen, is not. Human exposure assessments demonstrated that fish consumption and soil geophagy constitute major sources of THg for humans, but the total estimated daily intake of THg was below the Health Canada tolerable daily intake (TDI) limits. The use of beauty creams containing high inorganic Hg concentrations, however, caused the estimated THg exposure to exceed the TDI. The high THg content in the hair of regular cream users supports this assessment. The nutritional

  19. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Heams, T J; Williams, D A; Johns, N A; Mason, A; Bixler, N E; Grimley, A J; Wheatley, C J; Dickson, L W; Osborn-Lee, I; Domagala, P; Zawadzki, S; Rest, J; Alexander, C A; Lee, R Y

    1992-12-01

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided.

  20. The electronic excited states of green fluorescent protein chromophore models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Seth Carlton

    We explore the properties of quantum chemical approximations to the excited states of model chromophores of the green fluorescent protein of A. victoria. We calculate several low-lying states by several methods of quantum chemical calculation, including state-averaged complete active space SCF (CASSCF) methods, time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), equation-of motion coupled cluster (EOM-CCSD) and multireference perturbation theory (MRPT). Amongst the low-lying states we identify the optically bright pipi* state of the molecules and examine its properties. We demonstrate that the state is dominated by a single configuration function. We calculate zero-time approximations to the resonance Raman spectrum of GFP chromophore models, and assign published spectra based upon these.

  1. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  2. Eel green fluorescent protein is associated with resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Aki; Komatsu, Masaharu; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Yoshizono, Yuki; Yoshizono, Hikari; Orikawa, Yasuhiro; Takumi, Shota; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Seiichi; Kaminishi, Yoshio; Itakura, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from eel (Anguilla japonica) muscle (eelGFP) is unique in the vertebrates and requires bilirubin as a ligand to emit fluorescence. This study was performed to clarify the physiological function of the unique GFP. Investigation of susceptibility to oxidative stress was carried out using three types of cell lines including jellyfish (Aequorea coerulescens) GFP (jfGFP)-, or eel GFP (eelGFP)-expressing HEK293 cells, and control vector-transfected HEK293 cells. Binding of eelGFP to bilirubin was confirmed by the observation of green fluorescence in HEK293-eelGFP cells. The growth rate was compared with the three types of cells in the presence or absence of phenol red which possessed antioxidant activity. The growth rates of HEK293-CV and HEK293-jfGFP under phenol red-free conditions were reduced to 52 and 31% of those under phenol red. Under the phenol red-free condition, HEK293-eelGFP had a growth rate of approximately 70% of the phenol red-containing condition. The eelGFP-expressing cells were approximately 2-fold resistant to oxidative stress such as H2O2 exposure. The fluorescence intensity partially decreased or disappeared after exposure to H2O2, and heterogeneous intensity of fluorescence was also observed in isolated eel skeletal muscle cells. These results suggested eelGFP, but not jfGFP, coupled with bilirubin provided the antioxidant activity to the cells as compared to non-bound free bilirubin.

  3. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  4. Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

  5. Urban Greening Bay Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  6. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  7. What Is Green Power?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  8. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  9. Green Power Markets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  10. Green Power Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  11. Green Power Community Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn more about becoming a Green Power Community, including recognition opportunities.

  12. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  13. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  14. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  15. Green Power Partner List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  16. Was Lates late? A null model for the Nile perch boom in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Downing, Andrea S; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P C; van Nes, Egbert H; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M

    2013-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances--all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources.

  17. Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Andrea S.; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2013-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources. PMID:24204684

  18. Stretching out the Australasian microtektite strewn field in Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Gemelli, Maurizio; Rochette, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies of microtektites collected in newly explored summit plateaus of the Transantarctic Mountains (i.e., Schroeder Spur, Killer Nunatak, Miller Butte in the inland catchment of the Rennick Glacier, and Allan Hills, in the inland catchment of the Mackay-David Glaciers) document a regional distribution of Australasian microtektites in Victoria Land. A geochemical comparison with Australasian microtektites from deep sea sediments at lower latitudes identifies a possible projectile geochemical signature for the first time, and confirms that Transantarctic Mountains microtektites experienced higher thermal regimes. Ballistic calculations reveal that the extraordinary distance of the Transantarctic Mountains microtektites from the hypothetical impact location in Indochina (∼11,000 km) could be more efficiently attained at relatively low ejection angles (20°-40°). Finally, the occurrence of Australasian microtektites (∼0.8 Ma old) on specific glacial surfaces of the Antarctic bedrock constrains the glacial history of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in Victoria Land. In particular, data from Allan Hills supports a glaciological scenario envisaging an extremely stable East Antarctic Ice Sheet over at least the last ∼1 Ma in the inland catchment of the Mackay/David glaciers. This is consistent with the large accumulation of meteorites in the adjacent blue ice fields.

  19. Getting that piece of paper: mental health nurses' experience of undertaking doctoral studies in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Welch, Tony; Happell, Brenda; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of mental health nurses undertaking doctoral studies. The study was conducted in Victoria, Australia. A descriptive-exploratory approach to inquiry was used for this study. Participants were mental health nurses who had successfully completed a doctoral qualification. Eligibility for inclusion required participants to be residing in Victoria (irrespective of where their doctoral studies were undertaken) and to have conducted their research within the domain of mental health and/or currently employed in the field of mental health nursing. Of the 20 potential participants invited, 16 accepted the invitation. Five emergent themes were explicated from narrative analyses. These themes were "being a trail blazer," "positioning for professional advancement," "achieving a balance between competing priorities," "maintaining a commitment to the development of the profession," and "a point of affirmation." An understanding of the experience of undertaking doctoral studies can be used to influence the development of strategies to encourage more mental health nurses to consider undertaking a doctoral degree.

  20. The diversity of male nuptial coloration leads to species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey

    2013-01-01

    The amazing coloration shown by diverse cichlid fish not only fascinates aquarium keepers, but also receives great attention from biologists interested in speciation because of its recently-revealed role in their adaptive radiation in an African lake. We review the important role of coloration in the speciation and adaptive evolution of Lake Victoria cichlids, which have experienced adaptive radiation during a very short evolutionary period. Mature male cichlids display their colors during mate choice. The color of their skin reflects light, and the reflected light forms a color signal that is received by the visual system of females. The adaptive divergence of visual perceptions shapes and diverges colorations, to match the adapted visual perceptions. The divergence of visual perception and coloration indicates that the divergence of color signals causes reproductive isolation between species, and this process leads to speciation. Differences in color signals among coexisting species act to maintain reproductive isolation by preventing hybridization. Thus, the diversity of coloration has caused speciation and has maintained species diversity in Lake Victoria cichlids.

  1. Sunspots, El Niño, and the levels of Lake Victoria, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stager, J. Curt; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Conway, Declan; Verburg, Piet; Mason, Peter J.

    2007-08-01

    An association of high sunspot numbers with rises in the level of Lake Victoria, East Africa, has been the focus of many investigations and vigorous debate during the last century. In this paper, we show that peaks in the ~11-year sunspot cycle were accompanied by Victoria level maxima throughout the 20th century, due to the occurrence of positive rainfall anomalies ~1 year before solar maxima. Similar patterns also occurred in at least five other East African lakes, which indicates that these sunspot-rainfall relationships were broadly regional in scale. Although irradiance fluctuations associated with the sunspot cycle are weak, their effects on tropical rainfall could be amplified through interactions with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation systems, including ENSO. If this Sun-rainfall relationship persists in the future, then sunspot cycles can be used for long-term prediction of precipitation anomalies and associated outbreaks of insect-borne disease in much of East Africa. In that case, unusually wet rainy seasons and Rift Valley Fever epidemics should occur a year or so before the next solar maximum, which is expected to occur in 2011-2012 AD.

  2. Risk factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the impact of cyclist, road and crash characteristics on the injury severity of cyclists involved in traffic crashes reported to the police in Victoria, Australia between 2004 and 2008. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of severe injury (serious injury and fatality) in cyclist crashes reported to the police. There were 6432 cyclist crashes reported to the police in Victoria between 2004 and 2008 with 2181 (33.9%) resulting in severe injury of the cyclist involved. The multivariate analysis found that factors that increase the risk of severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes were age (50 years and older), not wearing a helmet, riding in the dark on unlit roads, riding on roads zoned 70 km/h or above, on curved sections of the road, in rural locations and being involved in head-on collisions as well as off path crashes, which include losing control of vehicle, and on path crashes which include striking the door of a parked vehicle. While this study did not test effectiveness of preventative measures, policy makers should consider implementation of programs that address these risk factors including helmet programs and environmental modifications such as speed reduction on roads that are frequented by cyclists.

  3. Sexually transmissible diseases--knowledge and practices of general practitioners in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, G; Temple-Smith, M J; Keogh, L A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine knowledge and practices in relation to sexually transmissible diseases (STDs) of general practitioners (GPs) in Victoria, Australia. METHOD: A questionnaire was distributed to 520 Victorian GPs randomly selected from the Australian Medical Publishing Company (AMPCo) database of Australian medical practitioners. RESULTS: A response rate of 85% was obtained. While sexual health consultations were common for Victorian GPs, STD caseloads were generally low. Knowledge of clinical features of symptomatic STDs and of important STD epidemiology was generally good although there was a lower awareness of the asymptomatic nature of the most prevalent STDs in Victoria. Diagnostic tests were generally selected appropriately although many GPs did not perform the gold standard combination of tests required for adequate differential diagnosis. Level of STD STD knowledge was related to frequency of advising about safe sex, diagnosing STDs, and younger practitioner age. Attendance at any of a number of postgraduate courses of relevance to the management of STDs was not related to better STD knowledge overall. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and detection of STDs in general practice involve risk assessment and screening of asymptomatic patients as well as effective treatment of symptomatic patients and their contacts. Results presented here suggest that GPs have good knowledge and use appropriate investigations for patients presenting with symptoms of an STD. The low levels of awareness of the asymptomatic nature of many STDs and other particular aspects of STD knowledge and practice should be addressed in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education programmes. PMID:9582476

  4. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa in communities along the Lake Victoria region of Uganda.

    PubMed

    McElligott, James T; Naaktgeboren, Christiana; Makuma-Massa, Henry; Summer, Andrea P; Deal, Jeffery L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess water-borne parasite point prevalence in communities in close proximity to Lake Victoria in Uganda prior to the implementation of a clean water intervention, and to investigate possible associations of water source and latrine access with protozoan prevalence. Utilizing a rapid antigen test, parasite prevalence for Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was determined from stool samples of individuals living in six Ugandan communities. Stool sample test results were stratified by the independent variables of gender, age, community, water source (improved or lake), and presence of a latrine. The impact of the independent variables on parasite prevalence was investigated with bivariable and multivariable analyses. The prevalence of Giardia (12%) was influenced by age and community of residence. The prevalence of Entamoeba (10%) did not significantly vary by the independent variables. The prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites is significant in Ugandan communities bordering Lake Victoria. Interventions to continue to improve water sources remain a high priority. Rapid antigen testing is likely to be useful in the monitoring of water-borne parasite prevalence.

  5. Physiological refugia: swamps, hypoxia tolerance and maintenance of fish diversity in the Lake Victoria region.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lauren J; Chapman, Colin A; Nordlie, Frank G; Rosenberger, Amanda E

    2002-11-01

    In Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, a satellite of Lake Victoria, approximately 50% of the indigenous fishes disappeared from the open waters subsequent to the establishment of the introduced predatory Nile perch, Lates niloticus. This pattern is similar to the faunal loss experienced in the much larger Lake Victoria. Several of these species persisted in wetland refugia (e.g. ecotonal wetlands, swamp lagoons); however, deep swamp refugia (habitats lying well within the dense interior of fringing wetlands), are available only to a subset of the basin fauna with extreme tolerance to hypoxia. Although air-breathers are common in deep swamp refugia; we also documented a surprisingly high richness and abundance of non-air-breathing fishes. We describe several mechanisms that may facilitate survival in deep swamp refugia including high hemoglobin concentration, high hematocrit, large gill surface area and a low critical oxygen tension (P(c)). In addition, swamp-dwelling fishes showed lower PO(2) thresholds for onset of aquatic surface respiration than the lake-dwelling fishes. This suggests higher tolerance to hypoxia in the swamp fishes because they are able to withstand a lower oxygen tension before approaching the surface. We suggest that physiological refugia may be important in modulating the impact of Nile perch and indigenous fishes in the Lake Nabugabo region; this highlights the need to evaluate relative tolerance of introduced predators and indigenous prey to environmental stressors.

  6. Phytoplankton composition and microcystin concentrations in open and closed bays of Lake Victoria, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mbonde, Athanasio S; Sitoki, Lewis; Kurmayer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the spatial variation of algal toxin (microcystin) concentrations along the shoreline of Lake Victoria. A total of 16 nearshore stations differing in connectivity to the main lake basin were categorized as either closed bays (ratio of bay area to bay opening < 1) or open bays (ratio ≥ 1) and sampled during November and December 2009. Water samples were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP), chlorophyll a, phytoplankton community composition and concentrations of microcystin (MC). Open and closed bays were significantly different for phytoplankton abundance and composition: Average phytoplankton biovolume was higher for closed bays (45 mm(3) L(-1) ± 11 SE) than open bays (5 ± 2 mm(3) L(-1)). Cyanobacterial biovolume (mainly Microcystis spp., Anabaena spp. and Planktolyngbya spp.) also was significantly higher in closed bays (82 ± 9% of total biovolume) than in open bays (44 ± 5%). In contrast, diatom biovolume was lower in closed bays (7 ± 1%) than in open bays (36 ± 6%). MCs were found only among sites from closed bays and concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 13 μg L(-1) MC-LR equiv. and coincided with high abundance of Microcystis spp. It is concluded that the level of water exchange from individual bays to the main basin is an important factor influencing eutrophication and microcystin production in nearshore habitats of Lake Victoria.

  7. Population genomic tests of models of adaptive radiation in Lake Victoria region cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Bezault, Etienne; Mwaiko, Salome; Seehausen, Ole

    2011-12-01

    Adaptive radiation is usually thought to be associated with speciation, but the evolution of intraspecific polymorphisms without speciation is also possible. The radiation of cichlid fish in Lake Victoria (LV) is perhaps the most impressive example of a recent rapid adaptive radiation, with 600+ very young species. Key questions about its origin remain poorly characterized, such as the importance of speciation versus polymorphism, whether species persist on evolutionary time scales, and if speciation happens more commonly in small isolated or in large connected populations. We used 320 individuals from 105 putative species from Lakes Victoria, Edward, Kivu, Albert, Nabugabo and Saka, in a radiation-wide amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genome scan to address some of these questions. We demonstrate pervasive signatures of speciation supporting the classical model of adaptive radiation associated with speciation. A positive relationship between the age of lakes and the average genomic differentiation of their species, and a significant fraction of molecular variance explained by above-species level taxonomy suggest the persistence of species on evolutionary time scales, with radiation through sequential speciation rather than a single starburst. Finally the large gene diversity retained from colonization to individual species in every radiation suggests large effective population sizes and makes speciation in small geographical isolates unlikely.

  8. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2016-12-01

    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  9. Identification of microcystins in a Lake Victoria cyanobacterial bloom using LC-MS with thiol derivatization.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher O; Sandvik, Morten; Nonga, Hezron E; Rundberget, Thomas; Wilkins, Alistair L; Rise, Frode; Ballot, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptides from cyanobacteria which are responsible for poisonings of livestock and humans. Cyanobacteria also produce a range of peptides and other compounds that can result in complex chromatograms when samples are analysed by LC-MS. Thiol derivatization of the α,β-unsaturated amide present in most microcystins was recently shown to simplify analysis of LC-MS chromatograms of a Microcystis culture, making it easier to identify peaks corresponding to microcystins in complex mixtures. This method was applied to analysis of extracts taken from a natural cyanobacteria bloom in Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria, Tanzania, in 2010, revealing the presence of numerous putative microcystin analogues in the sample. Results were verified using LC-MS², LC-MS/MS with precursor-ion scanning, and LC-HRMS, leading to identification of 8 major and 17 minor microcystins in the sample, including analogues of microcystin-RY, -RL and -RA. Microcystin-YR (2), -RR (3), and -RY (9) were isolated from bloom material from Lake Victoria, and the structure of 9 was confirmed by NMR spectroscopic analysis and NMR spectral comparison with 2 and 3. Confirmation of the structure of MC-RY (9) facilitated detailed analysis of its MS² spectrum, thereby supporting the structures of related analogues tentatively established on the basis of MS analyses.

  10. Rural Health and Spiritual Care Development: A Review of Programs across Rural Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Carey, Lindsay B; Hennequin, Christine; Krikheli, Lillian; O'Brien, Annette; Sanchez, Erin; Marsden, Candace R

    2016-06-01

    Given declining populations in rural areas and diminishing traditional religious support, this research explores whether spiritual care education programs would be beneficial for and appreciated by those working in rural health and/or community organizations. An overview of literature identified three dominant rural health issues affecting the provision of spiritual care in rural areas, namely the disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of resources, the lack of access to services, plus the need for education and training within rural areas. Spiritual Health Victoria Incorporated (Victoria, Australia) sought to address these issues with the implementation of a variety of spiritual education programs within rural areas. Results of an evaluation of these programs are presented specifying participant demographics, reasons why participants attended, their evaluation of the program and any recommendations for future programs. In overall terms, the results indicated that at least 90% of participants favorably rated their attended program as either 'very good' or 'good' and indicated that the main reason for their attendance was to develop their own education and/or practice of spiritual care within their rural context for the benefit of local constituents. Several recommendations are made for future programs.

  11. Doctoral graduates in mental health nursing in Victoria, Australia: the doctoral experience and contribution to scholarship.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Edward, Karen-Leigh; Welch, Tony

    2008-08-01

    The last decade has seen a substantial increase in the number of psychiatric or mental health nurses in Victoria, Australia who hold doctoral qualifications. The literature refers to the importance of scholarship for the professional development and recognition of nursing as a discipline. However, there is a paucity of literature addressing the contribution of nursing doctoral graduates to scholarship in mental health nursing or indeed the broader nursing profession. This paper presents the findings from a survey of psychiatric nurse doctoral graduates currently residing in the State of Victoria. A questionnaire was developed by the authors and distributed to the known doctoral graduates. The main findings demonstrate considerable variation in the discipline and topic of inquiry and in the extent to which doctoral studies had led to dissemination of research findings and engagement in further scholarly activity. The strengthening of mental health nursing knowledge requires scholarship and doctoral graduates are expected to make a major contribution, through research and the dissemination of findings. This paper presents a descriptive overview of doctoral graduates in one State of Australia with a particular focus on research and scholarship.

  12. The significant impacts of workplace change on medical scientists in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Weekes, Kerryn

    2002-01-01

    Pathology in Victoria has undergone considerable change in the last decade. The need for productivity gains, the effects of downsizing and budget cuts, alongside the effects of casemix funding, privatisation and the advent of Enterprise Bargaining Agreements (EBAs) have all placed considerable strain on medical scientists. This paper outlines the impacts of workplace change on medical scientists in Victoria, the most significant workplace stressors on medical scientists today, and what medical scientists feel needs to happen to enable them to regain control over their working lives. The findings from key informant interviews and focus groups of medical scientists show that radical changes in service requirements have occurred. The restructuring of laboratories to 'core' business and subsequent changes in client expectations has impacted on the standards of service delivery in pathology. These changes have resulted in considerable stress as the scientists struggle to cope with work intensification, increases in rostered work during 'unsociable' hours, the lack of control over change, and challenges to their professionalism as they feel that quality standards are not being met.

  13. The spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals in sediments of Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chloe Wing-Yee; Ip, Carman Ching-Man; Zhang, Gan; Shin, Paul K S; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2008-01-01

    Victoria Harbour has received substantial loadings of pollutants from industrial and municipal wastewater discharged since the 1950s. Inputs of contaminants have declined dramatically during the last two decades as a result of better controls at the source and improved wastewater treatment facilities. To assess the spatial and temporal changes of metal contaminants in sediments in Victoria Harbour, core and grab sediments were collected. The central harbour areas were generally contaminated with heavy metals. The spatial distribution of trace metals can probably be attributed to the proximity of major urban and industrial discharge points, and to the effect of tidal flushing in the harbour. In the sediment cores, the highest concentrations of trace metals were observed to have accumulated during the 1950s-1980s, corresponding with the period of rapid urban and industrial development in Hong Kong. From the late 1980s, there has been a major decline in the concentrations of trace metals, due to a reduction in industrial activities and to the enactment of wastewater pollution controls in the territory. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sediments revealed the anthropogenic inputs of Pb to the harbour. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios varied from 1.154 to 1.190, which were lower than those of background geological materials in Hong Kong ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.201-1.279). The data also indicated that the Pb in the harbour sediments most likely originated from mixed sources, including the leaded gasoline used in the past and other anthropogenic sources.

  14. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  15. Resting stages of Tortanus forcipatus (Crustacea, Calanoida) in sediments of Victoria Harbor, Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Li, Xiangdong; Zhang, Gan; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2006-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of viable and non-viable (so-called resting eggs) embryos of the calanoid copepod Tortanus forcipatus were determined in the laboratory by the enumeration of nauplii that emerge from sediments collected in Victoria Harbor (Hong Kong). Sediment cores sliced down to a depth of 37 cm showed the highest number of viable resting eggs near the surface layer (0-5 cm). The number of viable eggs sharply decreased with sediment depth, particularly at the inner harbor stations, although diapause eggs remained viable as deep as 25 cm. 210Pb analyses of the sediments indicated that the mean egg age was 4.9 years. The egg mortality of T. forcipatus in the sediments was 0.135 year -1, or 78.22% annual egg survival, calculated by regressing ln (egg density) from sediment age. The range of horizontal distribution of viable resting eggs was 24.25 × 10 3-58.90 × 10 3 m -2, with a mean value of 36.8 × 10 3 m -2 over all stations. The accumulation of viable resting eggs that can persist for an extended period of time provided evidence for the existence of an egg bank of T. forcipatus in the sediments of Victoria Harbor.

  16. Persistent organochlorine residues in sediments of Hong Kong Victoria Harbour and Xiamen Western Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Qi; Zhang, Luo-Ping; Xu, Li; Wang, Xin-Hong; Hong, Hua-Sheng

    1998-03-01

    Samples of surface sediment were collected from Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong (Aug. 1992), and Xiamen Western Bay (Nov. 1993), and analysed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides (HCHs, DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentration ranges of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in the survey area of Victoria Harbour were from undetectable to 9.4 μg/kg, 1.38 97 μg/kg and 3.2 81 μg/kg, respectively; those for Xiamen Western Bay were 0.14 1.12 μg/kg, 4.45 311 μg/kg and 0.05 7.24 μg/kg, respectively. The determined residue levels and distribution patterns of these organochlorines are discussed, and the Harbour and Bay contamination levels are compared. Two sediment cores were collected (Oct. 1994) from Xiamen Western Bay for study on the vertical profiles and pollution history of the above contaminants. The vertical profile characteristics indicated that the inner part of Xiamen Western Bay was once polluted by PCBs moderately and that there are still new inputs of DDT.

  17. Geomagnetic anomaly maps of Central Victoria Land (East Antarctica) from ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.; Meloni, A.

    1992-10-01

    The results of an extensive ground geomagnetic survey over the Central Victoria Land (East Antarctica) between the Transantarctic Mountains and the Ross Sea are used to plot the residual field map of the area under consideration. The data indicate that intense positive anomalies occur along two corridors, one near Mt. Nansen and the other near Mt. Melbourne. Further elaboration of our measurements has produced three other geomagnetic maps: (1) a high-pass filter (cut-off wavelength of 20 km) map; (2) a low-pass filter (cut-off wavelength of 80 km) map; and (3) an upward continuation of the geomagnetic field up to 12000 ft (3660 m) map. The residual field map and the high-pass filter geomagnetic map indicate that all the intense anomalies (both positive and negative) are of shallow origin. The low pass filter map and the upward continuation map show that the land mass of the Central Victoria Land is characterized-by a weak, negative geomagnetic anomaly whereas the near-shore area, close to Terra Nova Bay, displays a weak positive anomaly. Our measurements indicate that all rock types characterized by high susceptibility produce geomagnetic anomalies, even if their outcrop is not extensive. These rocks belong to the Mt. Melbourne volcanics, Jurassic dolerites and Granite Harbour plutons. None of the formations of the metamorphic complex are responsible for intense magnetic signals.

  18. Radar Observations of Asteroids 7 Iris, 9 Metis, 12 Victoria, 216 Kleopatra, and 654 Zelinda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David L.; Ostro, Steven J.; Rosema, Keith D.; Hudson, R. Scott; Campbell, Donald B.; Chandler, John F.; Shapiro, Irwin I.

    1995-01-01

    We report 13-cm wavelength radar observations of the main-belt asteroids 7 Iris, 9 Metis, 12 Victoria, 216 Kleopatra, and 654 Zelinda obtained at Arecibo between 1980 and 1989. The echoes are highly polarized yet broadly distributed in Doppler frequency, indicating that our targets are smooth on decimeter scales but very rough on some scale(s) larger than about I m. The echo spectra are generally consistent with existing size, shape, and spin information based on radiometric, lightcurve, and occultation data. All of our targets possess distinctive radar signatures that reveal large- scale topography. Reflectivity spikes within narrow ranges of rotation phase suggest large flat regions on Iris, Metis, and Zelinda, while bimodal spectra imply nonconvex, possibly bifurcated shapes for Kleopatra and Victoria. Kleopatra has the highest radar albedo yet measured for a main-belt asteroid, indicating a high metal concentration and making Kleopatra the best main-belt candidate for a core remnant of a differentiated and subsequently disrupted parent body. Upon completion of the Arecibo telescope upgrade, there will be several opportunities per year to resolve main-belt asteroids with hundreds of delay-Doppler cells, which can be inverted to provide estimates of both three-dimensional shape and radar scattering properties.

  19. Prevalence of adolescent violence in the home and service system capacity in rural Victoria.

    PubMed

    Reid, Carol; Ervin, Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent violence in the home (AVITH) is increasing. In Victoria alone, police call-out data indicates a consistent 9% rise per annum from 2006. Community services are struggling to provide a cohesive response to this issue. This study examined the prevalence, risk factors and service system capacity regarding AVITH in Mitchell Shire, a geographical location in central Victoria. The results of the study revealed that specific funding was perceived by organisations to be the single highest need in regards to this phenomenon. Recommendations for the service system in Mitchell Shire included a collaborative approach to establish assessment guidelines, referral pathways and protocols for responding to the disclosure of AVITH. To effectively support workers in Mitchell Shire, a quality service system response would involve the development of common standards of practices across these processes. The methodology used with the AVITH Service System Capacity Assessment Survey, specifically developed for this study, may provide a useful tool for other locations investigating service gaps and needs in relation to adolescent family violence.

  20. The Influence of Subsurface Karst Terrain on Hydrology and Hydrogeology in Southwestern Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perveen, F.; Webb, J.; Dresel, E.; Hekmeijer, P.; Zydor, H.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed study, in collaboration with Department of Primary Industries (DPI), Victoria, has been carried out in three small subcatchments of southwestern Victoria (total area 8.4 km2), which are characterised by varying degrees of influence of a subsurface karst terrain. Lithological logs and downhole geophysics (gamma and bulk conductivity - EM39) on 15 bores within the catchments were supplemented by 2D electrical resistivity vertical profiling, and showed that the middle to late Miocene Port Campbell Limestone is present at shallow depths (~5 m) in two catchments, and somewhat deeper (>70 m) in the third catchment. The limestone is overlain by early Pliocene clay-rich Dorodong Sands. The topography of the third catchment is characterised by shallow closed depressions. Detailed hydrogeological cross-sections using groundwater levels in the bores show closed depressions within the potentiometric surface, that are attributed to the presence of subsurface conduits within the highly permeable limestone, verified by the variable hydraulic conductivity values ( 0.005 - 0.545m/day) obtained from single borehole recovery tests. Stream hydrographs reveal that there is virtually no surface runoff from one subcatchment, due to leakage into a conduit in the underlying limestone. A perched water table is also found in the same area. Thus the study area shows the typical karst features of a highly heterogeneous terrain with massive connectivity between surface water and groundwater regimes, despite the fact that the limestone is overlain by the clay-rich Dorodong Sands.

  1. Green Streets Help Baltimore, Others

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fifteen Green Streets, Green Towns, Green Jobs (G3) grants for will support projects in three states, including the conversion of hard surfaces to green space at Sarah’s Hope, a homeless shelter in a troubled Baltimore neighborhood.

  2. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  3. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  4. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  5. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  6. Green Power Communities Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Green Power Communities Brochure provides basic information about GPP's Green Power Communities (GPCs). The four-page brochure includes information about how to become a GPC, the benefits of procuring green power, and examples of how current GPCs are u

  7. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  8. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  9. A coupled regional climate model for the Lake Victoria basin of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi; Semazzi, Fredrick H. M.; Xie, Lian; Ogallo, Laban J.

    2004-01-01

    A nested coupled model has been developed to investigate the two-way interactions between the regional climate of eastern Africa and Lake Victoria. The atmospheric component of the model is the North Carolina State University (NCSU) version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) regional climate model (NCSU-RegCM2). The lake component of the model is based on the Princeton ocean model (POM).Three simulations, each 4 months long, have been performed for the short rains of eastern Africa of September through to December. The control experiment is based on the standard NCSU-RegCM2 model coupled to a one-dimensional model of Lake Victoria. The second experiment was based on the stand-alone three-dimensional primitive equation POM-Lake Victoria model forced by output from the atmospheric component of the control run. The third experiment is based on the integration of the coupled system of the NCSU-RegCM2 model where the one-dimensional lake model in the control run has been replaced by the three-dimensional POM hydrodynamical model for Lake Victoria.The results confirm that adopting the traditional modelling approach, in which the lake hydrodynamics are neglected and the formulation is based entirely on thermodynamics alone, is not entirely satisfactory for the Lake Victoria basin. Such a strategy precludes the transport of heat realistically within the lake, from the heat surplus regions to the cooler regions, and thereby results in a degraded simulation of the climate downstream over the rest of the lake and the surrounding land regions. The numerical simulations show that the southwestern region of the lake is an important source of warm water because it is relatively shallower and the water column is heated up much more quickly during the day than the rest of the lake. The result is that the surface temperature anomaly field from the all-lake area average consists of a gradient pattern with warmer water over the shallow region of the lake over the

  10. A chimera of green fluorescent protein with single chain variable fragment antibody against ginsenosides for fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanizaki, Yusuke; Pongkitwitoon, Benyakan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    A chimera of green fluorescent protein extracted from Aequorea coerulescens (AcGFP), a mutant that has been codon optimized for mammalian expression, with single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against ginsenoside Re (GRe-scFv), named fluobody, has been successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) to develop simple, speedy, and sensitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA). Two chimera proteins were constructed to contain GRe-scFv at the C-terminus of AcGFP (C-fluobody) and at the N-terminus of AcGFP (N-fluobody). These fluobodies were then purified by ion metal affinity chromatography and refolded by stepwise dialysis. The characterization of both fluobodies revealed that C-fluobody was found to be appropriate probe for FLISA as compare with N-fluobody. Furthermore, improvement of limit of detection (LOD) was observed in FLISA using C-fluobody (10 ng/mL) due to its strong fluorescence intensity of AcGFP compared with conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using parental monoclonal antibody against ginsenoside Re (G-Re), MAb-4G10 (100 ng/mL). Since some steps required in ELISA can be avoided in this present FLISA, speedy and sensitive immunoassay also could be performed using fluobody instead of monoclonal antibody and scFv.

  11. Indocyanine green video angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frambach, Donald A.

    1994-06-01

    Over the last two years, ophthalmologists have begun to use indocyanine green angiography as a supplement to fluorescein angiography. Unlike fluorescein, indocyanine green absorbs near infrared and emits slightly longer infrared light. Therefore, indocyanine green angiography images structures deeper in the retina and through blood, pigment, and turbid serous fluid that accumulates in a number of diseases. In addition, indocyanine green shows very different properties of dye leakage than does fluorescein and this can be used to identify certain abnormal blood vessels that grow beneath the retinas of patients with macular degeneration. Finally, indocyanine green fluoresces only 4% as efficiently as fluorescein which has presented a major technical problem until highly amplified video systems have become available to ophthalmologists. We have used a scanning laser ophthalmoscope to perform video indocyanine green angiography at the Doheny Eye Institute since November, 1991. In this paper, I will present several clinical cases that demonstrate the clinical usefulness of indocyanine green angiography.

  12. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  13. Evolution of the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer one (ITS-1) in cichlid fishes of the Lake Victoria region.

    PubMed

    Booton, G C; Kaufman, L; Chandler, M; Oguto-Ohwayo, R; Duan, W; Fuerst, P A

    1999-03-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster have been determined for 11 species of closely related endemic cichlid fishes of the Lake Victoria region (LVR) and 6 related East African cichlids. The ITS-1 sequences confirmed independently derived basal phylogenies, but provide limited insight within this species flock. The line leading to Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor arose early, close to the divergence event that separated the tilapiine and haplochromine tribes of the "African Group" of the family Cichlidae. In this phylogeny, Astatoreochromis alluaudi and the riverine Astatotilapia burtoni are sister taxa, which together are a sister group to a monophyletic assemblage including both Lake Victoria and Lake Edward taxa. The ITS-1 data support the monophyly of haplochromine genera across lakes. Since Lake Victoria is believed to have been dry between 14, 500 and 12,400 BPE, the modern assemblage must have been derived from reinvasion by the products of earlier cladogenesis events. Thus, although the regional superflock is monophyletic, the haplochromines of Lake Victoria itself did not evolve in situ from a single ancestor.

  14. "Comfortably British" to "Fundamentally Economic"? The Effects of Language Policies on Year 12 Language Candidature in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to explore how various language policies may have impacted Year 12 language candidature in Victoria. Australian Federal and Victorian State Government language policies are but one of the influences yet, it may be argued, the most significant influence. These stand alongside waves of immigration, global events and conflicts, and…

  15. University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre Partners with CPTAC - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    University of Victoria Genome British Columbia Proteomics Centre, a leader in proteomic technology development, has partnered with the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) to make targeted proteomic assays accessible to the community through NCI’s CPTAC Assay Portal.

  16. Language in the Workplace Project and Workplace Communication for Skilled Migrants Course at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bres, Julia; Holmes, Janet; Joe, Angela; Marra, Meredith; Newton, Jonathan; Riddiford Nicky; Vine, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    The School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies (LALS) at Victoria University of Wellington conducts research and teaching in Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, Writing and Deaf Studies. It incorporates a Deaf Studies Research Unit, which undertakes research on topics relating to deaf people and their language in New Zealand, and the New…

  17. Marching Backwards into the Future: The Introduction of the English Creative Music Movement in State Secondary Schools in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In 1910, Victoria established an elite form of state secondary education that remained essentially unchanged until the introduction of a progressive curriculum during the late 1960s. This radical and voluntary curriculum introduced child-centred learning and personal development skills to state secondary schools. Many state secondary music…

  18. From School to Tertiary Study: Transition to College and University in Victoria. ACER Research Monograph No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsworth, Gerald; And Others

    A study of the transition of students to higher education in Victoria, Australia, is reported based on data supplied by the Victorian Universities Admissions Committee (VUAC), a mail survey of 1,300 applicants in 1980, and a series of extended interviews with a small number of applicants. A basic causal model for enrollment decisions (college…

  19. Polarisation of High-Performing and Low-Performing Secondary Schools in Victoria, Australia: An Analysis of Causal Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandaranayake, Bandara

    2016-01-01

    Applying qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), this study explores the configurations of conditions that contribute to the polarisation of high-performing and low-performing secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. It is argued that the success and failure of schools can be understood in terms of causal complexity, where one or several…

  20. White men and weak masculinity: men in the public asylums in Victoria, Australia, and New Zealand, 1860s-1900s.

    PubMed

    Coleborne, Catharine

    2014-12-01

    This article reveals a set of formulations of masculine identity through the fragments of extant casebook evidence from nineteenth-century psychiatric institutions in Victoria, Australia, and Auckland, New Zealand. It shows that some patterns in the identification of masculinity and insanity emerge, also highlighting the relevance of individual stories and 'cases' to fully understand how masculine identities were fashioned through medical institutional language.

  1. Assessment of improved fission-product transport models in VICTORIA against the ORNL HI and VI tests

    SciTech Connect

    Domagala, P.; Rest, J.; Zawadzki, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    New models for the release of fission-products from fuel have recently been incorporated into a comprehensive code, VICTORIA, for the prediction of radionuclide behavior under severe reactor accident conditions as an alternative to a simple Booth diffusion calculation. It is widely known that the Booth model has severe limitations when used under conditions of changing temperature and power. A new transport model based on a two node diffusive flow formulation has been implemented into VICTORIA. In addition to the diffusive flow model, other mechanisms such as grain growth, grain boundary sweeping and intergranular bubble behavior are taken into account. These physically based models focus on fission-product behavior in intact fuel geometries. While the VICTORIA program is primarily concerned with the behavior of severely degraded fuel geometries, the capability for accurately characterizing fission-product release from intact fuel must be demonstrated before other geometries can be reliably modeled. Results of VICTORIA simulations are compared with the results of in-cell heating tests on irradiated fuel. The fission-product transport models involved in these simulations are assessed and their predictive capability examined. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The Development and Use of Individual Learning Plans for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, P. Margaret; Byrnes, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the Individual Learning Plans of eighty-eight students who were deaf and hard of hearing attending facilities and schools for the deaf in Victoria Australia. The students' assessment and planning portfolios were scrutinised for evidence of formal and informal assessment used to generate goals for the Individual Learning…

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni in Uganda: DNA barcoding reveals substantial genetic diversity within Lake Albert and Lake Victoria populations.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J R; Webster, B L; Weber, T; Nyakaana, S; Webster, J P; Kazibwe, F; Kabatereine, N B; Rollinson, D

    2009-11-01

    Representative samples of Ugandan Schistosoma mansoni from Lake Albert and Lake Victoria were examined using DNA barcoding, sequence analysis of two partially overlapping regions - ASMIT (396 bp) & MORGAN (617 bp) - of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1). The Victorian sample exhibited greater nucleotide diversity, 1.4% vs. 1.0%, and a significant population partition appeared as barcodes did not cross-over between lakes. With one exception, Lake Albert populations were more mixed by sampled location, while those from Lake Victoria appeared more secluded. Using statistical parsimony, barcode ASMIT 1 was putatively ancestral to all others and analysis of MORGAN cox1 confirmed population diversity. All samples fell into two of five well-resolved lineages; sub-lineages therein broadly partitioning by lake. It seems that barcode ASMIT 1 (and close variants) was likely widely dispersed throughout the Nilotic environment but later diversified in situ, and in parallel, within Lake Albert and Lake Victoria. The genetic uniformity of Ugandan S. mansoni can no longer be assumed, which might better explain known epidemiological heterogeneities. While it appears plausible that locally evolved heritable traits could spread through most of the Lake Albert populations, it seems unlikely they could quickly homogenise into Lake Victoria or amongst populations therein.

  4. "Why Has It Only become an Issue Now?": Young Drug Users' Perceptions of Drug Driving in Melbourne, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laura Ann; Wilson, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary research into drug-user perceptions of drug driving was undertaken with a sample group of drug users aged 18 to 24 from Melbourne, Victoria. Eleven males and nine females participated in semi-structured interviews and completed self-report surveys. Participants discussed their drug driving and their perceptions of the likelihood of…

  5. 75 FR 43579 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Victoria County Station, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Victoria County Station, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for a Combined License By letter dated September 2, 2008, Exelon Nuclear Texas Holdings,...

  6. Rips, Currents and Snags: Investigating the Delivery of Educational Goals for Young Australians in the Region of Gippsland, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Monash University (Gippsland campus) is situated in Churchill, Latrobe Valley, located in central Gippsland, eastern Victoria. A large percentage of the Gippsland region comprises of a socio-economically disadvantaged population (Figure 1). In Semester One, 2011 as part of the Bachelor of Primary Education course at Monash, it was decided that a…

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Cryobacterium arcticum Strain PAMC 27867, Isolated from a Sedimentary Rock Sample in Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaejin; Cho, Ahnna; Yang, Jae Young; Woo, Jusun; Lee, Hong Kum; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Cryobacterium arcticum PAMC 27867, a psychrotolerant, Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from a sedimentary rock sample collected at Eureka Spurs in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Here, we report the genome sequence of C. arcticum PAMC 27867. PMID:27587812

  8. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages isolated from the environmental waters of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Maina, Alice Nyambura; Mwaura, Francis B; Oyugi, Julius; Goulding, David; Toribio, Ana L; Kariuki, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, cholera outbreaks have become common in some parts of Kenya. The most recent cholera outbreak occurred in Coastal and Lake Victoria region during January 2009 and May 2010, where a total of 11,769 cases and 274 deaths were reported by the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. The objective of this study is to isolate Vibrio cholerae bacteriophages from the environmental waters of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya with potential for use as a biocontrol for cholera outbreaks. Water samples from wells, ponds, sewage effluent, boreholes, rivers, and lakes of the Lake Victoria region of Kenya were enriched for 48 h at 37 °C in broth containing a an environmental strain of V. cholerae. Bacteriophages were isolated from 5 out of the 42 environmental water samples taken. Isolated phages produced tiny, round, and clear plaques suggesting that these phages were lytic to V. cholerae. Transmission electron microscope examination revealed that all the nine phages belonged to the family Myoviridae, with typical icosahedral heads, long contractile tails, and fibers. Head had an average diameter of 88.3 nm and tail of length and width 84.9 and 16.1 nm, respectively. Vibriophages isolated from the Lake Victoria region of Kenya have been characterized and the isolated phages may have a potential to be used as antibacterial agents to control pathogenic V. cholerae bacteria in water reservoirs.

  9. The Discourse of Public Education: An Urban Campaign for a Local Public High School in Melbourne, Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Emma E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the metonymic slippage surrounding the discourse of public education, through observations and interviews with Lawson High School active campaigners in the state of Victoria, Australia. The notion of campaigning for public education has become an ever-present issue on an international scale, and this article aims to contribute…

  10. "Why Didn't They Teach Us Any of This before?": Youth Appraisal of Turkish Provision in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beykont, Zeynep F.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines youth assessment of the quality and success of languages provision. The discussion draws on data collected from students and graduates of Victoria's 16 secondary Turkish programs in large-scale surveys (n=858) and follow-up interviews (n=177). Surveys revealed that upper secondary Turkish classrooms serve predominantly…

  11. 78 FR 35604 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 155-Calhoun/Victoria Counties, Texas; Notification of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... Proposed Production Activity; Caterpillar, Inc.; (Excavator and Frame Assembly Production), Victoria, Texas... proposed production activity to the FTZ Board on behalf of Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar), located in... CFR 400.22) was received on May 29, 2013. The Caterpillar facility is located within FTZ 155, Site...

  12. Temperature and hydrologic variability of Lake Victoria, East Africa since the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berke, M. A.; Johnson, T. C.; Werne, J. P.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent organic geochemical advances have facilitated the comparison between continental temperature change and hydrologic variability. TEX86, a proxy based on the lipids of aquatic Crenarchaeota that show a positive correlation with growth temperature, was used to reconstruct surface water temperatures from Lake Victoria, East Africa during the latest Pleistocene-Holocene. Hydrologic conditions were interpreted using paleoecological implications of shifting pollen and diatom assemblages found in the lake (Kendall, 1969; Stager et al., 2003) and will be compared with future compound specific δ13C data from terrestrial biomarkers in order to determine the patterns of rainfall and aridity in this region. Initial comparisons of climatic changes seen in temperature and hydrologic records appear to show consistency between warm/wet intervals and cool/dry intervals that is often assumed, but more rarely shown, in tropical Africa. Lake Victoria temperatures show a steady warming beginning 16 cal ka, with a pause around the Younger Dryas, dominated by arid conditions and strong savannah grassland development during this interval. There is continued warming to a sustained thermal maximum for this portion of the record at ~10.5-8.5 ka, which generally coincides with the beginning of the Holocene Hypsithermal, an interval of elevated temperatures and precipitation throughout much of tropical Africa. This thermal maximum occurs during the most humid interval of this record (~9.5-8.3 ka), shown by an increase of humid forest pollen and high diatom abundance (due to increased water column mixing and nutrient runoff). Temperatures abruptly cool ~1.5°C in <800 years while precipitation becomes somewhat more seasonally restricted, coinciding with an abrupt drop in inferred P:E ratio and reduction in wind-driven mixing. The record then shows a general cooling, reaching a Holocene thermal minimum of ~18.4°C at ~4.5 ka, contrary to other East African continental and marine

  13. Supporting breastfeeding In Local Communities (SILC) in Victoria, Australia: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Helen L; Forster, Della A; Amir, Lisa H; Cullinane, Meabh; Shafiei, Touran; Watson, Lyndsey F; Ridgway, Lael; Cramer, Rhian L; Small, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Breastfeeding has significant health benefits for mothers and infants. Despite recommendations from the WHO, by 6 months of age 40% of Australian infants are receiving no breast milk. Increased early postpartum breastfeeding support may improve breastfeeding maintenance. 2 community-based interventions to increase breastfeeding duration in local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, were implemented and evaluated. Design 3-arm cluster randomised trial. Setting LGAs in Victoria, Australia. Participants LGAs across Victoria with breastfeeding initiation rates below the state average and > 450 births/year were eligible for inclusion. The LGA was the unit of randomisation, and maternal and child health centres in the LGAs comprised the clusters. Interventions Early home-based breastfeeding support by a maternal and child health nurse (home visit, HV) with or without access to a community-based breastfeeding drop-in centre (HV+drop-in). Main outcome measures The proportion of infants receiving ‘any’ breast milk at 3, 4 and 6 months (women's self-report). Findings 4 LGAs were randomised to the comparison arm and provided usual care (n=41 clusters; n=2414 women); 3 to HV (n=32 clusters; n=2281 women); and 3 to HV+drop-in (n=26 clusters; 2344 women). There was no difference in breastfeeding at 4 months in either HV (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29) or HV+drop-in (adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.08) compared with the comparison arm, no difference at 3 or 6 months, nor in any LGA in breastfeeding before and after the intervention. Some issues were experienced with intervention protocol fidelity. Conclusions Early home-based and community-based support proved difficult to implement. Interventions to increase breastfeeding in complex community settings require sufficient time and partnership building for successful implementation. We cannot conclude that additional community-based support is ineffective in improving breastfeeding

  14. Extent and drainage status of organic soils in the Lake Victoria catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthelmes, Reni; Barthelmes, Alexandra; Joosten, Hans

    2016-04-01

    When considering peatlands and organic soils in the tropics, the huge areas in SE Asia prevail in public and scientific perception, whereas Africa has largely been out of focus. However, East Africa contains large areas of organic soils as well. They basically occur in the high altitudes of the uplifted flanks of the East African Rift System, isolated volcanoes and the Ethiopian highlands, in the Zambezian floodplains (e.g. Zambia), and in coastal environments (e.g. Mozambique and Madagascar). We used a mapping approach that integrates old field data and maps, specialized landscape and peatland-related knowledge, and modern RS and GIS techniques to elaborate a comprehensive and rather reliable overview of organic soils (incl. peatlands) in the Lake Victoria catchment. Maps at a scale of 1:25,000 have been prepared for Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The land use intensity has been estimated for all organic soil areas based on satellite and aerial imagery. Feeding the Nile River, sustaining a fast growing and widely poor population and already facing climatic changes, organic soils of the Lake Victoria neighbouring countries are partially under heavy threat. We mapped 10,645 km2 of organic soils for the entire area of which 8,860 km2 (83.2%) seem to be in near natural condition. We assume slightly drainage and low degradation for 564 km2 (5.3%) and intensive drainage and heavy degradation for 1,222 km2 (11.5%). Degradation hotspot is Burundi with 522 km2 (79.5%) of heavily drained and degrading organic soils. This area assessment has been quite conservative to not overestimate the extent of organic soils. A reserve of 5-7,000 km2 of wetlands in the Lake Victoria catchment may include peatlands too, which needs to be confirmed in field surveys. Considering the key role of peatlands and organic soils for water provision and regulation and their rapid degradation due to drainage and inappropriate use, this inventory might be a step towards organic soil

  15. Genetic diversity of the endangered endemic Agave victoriae-reginae (Agavaceae) in the Chihuahuan Desert.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Palacios, A; Eguiarte, L E; Furnier, G R

    1999-08-01

    Long-lived perennials are a species-rich, ecologically important component of the North American deserts, yet we know little about their genetic structure, information important for their conservation. Agave victoriae-reginae is an endemic of the Chihuahuan Desert of northern Mexico that is endangered by collection for the ornamental trade. We examined levels and patterns of variation at ten polymorphic allozyme loci in ten populations representing the range of the species. Levels of genetic variation (mean H(e)= 0.335) and differentiation (mean F(ST) = 0.236) were high. Phenetic clustering suggested the existence of at least three distinct groups of populations. If this pattern of variation is representative of other long-lived desert perennials, it may explain the species richness of this group and will pose a real challenge to gene conservation efforts.

  16. Energy performance of medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia- a case study.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini; Elkadi, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the energy performance of three medium-sized healthcare buildings in Victoria, Australia, that operate only during the daytime. The aim is to provide preliminary understanding of energy consumption in this particular typology in Australia in relation to the available benchmarks. This paper also identifies the differences of energy consumption between different functional areas within medium health facilities. Building features and operational characteristics contributing to the variations in healthcare energy performance are discussed. The total annual energy consumption data ranging from 167-306 kWh/m(2) or 42-72 kWh/m(3) were compared against international data from various climatic zones. Some of the drivers of energy consumption were determined and potentials for energy and water conservation were identified. Comparison with international standards shows a possibility to achieve lower energy consumption in Victorian healthcare buildings.

  17. Subsolidus physical and chemical mixing of granite and gabbro during mylonitization, South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachel Walcott, C.; Craw, Dave

    1993-12-01

    At Dromedary Massif, Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, a suite of coarse-grained granite dykes cross-cuts a gabbro pluton which has been partially metamorphosed at amphibolite facies. During regional deformation, strain has been inhomogeneously distributed through the gabbro pluton and has been concentrated in granite dykes. In zones of relatively high strain, the granite dykes have developed a mylonitic fabric. A high strain gradient between granitic mylonite and metagabbroic host rock has induced isochemical mylonitization of the margin of the host. This grain size reduction allowed chemical diffusion between granitic and metagabbroic mylonites, resulting in a marginal zone of biotite-rich mylonite with intermediate composition. Biotite-rich mylonite decoupled from metagabbroic mylonite and flowed with granitic mylonite. Continued folding and transposition of granitic mylonite and biotite-rich mylonite has produced compositionally banded mylonite zones through thorough and irreversible mixing of the two lithologies.

  18. Monophyletic origin of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Kocher, T D; Basasibwaki, P; Wilson, A C

    1990-10-11

    Lake Victoria, together with its satellite lakes, harbours roughly 200 endemic forms of cichlid fishes that are classified as 'haplochromines' and yet the lake system is less than a million years old. This 'flock' has attracted attention because of the possibility that it evolved within the lake from one ancestral species and that biologists are thus presented with a case of explosive evolution. Within the past decade, however, morphology has increasingly emphasized the view that the flock may be polyphyletic. We sequenced up to 803 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA from 14 representative Victorian species and 23 additional African species. The flock seems to be monophyletic, and is more akin to that from Lake Malawi than to species from Lake Tanganyika; in addition, it contains less genetic variation than does the human species, and there is virtually no sharing of mitochondrial DNA types among species. These results confirm that the founding event was recent.

  19. Steranes and triterpanes in the Beacon Supergroup samples from southern Victoria Land in Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Genki I.; Watanuki, Kunihiko ); Machihara, Tsutomu ); Suzuki, Noriyuki ); Funaki, Minoru )

    1987-10-01

    Steranes and triterpanes in Beacon Supergroup samples (sedimentary rock and silicified wood) from Allan Hills and Carapace Nunatak of southern Victoria Land in Antarctica were studied to elucidate sources of organic materials, sedimentary paleoenvironment and thermal history after deposition. Relative abundances of C{sub 27}, C{sub 28} and C{sub 29} steranes and visual kerogen results of Beacon Supergroup samples from Allan Hills imply that organic materials in the sedimentary paleoenvironments are contributed mainly by vascular plants with some influence of microorganisms, while those of the Carapace Nunatak sample may be largely due to fern spores. The pristane/phytane and pristane/heptadecane ratios of the samples were generally close to unity and between 0.50 and 0.99, respectively, suggesting that the sedimentary paleoenvironment was shallow lacustrine with alternating oxic and anoxic conditions.

  20. Tracking CO2 Geosequestration Using Downhole Gravity Gradiometry, Otway Basin, Victoria, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; O'Neill, C.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration is a vital technique for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and anthropogenic global warming. The viability of CO2 geosequestration, and the ability to prevent any leakage or migration depends on the capacity to monitor, and model, the CO2 reservoir. Downhole gravity gradiometry offers an additional capability to CO2 monitoring, and here we demonstrate the downhole gradient effect of CO2 injection at the Otway Basin, Victoria, by the CO2CRC corporation. Data from reservoir modelling has been simulated to calculate gravity gradients to gain an understanding of the behaviour of CO2 once injected into geological storage. Monte Carlo simulations were utilised to determine the uncertainties inherent in the deep subsurface. Presently; models have been created to demonstrate the response caused by the injection of CO2, and we present a statistical analysis to constrain the uncertainties posed by the results.

  1. Compliance with regulations by "swim-with-dolphins" operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Scarpaci, Carol; Dayanthi, Nugegoda; Corkeron, Peter J

    2003-03-01

    Managing the activities of commercial wildlife viewing tends to involve either restricting the number of industry participants and/or regulating the activities or industry participants. We report on operator compliance with regulations regarding humans swimming with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. A total of 128 commercial dolphin-swim trips was studied between September 1998 and April 2000. Four permit conditions were investigated: approach type, swim time, time in proximity of dolphins, and presence of "fetal fold" calves. Results demonstrate noncompliance by operators to all of the four permit conditions studied. Compliance with temporal conditions was poorer than with other conditions. When conducting studies on the extent to which tourism affects cetaceans, investigators should consider whether tourist operations comply with existing regulations or guidelines.

  2. The captive husbandry and reproduction of the pink-eared turtle (Emydura victoriae) at Perth Zoo.

    PubMed

    Gaikhorst, G S; Clarke, B R; McPharlin, M; Larkin, B; McLaughlin, J; Mayes, J

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, Perth Zoo acquired six pink-eared turtles (Emydura victoriae) from the wild for display in the reptile facility. There is very little documented information on pink-eared turtles in captivity. This article looks at the reproductive biology, ecology, behavior, diet, and captive husbandry of the species. Eight clutches of eggs were documented over a 2-year period with an average clutch size of 10 eggs. Egg size was recorded with three clutches incubated to hatching. Ten hatchlings were maintained for a growth and development study. Measurements of weight, carapace length, width, height, and plastron length were recorded weekly for about 12 months, and then monthly for approximately 2 years. The data were analyzed and showed positive growth curves in all animals. Sexual dimorphism was observed after 20 weeks and sexual maturity in males observed after 2 years.

  3. Seismicity and arrival-time residuals from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, V.; Frez, J.

    1981-01-01

    Hypocenter distribution in space and time of the aftershock activity from the Victoria Earthquake of June 9, 1980 was studied. It was concluded that the main event excited aftershocks in several pre-existing nests at the northwest end of the Cerro Prieto Fault, but no significant activity occurred at the immediate neighborhood of the main event. The depth of the aftershocks increases with the distance from the northwest end of the fault and this feature might be related with the higher temperatures and the spreading center located between the ends of the Imperial and Cerro Prieto Faults. The significance of the arrival-times residuals for local and regional stations is discussed both for P and S-waves and the importance of obtaining station corrections is emphasized. The non-uniqueness in determining a structure which minimizes the residuals is illustrated. Two different structures which satisfy the local data are presented.

  4. Basal Adare volcanics, Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land, Antarctica: Late Miocene intraplate basalts of subaqueous origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Dunlap, W.J.; Isaac, M.J.; Sutherland, R.P.; Faure, K.

    2007-01-01

    Late Cenozoic lavas and associated hyaloclastite breccias of the Adare volcanics (Hallett volcanic province) in Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land rest unconformably on Paleozoic greywackes. Abundant hyaloclastite breccias are confined to a paleovalley; their primary geological features, and the stable isotope ratios of secondary minerals, are consistent with eruption in a subaqueous environment with calcite formation probably involving seawater. In contrast, the lavas which stratigraphically overlie the hyaloclastites on Mayr Spur probably were erupted subaerially. K-Ar dating of eight samples from this basal sequence confirms the known older age limit (Late Miocene) of the Hallett volcanic province. Geochemical data reveal an ocean island basalt-like affinity, similar to other Cenozoic igneous rocks of the Hallett volcanic province. If a submarine eruptive paleoenvironment is accepted then there has been net tectonic or isostatic post-Late Miocene uplift of a few hundred metres in the Robertson Bay-Adare Peninsula area

  5. Defining disaster resilience: comparisons from key stakeholders involved in emergency management in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Spencer, Caroline; McArdle, Dudley; Archer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Three years after the introduction of the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience there remains no unanimously adopted definition of disaster resilience within Australia's emergency management sector. The aim of this study is to determine what the concept means to key stakeholders in the emergency management sector in the Australian State of Victoria, and how these conceptualisations overlap and diverge. Via an online survey, 113 people were asked how they define disaster resilience in their work in the emergency management sector. A data mining software tool, Leximancer, was employed to uncover the relationships between the definitions provided. The findings show that stakeholders see resilience as an 'ability' that encompasses emergency management activities and personal responsibility. However, the findings also highlight some possible points of conflict between stakeholders. In addition, the paper outlines and discusses a number of potential consequences for the implementation and the success of the resilience-based approach in Australia.

  6. Writing history: case study of the university of Victoria School of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Scaia, Margaret R; Young, Lynne

    2013-04-23

    A historical examination of a nursing curriculum is a bridge between past and present from which insights to guide curriculum development can be gleaned. In this paper, we use the case study method to examine how the University of Victoria School of Nursing (UVic SON), which was heavily influenced by the ideology of second wave feminism, contributed to a change in the direction of nursing education from task-orientation to a content and process orientation. This case study, informed by a feminist lens, enabled us to critically examine the introduction of a "revolutionary" caring curriculum at the UVic SON. Our research demonstrates the fault lines and current debates within which a feminist informed curriculum continues to struggle for legitimacy and cohesion. More work is needed to illuminate the historical basis of these debates and to understand more fully the complex landscape that has constructed the social and historical position of women and nursing in Canadian society today.

  7. Chemostratigraphy and Fe Mineralogy of the Victoria Crater Duck Bay Section: Opportunity APXS and Moessbauer Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Jolliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2008-01-01

    Meridiani Planum is a vast plain of approximately horizontally bedded sedimentary rocks composed of mixed and reworked basaltic and evaporitic sands containing secondary, diagenetic minerals [e.g., 1-5]. Because bedding planes are subparallel to topography, investigation of contiguous stratigraphy requires examining exposures in impact craters. Early in the mission (sols 130-317), Opportunity was commanded to do detailed study of exposed outcrops in Endurance crater, including the contiguous Karatepe section at the point of ingress. Just over 1000 sols later and roughly 7 km to the south, the rover is being commanded to do a similar study of the Duck Bay section of Victoria crater. Here we report on the preliminary results from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Moessbauer instruments.

  8. A pharyngeal jaw evolutionary innovation facilitated extinction in Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    McGee, Matthew D; Borstein, Samuel R; Neches, Russell Y; Buescher, Heinz H; Seehausen, Ole; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-11-27

    Evolutionary innovations, traits that give species access to previously unoccupied niches, may promote speciation and adaptive radiation. Here, we show that such innovations can also result in competitive inferiority and extinction. We present evidence that the modified pharyngeal jaws of cichlid fishes and several marine fish lineages, a classic example of evolutionary innovation, are not universally beneficial. A large-scale analysis of dietary evolution across marine fish lineages reveals that the innovation compromises access to energy-rich predator niches. We show that this competitive inferiority shaped the adaptive radiation of cichlids in Lake Tanganyika and played a pivotal and previously unrecognized role in the mass extinction of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria after Nile perch invasion.

  9. Northern Victoria Land (western Ross Sea-Antarctica): inner shelf fine sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, E.; Finocchiaro, F.; Ivaldi, R.; Pittà, A.; Tolotti, R.; Brambati, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Holocene sedimentation conditions are represented, in the western Ross Sea, by diatomaceous ooze in the uppermost part of sedimentary sequences, while diamicton deposited during Last Glacial Maximum are the basal unit of most cores. Thick layer (> 2 m) of diatomaceous ooze were sampled in the northern Joides Basin and into Granite Harbour. In Drygalski Ice Tongue area and along the coasts of northern Victoria Land, prevails coarse sedimentation, due to seaward flowing of large outlet glacier that drain the Transantarctic Mountain. During 1998-99 and 2001-02 PNRA antarctic cruises, favourable sea ice conditions, has allowed to sample inner shelf area, both in Wood Bay and south of Drygalski ice tongue (Nordenskjold basin). In both sites fine laminated diatomaceous mud are present. Preliminary seismostratigraphy and sedimentological data are here reported. This is the first note of new sites of fine sedimentation in the Ross Sea inner shelf.

  10. Diachronous cleavage development in the Robertson Bay Terrane, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Wright, Thomas O.

    1992-04-01

    The Robertson Bay terrane is the easternmost of three regional lithotectonic units comprising Northern Victoria Land. It is largely represented by a thick succession of Cambrian-Ordovician distal turbidites (Robertson Bay Group), which has been folded into upright structures with development of an associated, regionally penetrative cleavage during maintenance of regionally uniform, low-grade regional metamorphic conditions. Whole rock 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release analysis of slate/phyllite documents diachronous cleavage development between ˜500 Ma (west) and 460 Ma (east) during the Ross orogeny. This systematic regional variation in age is consistent with tectonic models for the Ross orogeny that involve southwest directed subduction of the outboard Robertson Bay terrane beneath the Bowers terrane. Convergence rates of ˜0.4-1.0 cm/yr are suggested.

  11. Suffering by comparison: Twitter users' reactions to the Victoria's Secret Fashion Show.

    PubMed

    Chrisler, Joan C; Fung, Kaitlin T; Lopez, Alexandra M; Gorman, Jennifer A

    2013-09-01

    Social comparison theory suggests that evaluating the self in comparison with others (e.g., peers, celebrities, models) can influence body image. Experimental studies that have tested effects of viewing idealized images in the media often show that women feel worse about themselves after seeing images that illustrate the beauty ideal. Twitter presents a naturally occurring opportunity to study viewers' reactions. An analysis was conducted of 977 tweets sent immediately before and during the 2011 Victoria's Secret Fashion Show that reference the show. Although the majority were idiosyncratic remarks, many tweets contain evidence of upward social comparisons to the fashion models. There were tweets about body image, eating disorders, weight, desires for food or alcohol, and thoughts about self-harm. The results support social comparison theory, and suggest that vulnerable viewers could experience negative affect, or even engage in harmful behaviors, during or after viewing the show or others like it.

  12. An evaluation of a primary preventive dental programme in non-fluoridated areas of Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M V; Campain, A C; Crowley, S J; Wright, F A

    1997-12-01

    A primary preventive dental programme targeting adolescents living in non-fluoridated areas of Victoria, Australia was evaluated for a three-year period. The programme comprised annual placement or replacement/repair of fissure sealants combined with a weekly 0.2 per cent sodium fluoride mouthrinse and was evaluated in terms of acceptance by the providers and the community to which it was directed. Acceptance was measured using accessibility, availability, continuity, quality of care, role responsibility, provider and consumer satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. In general, the programme was considered to represent an acceptable model for future preventive interventions, although there were areas of its design that were found to require improvement. In particular, deficiencies in the manner in which the fluoride mouthrinsing component was delivered indicate that further investigation would be required before a recommendation to adopt its use could be made.

  13. A new resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral method for determination of O3 with victoria blue B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guiqing; Yang, Duo; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) could be absorbed by boric acid-potassium iodide (BKI) absorbent solution to produce tri-iodine ion (I3-) that react with victoria blue B (VBB) to form the associated particle (VBB-I3)n and exhibited a strong resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) peak at 722 nm. Under the chosen conditions, the RRS peak intensity was linear with O3 concentration in the range of 0.2-50 μmol/L, with a linear regression equation of ΔI722 = 17.9c - 45.4 and detection limit of 0.057 μmol/L. Accordingly, a simple, rapid and sensitive RRS spectral method was set up for determination of trace O3 in air, with satisfactory results.

  14. Predictors of using trains as a suicide method: Findings from Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Too, Lay San; Bugeja, Lyndal; Milner, Allison; McClure, Roderick; Spittal, Matthew J

    2017-04-04

    This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with the choice of trains over other means of suicide. We performed a case-control study using data on all suicides in Victoria, Australia between 2009 and 2012. Cases were those who died by rail suicide and controls were those who died by suicide by any other means. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between the choice of trains and a range of individual-level and neighbourhood-level factors. Individuals who were never married had double odds of using trains compared to individuals who were married. Those from areas with a higher proportion of people who travel to work by train also had greater odds of dying by railway suicide compared to those from areas with a relatively lower proportion of people who travel to work by train. Prevention efforts should consider limiting access to the railways and other evidence-based suicide prevention activities.

  15. Patterns of population genetic structure for springtails and mites in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    McGaughran, Angela; Hogg, Ian D; Stevens, Mark I

    2008-02-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene to examine comparative phylogeographic patterns for the springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni and the mite Stereotydeus mollis throughout their ranges in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Our aim was to extend previous genetic work to encompass a large ice-free area in the Dry Valleys. In particular, we sought to determine if this new region harboured high levels of genetic diversity and if patterns of genetic structure were congruent across taxa. Phylogenetic and nested clade analyses for G. hodgsoni and S. mollis showed similar patterns of population sub-structuring among locations and highlighted several potential refugia that may have existed during glacial maxima. We identified greater levels of genetic divergence in S. mollis and suggest that there is a nucleotide substitution (mutation) rate difference between S. mollis and G. hodgsoni, and/or that S. mollis has had a longer association with the Antarctic landscape.

  16. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September–May) and mixing (June–August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore—offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria. PMID:27030983

  17. Tsetse Fly (G.f. fuscipes) Distribution in the Lake Victoria Basin of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control. PMID:25875201

  18. Geology and petrogenesis of the Kirkpatrick Basalt, Pain Mesa and Solo Nunatak, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Mensing, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The flows on Pain Mesa were divided into a Lower Suite and an Upper Suite based on differences in their chemical compositions. The Upper Suite has higher concentrations of SiO/sub 2/, alkalies, total Fe, MnO, TiO/sub 2/, and P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ than the Lower Suite. In addition, the flows of the Upper Suite are homogeneous in chemical composition compared to the Lower Suite which is differentiated. The isotope compositions of Sr and O of the Lower Suite are positively correlated which indicates that the magma was contaminated by crustal material. The isotopic and chemical compositions of the flows of the Lower Suite were explained by fractional crystallization and simultaneous assimilation of a crustal contaminant. The initial Sr isotope ratios of the Upper Suite, calculated for an assumed age of 175 Ma, were lower than those of the Lower Suite, and are not constant. However, by lowering the assumed age of the Upper Suite to 92 Ma the range of the initial Sr-isotope ratios was greatly reduced. Paleomagnetic results and K-Ar dating of Ferrar rocks at the Litell Rocks Nunatak in northern Victoria Land also support the hypothesis that the Upper Suite is Cretaceous in age. The magma source of both suites has elevated /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios compared to normal mantle values because of prior enrichment in Rb. The magma source was enriched in Rb about 475 Ma years ago. This data coincides with the Ross Orogeny which may reflect a causal relationship between these events. The occurrence of igneous activity in northern Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land were juxtaposed during the Mesozoic Era but were later separated as a result of major right lateral displacement along the Transantarctic rift system.

  19. Long-term groundwater storage change in Victoria, Australia from satellite gravity and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Analyses based on satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and land surface model data indicate that groundwater storage in Victoria, Australia had been declining steadily, until a trend reversal around early 2010, attributed to two wetter seasons in 2010 and 2011. In situ groundwater level measurements (from a network of 1395 bores in Victoria) also indicate a steady groundwater depletion since early 90's, and show remarkable agreement with GRACE estimates for the 10-year period (2003-2012) in common with the GRACE mission. Groundwater depletion rates for 2005 to 2009 are relatively large as indicated by both GRACE estimates (8.0 ± 1.7 km3/yr) and in situ measurements (8.3 ± 3.4 km3/yr). Over the same period (2005-2009), GRACE measurements capture significant groundwater depletion in a wider region covering much of the southern Murray-Darling Basin, and the total groundwater depletion rate in this region is about 17.2 ± 4.7 km3/yr. Annual groundwater storage changes are strongly correlated with precipitation anomalies, but magnitudes of anomalous precipitation and groundwater storage suggest that only about one-fifth of anomalous precipitation contributes to groundwater recharge. The strong correlation suggests that this significant groundwater depletion is primarily related to drought (plus groundwater pumping for agricultural and domestic consumption). This study shows the importance of reducing leakage bias in GRACE observations through post data processings. The remarkable agreement between GRACE estimates and in situ measurements demonstrates the great potentials of using satellite gravity observations in combination with land surface model estimates to quantify changes in regional groundwater resources, especially when in situ measurements are limited or unavailable.

  20. Detailed glaciochemical investigations in southern Victoria Land - a proxy climatic record

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Local accumulation-basins in the Transantarctic Mountains possess sites suitable for recovering ice-core records that are valuable for studying climate change. These sites are also unique, because they are close to the sites of other ice-core studies and to areas with established terrestrial records. The objective is to study a snowpit in detail and collect ice cores in southern Victoria Land; this work will be similar to the investigations that the authors has conducted in south Greenland and in the Dominion Range near the Beardmore Glacier. The proposed sites are in Convoy, Asgard, and Royal Society ranges. The authors will select one site at which he will recover two ice cores, each approximately 200 to 300 meters in depth. Samples will be analyzed for major anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, fluoride) and cations (sodium, potassium, magnesium, ammonium, silicate), total acidity, conductivity, density, and core stratigraphy with dating provided by cross-calibration of all of the preceding plus total beta-activity, lead-210, oxygen isotopes, and microparticles. This investigation will yield a detailed record of several thousand years of glacial history, climate change, and volcanic activity for southern Victoria Land. This record will be compared to existing terrestrial records to add necessary detail and to other global ice-core records to assess global climatic change. It will also help to document volcanic activity for Mount Erebus as well as other volcanos in the Southern Hemisphere and possibly some in the Northern Hemisphere. With this record, the author will be able to evaluate the influence of volcanic and solar activity on climate as well as add greatly to the understanding of the chemistry of the global atmosphere.

  1. Impact of an outright ban on the availability of commercial tanning services in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, C; Cleaves, N; Dunstone, K; Makin, J; Zouzounis, S

    2016-08-01

    Australian states have introduced an outright ban on commercial artificial tanning sunbeds. This was based on evidence from systematic reviews affirming a strong association between tanning bed use and increased risk of melanoma. The implementation of the ban provides an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of the legislation in preventing access to artificial UV radiation. Compliance with the ban has been enforced and monitored by government departments. We additionally monitored online tanning bed advertisements before and after the ban, showing a decline over time in the number of sunbeds advertised for sale on gumtree.com.au and ebay.com.au, from a peak of 115 advertisements in May 2014 to 50 or fewer per month from February 2015. There was also an increase in advertised price, with the percentage of sunbeds offered in Victoria on gumtree.com.au at higher than $2 000 increasing from around 25% between January and June 2014 to 65% in the quarter following the introduction of the ban. Advertisements on gumtree.com.au from individuals wishing to access a sunbed in a private home in Victoria increased from only isolated instances in the months immediately prior to the ban, to between 25 and 77 advertisements per month in the quarter following the ban. In summary, the introduction of an outright ban of commercial sunbeds has achieved a dramatic reduction in the availability of harmful artificial UV radiation sources in Australia. Long-term benefits to the health of the population and a reduction in costs to the health system are expected to result.

  2. Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    de Zeeuw, Marnix P.; Westbroek, Irene; van Oijen, Martien J.P.; Witte, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of zooplanktivorous haplochromine cichlids from Lake Victoria, Tanzania, are described and illustrated. These species closely resemble each other. Their affinities to other zooplanktivorous haplochromines from Lake Victoria are discussed. Haplochromis argens sp. n., which featured under nicknames (mainly Haplochromis “argens”) in more than 50 papers, was caught both in the Mwanza Gulf and the Emin Pasha Gulf, whereas Haplochromis goldschmidti sp. n. was only found in the Emin Pasha Gulf. Of the latter species only males are available, but it seems unlikely that it represents a case of male colour polymorphism as several presumably unrelated characters differ in sympatry between the two species, suggesting that there is no gene flow. Statistical analysis revealed that the overall difference between the two species is greater than that between the populations from the two locations. Body depth of the two species in sympatry in the Emin Pasha Gulf was more similar than that of Haplochromis goldschmidti sp. n. and the allopatric population of Haplochromis argens sp. n. from the Mwanza Gulf,which mayindicate an overall environmental effect. However, several measurements related to the width of snout and mouth differed more between the populations of the two species in sympatry than between the allopatric populations. In contrast to a group of zooplanktivorous species that recovered successfully after environmental changes in the lake, Haplochromis argens sp. n. is among a group that became extremely rare and probably is in danger of extinction; the conservation status of Haplochromis goldschmidti sp. n. is currently unknown. PMID:23717179

  3. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Granitic rocks within Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, T.; KIM, Y.; Lee, I.; Lee, J.; Woo, J.

    2015-12-01

    The study areas, Lichen Hills and Outback Nunatak are located in the Northern Victoria Land which is close to Pacific Ocean side of Transantarctic Mountain (TAM), Antarctica. According to the study of Zeller and Dreschoff (1990), the radioactivity values of Lichen hills and Frontier Mt. area in the Victoria Land were very high. To identify the geochemical characteristics of granitic rocks in these areas, 13 samples of Lichen Hills rocks and 4 samples of Outback Nunatak rocks are analyzed. For mineralogical study, samples were observed in macroscale as well as microscale including microscope electron probe analysis. Rock samples of Lichen Hills, Outback Nunatak are mainly leucogranite and granitic pegmatite. These rock samples are composed of quartz, k-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline like granite. In SEM-EDS analysis, the observed light colored minerals show relatively high Th, U, Dy, Ce, Nb concentration. This suggests that rock samples may contain minerals such as fergusonite, monazite, thorite, allanite, karnasurtite which are considered to be REE-bearing minerals. Samples of related rocks have been analyzed in terms of major, trace and rare earth element (REE) concentrations using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). As concentration of SiO2 increase, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, P2O5 concentration decrease and Na2O, K2O, MnO concentration increase. Analyzed trace elements and REE are normalized using CI Chondrite, Primitive mantle. The normalized data show that LREE are enriched compared to HREE. The distinct negative anomalies of Eu, Sr are observed, indicating that rock-forming melts are fairly processed state of fractional crystallization. It means that Th, U, Nb, Ta are much enriched in the melts.

  4. Climate and Landscape Factors Associated with Buruli Ulcer Incidence in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    van Ravensway, Jenni; Benbow, M. Eric; Tsonis, Anastasios A.; Pierce, Steven J.; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.; Hayman, John A.; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Wallace, John R.; Qi, Jiaguo

    2012-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans), is a necrotizing skin disease found in more than 30 countries worldwide. BU incidence is highest in West Africa; however, cases have substantially increased in coastal regions of southern Australia over the past 30 years. Although the mode of transmission remains uncertain, the spatial pattern of BU emergence in recent years seems to suggest that there is an environmental niche for M. ulcerans and BU prevalence. Methodology/Principal Findings Network analysis was applied to BU cases in Victoria, Australia, from 1981–2008. Results revealed a non-random spatio-temporal pattern at the regional scale as well as a stable and efficient BU disease network, indicating that deterministic factors influence the occurrence of this disease. Monthly BU incidence reported by locality was analyzed with landscape and climate data using a multilevel Poisson regression approach. The results suggest the highest BU risk areas occur at low elevations with forested land cover, similar to previous studies of BU risk in West Africa. Additionally, climate conditions as far as 1.5 years in advance appear to impact disease incidence. Warmer and wetter conditions 18–19 months prior to case emergence, followed by a dry period approximately 5 months prior to case emergence seem to favor the occurrence of BU. Conclusions/Significance The BU network structure in Victoria, Australia, suggests external environmental factors favor M. ulcerans transmission and, therefore, BU incidence. A unique combination of environmental conditions, including land cover type, temperature and a wet-dry sequence, may produce habitat characteristics that support M. ulcerans transmission and BU prevalence. These findings imply that future BU research efforts on transmission mechanisms should focus on potential vectors/reservoirs found in those environmental niches. Further, this study is the first to quantitatively estimate environmental

  5. Impact of Urbanization on Precipitation Distribution and Intensity over Lake Victoria Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, sensitivity simulations on the impact of rapid urbanization over Lake Victoria Basin in East Africa were done using a Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4-rc29) with the Hostetler lake model activated. The simulations were done for the rainy seasons that is the long rains (March-April-May) and short rains (October-November-December). Africa is projected to have a surge in urbanization with an approximate rate of 590% in 2030 over their 2000 levels. The Northern part of Lake Victoria Basin and some parts of Rwanda and Burundi are amongst the regions with high urbanization projections. Simulations were done with the land cover for 2000 and the projected 2030 urbanization levels. The results showed that increasing the urban fraction over the northern part of the basin modified the physical parameters such as albedo, moisture and surface energy fluxes, aerodynamic roughness and surface emissivity, thereby altering the precipitation distribution, intensity and frequency in the region. The change in the physical parameters gave a response of an average increase in temperature of approximately 2oC over the urbanized region. A strong convergence zone was formed over the urbanized region and thereby accelerating the lake-breeze front towards the urbanized region center. Precipitation in the urbanized region and regions immediate to the area increased by approximately 4mm/day, while drying up the southern (non-urbanized) side of the basin. The drying up of the southern side of the basin could be a result of divergent flow and subsidence that suppresses vertical development of storms.

  6. Collapse and reorganization of a food web of Mwanza Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Downing, Andrea S; Van Nes, Egbert H; Janse, Jan H; Witte, Frans; Cornelissen, Ilse J M; Scheffer, Marten; Mooij, Wolf M

    2012-01-01

    Lake Victoria in East Africa is the world's second largest freshwater system. Over the past century the ecosystem has undergone drastic changes. Some 30 years after the introduction of Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the 1950s, the highly diverse community of native haplochromines collapsed, leaving a system dominated by only four species: the native cyprinid dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) and shrimp (Caridina nilotica), as well as the introduced Nile perch and Nile tilapia. More recently, an unexpected resurgence of haplochromines has been reported. To understand these changes in terms of ecosystem functioning and of changes in growth of trophic groups, we created mass balances of the food web near Mwanza, Tanzania, before, during, and after the Nile perch boom (1977, 1987, and 2005), using the application ECOPATH. We connected these mass balances with a dynamic model assuming linear trends in net growth rates of the trophic groups. Our analysis suggests that the Nile perch boom initially altered the biomass distribution over trophic levels. Also, results indicate that not only fishing but also changes at the detritivores' trophic level might have played an important role in driving changes in the system. Both the mass balances and the dynamic model connecting them reveal that, after a major distortion during the Nile perch boom, the biomass distribution over the main trophic levels had largely recovered its original (1977) state by 2005. However, no such return appeared in terms of community structure. Biodiversity in the new state is dramatically lower, consisting of introduced species and a few native surviving species. We conclude that at an aggregate level Lake Victoria's ecosystem has proved to be resilient in the sense that its overall trophic structure has apparently recovered after a major perturbation. By contrast, its intricate functional structure and associated biodiversity have proved to be fragile and seem

  7. Simulation of Lake Victoria Circulation Patterns Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS).

    PubMed

    Nyamweya, Chrispine; Desjardins, Christopher; Sigurdsson, Sven; Tomasson, Tumi; Taabu-Munyaho, Anthony; Sitoki, Lewis; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Lake Victoria provides important ecosystem services including transport, water for domestic and industrial uses and fisheries to about 33 million inhabitants in three East African countries. The lake plays an important role in modulating regional climate. Its thermodynamics and hydrodynamics are also influenced by prevailing climatic and weather conditions on diel, seasonal and annual scales. However, information on water temperature and circulation in the lake is limited in space and time. We use a Regional Oceanographic Model System (ROMS) to simulate these processes from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014. The model is based on real bathymetry, river runoff and atmospheric forcing data using the bulk flux algorithm. Simulations show that the water column exhibits annual cycles of thermo-stratification (September-May) and mixing (June-August). Surface water currents take different patterns ranging from a lake-wide northward flow to gyres that vary in size and number. An under flow exists that leads to the formation of upwelling and downwelling regions. Current velocities are highest at the center of the lake and on the western inshore waters indicating enhanced water circulation in those areas. However, there is little exchange of water between the major gulfs (especially Nyanza) and the open lake, a factor that could be responsible for the different water quality reported in those regions. Findings of the present study enhance understanding of the physical processes (temperature and currents) that have an effect on diel, seasonal, and annual variations in stratification, vertical mixing, inshore-offshore exchanges and fluxes of nutrients that ultimately influence the biotic distribution and trophic structure. For instance information on areas/timing of upwelling and vertical mixing obtained from this study will help predict locations/seasons of high primary production and ultimately fisheries productivity in Lake Victoria.

  8. Basin-scale control on the phytoplankton biomass in Lake Victoria, Africa.

    PubMed

    Cózar, Andrés; Bruno, Miguel; Bergamino, Nadia; Ubeda, Bárbara; Bracchini, Luca; Dattilo, Arduino M; Loiselle, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    The relative bio-optical variability within Lake Victoria was analyzed through the spatio-temporal decomposition of a 1997-2004 dataset of remotely-sensed reflectance ratios in the visible spectral range. Results show a regular seasonal pattern with a phase shift (around 2 months) between the south and north parts of the lake. Interannual trends suggested a teleconnection between the lake dynamics and El-Niño phenomena. Both seasonal and interannual patterns were associated to conditions of light limitation for phytoplankton growth and basin-scale hydrodynamics on phytoplankton access to light. Phytoplankton blooms developed during the periods of lake surface warming and water column stability. The temporal shift apparent in the bio-optical seasonal cycles was related to the differential cooling of the lake surface by southeastern monsoon winds. North-south differences in the exposure to trade winds are supported by the orography of the Eastern Great Rift Valley. The result is that surface layer warming begins in the northern part of the lake while the formation of cool and dense water continues in the southern part. The resulting buoyancy field is sufficient to induce a lake-wide convective circulation and the tilting of the isotherms along the north-south axis. Once surface warming spreads over the whole lake, the phytoplankton bloom dynamics are subjected to the internal seiche derived from the relaxation of thermocline tilting. In 1997-98, El-Niño phenomenon weakened the monsoon wind flow which led to an increase in water column stability and a higher phytoplankton optical signal throughout the lake. This suggests that phytoplankton response to expected climate scenarios will be opposite to that proposed for nutrient-limited great lakes. The present analysis of remotely-sensed bio-optical properties in combination with environmental data provides a novel basin-scale framework for research and management strategies in Lake Victoria.

  9. Tsetse fly (G. f. fuscipes) distribution in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mugenyi; Wardrop, Nicola A; Atkinson, Peter M; Torr, Steve J; Welburn, Susan C

    2015-04-01

    Tsetse flies transmit trypanosomes, the causative agent of human and animal African trypanosomiasis. The tsetse vector is extensively distributed across sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomiasis maintenance is determined by the interrelationship of three elements: vertebrate host, parasite and the vector responsible for transmission. Mapping the distribution and abundance of tsetse flies assists in predicting trypanosomiasis distributions and developing rational strategies for disease and vector control. Given scarce resources to carry out regular full scale field tsetse surveys to up-date existing tsetse maps, there is a need to devise inexpensive means for regularly obtaining dependable area-wide tsetse data to guide control activities. In this study we used spatial epidemiological modelling techniques (logistic regression) involving 5000 field-based tsetse-data (G. f. fuscipes) points over an area of 40,000 km2, with satellite-derived environmental surrogates composed of precipitation, temperature, land cover, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and elevation at the sub-national level. We used these extensive tsetse data to analyse the relationships between presence of tsetse (G. f. fuscipes) and environmental variables. The strength of the results was enhanced through the application of a spatial autologistic regression model (SARM). Using the SARM we showed that the probability of tsetse presence increased with proportion of forest cover and riverine vegetation. The key outputs are a predictive tsetse distribution map for the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda and an improved understanding of the association between tsetse presence and environmental variables. The predicted spatial distribution of tsetse in the Lake Victoria basin of Uganda will provide significant new information to assist with the spatial targeting of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control.

  10. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths among Schoolchildren in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siza, Julius E; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to conduct a survey on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to come up with feasible control strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. Depending on the size of the school, 150-200 schoolchildren were recruited for the study. Duplicate Kato-Katz stool smears were prepared from each child and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. Urine specimens were examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs using the filtration technique. After the survey, mass drug administration was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosomiasis and STHs infections, respectively. A total of 5,952 schoolchildren from 36 schools were recruited for the study and had their stool and urine specimens examined. Out of 5,952 schoolchildren, 898 (15.1%) were positive for S. mansoni, 754 (12.6%) for hookworms, 188 (3.2%) for Ascaris lumblicoides, and 5 (0.008%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 5,826 schoolchildren who provided urine samples, 519 (8.9%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. The results revealed that intestinal schistosomiasis, urogenital schistosomiasis, and STH infections are highly prevalent throughought the lake basin. The high prevalence of intestinal and urogenital schistosomisiasis in the study area was a function of the distance from Lake Victoria, the former being more prevalent at localities close to the lake, whilst the latter is more so away from it. Control of schistosomiasis and STHs in the study area requires an integrated strategy that involves provision of health education to communities, regular treatments, and provision of adequate safe water supply and sanitation facilities.

  11. Prevalence of Schistosomes and Soil-Transmitted Helminths among Schoolchildren in Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Siza, Julius E.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Chai, Jong-Yil; Eom, Keeseon S.; Rim, Han-Jong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Chang, Su Young; Ko, Yunsuk; Changalucha, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to conduct a survey on schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in order to come up with feasible control strategies in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania. Depending on the size of the school, 150-200 schoolchildren were recruited for the study. Duplicate Kato-Katz stool smears were prepared from each child and microscopically examined for Schistosoma mansoni and STHs. Urine specimens were examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs using the filtration technique. After the survey, mass drug administration was done using praziquantel and albendazole for schistosomiasis and STHs infections, respectively. A total of 5,952 schoolchildren from 36 schools were recruited for the study and had their stool and urine specimens examined. Out of 5,952 schoolchildren, 898 (15.1%) were positive for S. mansoni, 754 (12.6%) for hookworms, 188 (3.2%) for Ascaris lumblicoides, and 5 (0.008%) for Trichuris trichiura. Out of 5,826 schoolchildren who provided urine samples, 519 (8.9%) were positive for S. haematobium eggs. The results revealed that intestinal schistosomiasis, urogenital schistosomiasis, and STH infections are highly prevalent throughought the lake basin. The high prevalence of intestinal and urogenital schistosomisiasis in the study area was a function of the distance from Lake Victoria, the former being more prevalent at localities close to the lake, whilst the latter is more so away from it. Control of schistosomiasis and STHs in the study area requires an integrated strategy that involves provision of health education to communities, regular treatments, and provision of adequate safe water supply and sanitation facilities. PMID:26537030

  12. Incidence and course of adolescent deliberate self-harm in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    Heerde, Jessica A.; Toumbourou, John W.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Patton, George C.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There have been few longitudinal studies of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in adolescents. This cross-national longitudinal study outlines risk and protective factors for DSH incidence and persistence. Methods Seventh and ninth grade students (average ages 13 and 15 years) were recruited as state-representative cohorts, surveyed and then followed-up 12-months later (N = 3,876), using the same methods in Washington State and Victoria, Australia. The retention rate was 99% in both states at follow-up. A range of risk and protective factors for DSH were examined using multivariate analyses. Results The prevalence of DSH in the past year was 1.53% in grade 7 and .91% in grade 9 for males and 4.12% and 1.34% for grade 7 and 9 females, with similar rates across states. In multivariate analyses, incident DSH was lower in Washington State (OR .67, 95% CI .45, 1.00) relative to Victoria 12-months later. Risk factors for incident DSH included being female (OR 1.93, CI 1.35, 2.76), high depressive symptoms (OR 3.52, CI 2.37, 5.21), antisocial behavior (OR 2.42, CI 1.46, 4.00), and lifetime (OR 1.85, CI 1.11, 3.08) and past month (OR 2.70, CI 1.57, 4.64) alcohol use relative to never using alcohol. Conclusions Much self-harm in adolescents resolves over the course of 12 months. Young people who self-harm have high rates of other health risk behaviors associated with family and peer risks that may all be targets for preventive intervention. PMID:26499859

  13. A Paramedic-staffed Helicopter Emergency Medical Service's Response to Winch Missions in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meadley, Ben; Heschl, Stefan; Andrew, Emily; de Wit, Anthony; Bernard, Stephen A; Smith, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Winching emergency medical care providers from a helicopter to the scene enables treatment of patients in otherwise inaccessible locations, but is not without risks. The objective of this study was to define characteristics of winch missions undertaken by Intensive Care Flight Paramedics (ICFP) in Victoria, Australia with a focus on extraction methods and clinical care delivered at the scene. A retrospective data analysis was performed to identify all winch missions between November 2010 and March 2014. Demographic data, winch characteristics, physiological parameters, and interventions undertaken on scene by the ICFP were extracted. Out of 5,003 missions in the study period, 125 were identified as winch operations. Winter missions were significantly less frequent than those of any other season. Patients were predominantly male (78.4%) and had a mean age of 38 years (±17.6). A total of 109 (87.2%) patients were identified as experiencing trauma with a mean Revised Trauma Score of 7.5288, and isolated limb fractures were the most frequently encountered injury. Falls and vehicle-related trauma were the most common mechanisms of injury. The total median scene duration was 49 minutes (IQR 23-91). Sixty-three patients (50.4%) were extracted using a stretcher, 45 (36.0%) using a hypothermic strop, and 6 (4.8%) via normal rescue strop. Eleven patients (8.8%) were not winched to the helicopter. Vascular access (38.4%), analgesia (44.0%), and anti-emetic administration (28.8%) were the most frequent clinical interventions. Forty-nine patients (39.2%) did not receive any clinical intervention prior to winch extraction. Winch operations in Victoria, Australia consisted predominantly of patients with minor to moderate traumatic injuries. A significant proportion of patients did not require any clinical treatment prior to winching, and among those who did, analgesia was the most frequent intervention. Advanced medical procedures were rarely required prior to winch extraction.

  14. Long-term groundwater storage change in Victoria, Australia from satellite gravity and in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.; Scanlon, Bridget; Güntner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Analysis based on satellite gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and land surface models indicates that groundwater storage in Victoria, Australia had been declining steadily, until a trend reversal around early 2010, attributed to two wetter seasons in 2010 and 2011. In situ groundwater level measurements (from a network of 1395 bores in Victoria) also indicate a steady groundwater depletion since the early 1990's, and show remarkable agreement with GRACE estimates for the 10-year period (2003-2012) in common with the GRACE mission. Groundwater depletion rates for 2005 to 2009 are relatively large as indicated by both GRACE estimates (8.0 ± 1.7 km3/yr) and in situ measurements (8.3 ± 3.4 km3/yr). Over the same period (2005-2009), GRACE measurements capture significant groundwater depletion in a wider region covering much of the southern Murray-Darling Basin, and the total groundwater depletion rate in this region is about 17.2 ± 4.7 km3/yr. Annual groundwater storage changes are strongly correlated with precipitation anomalies, but only about one-fifth of anomalous precipitation contributes to groundwater recharge. The strong correlation suggests that this groundwater depletion is primarily related to drought with related groundwater pumping for agricultural and domestic consumption. The remarkable agreement between GRACE estimates and in situ measurements demonstrates the great potential of satellite gravity observations in combination with land surface model estimates to quantify changes in regional groundwater resources, especially when in situ measurements are limited or unavailable. This study shows the importance of reducing leakage bias in GRACE observations and the effectiveness of the forward modeling iterative method used.

  15. Perceptions of prescribed burning in a local forest community in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Tina; Oliveras, Immaculada

    2006-11-01

    The general perceptions of prescribed burning were elicited from forest users for an area that has been subject to this form of land management for at least 20 years. The largest group consisted of local residents living in and around the Wombat State Forest with two smaller groups of students from a nearby university campus and local professional land managers. A questionnaire was given to each participant in order to explore how the forest was used, to determine the level of knowledge of burning in the targeted forest and Victoria and the perception of the appearance, effectiveness of protection, and accessibility to the forest after prescribed burning. Generally all groups had similar responses with community members having stronger views on the effectiveness and practicalities of prescribed burning, whereas students were more neutral in their opinions. All participants claimed knowledge of prescribed burning activities within Victoria, but fewer had experience of planned fires in the Wombat State Forest. All groups agreed that areas that had not been recently burned had a better appearance than those that had, but this result may have included a range of value judgments. Land managers had a greater understanding of the ecological importance of season and timing of burning; however, some students and community members were equally knowledgeable. Prescribed burning did not impede access to the forest, nor did smoke from prescribed burns pose any great problem. The majority of the participants felt that the amount of prescribed burning done in the forest was adequate for engendering a feeling of protection to life and property, yet many were still suspicious of this management practice. These initial findings indicate several areas in which further research would be useful including the efficacy of education programs for community members and improved communication of burn plans by land managers.

  16. Greening America's Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  17. Malachite green photosensitive plates.

    PubMed

    Solano, C

    1989-08-15

    An experimental study of the behavior of malachite green sensitized plates was carried out. The transmittance variation of the irradiated plates was taken as a parameter. It has been observed that photoreduction in the malachite green plates is present only when ammonium dichromate is added to the plates. The introduction of external electron donors does not improve the photochemical reaction. It has been determined that malachite green molecules form a weak complex with the dichromate molecules and this complex can only be destroyed photochemically. This effect can explain the limited response of the malachite green dichromated plates.

  18. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  19. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  20. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  1. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2012-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. School communities that keep greening the school on the periphery of their awareness will reap advantages, but those that align this idea with the…

  2. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  3. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  4. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  5. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In…

  6. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  7. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  8. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  9. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  10. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  11. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  12. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  13. Abrupt out-of-plane edge folding of a circular thin plate: Implication for a mature Victoria regia leaf.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengfei; Zhang, Chen; Dang, Fei; Yan, Yuan; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2016-09-01

    Inspired by the observation of the configurations of Victoria regia leaves, we establish a phenomenological buckling model for the abrupt out-of-plane edge folding of a circular thin sheet. A reduced model is first developed, and further refined by a more sophisticated growth strain field so that the resulting buckling morphology resembles that of a mature Victoria regia leaf. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of geometric, material, and strain field parameters on the buckling morphology. Several main characteristics discovered through numerical studies are verified by theoretical analysis of a simple geometry-based model. Besides, the roles of the thickness variation and cracks are examined. This work may not only shed some light on the morphogenesis of certain plants, but also provide some useful insights on three-dimensional fabrications using mechanical self-assembly.

  14. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, V. K.; Aslam, O.; Dale, L.; Miller, N.; Purkey, D.

    2010-12-01

    Cities in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa, at the same time that their water resource is threatened by domestic waste and industrial pollution. Urban centers use local springs, wetlands and Lake Victoria as source waters. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three pilot towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Their current populations are 100,000, 70,000 and 200,000 respectively. Demand coverage is ~70% in Masaka and Bukoba, and less than 50% in Kisii. IWRM models for each town were calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios upto 2050. In Masaka, flow and climate data were available to calibrate a runoff model to simulate streamflow at water intake. In Masaka, without considering climate change, the system is infrastructure-limited and not water availability (hydrology) limited until 2035, under projected population growth of 2.17%. Under a wet climate scenario as projected by GCM’s for the LV region, the current wetland source could supply all expected demands until 2050. Even under a drought scenario, the wetland could supply all demand until 2032, if the supply infrastructure is updated at an estimated cost of USD 10.8 million. However, demand targets can only be met at the expense of almost no water returning to the wetland downstream of the intake by 2035, unless substantial investments

  15. Rock Glaciers in the Upper Basin of Bermejo River, Santa Victoria, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. L.; Íbáñez Palacios, G. P.; Toledo, M. A.; Páez, S. V.

    2013-05-01

    The Bermejo River is an international basin in the Tropical Andes, Santa Victoria range. The Santa Victoria range extend in N-S sense (22°08' and 23°00' South latitude between 65° and 65°30' West longitude). It maxim height is about 5.055 m s.n.m. and it average height is 3000 m s.n.m. There have been localize intact rock glaciers (active and inactive) and relict. The rock glaciers are frozen water reservoir and regulate the water regime in the high mountain over the world. The global warming effects have been express in this region with average annual air temperatures in increase: The series of temperatures of La Quiaca weather station, years 1911-2010, shows an increase about 1° C (from 9,14° C to 10,08° C) since 70' decade to actuality. This study aims to contribute to the survey of intact rock glaciers and the suite of accompanying landforms. The geographic identification and location of rock glaciers have made through the interpretation of aerial photographs and LandSat 7 and Aster Images in comparison with Google Earth using GIS and visual interpretation technics. This information has controlled with fieldwork in several campaigns. The rock glaciers are classified (in base of it activity) in actives, inactives and relict. The first and the second class were grouped in a category called intact rock glaciers for simplify it identification. The unified categories are water-storing. In the fieldwork have determinated the following aspects: 1- Active processes determination (needle ice, lenticular ice formation, etc.) and its sedimentary products: sucrose structure, inverted gradation, extrusion, open work gravels. 2- Location and geomorphologic measurement of rock glaciers and periglacial forms. There are identified 318 intact rock glaciers in high basin of Bermejo river, Sub-basins Condado river, Los Toldos-Lipeo river and Iruya river, Santa Victoria range. The actives rock glaciers, indicators of discontinuous permafrost, are installed from 4300 m s

  16. Electrical conductivity structure from inversion analysis of magnetotelluric data acquired in northern Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Jong Lee, Tae; Uchida, Toshihiro; Park, In Hwa; Dennis, Zara; Song, Yoonho; Cull, Jim

    2010-05-01

    Two campaigns of MT soundings were carried out successively in 2007 and 2008, in central Victoria, Australia, as a collaboration research between Republic of Korea, Australia, and Japan. The main purpose of these surveys are to investigate electrical conductivity and thus help understanding of tectonic structure in central Victoria, which is believed to be closely linked to mineralization and magmatic processes of this region. The strategy of MT surveys is to firstly acquire MT data along a seismic surveyed line and then compare electromagnetic and seismic survey results each other to check if the two data set produce the compatible results and/or how much they are correlated and see if we could identify structural similarity in the subsurface apart from the first line by successive MT survey. For this purposes, the first MT survey was done in 2007 along the seismic transect of 2006 done by Geoscience Victoria, and obtained compatible images between electromagnetic (EM) and seismic methods. As a second stage, the second MT survey was done in 2008 to investigate geological structure of northern part of the first survey line. The survey areas are located in western Lachlan Fold Belts, which is the part of Tasman Fold Belts in southeastern Australia. In both surveys, we locate MT stations in west-east direction considering regional geological strike is in N-S direction. An MT profile of 2008 is almost parallel to the one of 2007 and approximately 50 km away. We operated remote reference (RR) sites in both surveys. We acquired two electric field components and three magnetic field components of MT band from 0.00034 ~ 317 Hz, and extracted impedances of good quality via remote reference processing. Two-dimensional inversions with various algorithms were done along survey lines. The first MT survey line, which was established along the seismic survey line, shows that the positions of conductivity discontinuity near surface are well matched with the positions of major

  17. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  18. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nienow, J. A.; Meyer, M. A.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  19. Biologically relevant physical measurements in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land: soil temperature profiles and ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Nienow, J A; Meyer, M A

    1986-01-01

    As part of the ongoing comprehensive study of the cryptoendolithic microbial community in the ice-free valleys of southern Victoria Land, thermal properties of the soil and the ultraviolet radiation regime were measured. Although soil temperature profiles have been measured in the ice-free valleys (e.g., Cameron et al. 1970; Cameron 1972), these are the first such data from higher elevations. This is apparently the first time the ultraviolet radiation regime has been measured in the Antarctic.

  20. Organochlorine residues in fish and water samples from lake victoria, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kasozi, G N; Kiremire, B T; Bugenyi, F W B; Kirsch, N H; Nkedi-Kizza, P

    2006-01-01

    Nile tilapia and Nile perch samples from Lake Victoria were analyzed for lindane (gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane), aldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanonaphthalene), alpha-endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10-hexachloro-1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3- benzo(e) dioxathiepin-3-oxide), dieldrin (1,2,3,4,10,10-hexachloro-6,7-epoxy-1,4,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,4,5,8-dimethanonaphthalene), DDE (p,p'-1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene), and DDT (p,p'-1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane). No significant difference (alpha = 0.05) in the residue levels between fish types for lindane, alpha-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, and dieldrin was observed. The aldrin levels in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) were significantly higher than the levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). No difference was observed in the distribution of residues in the different parts of Nile tilapia, although a difference for p,p'-DDE was observed in the Nile perch. No significant difference was observed in the average fat content of the tissue of Nile perch and Nile tilapia; however, the distribution of fat was significantly different in the different parts of the fish, with the abdominal portion having the highest amount of fat. There was no correlation observed in this study between fat content and organochlorine concentration. Lower p,p'-DDT residues levels compared with the p,p'-DDE levels observed in this study indicate that DDT is no longer in use. The levels of organochlorine pesticide residues found in fish samples in this study were below the FAO, U.S. FDA, Australian, and German extraneous residue limits and maximum residue limits. The concentration of organochlorine residues in surface water within the Napoleon Gulf of Lake Victoria was below detection limit (0.1 microg L(-1)).

  1. The Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control (VLNDEF): 12 years of episodic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negusini, M.; Capra, A.; Dubbini, M.; Sarti, P.; Vittuari, L.; Zanutta, A.

    2011-12-01

    During the Antarctic Italian expedition carried out in 1999 a geodetic network was materialized on rocky outcrops throughout the Northern Victoria Land (NVL), Antarctica. The project, named VLNDEF (Victoria Land Network for DEFormation control), started with the goal to detect neotectonic phenomena present in the region and to supply metrical information to constrain Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models. The project is part of GIANT (Geodetic Infrastructure in ANTarctica) framework of the SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research), an international program since 1992, with the supervision of Antarctic Neo-TECtonics (a committee of specialists). Objectives of this work are the evaluation of absolute motions of the VLNDEF GPS sites expressed in the ITRF reference frame and the estimation of relative residual intra-plate velocities, in order to investigate the present-day kinematics of NVL region. The network is formed by 28 points that are accessible by means of helicopter, the maximum distance of points from the Italian base Mario Zucchelli Station (MZS) being about 500 km. A permanent GPS station (TNB1) was installed in 1998 at MZS with Domes #66036M001. Three semi permanent remote stations (VL01 Cape Hallett, VL05 Cape Philips, VL18 Starr Nunatak), powered by sets of batteries and solar panels, provide a few months of data acquisition every year. Nine GPS measurement campaigns were conducted during the Antarctic summers 1999/2011, three of which being complete repetitions of the network. The computation of coordinates and velocities of the VLNDEF points has been implemented taking into account the campaign style dataset of 12 years and its framing into a global network, by means of different scientific software packages: Bernese V.5.0 and Gamit-Globk. In order to homogeneously process the data set, the same up-to-date data analysis strategy, ancillary files (IGS orbits and clock model, physical bias models, etc.), datum and constraints have been

  2. New constraints on fluid sources in orogenic gold deposits, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Kendrick, Mark A.; Fairmaid, Alison M.; Phillips, David; Wilson, Christopher J. L.; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2012-03-01

    Fluid inclusion microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy and noble gas plus halogen geochemistry, complemented by published stable isotope data, have been used to assess the origin of gold-rich fluids in the Lachlan Fold Belt of central Victoria, south-eastern Australia. Victorian gold deposits vary from large turbidite-hosted `orogenic' lode and disseminated-stockwork gold-only deposits, formed close to the metamorphic peak, to smaller polymetallic gold deposits, temporally associated with later post-orogenic granite intrusions. Despite the differences in relative timing, metal association and the size of these deposits, fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates that all deposits are genetically associated with similar low-salinity aqueous, CO2-bearing fluids. The majority of these fluid inclusions also have similar 40Ar/36Ar values of less than 1500 and 36Ar concentrations of 2.6-58 ppb (by mass) that are equal to or much greater than air-saturation levels (1.3-2.7 ppb). Limited amounts of nitrogen-rich fluids are present at a local scale and have the highest measured 40Ar/36Ar values of up to 5,700, suggesting an external or distinct source compared to the aqueous fluids. The predominance of low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids with low 40Ar/36Ar values, in both `orogenic' and `intrusion-related' gold deposits, is attributed to fluid production from common basement volcano-sedimentary sequences and fluid interaction with sedimentary cover rocks (turbidites). Aqueous fluid inclusions in the Stawell-Magdala deposit of western Victoria (including those associated with N2) preserve mantle-like Br/Cl and I/Cl values. In contrast, fluid inclusions in deposits in the eastern structural zones, which contain more abundant shales, have elevated molar I/Cl ratios with maximum values of 5,170 × 10-6 in the Melbourne Zone. Br/I ratios in this zone range from 0.5 to 3.0 that are characteristic of fluid interaction with organic-rich sediments. The maximum I/Cl and characteristic

  3. Hydroclimatology of Lake Victoria region using hydrologic model and satellite remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. I.; Adhikari, P.; Hong, Y.; Vergara, H.; Adler, R. F.; Policelli, F.; Irwin, D.; Korme, T.; Okello, L.

    2011-01-01

    Study of hydro-climatology at a range of temporal scales is important in understanding and ultimately mitigating the potential severe impacts of hydrological extreme events such as floods and droughts. Using daily in-situ data over the last two decades combined with the recently available multiple-years satellite remote sensing data, we analyzed and simulated, with a distributed hydrologic model, the hydro-climatology in Nzoia, one of the major contributing sub-basins of Lake Victoria in the East African highlands. The basin, with a semi arid climate, has no sustained base flow contribution to Lake Victoria. The short spell of high discharge showed that rain is the prime cause of floods in the basin. There is only a marginal increase in annual mean discharge over the last 21 years. The 2-, 5- and 10- year peak discharges, for the entire study period showed that more years since the mid 1990's have had high peak discharges despite having relatively less annual rain. The study also presents the hydrologic model calibration and validation results over the Nzoia basin. The spatiotemporal variability of the water cycle components were quantified using a hydrologic model, with in-situ and multi-satellite remote sensing datasets. The model is calibrated using daily observed discharge data for the period between 1985 and 1999, for which model performance is estimated with a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSCE) of 0.87 and 0.23% bias. The model validation showed an error metrics with NSCE of 0.65 and 1.04% bias. Moreover, the hydrologic capability of satellite precipitation (TRMM-3B42 V6) is evaluated. In terms of reconstruction of the water cycle components the spatial distribution and time series of modeling results for precipitation and runoff showed considerable agreement with the monthly model runoff estimates and gauge observations. Runoff values responded to precipitation events that occurred across the catchment during the wet season from March to early June. The

  4. Legacy and currently used pesticides in the atmospheric environment of Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Arinaitwe, Kenneth; Kiremire, Bernard T; Muir, Derek C G; Fellin, Phil; Li, Henrik; Teixeira, Camilla; Mubiru, Drake N

    2016-02-01

    The Lake Victoria watershed has extensive agricultural activity with a long history of pesticide use but there is limited information on historical use or on environmental levels. To address this data gap, high volume air samples were collected from two sites close to the northern shore of Lake Victoria; Kakira (KAK) and Entebbe (EBB). The samples, to be analyzed for pesticides, were collected over various periods between 1999 and 2004 inclusive (KAK 1999-2000, KAK 2003-2004, EBB 2003 and EBB 2004 sample sets) and from 2008 to 2010 inclusive (EBB 2008, EBB 2009 and EBB 2010 sample sets). The latter sample sets (which also included precipitation samples) were also analyzed for currently used pesticides (CUPs) including chlorpyrifos, chlorthalonil, metribuzin, trifluralin, malathion and dacthal. Chlorpyrifos was the predominant CUP in air samples with average concentrations of 93.5, 26.1 and 3.54 ng m(-3) for the EBB 2008, 2009, 2010 sample sets, respectively. Average concentrations of total endosulfan (ΣEndo), total DDT related compounds (ΣDDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) ranged from 12.3-282, 22.8-130 and 3.72-81.8 pg m(-3), respectively, for all the sample sets. Atmospheric prevalence of residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with fresh emissions of endosulfan, DDT and lindane. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and dieldrin were also detected in air samples. Transformation products, pentachloroanisole, 3,4,5-trichloroveratrole and 3,4,5,6-tetrachloroveratrole, were also detected. The five most prevalent compounds in the precipitation samples were in the order chlorpyrifos>chlorothalonil>ΣEndo>ΣDDTs>ΣHCHs with average fluxes of 1123, 396, 130, 41.7 and 41.3 ng m(-2)sample(-1), respectively. PeCB exceeded HCB in precipitation samples. The reverse was true for air samples. Backward air trajectories suggested transboundary and local emission sources of the analytes. The results underscore the need for a concerted

  5. Late holocene trends of phytoplankton productivity and anoxia as inferred from diatom and geochemical proxies in Lake Victoria, Eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andama, M.; Lejju, J. B.; Tolo, C. U.

    2013-11-01

    Lake Victoria ecosystem has undergone major ecological changes in the recent decades. Sedimentary diatom analysis and Fe / Mn determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) have provided phytoplankton (diatom) productivity and the resultant anoxia (Fe / Mn) in Lake Victoria at Napoleon Gulf during the late Holocene (1778 cal yr BP (calibrated years before present) to 2008 AD) with radiocarbon dates determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry standard method. The results showed that increased total diatom counts in Napoleon Gulf during the late Holocene correspond with increased Fe / Mn ratio (anoxia) in some of the profiles and not in others and in most cases those that correspond correlate very well with increased eutrophication from nitrate input (Total Nitrogen, TN). Therefore slightly increased anoxia not related to increased diatom productivity was recorded in Lake Victoria at Napoleon Gulf from the period 1778 to 1135 cal yr BP. There was slightly increased diatom productivity at Napoleon Gulf from the period 857 to 758 cal yr BP but it did not increase anoxia in the lake. The period 415 cal yr BP to 2008 AD recorded increased anoxia at Napoleon Gulf related to high diatom productivity especially from 415 to 390 cal yr BP and 191 cal yr BP to 2008 AD.

  6. Climatic, socio-economic, and health factors affecting human vulnerability to cholera in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Olago, Daniel; Marshall, Michael; Wandiga, Shem O; Opondo, Maggie; Yanda, Pius Z; Kanalawe, Richard; Githeko, Andrew K; Downs, Tim; Opere, Alfred; Kavumvuli, Robert; Kirumira, Edward; Ogallo, Laban; Mugambi, Paul; Apindi, Eugene; Githui, Faith; Kathuri, James; Olaka, Lydia; Sigalla, Rehema; Nanyunja, Robinah; Baguma, Timothy; Achola, Pius

    2007-06-01

    Cholera epidemics have a recorded history in the eastern Africa region dating to 1836. Cholera is now endemic in the Lake Victoria basin, a region with one of the poorest and fastest growing populations in the world. Analyses of precipitation, temperatures, and hydrological characteristics of selected stations in the Lake Victoria basin show that cholera epidemics are closely associated with El Niño years. Similarly, sustained temperatures high above normal (T(max)) in two consecutive seasons, followed by a slight cooling in the second season, trigger an outbreak of a cholera epidemic. The health and socioeconomic systems that the lake basin communities rely upon are not robust enough to cope with cholera outbreaks, thus rendering them vulnerable to the impact of climate variability and change. Collectively, this report argues that communities living around the Lake Victoria basin are vulnerable to climate-induced cholera that is aggravated by the low socioeconomic status and lack of an adequate health care system. In assessing the communities' adaptive capacity, the report concludes that persistent levels of poverty have made these communities vulnerable to cholera epidemics.

  7. Impact of immigrant pastoral herds to fringing wetlands of lake Victoria in Magu district Mwanza region, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongo, H.; Masikini, M.

    The assessment of impacts of pastoral herds to the fringing wetlands of Lake Victoria in Magu district in Mwanza region was carried out in 1999/2000. Lamadi village located along Speke Gulf of Lake Victoria was chosen. The main farming systems in the area are agriculture, agro-pastoralism, and pastoralism. The wetlands are heavily used for livestock grazing during the dry season. Since 1990s the area has been experiencing a high influx of immigrant pastoral herds from drought prone districts. The increasing livestock numbers have led into serious degradation of wetlands. The type of damages includes: soil erosion, loss of vegetation cover and deforestation. This lead to pollution of Lake Victoria along the Speke gulf in particular as the wetlands was buffering a lot of pollutants from the catchments. The range condition at Lamadi was rated fair. The carrying capacity of rangelands was estimated at 3.57-6.75 ha/LU and the wetlands were seriously degraded causing heavy soil erosion and environmental pollution during rainy season. It was recommended to raise people’s awareness on conservation of environment and mobilise communities to take responsibility on management of the environmental resources.

  8. High and Heterogeneous Prevalence of Asymptomatic and Sub-microscopic Malaria Infections on Islands in Lake Victoria, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Chan, Chim W.; Kongere, James; Gitaka, Jesse; Logedi, John; Omar, Ahmeddin; Obonyo, Charles; Machini, Beatrice Kemunto; Isozumi, Rie; Teramoto, Isao; Kimura, Masatsugu; Kaneko, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Kenya is intensifying its national efforts in malaria control to achieve malaria elimination. Detailed characterization of malaria infection among populations living in the areas where the disease is endemic in Kenya is a crucial priority, especially for planning and evaluating future malaria elimination strategy. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and extent of malaria infection on islands in Lake Victoria of Kenya to aid in designing new interventions for malaria elimination. Five cross-sectional surveys were conducted between January 2012 and August 2014 on four islands (Mfangano, Takawiri, Kibuogi and Ngodhe) in Lake Victoria and a coastal mainland (Ungoye). Malaria prevalence varied significantly among settings: highest in Ungoye, followed by the large island of Mfangano and lowest in the three remaining small islands. Of the 3867 malaria infections detected by PCR, 91.8% were asymptomatic, 50.3% were sub-microscopic, of which 94% were also asymptomatic. We observed geographical differences and age dependency in both proportion of sub-microscopic infections and asymptomatic parasite carriage. Our findings highlighted the local heterogeneity in malaria prevalence on islands and a coastal area in Lake Victoria, and provided support for the inclusion of mass drug administration as a component of the intervention package to eliminate malaria on islands. PMID:27841361

  9. High and Heterogeneous Prevalence of Asymptomatic and Sub-microscopic Malaria Infections on Islands in Lake Victoria, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Idris, Zulkarnain Md; Chan, Chim W; Kongere, James; Gitaka, Jesse; Logedi, John; Omar, Ahmeddin; Obonyo, Charles; Machini, Beatrice Kemunto; Isozumi, Rie; Teramoto, Isao; Kimura, Masatsugu; Kaneko, Akira

    2016-11-14

    Kenya is intensifying its national efforts in malaria control to achieve malaria elimination. Detailed characterization of malaria infection among populations living in the areas where the disease is endemic in Kenya is a crucial priority, especially for planning and evaluating future malaria elimination strategy. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and extent of malaria infection on islands in Lake Victoria of Kenya to aid in designing new interventions for malaria elimination. Five cross-sectional surveys were conducted between January 2012 and August 2014 on four islands (Mfangano, Takawiri, Kibuogi and Ngodhe) in Lake Victoria and a coastal mainland (Ungoye). Malaria prevalence varied significantly among settings: highest in Ungoye, followed by the large island of Mfangano and lowest in the three remaining small islands. Of the 3867 malaria infections detected by PCR, 91.8% were asymptomatic, 50.3% were sub-microscopic, of which 94% were also asymptomatic. We observed geographical differences and age dependency in both proportion of sub-microscopic infections and asymptomatic parasite carriage. Our findings highlighted the local heterogeneity in malaria prevalence on islands and a coastal area in Lake Victoria, and provided support for the inclusion of mass drug administration as a component of the intervention package to eliminate malaria on islands.

  10. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  11. Fluorescent Proteins as Biomarkers and Biosensors: Throwing Color Lights on Molecular and Cellular Processes

    PubMed Central

    Stepanenko, Olesya V.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Kuznetsova, Irina M.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Turoverov, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria is the most extensively studied and widely used in cell biology protein. GFP-like proteins constitute a fast growing family as several naturally occurring GFP-like proteins have been discovered and enhanced mutants of Aequorea GFP have been created. These mutants differ from wild-type GFP by conformational stability, quantum yield, spectroscopic properties (positions of absorption and fluorescence spectra) and by photochemical properties. GFP-like proteins are very diverse, as they can be not only green, but also blue, orange-red, far-red, cyan, and yellow. They also can have dual-color fluorescence (e.g., green and red) or be non-fluorescent. Some of them possess kindling property, some are photoactivatable, and some are photoswitchable. This review is an attempt to characterize the main color groups of GFP-like proteins, describe their structure and mechanisms of chromophore formation, systemize data on their conformational stability and summarize the main trends of their utilization as markers and biosensors in cell and molecular biology. PMID:18691124

  12. Fluorescent proteins as biomarkers and biosensors: throwing color lights on molecular and cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Stepanenko, Olesya V; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Uversky, Vladimir N; Turoverov, K K

    2008-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) from jellyfish Aequorea victoria is the most extensively studied and widely used in cell biology protein. GFP-like proteins constitute a fast growing family as several naturally occurring GFP-like proteins have been discovered and enhanced mutants of Aequorea GFP have been created. These mutants differ from wild-type GFP by conformational stability, quantum yield, spectroscopic properties (positions of absorption and fluorescence spectra) and by photochemical properties. GFP-like proteins are very diverse, as they can be not only green, but also blue, orange-red, far-red, cyan, and yellow. They also can have dual-color fluorescence (e.g., green and red) or be non-fluorescent. Some of them possess kindling property, some are photoactivatable, and some are photoswitchable. This review is an attempt to characterize the main color groups of GFP-like proteins, describe their structure and mechanisms of chromophore formation, systemize data on their conformational stability and summarize the main trends of their utilization as markers and biosensors in cell and molecular biology.

  13. Victoria's Child FIRST and IFS differential response system: progress and issues.

    PubMed

    Lonne, Bob; Brown, Gerry; Wagner, Ingrid; Gillespie, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    Differential response has long been utilized by statutory child protection systems in Australia. This article describes the advent and history of Victoria's differential response system, with a particular focus on the Child FIRST and IFS programme. This program entails a partnership arrangement between the Department of Human Services child protection services and community-based, not-for-profit agencies to provide a diverse range of early intervention and prevention services. The findings of a recent external service system evaluation, a judicial inquiry, and the large-scale Child and Family Services Outcomes Survey of parents/carers perspectives of their service experiences are used to critically examine the effectiveness of this differential response approach. Service-user perspectives of the health and wellbeing of children and families are identified, as well as the recognized implementation issues posing significant challenges for the goal of an integrated partnership system. The need for ongoing reform agendas is highlighted along with the policy, program and structural tensions that exist in differential response systems, which are reliant upon partnerships and shared responsibilities for protecting children and assisting vulnerable families. Suggestions are made for utilizing robust research and evaluation that gives voice to service users and promotes their rights and interests.

  14. Oestrous cycle of the common wombat, Vombatus ursinus, in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    West, M; Galloway, D; Shaw, J; Trouson, A; Paris, M C J

    2004-01-01

    Wild-caught female common wombats from Victoria, Australia, were studied in captivity to investigate the oestrous cycle by assessing vaginal cytology and peripheral plasma progesterone concentrations. Eight wombats, five adults (21-29 kg) and three subadults (19-23 kg), which were held for between 2 weeks and 11 months did not cycle in captivity. Their progesterone concentrations were consistently low (< or = 6.9 nmol L(-1)) and vaginal smears contained predominantly superficial epithelial cells. Three wombats (21-27 kg), held in captivity for >1 year, regularly cycled (when bodyweights exceeded 23.5 kg). Information gathered from four consecutive cycles in each of these three wombats revealed a follicular phase with low progesterone concentrations (< or = 6.9 nmol L(-1)) and vaginal smears with a high percentage of superficial epithelial cells alternating with periods of high progesterone concentrations (range 41.6-123.8 nmol L(-1)) and smears in which parabasal-intermediate epithelial cells predominated. The average length of the monitored oestrous cycles was 47.2 days (35-60 days). The follicular phase lasted ~19 days and the luteal phase lasted ~28 days. In conclusion, wombats can cycle regularly in captivity even under conditions of intensive monitoring.

  15. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    PubMed

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  16. The Interaction between Speed Camera Enforcement and Speed-Related Mass Media Publicity in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, M. H.; Newstead, S. V.; Diamantopoulou, K.; Oxley, P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to measure the presence of any interaction between the effect of mobile covert speed camera enforcement and the effect of intensive mass media road safety publicity with speed-related themes. During 1999, the Victoria Police varied the levels of speed camera activity substantially in four Melbourne police districts according to a systematic plan. Camera hours were increased or reduced by 50% or 100% in respective districts for a month at a time, during months when speed-related publicity was present and during months when it was absent. Monthly frequencies of casualty crashes, and their severe injury outcome, in each district during 1996–2000 were analysed to test the effects of the enforcement, publicity and their interaction. Reductions in crash frequency were associated monotonically with increasing levels of speed camera ticketing, and there was a statistically significant 41% reduction in fatal crash outcome associated with very high camera activity. High publicity awareness was associated with 12% reduction in crash frequency. The interaction between the enforcement and publicity was not statistically significant. PMID:12941230

  17. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.

  18. The genetics of mate preferences in hybrids between two young and sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid species.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Ola; Woodhouse, Katie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Smith, Alan; Turner, George F; Seehausen, Ole

    2017-02-22

    The genetic architecture of mate preferences is likely to affect significant evolutionary processes, including speciation and hybridization. Here, we investigate laboratory hybrids between a pair of sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fish species that appear to have recently evolved from a hybrid population between similar predecessor species. The species demonstrate strong assortative mating in the laboratory, associated with divergent male breeding coloration (red dorsum versus blue). We show in a common garden experiment, using DNA-based paternity testing, that the strong female mate preferences among males of the two species are fully recovered in a large fraction of their F2 hybrid generation. Individual hybrid females often demonstrated consistent preferences in multiple mate choice trials (more than or equal to five) across a year or more. This result suggests that female mate preference is influenced by relatively few major genes or genomic regions. These preferences were not changed by experience of a successful spawning event with a male of the non-preferred species in a no-choice single-male trial. We found no evidence for imprinting in the F2 hybrids, although the F1 hybrid females may have been imprinted on their mothers. We discuss this nearly Mendelian inheritance of consistent innate mate preferences in the context of speciation theory.

  19. Incidence of serious injury and death during sport and recreation activities in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gabbe, B; Finch, C; Cameron, P; Williamson, O

    2005-01-01

    Background: Participation in sport and recreation is widely encouraged for general good health and the prevention of some non-communicable diseases. However, injury is a significant barrier to participation, and safety concerns are a factor in the decision to participate. An understanding of the sport/recreation activities associated with serious injury is useful for informing physical activity choices and for setting priorities for the targeting of injury prevention efforts. Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of serious injuries sustained in sport/recreation activities by adults in Victoria, Australia. Methods: The Victorian State Trauma Registry and the National Coroner's Information Service were used to identify and describe sport/recreation related serious injuries, including deaths, occurring during the period July 2001 to June 2003. Age adjusted rates of serious injury and death were calculated using participation figures for each sport and general population data. Results: There were 150 cases of serious injury and 48 deaths. The rates of serious injury and death were 1.8 and 0.6 per 100 000 participants per year respectively. Motor, power boat, and equestrian sports had the highest rates of serious injury. Most deaths were due to drowning. Conclusion: Although the risk of serious injury through sport/recreation participation is low, motor, power boat, and equestrian sports should be priorities for further research into injury prevention. Most sport/recreation related deaths are due to drowning, highlighting this area for prevention efforts. PMID:16046347

  20. What can legacy datasets tell us about soil quality trends? Soil acidity in Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, B. P.; Crawford, D. M.; Robinson, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose-built soil monitoring networks have been established in many countries to identify where soil functionality is threatened and to target remediation initiatives. An alternative to purpose-built soil monitoring networks is to use legacy soils information. Such information yields almost instant assessments of soil change but the results should be interpreted with caution since the information was not collected with monitoring in mind. We assess the threat of soil acidification in Victoria using two legacy datasets: (i) the Victorian Soils Information System (VSIS) which is a repository of the results of soil analyses conducted for scientific purposes since the 1950s and (ii) a database of 75 000 routine soil test results requested by farmers between 1973 and 1993. We find that the VSIS measurements are clustered in space and time and are therefore suitable for local rather than broad-scale assessments of soil change. The farmers’ results have better spatial and temporal coverage and space-time models can be used to quantify the spatial and temporal trends in the pH measurements. However, careful validation of these findings is required since we do not completely understand how the measured paddocks were selected and we cannot be certain that sampling or laboratory protocols have not changed with time.

  1. Chlorine-36 tracing of salinity sources in the Dry Valleys of Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Catherine A.; Phillips, Fred M.; Elmore, David; Bentley, Harold W.

    1990-02-01

    Chlorine-36 was used to trace the origins of salts in six saline lakes in the Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Characteristic 36Cl signatures were estimated for the various potential chloride sources, which include atmospheric deposition, rock weathering, seawater, and deep ground water. 36Cl /Cl ratios were measured in natural waters and salts from the Dry Valleys. Dilute lake waters (Cl - < 100 mg/l) were found to have 36Cl /Cl ratios in the range 100 × 10 -15 to 1,700 × 10 -15, whereas saline waters (Cl - > 1000 mg/l) had ratios in the range 9 × 10 -15 to 40 × 10 -15. Simple mixing models were employed to quantify the relative contributions of the various chloride sources to Lake Vanda and Don Juan Pond. These results show that Lake Vanda has received its chloride from both deep ground water and the Onyx River. Don Juan Pond has received nearly all its chloride from deep ground water, probably ultimately from rock-water interaction. Deep ground water is the principal source of chloride to the lakes of Wright Valley. However, preliminary data suggest that marine-derived salts or relict sea water may be a significant source of chloride to the lakes of Taylor Valley, implying a possible recent marine invasion that did not affect Wright Valley.

  2. Stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Mt. Melbourne volcanic field (North Victoria Land, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Guido; Lucci, Federico

    2016-04-01

    Mt. Melbourne (2,732 ma.s.l.) is a large quiescent stratovolcano located in Northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) and is one of a handful of volcanoes on the Antarctic plate with the potential for large-scale explosive eruptions. The early, Lower Pleistocene, volcanism was largely alkali basaltic to hawaiitic in composition and monogenetic in style, producing tens of small scoria cones and lava flows scattered over a wide area across the Transantarctic Mountains (Random Hills Period). During the Middle Pleistocene, volcanic activity focused to the area of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano, where several monogenetic centres show the transition from early subglacial/ subaqueous conditions to emergent subaerial conditions (Shield Nunatak Period). The oldest exposed deposit associated with the early activity of the Mt. Melbourne stratovolcano (Mt. Melbourne Period) is a trachytic subaerial ignimbrite dated at 123.6±6.0 ka, which reflects the establishment of a crustal magma chamber. Above the ignimbrite a succession of alkali basaltic, hawaiitic, and subordinate benmoreitic lavas and scoria cones is exposed, dated at 90.7±19.0 ka. The most recent deposits are exposed at the top of Mt. Melbourne, where the crater rim is composed of trachytic to rhyolitic pumice fall deposits, which are also extensively dispersed around the volcano, originated from Plinian-scale eruptions. The most recent explosive deposit proved difficult to date accurately because very low quantities of radiogenic 40Ar were released, resulting in imprecise plateau ages of 50±70 and 35±22 ka.

  3. Highly heterogeneous soil bacterial communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Ahnna; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment.

  4. Scenario-based water resources planning for utilities in the Lake Victoria region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vishal K.; Aslam, Omar; Dale, Larry; Miller, Norman; Purkey, David R.

    Urban areas in the Lake Victoria (LV) region are experiencing the highest growth rates in Africa. As efforts to meet increasing demand accelerate, integrated water resources management (IWRM) tools provide opportunities for utilities and other stakeholders to develop a planning framework comprehensive enough to include short term (e.g. landuse change), as well as longer term (e.g. climate change) scenarios. This paper presents IWRM models built using the Water Evaluation And Planning (WEAP) decision support system, for three towns in the LV region - Bukoba (Tanzania), Masaka (Uganda), and Kisii (Kenya). Each model was calibrated under current system performance based on site visits, utility reporting and interviews. Projected water supply, demand, revenues and costs were then evaluated against a combination of climate, demographic and infrastructure scenarios up to 2050. Our results show that water supply in all three towns is currently infrastructure limited; achieving existing design capacity could meet most projected demand until 2020s in Masaka beyond which new supply and conservation strategies would be needed. In Bukoba, reducing leakages would provide little performance improvement in the short-term, but doubling capacity would meet all demands until 2050. In Kisii, major infrastructure investment is urgently needed. In Masaka, streamflow simulations show that wetland sources could satisfy all demand until 2050, but at the cost of almost no water downstream of the intake. These models demonstrate the value of IWRM tools for developing water management plans that integrate hydroclimatology-driven supply to demand projections on a single platform.

  5. Longitudinal consequences of adolescent bullying perpetration and victimisation: A study of students in Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl. A.; Kotevski, Aneta; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Bond, Lyndal; Kim, Min-Jung; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization in Years 7 and 10 and a range of psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Method This analysis draws on data from the International Youth Development Study (IYDS), a longitudinal study of 5,769 students from Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States (US) who were recruited through schools in Years 5, 7, and 9 in 2002. Data for the current results are taken from participants in the youngest (Year 5) Victorian cohort of the study. Results Rates of bullying victimisation exceeded 30% and up to one in five students had engaged in bullying. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that bullying perpetration and bullying victimisation in Year 7 did not significantly predict psychosocial outcomes in Year 11. Bullying perpetration in Year 10 was associated with an increased likelihood of theft, violent behaviour, and binge drinking. Year 10 bullying victimisation was associated with an increased likelihood of Year 11 depressive symptoms. Conclusions Prevention approaches that target bullying perpetration and victimization are necessary. Programs that lessen bullying may also have an impact on other proximally related behaviours, including binge drinking and depression. PMID:21370296

  6. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in surface sediments from Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Kiremire, Bernard T; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Wasswa, John; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-06-01

    Surface sediments (<60 cm) from the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay on the northern shore of Lake Victoria were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Fifteen PCDD/Fs and eleven dl-PCBs were found in 75.5% of the samples. The maximum concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 44.1 and 136 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was the predominant PCDD/F congener at the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay area. Regarding the dl-PCBs, a variation in levels was observed between the mono-ortho PCBs and non-ortho PCBs, with the former having higher levels than the latter. The PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels, in the sediments of Napoleon Gulf, which is near urban centers and industrial areas were markedly higher (α ≤ 0.05) than those from the Thurston Bay, which is offshore, suggesting that human activities could be sources of the pollutants to the surrounding water resources. World Health Organization-toxic equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQs) lay in the range of 0.07-5.53 pg g(-1) dw for PCDD/Fs and 0.01-0.23 pg g(-1) dw for dl-PCBs. 23.1% of samples from the Napoleon Gulf had their results above the set WHOPCDD/Fs-TEQ value.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and fish species from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Kiremire, Bernard T; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zhu, Chaofei; Ren, Daiwei; Zhu, Nali; Zhang, Haidong; Shang, Hongtao; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments and two fish species collected from the Murchison Bay in Lake Victoria, using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer. Total PCB concentrations (Σ18PCBs) varied widely with mean values ranging from 777 to 4325pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sediments and 80 to 779pg g(-1) wet weight (ww) for fish. The PCB levels in the sediments were significantly higher at the station closest to Nakivubo channel, presumably due to effluents discharged by the channel, which may contain domestically produced commercial PCB mixtures. For fish, the concentrations in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) were significantly greater than those in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at all study stations, possibly due to dietary differences among species. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for the dioxin-like PCBs were 0.04-0.64pg g(-1) dw and 0.01-0.39pg g(-1) ww for sediments and fish, respectively. The non-ortho PCBs exhibited the highest contribution to the Σ12TEQs (>75%) compared to the mono-ortho PCBs in both fish species. The TEQs in the present study were lower than many reported worldwide in literature for fish and were within the permissible level recommended by the European Commission, implying that the fish did not pose health hazards related to PCBs to the consumers.

  8. Mandatory bicycle helmet use following a decade of helmet promotion in Victoria, Australia--an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cameron, M H; Vulcan, A P; Finch, C F; Newstead, S V

    1994-06-01

    On July 1, 1990, a law requiring wearing of an approved safety helmet by all bicyclists (unless exempted) came into effect in Victoria, Australia. Some of the more important steps that paved the way for this important initiative (believed to be the first statewide legislation of its type in the world) are described, and the initiative's effects are analysed. There was an immediate increase in average helmet-wearing rates from 31% in March 1990 to 75% in March 1991, although teenagers continued to show lower rates than younger children and adults. The number of insurance claims from bicyclists killed or admitted to hospital after sustaining a head injury decreased by 48% and 70% in the first and second years after the law, respectively. Analysis of the injury data also showed a 23% and 28% reduction in the number of bicyclists killed or admitted to hospital who did not sustain head injuries in the first and second post-law years, respectively. For Melbourne, where regular annual surveys of helmet wearing have been conducted, it was possible to fit a logistic regression model that related the reduction in head injuries to increased helmet wearing. Surveys in Melbourne also indicated a 36% reduction in bicycle use by children during the first year of the law and an estimated increase in adult use of 44%.

  9. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales.

  10. A 16 year study of injuries to professional kickboxers in the state of Victoria, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Zazryn, T; Finch, C; McCrory, P

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the rate and type of injuries occurring to registered professional kickboxers in Victoria, Australia over a 16 year period. Methods: Data describing all fight outcomes and injuries sustained during competition for the period August 1985 to August 2001 were obtained from the Victorian Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board. Results: A total of 382 injuries were recorded from 3481 fight participations, at an injury rate of 109.7 injuries per 1000 fight participations. The most common body region injured was the head/neck/face (52.5%), followed by the lower extremities (39.8%). Specifically, injuries to the lower leg (23.3%), the face (19.4%), and intracranial injury (17.2%) were the most common. Over 64% of the injuries were superficial bruising or lacerations. Conclusion: The nature of kickboxing, whereby kicking the opponent is the prime movement and the head a prime target, is reflected in the distributions of body regions most commonly injured by participants. Further research into injury patterns in different styles of kickboxing and the mechanism of injury occurrence is required. Exposure adjusted prospective studies are needed to monitor injury rates over time. PMID:14514540

  11. A Japanese view on speciation: "Sumiwake" explosive speciation of the cichlids in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Kawamiya, Nobuo

    2003-01-01

    Imanishi's "mental" (cerebral) view of speciation is presented, in Mizuhata's revision. The key concept here is the "ethological partition" of the species. Members of each species=society (etho-species) share the same mental (brain) software, irrespective of their genetic structure. Cerebral animals perform active programmed selection, not to be confused with passive, non-programmed "natural selection" as in Neo-Darwinism. The program includes mating-choice of peculiar characters, distinct from the Neo-Darwinian sexual selection supposed due to the specific choosy genes. Speciation can occur, as a "partition of species=society", with bifurcation of mate-choosing program in the parent species. A main promoter for this bifurcation is species-specific "passion" for especially significant characters: long necks, ornamental antlers, ocelli feathers, bright nuptial colors etc. The cichlids in Lake Victoria achieved explosive speciation, while retaining their genetic homogeneity completely. Therefore it is illogical to attribute this divergence to extraordinary mutations in "action controlling genes". The origin of species=society (etho-species) can trace along to the Cambrian Period.

  12. Paediatric slow-speed non-traffic fatalities: Victoria, Australia, 1985-1995.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P; Nolan, T

    1997-11-01

    An important group of fatal incidents are slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic incidents to children, which account for 14% of accidental deaths from all causes in Victorian children under 5 years of age between 1985 and 1995, and 12% of pedestrian deaths of all ages. In Victoria, Australia, the database of the state Consultative Council on Obstetric and Paediatric Morbidity and Mortality was utilised to identify paediatric slow-speed pedestrian non-traffic-accident deaths in the local population. Additional data relating to the car and its driver, the child, and the circumstances of the incident were abstracted from records kept by the State Coroner and the Victorian compulsory third party traffic injury insurance organisation. Twenty eight Victorian children were identified who had died in one of three types of incident (driverless cars, child interacting with the vehicle and driver, and drivers who were unaware of the child's proximity). These incidents were more common in rural areas compared with urban, usually occurring at the child's home. The child was with or near an adult on all occasions. The vehicle was usually being driven by a relative, and was reversing in a higher proportion of 'unaware' incidents compared with the 'interactive' type. The association of 'off-road' family vehicles and trucks with these incidents appears to be increasing, especially in recent years. These findings suggest some countermeasures, including the separation of vehicle driveways from children's play areas, and object vicinity ultrasonic warning devices for vehicles.

  13. Cenozoic transtension along the Transantarctic Mountains-West Antarctic rift boundary, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Terry J.

    1995-04-01

    Brittle fault arrays mapped along the structural boundary between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic rift system are oriented obliquely to the axis of the mountains and offshore rift basins. The north to northwest trending regional rift boundary is thus not controlled by continuous rift border faults. Instead, the rift margin trend must be imposed by inherited lithospheric weaknesses along the ancestral East Antarctic craton margin. Fault kinematic solutions indicate that a dextral transtensional regime characterized the rift boundary in the Cenozoic and that dominantly transcurrent motion occurred during the most recent faulting episode. The Transantarctic Mountains are considered to be a rift-flank uplift, yet no substantial isostatic uplift is expected in a transtensional setting, and the mechanism of large-magnitude Cenozoic uplift of the mountains remains problematical. Regional deformation patterns in Victoria Land and the Ross Sea can be explained by a transtensional model and are not compatible with large-magnitude crustal stretching within the West Antarctic rift system in the Cenozoic. The crustal thinning across the rift system more likely took place in the Mesozoic, when major West Antarctic crustal block motions occurred. The Cenozoic intracontinental deformation can be related to plate interaction resulting from the global Eocene plate reorganization, prior to the final separation between Antarctica and a narrow salient of the southeastern Australian margin. Displacement magnitude was probably minor, and thus early Tertiary east-west Antarctic motion is unlikely to account for discrepancies in global plate motion circuits.

  14. Victoria Symptom Validity Test performance in acute severe traumatic brain injury: implications for test interpretation.

    PubMed

    Macciocchi, Stephen N; Seel, Ronald T; Alderson, Amy; Godsall, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Effort testing has become commonplace in clinical practice. Recent research has shown that performance on effort tests is highly correlated with performance on neuropsychological measures. Clinical application of effort testing is highly dependent on research derived interpretive guidelines. The Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) is one of many measures currently used in clinical practice. The VSVT has recommended interpretive guidelines published in the test manual, but the samples used in developing interpretive guidelines are small and heterogeneous and concern has been expressed regarding high false negative rates. In this study, a homogeneous sample of acute, severely brain injured persons were used to assess the sensitivity of the VSVT. Results confirmed that acute, severely brain injured persons (N=71) perform very well on the VSVT. The severe brain injury population is 99% likely to have between 44.1 and 46.8 correct VSVT Combined Score responses. While the VSVT was insensitive to memory dysfunction, the presence of severe visual perceptual (Benton Visual Form Discrimination Score<21) and verbal fluency (Controlled Oral Word Association Score<15) deficits predicted poor performance on the VSVT. These results provide further evidence that performance expectations currently incorporated in the VSVT manual interpretative criteria are too conservative. Empirically based alternative criteria for interpreting VSVT Combined Scores in the TBI population are presented.

  15. Single- versus multi-vehicle bicycle road crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study is to compare trends, circumstances and outcomes of single- versus multi-vehicle bicycle on-road crashes in Victoria, Australia, through the analysis of police records and hospital admissions between January 2004 and December 2008. The results show that over 80% of on-road single-vehicle bicycle crashes occurred as a result of the cyclist losing control of the bicycle with the remainder involving collisions with objects. Compared with multi-vehicle crashes, single-vehicle crashes were more likely to occur in the dark, in wet conditions and in rural areas. Over half of the cyclists hospitalised as result of on-road crashes were injured in single-vehicle crashes and this proportion seems to be increasing over time. Single-vehicle crashes were associated with hospitalised injuries as severe as those resulting from multivehicle crashes. The findings highlight the significant burden of serious injury associated with single-vehicle bicycle road crashes. Further research is needed to investigate in greater detail the risk factors of these crashes and the effectiveness of countermeasures to reduce their burden.

  16. Nuclear forensic analysis of uranium oxide powders interdicted in Victoria, Australia

    DOE PAGES

    Kristo, Michael Joseph; Keegan, Elizabeth; Colella, Michael; ...

    2015-04-13

    Nuclear forensic analysis was conducted on two uranium samples confiscated during a police investigation in Victoria, Australia. The first sample, designated NSR-F-270409-1, was a depleted uranium powder of moderate purity (~1000 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was a compound similar to K2(UO2)3O4·4H2O. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-1 for analysis, the body and head of a Tineid moth was discovered in the sample. The second sample, designated NSR-F-270409-2, was also a depleted uranium powder. It was of reasonably high purity (~380 μg/g total elemental impurities). The chemical form of the uranium was primarily UO3·2H2O, with minor phases ofmore » U3O8 and UO2. While aliquoting NSR-F-270409-2 for analysis, a metal staple of unknown origin was discovered in the sample. The presence of 236U and 232U in both samples indicates that the uranium feed stocks for these samples experienced a neutron flux at some point in their history. The reactor burn-up calculated from the isotopic composition of the uranium is consistent with that of spent fuel from natural uranium (NU) fueled Pu production. These nuclear forensic conclusions allow us to categorically exclude Australia as the origin of the material and greatly reduce the number of candidate sources.« less

  17. Embryonic toxin expression in the cone snail Conus victoriae: primed to kill or divergent function?

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Siero, William A; Kuang, Zhihe; Williamson, Nicholas A; Karas, John A; Page, Louise R; MacMillan, David; Callaghan, Brid; Kompella, Shiva Nag; Adams, David J; Norton, Raymond S; Purcell, Anthony W

    2011-06-24

    Predatory marine cone snails (genus Conus) utilize complex venoms mainly composed of small peptide toxins that target voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels in their prey. Although the venoms of a number of cone snail species have been intensively profiled and functionally characterized, nothing is known about the initiation of venom expression at an early developmental stage. Here, we report on the expression of venom mRNA in embryos of Conus victoriae and the identification of novel α- and O-conotoxin sequences. Embryonic toxin mRNA expression is initiated well before differentiation of the venom gland, the organ of venom biosynthesis. Structural and functional studies revealed that the embryonic α-conotoxins exhibit the same basic three-dimensional structure as the most abundant adult toxin but significantly differ in their neurological targets. Based on these findings, we postulate that the venom repertoire of cone snails undergoes ontogenetic changes most likely reflecting differences in the biotic interactions of these animals with their prey, predators, or competitors. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show toxin mRNA transcripts in embryos, a finding that extends our understanding of the early onset of venom expression in animals and may suggest alternative functions of peptide toxins during development.

  18. Holocene climate and vegetation change on Victoria Island, western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, Matthew C.; Gajewski, Konrad

    2008-02-01

    A detailed pollen record from Victoria Island provides the first quantitative Holocene climate reconstruction from the western Canadian Arctic. The pollen percentage data indicate that Arctic herbs increased over the Holocene in response to long-term cooling. The influx of locally and regionally derived pollen grains varies throughout the core and tracks several major changes observed in the biogenic silica record from Arolik Lake, Alaska, and the GISP2 ice-core, suggesting that climate change closely controlled Arctic plant productivity. Using modern analogue and transfer function techniques, we generated quantitative reconstructions of mean July temperature and total annual precipitation for the past 10 000 years, to place recent climate changes within the context of Holocene climate variability. The quantitative reconstructions indicate that July temperature cooled by 1-1.5 °C during the Holocene. The pollen-based reconstructions record an increase in temperature of ˜0.5 °C over the last 100 years, and the pollen percentage and influx data indicate impacts of recent warming on the regional vegetation.

  19. Pioneering water quality data on the Lake Victoria watershed: effects on human health.

    PubMed

    Jovanelly, Tamie J; Johnson-Pynn, Julie; Okot-Okumu, James; Nyenje, Richard; Namaganda, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Four forest reserves within 50 km of Kampala in Uganda act as a critical buffer to the Lake Victoria watershed and habitat for local populations. Over a 9-month period we capture a pioneering water quality data set that illustrates ecosystem health through the implementation of a water quality index (WQI). The WQI was calculated using field and laboratory data that reflect measured physical and chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen on demand, nitrates, phosphates, fecal coliform, and temperature turbidity). Overall, the WQI for the four forest reserves reflect poor to medium water quality. Results compared with US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization drinking water standards indicate varying levels of contamination at most sites and all designated drinking water sources, with signatures of elevated nitrates, phosphates, and/or fecal coliforms. As critical health problems are known to arise with elevated exposure to contaminants in drinking water, this data set can be used to communicate necessary improvements within the watershed.

  20. Finding space for participation: fisherfolk mobility and co-management of Lake Victoria fisheries.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Fiona; Luomba, Joseph; Lwenya, Caroline; Yongo, Ernest; Odongkara, Konstantine; Ntambi, Baker

    2012-08-01

    The literature on fisheries co-management is almost silent on the issue of the movement of fisherfolk within fisheries, although such movement must have implications for the effectiveness of co-management. The introduction of co-management often involves the formation of new structures that should enable the participation of key stakeholder groups in decision-making and management, but such participation is challenging for migrating fishers. The article reports on a study on Lake Victoria, East Africa, which investigated the extent of movement around the lake and the implications of movement for how fishers participate and are represented in co-management, and the implications of the extent and nature of movement for co-management structures and processes. The analysis draws on the concept of space from the literature on participation in development and on a framework of representation in fisheries co-management in addressing these questions. The created space is on an 'invited' rather than open basis, reflecting the top-down nature of implementation and the desire to secure participation of different occupational groups, as well as women in a male-dominated sector. The more powerful boat owners dominate positions of power within the co-management system, particularly as the levels of co-management, from sub-district to national, are traversed. The limited power and resources of boat crew are exacerbated by the degree and nature of movement around the lake, making effective participation in co-management decision-making a challenge.