Science.gov

Sample records for aer benchmark specification

  1. Simple Benchmark Specifications for Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.; Aghara, Sukesh K.

    2013-01-01

    This report defines space radiation benchmark specifications. This specification starts with simple, monoenergetic, mono-directional particles on slabs and progresses to human models in spacecraft. This report specifies the models and sources needed to what the team performing the benchmark needs to produce in a report. Also included are brief descriptions of how OLTARIS, the NASA Langley website for space radiation analysis, performs its analysis.

  2. Specification for the VERA Depletion Benchmark Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kang Seog

    2015-12-17

    CASL-X-2015-1014-000 iii Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The CASL neutronics simulator MPACT is under development for the neutronics and T-H coupled simulation for the pressurized water reactor. MPACT includes the ORIGEN-API and internal depletion module to perform depletion calculations based upon neutron-material reaction and radioactive decay. It is a challenge to validate the depletion capability because of the insufficient measured data. One of the detoured methods to validate it is to perform a code-to-code comparison for benchmark problems. In this study a depletion benchmark suite has been developed and a detailed guideline has been provided to obtain meaningful computational outcomes which can be used in the validation of the MPACT depletion capability.

  3. Benchmark specifications for EBR-II shutdown heat removal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, T.; Briggs, L. L.

    2012-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is hosting an IAEA-coordinated research project on benchmark analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactor passive safety tests performed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The benchmark project involves analysis of a protected and an unprotected loss of flow tests conducted during an extensive testing program within the framework of the U.S. Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate the inherently safety features of EBR-II as a pool-type, sodium-cooled fast reactor prototype. The project is intended to improve the participants' design and safety analysis capabilities for sodium-cooled fast reactors through validation and qualification of safety analysis codes and methods. This paper provides a description of the EBR-II tests included in the program, and outlines the benchmark specifications being prepared to support the IAEA-coordinated research project. (authors)

  4. AER image filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, F.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Paz, R.; Miró-Amarante, L.; Jiménez, G.; Civit, A.

    2007-05-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows real-time virtual massive connectivity among huge number of neurons located on different chips.[1] By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timing), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Neurons generate "events" according to their activity levels. That is, more active neurons generate more events per unit time and access the interchip communication channel more frequently than neurons with low activity. In Neuromorphic system development, AER brings some advantages to develop real-time image processing system: (1) AER represents the information like time continuous stream not like a frame; (2) AER sends the most important information first (although this depends on the sender); (3) AER allows to process information as soon as it is received. When AER is used in artificial vision field, each pixel is considered like a neuron, so pixel's intensity is represented like a sequence of events; modifying the number and the frequency of these events, it is possible to make some image filtering. In this paper we present four image filters using AER: (a) Noise addition and suppression, (b) brightness modification, (c) single moving object tracking and (d) geometrical transformations (rotation, translation, reduction and magnification). For testing and debugging, we use USB-AER board developed by Robotic and Technology of Computers Applied to Rehabilitation (RTCAR) research group. This board is based on an FPGA, devoted to manage the AER functionality. This board also includes a micro-controlled for USB communication, 2 Mbytes RAM and 2 AER ports (one for input and one for output).

  5. Benchmarking Procedures for High-Throughput Context Specific Reconstruction Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Maria P.; Pfau, Thomas; Sauter, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in high-throughput data acquisition has shifted the focus from data generation to processing and understanding of how to integrate collected information. Context specific reconstruction based on generic genome scale models like ReconX or HMR has the potential to become a diagnostic and treatment tool tailored to the analysis of specific individuals. The respective computational algorithms require a high level of predictive power, robustness and sensitivity. Although multiple context specific reconstruction algorithms were published in the last 10 years, only a fraction of them is suitable for model building based on human high-throughput data. Beside other reasons, this might be due to problems arising from the limitation to only one metabolic target function or arbitrary thresholding. This review describes and analyses common validation methods used for testing model building algorithms. Two major methods can be distinguished: consistency testing and comparison based testing. The first is concerned with robustness against noise, e.g., missing data due to the impossibility to distinguish between the signal and the background of non-specific binding of probes in a microarray experiment, and whether distinct sets of input expressed genes corresponding to i.e., different tissues yield distinct models. The latter covers methods comparing sets of functionalities, comparison with existing networks or additional databases. We test those methods on several available algorithms and deduce properties of these algorithms that can be compared with future developments. The set of tests performed, can therefore serve as a benchmarking procedure for future algorithms. PMID:26834640

  6. Specification and Analysis of the AER/NCA Active Network Protocol Suite in Real-Time Maude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Springer, 2003. [6] M. Clavel , F. Durán, S. Eker, P. Lincoln, N. Mart́ı-Oliet, J. Meseguer, and J. F. Quesada. Maude: Specification and programming in...rewriting logic. Theoretical Computer Science, 285:187–243, 2002. [7] M. Clavel , F. Dúran, S. Eker, P. Lincoln, N. Mart́ı-Oliet, J. Meseguer, and C

  7. Specifications for the Large Core Code Evaluation Working Group Benchmark Problem Four. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.L.; Protsik, R.

    1981-09-01

    Benchmark studies have been carried out by the members of the Large Core Code Evaluation Working Group (LCCEWG) as part of a broad effort to systematically evaluate the important steps in the reactor design and analysis process for large fast breeder reactors. The specific objectives of the LCCEWG benchmark studies have been: to quantify the accuracy and efficiency of current neutronics methods for large cores; to identify neutronic design problems unique to large breeder reactors; to identify computer code development requirements; and to provide support for large core critical benchmark experiments.

  8. Benchmark specifications and data requirements for initial modeling of the China experimental fast reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, T. H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-06-04

    A specification is proposed for an initial transient benchmark analysis of the China Experimental Fast Reactor design based on the analysis capabilities of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code. For the initial benchmark, a single-channel protected transient overpower accident is defined. Reactivity feedback coefficients will not be required and simplified material properties are recommended. This report also describes the data required for developing the modeling input. This data includes assembly geometry, reactor power distributions, kinetics and decay heat data, and material properties. Comparisons of benchmark results will take place at a future SAS4A/SASSYS-1 training meeting planned to occur at Argonne National Laboratory. Future benchmark specifications will be planned to expand upon this initial model to include more complex reactivity feedback models, material properties, additional assembly geometry, and primary and intermediate coolant systems.

  9. Automated benchmark generation based upon a specification language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, N.; Feteih, S. E.; Saito, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of validating and verifying digital flight control system (DFCS) software is addressed in this paper. A new specification language DIVERS is proposed, and is the keystone of the approach. This language consists of keywords where each keyword represents an element in the block diagram of a DFCS. DIVERS has a dictionary which contains all the keywords a DFCS designer might need. Translator programs convert the system specifications into an executable, high-level language program. The features of translators are discussed and are elucidated by examples. This language is used to describe a typical flight software module.

  10. Embedded Volttron specification - benchmarking small footprint compute device for Volttron

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, Jibonananda; Fugate, David L.; Woodworth, Ken; Nutaro, James J.; Kuruganti, Teja

    2015-08-17

    An embedded system is a small footprint computing unit that typically serves a specific purpose closely associated with measurements and control of hardware devices. These units are designed for reasonable durability and operations in a wide range of operating conditions. Some embedded systems support real-time operations and can demonstrate high levels of reliability. Many have failsafe mechanisms built to handle graceful shutdown of the device in exception conditions. The available memory, processing power, and network connectivity of these devices are limited due to the nature of their specific-purpose design and intended application. Industry practice is to carefully design the software for the available hardware capability to suit desired deployment needs. Volttron is an open source agent development and deployment platform designed to enable researchers to interact with devices and appliances without having to write drivers themselves. Hosting Volttron on small footprint embeddable devices enables its demonstration for embedded use. This report details the steps required and the experience in setting up and running Volttron applications on three small footprint devices: the Intel Next Unit of Computing (NUC), the Raspberry Pi 2, and the BeagleBone Black. In addition, the report also details preliminary investigation of the execution performance of Volttron on these devices.

  11. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with the GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.

  12. Reactor Physics Measurements and Benchmark Specifications for Oak Ridge Highly Enriched Uranium Sphere (ORSphere)

    DOE PAGES

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    In the early 1970s Dr. John T. Mihalczo (team leader), J.J. Lynn, and J.R. Taylor performed experiments at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) with highly enriched uranium (HEU) metal (called Oak Ridge Alloy or ORALLOY) in an effort to recreate GODIVA I results with greater accuracy than those performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1950s. The purpose of the Oak Ridge ORALLOY Sphere (ORSphere) experiments was to estimate the unreflected and unmoderated critical mass of an idealized sphere of uranium metal corrected to a density, purity, and enrichment such that it could be compared with themore » GODIVA I experiments. Additionally, various material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, the delayed neutron fraction, the prompt neutron decay constant, relative fission density, and relative neutron importance were all measured. The critical assembly, material reactivity worths, the surface material worth coefficient, and the delayed neutron fraction were all evaluated as benchmark experiment measurements. The reactor physics measurements are the focus of this paper; although for clarity the critical assembly benchmark specifications are briefly discussed.« less

  13. The aerotaxis transducer gene aer, but not aer-2, is transcriptionally regulated by the anaerobic regulator ANR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang Soo; Kuroda, Akio; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of aerotaxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is reported. P. aeruginosa possesses two aerotaxis transducers, Aer and Aer-2. The aerotactic responses of P. aeruginosa cells were induced during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. A deletion mutant for the anaerobic transcriptional regulator ANR showed decreased aerotaxis. The anr mutation eliminated Aer-mediated aerotaxis, but not Aer-2-mediated aerotaxis. Expression of an aer-lacZ transcriptional fusion was also induced during the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase. The anr mutant showed only background levels of aer-lacZ expression. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and DNA sequencing revealed that the 5' end of the mRNA was located at an A nucleotide -67 nt upstream of aer. The aer promoter contained two putative FNR/ANR boxes at -42.5 and -93.5 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site of aer. Mutational analysis of the aer promoter region revealed that both FNR/ANR boxes were essential for the expression of the aer gene. These results indicate that ANR is required for the activation of aer expression but it is not essential for Aer-2-mediated aerotaxis in P. aeruginosa.

  14. The NAS parallel benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David (Editor); Barton, John (Editor); Lasinski, Thomas (Editor); Simon, Horst (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A new set of benchmarks was developed for the performance evaluation of highly parallel supercomputers. These benchmarks consist of a set of kernels, the 'Parallel Kernels,' and a simulated application benchmark. Together they mimic the computation and data movement characteristics of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. The principal distinguishing feature of these benchmarks is their 'pencil and paper' specification - all details of these benchmarks are specified only algorithmically. In this way many of the difficulties associated with conventional benchmarking approaches on highly parallel systems are avoided.

  15. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR Free-Field Environment (ACRR-FF-CC-32-CL).

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parma, Edward J.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Vehar, David W.

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity free-field reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  16. An Approach to Industrial Stormwater Benchmarks: Establishing and Using Site-Specific Threshold Criteria at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C G; Mathews, S

    2006-09-07

    Current regulatory schemes use generic or industrial sector specific benchmarks to evaluate the quality of industrial stormwater discharges. While benchmarks can be a useful tool for facility stormwater managers in evaluating the quality stormwater runoff, benchmarks typically do not take into account site-specific conditions, such as: soil chemistry, atmospheric deposition, seasonal changes in water source, and upstream land use. Failing to account for these factors may lead to unnecessary costs to trace a source of natural variation, or potentially missing a significant local water quality problem. Site-specific water quality thresholds, established upon the statistical evaluation of historic data take into account these factors, are a better tool for the direct evaluation of runoff quality, and a more cost-effective trigger to investigate anomalous results. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a federal facility, established stormwater monitoring programs to comply with the requirements of the industrial stormwater permit and Department of Energy orders, which require the evaluation of the impact of effluent discharges on the environment. LLNL recognized the need to create a tool to evaluate and manage stormwater quality that would allow analysts to identify trends in stormwater quality and recognize anomalous results so that trace-back and corrective actions could be initiated. LLNL created the site-specific water quality threshold tool to better understand the nature of the stormwater influent and effluent, to establish a technical basis for determining when facility operations might be impacting the quality of stormwater discharges, and to provide ''action levels'' to initiate follow-up to analytical results. The threshold criteria were based on a statistical analysis of the historic stormwater monitoring data and a review of relevant water quality objectives.

  17. Using AER to Improve Teacher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Randi R.

    2013-06-01

    In many ways, the astronomy education community is uniquely poised to influence pre-service and in-service teacher preparation. Astro101 courses are among those most commonly taken to satisfy general education requirements for non-science majors, including 9-25% education majors (Deming & Hufnagel, 2001; Rudolph et al. 2010). In addition, the astronomy community's numerous observatories and NASA centers engage in many efforts to satisfy demand for in-service teacher professional development (PD). These efforts represent a great laboratory in which we can apply conclusions from astronomy education research (AER) studies in particular and science education research (SER) in general. Foremost, we can work to align typical Astro101 and teacher PD content coverage to heavily hit topics in the Next Generation Science Standards (http://www.nextgenscience.org/) and utilize methods of teaching those topics that have been identified as successful in AER studies. Additionally, we can work to present teacher education using methodology that has been identified by the SER community as effective for lasting learning. In this presentation, I will highlight some of the big ideas from AER and SER that may be most useful in teacher education, many of which we implement at UT Austin in the Hands-on-Science program for pre-service teacher education and in-service teacher PD.

  18. Benchmark studies of induced radioactivity produced in LHC materials, Part I: Specific activities.

    PubMed

    Brugger, M; Khater, H; Mayer, S; Prinz, A; Roesler, S; Ulrici, L; Vincke, H

    2005-01-01

    Samples of materials which will be used in the LHC machine for shielding and construction components were irradiated in the stray radiation field of the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility. After irradiation, the specific activities induced in the various samples were analysed with a high-precision gamma spectrometer at various cooling times, allowing identification of isotopes with a wide range of half-lives. Furthermore, the irradiation experiment was simulated in detail with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code. A comparison of measured and calculated specific activities shows good agreement, supporting the use of FLUKA for estimating the level of induced activity in the LHC.

  19. Benchmarking Deep Networks for Predicting Residue-Specific Quality of Individual Protein Models in CASP11.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Yiheng; Eickholt, Jesse; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-14

    Quality assessment of a protein model is to predict the absolute or relative quality of a protein model using computational methods before the native structure is available. Single-model methods only need one model as input and can predict the absolute residue-specific quality of an individual model. Here, we have developed four novel single-model methods (Wang_deep_1, Wang_deep_2, Wang_deep_3, and Wang_SVM) based on stacked denoising autoencoders (SdAs) and support vector machines (SVMs). We evaluated these four methods along with six other methods participating in CASP11 at the global and local levels using Pearson's correlation coefficients and ROC analysis. As for residue-specific quality assessment, our four methods achieved better performance than most of the six other CASP11 methods in distinguishing the reliably modeled residues from the unreliable measured by ROC analysis; and our SdA-based method Wang_deep_1 has achieved the highest accuracy, 0.77, compared to SVM-based methods and our ensemble of an SVM and SdAs. However, we found that Wang_deep_2 and Wang_deep_3, both based on an ensemble of multiple SdAs and an SVM, performed slightly better than Wang_deep_1 in terms of ROC analysis, indicating that integrating an SVM with deep networks works well in terms of certain measurements.

  20. Benchmarking of protein carbonylation analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans: specific considerations and general advice.

    PubMed

    Pyr Dit Ruys, S; Bonzom, J-M; Frelon, S

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been extensively studied due to its correlation with cellular disorders and aging. In proteins, one biomarker of oxidative stress is the presence of carbonyl groups, such as aldehyde and ketone, in specific amino acid side chains such as lysine, proline, arginine and threonine, so-called protein carbonylation (PC). PC study is now a growing field in general and medical science since PC accumulation is associated with various pathologies and disorders. At present, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) seem to be the most robust method of quantifying the presence of carbonyl groups in proteins, despite having some recognised caveats. In parallel, gel-based approaches present cross-comparison difficulties, along with other technical problems. As generic PC analyses still suffer from poor homogeneity, leading to cross-data analysis difficulties and poor results overlap, the need for harmonisation in the field of carbonyl detection is now widely accepted. This study aims to highlight some of the technical challenges in proteomic gel-based multiplexing experiments when dealing with PC in difficult samples like those from Caenorhabditis elegans, from protein extraction to carbonyl detection. We demonstrate that some critical technical parameters, such as labelling time, probe concentration, and total and carbonylated protein recovery rates, should be re-addressed in a sample-specific way. We also defined a procedure to cost-effectively adapt CyDye™-hydrazide-based protocols to specific samples, especially when the experimental interest is focused on studying differences between stimulating conditions with a maximised signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, we have improved an already-existing powerful solubilisation buffer, making it potentially useful for hard-to-solubilise protein pellets. Lastly, the depicted methodology exemplifies a simple way of normalising carbonyl-related signal to total protein in SDS-PAGE multiplexing experiments. Within

  1. An evaluation, comparison, and accurate benchmarking of several publicly available MS/MS search algorithms: Sensitivity and Specificity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kapp, Eugene; Schutz, Frederick; Connolly, Lisa M.; Chakel, John A.; Meza, Jose E.; Miller, Christine A.; Fenyo, David; Eng, Jimmy K.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Omenn, Gilbert; Simpson, Richard

    2005-08-01

    MS/MS and associated database search algorithms are essential proteomic tools for identifying peptides. Due to their widespread use, it is now time to perform a systematic analysis of the various algorithms currently in use. Using blood specimens used in the HUPO Plasma Proteome Project, we have evaluated five search algorithms with respect to their sensitivity and specificity, and have also accurately benchmarked them based on specified false-positive (FP) rates. Spectrum Mill and SEQUEST performed well in terms of sensitivity, but were inferior to MASCOT, X-Tandem, and Sonar in terms of specificity. Overall, MASCOT, a probabilistic search algorithm, correctly identified most peptides based on a specified FP rate. The rescoring algorithm, Peptide Prophet, enhanced the overall performance of the SEQUEST algorithm, as well as provided predictable FP error rates. Ideally, score thresholds should be calculated for each peptide spectrum or minimally, derived from a reversed-sequence search as demonstrated in this study based on a validated data set. The availability of open-source search algorithms, such as X-Tandem, makes it feasible to further improve the validation process (manual or automatic) on the basis of ''consensus scoring'', i.e., the use of multiple (at least two) search algorithms to reduce the number of FPs. complement.

  2. Transient Inhibition of FGFR2b-ligands signaling leads to irreversible loss of cellular β-catenin organization and signaling in AER during mouse limb development.

    PubMed

    Danopoulos, Soula; Parsa, Sara; Al Alam, Denise; Tabatabai, Reza; Baptista, Sheryl; Tiozzo, Caterina; Carraro, Gianni; Wheeler, Matthew; Barreto, Guillermo; Braun, Thomas; Li, Xiaokun; Hajihosseini, Mohammad K; Bellusci, Saverio

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate limbs develop through coordinated series of inductive, growth and patterning events. Fibroblast Growth Factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b) signaling controls the induction of the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER) but its putative roles in limb outgrowth and patterning, as well as in AER morphology and cell behavior have remained unclear. We have investigated these roles through graded and reversible expression of soluble dominant-negative FGFR2b molecules at various times during mouse limb development, using a doxycycline/transactivator/tet(O)-responsive system. Transient attenuation (≤ 24 hours) of FGFR2b-ligands signaling at E8.5, prior to limb bud induction, leads mostly to the loss or truncation of proximal skeletal elements with less severe impact on distal elements. Attenuation from E9.5 onwards, however, has an irreversible effect on the stability of the AER, resulting in a progressive loss of distal limb skeletal elements. The primary consequences of FGFR2b-ligands attenuation is a transient loss of cell adhesion and down-regulation of P63, β1-integrin and E-cadherin, and a permanent loss of cellular β-catenin organization and WNT signaling within the AER. Combined, these effects lead to the progressive transformation of the AER cells from pluristratified to squamous epithelial-like cells within 24 hours of doxycycline administration. These findings show that FGFR2b-ligands signaling has critical stage-specific roles in maintaining the AER during limb development.

  3. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  4. Limitations of Community College Benchmarking and Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter distinguishes between benchmarks and benchmarking, describes a number of data and cultural limitations to benchmarking projects, and suggests that external demands for accountability are the dominant reason for growing interest in benchmarking among community colleges.

  5. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specifications: ACRR Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) Bucket Environment (ACRR-PLG-CC-32-CL).

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parm, Edward J.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Vehar, David W.

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the Polyethylene-Lead-Graphite (PLG) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 37 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  6. AerChemMIP: Quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, William J.; Lamarque, Jean -François; Schulz, Michael; ...

    2017-02-09

    The Aerosol Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP) is endorsed by the Coupled-Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) and is designed to quantify the climate and air quality impacts of aerosols and chemically reactive gases. These are specifically near-term climate forcers (NTCFs: methane, tropospheric ozone and aerosols, and their precursors), nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting halocarbons. The aim of AerChemMIP is to answer four scientific questions. 1. How have anthropogenic emissions contributed to global radiative forcing and affected regional climate over the historical period? 2. How might future policies (on climate, air quality and land use) affect the abundances of NTCFs and theirmore » climate impacts? 3.How do uncertainties in historical NTCF emissions affect radiative forcing estimates? 4. How important are climate feedbacks to natural NTCF emissions, atmospheric composition, and radiative effects? These questions will be addressed through targeted simulations with CMIP6 climate models that include an interactive representation of tropospheric aerosols and atmospheric chemistry. These simulations build on the CMIP6 Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK) experiments, the CMIP6 historical simulations, and future projections performed elsewhere in CMIP6, allowing the contributions from aerosols and/or chemistry to be quantified. As a result, specific diagnostics are requested as part of the CMIP6 data request to highlight the chemical composition of the atmosphere, to evaluate the performance of the models, and to understand differences in behaviour between them.« less

  7. AerChemMIP: quantifying the effects of chemistry and aerosols in CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, William J.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Schulz, Michael; Boucher, Olivier; Eyring, Veronika; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Maycock, Amanda; Myhre, Gunnar; Prather, Michael; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Steven J.

    2017-02-01

    The Aerosol Chemistry Model Intercomparison Project (AerChemMIP) is endorsed by the Coupled-Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) and is designed to quantify the climate and air quality impacts of aerosols and chemically reactive gases. These are specifically near-term climate forcers (NTCFs: methane, tropospheric ozone and aerosols, and their precursors), nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting halocarbons. The aim of AerChemMIP is to answer four scientific questions. 1. How have anthropogenic emissions contributed to global radiative forcing and affected regional climate over the historical period? 2. How might future policies (on climate, air quality and land use) affect the abundances of NTCFs and their climate impacts? 3.How do uncertainties in historical NTCF emissions affect radiative forcing estimates? 4. How important are climate feedbacks to natural NTCF emissions, atmospheric composition, and radiative effects? These questions will be addressed through targeted simulations with CMIP6 climate models that include an interactive representation of tropospheric aerosols and atmospheric chemistry. These simulations build on the CMIP6 Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima (DECK) experiments, the CMIP6 historical simulations, and future projections performed elsewhere in CMIP6, allowing the contributions from aerosols and/or chemistry to be quantified. Specific diagnostics are requested as part of the CMIP6 data request to highlight the chemical composition of the atmosphere, to evaluate the performance of the models, and to understand differences in behaviour between them.

  8. The NAS kernel benchmark program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, D. H.; Barton, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A collection of benchmark test kernels that measure supercomputer performance has been developed for the use of the NAS (Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation) program at the NASA Ames Research Center. This benchmark program is described in detail and the specific ground rules are given for running the program as a performance test.

  9. Multicasting mesh AER: a scalable assembly approach for reconfigurable neuromorphic structured AER systems. Application to ConvNets.

    PubMed

    Zamarreno-Ramos, C; Linares-Barranco, A; Serrano-Gotarredona, T; Linares-Barranco, B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a modular, scalable approach to assembling hierarchically structured neuromorphic Address Event Representation (AER) systems. The method consists of arranging modules in a 2D mesh, each communicating bidirectionally with all four neighbors. Address events include a module label. Each module includes an AER router which decides how to route address events. Two routing approaches have been proposed, analyzed and tested, using either destination or source module labels. Our analyses reveal that depending on traffic conditions and network topologies either one or the other approach may result in better performance. Experimental results are given after testing the approach using high-end Virtex-6 FPGAs. The approach is proposed for both single and multiple FPGAs, in which case a special bidirectional parallel-serial AER link with flow control is exploited, using the FPGA Rocket-I/O interfaces. Extensive test results are provided exploiting convolution modules of 64 × 64 pixels with kernels with sizes up to 11 × 11, which process real sensory data from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) retina. One single Virtex-6 FPGA can hold up to 64 of these convolution modules, which is equivalent to a neural network with 262 × 10(3) neurons and almost 32 million synapses.

  10. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  11. FireHose Streaming Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Karl Anderson, Steve Plimpton

    2015-01-27

    The FireHose Streaming Benchmarks are a suite of stream-processing benchmarks defined to enable comparison of streaming software and hardware, both quantitatively vis-a-vis the rate at which they can process data, and qualitatively by judging the effort involved to implement and run the benchmarks. Each benchmark has two parts. The first is a generator which produces and outputs datums at a high rate in a specific format. The second is an analytic which reads the stream of datums and is required to perform a well-defined calculation on the collection of datums, typically to find anomalous datums that have been created in the stream by the generator. The FireHose suite provides code for the generators, sample code for the analytics (which users are free to re-implement in their own custom frameworks), and a precise definition of each benchmark calculation.

  12. Patient-specific IMRT verification using independent fluence-based dose calculation software: experimental benchmarking and initial clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Stock, Markus; Kroupa, Bernhard; Olofsson, Jörgen; Nyholm, Tufve; Ahnesjö, Anders; Karlsson, Mikael

    2007-08-01

    Experimental methods are commonly used for patient-specific intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) verification. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy and performance of independent dose calculation software (denoted as 'MUV' (monitor unit verification)) for patient-specific quality assurance (QA). 52 patients receiving step-and-shoot IMRT were considered. IMRT plans were recalculated by the treatment planning systems (TPS) in a dedicated QA phantom, in which an experimental 1D and 2D verification (0.3 cm3 ionization chamber; films) was performed. Additionally, an independent dose calculation was performed. The fluence-based algorithm of MUV accounts for collimator transmission, rounded leaf ends, tongue-and-groove effect, backscatter to the monitor chamber and scatter from the flattening filter. The dose calculation utilizes a pencil beam model based on a beam quality index. DICOM RT files from patient plans, exported from the TPS, were directly used as patient-specific input data in MUV. For composite IMRT plans, average deviations in the high dose region between ionization chamber measurements and point dose calculations performed with the TPS and MUV were 1.6 ± 1.2% and 0.5 ± 1.1% (1 S.D.). The dose deviations between MUV and TPS slightly depended on the distance from the isocentre position. For individual intensity-modulated beams (total 367), an average deviation of 1.1 ± 2.9% was determined between calculations performed with the TPS and with MUV, with maximum deviations up to 14%. However, absolute dose deviations were mostly less than 3 cGy. Based on the current results, we aim to apply a confidence limit of 3% (with respect to the prescribed dose) or 6 cGy for routine IMRT verification. For off-axis points at distances larger than 5 cm and for low dose regions, we consider 5% dose deviation or 10 cGy acceptable. The time needed for an independent calculation compares very favourably with the net time for an experimental approach

  13. Benchmarking in Student Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosier, Robert E.; Schwarzmueller, Gary J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in student affairs, focusing on issues related to student housing. Provides examples of how benchmarking has influenced administrative practice at many institutions. (EV)

  14. SU-E-I-32: Benchmarking Head CT Doses: A Pooled Vs. Protocol Specific Analysis of Radiation Doses in Adult Head CT Examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to collect CT dose index data from adult head exams to establish benchmarks based on either: (a) values pooled from all head exams or (b) values for specific protocols. One part of this was to investigate differences in scan frequency and CT dose index data for inpatients versus outpatients. Methods: We collected CT dose index data (CTDIvol) from adult head CT examinations performed at our medical facilities from Jan 1st to Dec 31th, 2014. Four of these scanners were used for inpatients, the other five were used for outpatients. All scanners used Tube Current Modulation. We used X-ray dose management software to mine dose index data and evaluate CTDIvol for 15807 inpatients and 4263 outpatients undergoing Routine Brain, Sinus, Facial/Mandible, Temporal Bone, CTA Brain and CTA Brain-Neck protocols, and combined across all protocols. Results: For inpatients, Routine Brain series represented 84% of total scans performed. For outpatients, Sinus scans represented the largest fraction (36%). The CTDIvol (mean ± SD) across all head protocols was 39 ± 30 mGy (min-max: 3.3–540 mGy). The CTDIvol for Routine Brain was 51 ± 6.2 mGy (min-max: 36–84 mGy). The values for Sinus were 24 ± 3.2 mGy (min-max: 13–44 mGy) and for Facial/Mandible were 22 ± 4.3 mGy (min-max: 14–46 mGy). The mean CTDIvol for inpatients and outpatients was similar across protocols with one exception (CTA Brain-Neck). Conclusion: There is substantial dose variation when results from all protocols are pooled together; this is primarily a function of the differences in technical factors of the protocols themselves. When protocols are analyzed separately, there is much less variability. While analyzing pooled data affords some utility, reviewing protocols segregated by clinical indication provides greater opportunity for optimization and establishing useful benchmarks.

  15. AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses

  16. PAS/POLY-HAMP SIGNALING IN AER-2, A SOLUBLE HEME-BASED SENSOR

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Kylie J; Taylor, Barry L; Johnson, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Poly-HAMP domains are widespread in bacterial chemoreceptors, but previous studies have focused on receptors with single HAMP domains. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa chemoreceptor, Aer-2, has an unusual domain architecture consisting of a PAS sensing domain sandwiched between three N-terminal and two C-terminal HAMP domains, followed by a conserved kinase control module. The structure of the N-terminal HAMP domains was recently solved, making Aer-2 the first protein with resolved poly-HAMP structure. The role of Aer-2 in P. aeruginosa is unclear, but here we show that Aer-2 can interact with the chemotaxis system of Escherichia coli to mediate repellent responses to oxygen, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Using this model system to investigate signaling and poly-HAMP function, we determined that the Aer-2 PAS domain binds penta-coordinated b-type heme and that reversible signaling requires four of the five HAMP domains. Deleting HAMP 2 and/or 3 resulted in a kinase-off phenotype, whereas deleting HAMP 4 and/or 5 resulted in a kinase-on phenotype. Overall, these data support a model in which ligand-bound Aer-2 PAS and HAMP 2 and 3 act together to relieve inhibition of the kinase control module by HAMP 4 and 5, resulting in the kinase-on state of the Aer-2 receptor. PMID:21255112

  17. An introduction to benchmarking in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Benson, H R

    1994-01-01

    Benchmarking--the process of establishing a standard of excellence and comparing a business function or activity, a product, or an enterprise as a whole with that standard--will be used increasingly by healthcare institutions to reduce expenses and simultaneously improve product and service quality. As a component of total quality management, benchmarking is a continuous process by which an organization can measure and compare its own processes with those of organizations that are leaders in a particular area. Benchmarking should be viewed as a part of quality management programs, not as a replacement. There are four kinds of benchmarking: internal, competitive, functional and generic. With internal benchmarking, functions within an organization are compared with each other. Competitive benchmarking partners do business in the same market and provide a direct comparison of products or services. Functional and generic benchmarking are performed with organizations which may have a specific similar function, such as payroll or purchasing, but which otherwise are in a different business. Benchmarking must be a team process because the outcome will involve changing current practices, with effects felt throughout the organization. The team should include members who have subject knowledge; communications and computer proficiency; skills as facilitators and outside contacts; and sponsorship of senior management. Benchmarking requires quantitative measurement of the subject. The process or activity that you are attempting to benchmark will determine the types of measurements used. Benchmarking metrics usually can be classified in one of four categories: productivity, quality, time and cost-related.

  18. Research on computer systems benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Alan Jay (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This grant addresses the topic of research on computer systems benchmarking and is more generally concerned with performance issues in computer systems. This report reviews work in those areas during the period of NASA support under this grant. The bulk of the work performed concerned benchmarking and analysis of CPUs, compilers, caches, and benchmark programs. The first part of this work concerned the issue of benchmark performance prediction. A new approach to benchmarking and machine characterization was reported, using a machine characterizer that measures the performance of a given system in terms of a Fortran abstract machine. Another report focused on analyzing compiler performance. The performance impact of optimization in the context of our methodology for CPU performance characterization was based on the abstract machine model. Benchmark programs are analyzed in another paper. A machine-independent model of program execution was developed to characterize both machine performance and program execution. By merging these machine and program characterizations, execution time can be estimated for arbitrary machine/program combinations. The work was continued into the domain of parallel and vector machines, including the issue of caches in vector processors and multiprocessors. All of the afore-mentioned accomplishments are more specifically summarized in this report, as well as those smaller in magnitude supported by this grant.

  19. Time-recovering PCI-AER interface for bio-inspired spiking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Vicente, R.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Cascado, D.; Vicente, S.; Jimenez, G.; Civit, A.

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) inject a sequence of events at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for testing and debugging complex AER systems. This paper presents a PCI to AER interface, that dispatches a sequence of events received from the PCI bus with embedded timing information to establish when each event will be delivered. A set of specialized states machines has been introduced to recovery the possible time delays introduced by the asynchronous AER bus. On the input channel, the interface capture events assigning a timestamp and delivers them through the PCI bus to MATLAB applications. It has been implemented in real time hardware using VHDL and it has been tested in a PCI-AER board, developed by authors, that includes a Spartan II 200 FPGA. The demonstration hardware is currently capable to send and receive events at a peak rate of 8,3 Mev/sec, and a typical rate of 1 Mev/sec.

  20. Feedforward Categorization on AER Motion Events Using Cortex-Like Features in a Spiking Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Ding, Ruoxi; Chen, Shoushun; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Tang, Huajin

    2015-09-01

    This paper introduces an event-driven feedforward categorization system, which takes data from a temporal contrast address event representation (AER) sensor. The proposed system extracts bio-inspired cortex-like features and discriminates different patterns using an AER based tempotron classifier (a network of leaky integrate-and-fire spiking neurons). One of the system's most appealing characteristics is its event-driven processing, with both input and features taking the form of address events (spikes). The system was evaluated on an AER posture dataset and compared with two recently developed bio-inspired models. Experimental results have shown that it consumes much less simulation time while still maintaining comparable performance. In addition, experiments on the Mixed National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) image dataset have demonstrated that the proposed system can work not only on raw AER data but also on images (with a preprocessing step to convert images into AER events) and that it can maintain competitive accuracy even when noise is added. The system was further evaluated on the MNIST dynamic vision sensor dataset (in which data is recorded using an AER dynamic vision sensor), with testing accuracy of 88.14%.

  1. Benchmarking: The New Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stralser, Steven

    1995-01-01

    This article suggests that benchmarking, the process of comparing one's own operation with the very best, can be used to make improvements in colleges and universities. Six steps are outlined: determining what to benchmark, forming a team, discovering who to benchmark, collecting and analyzing data, using the data to redesign one's own operation,…

  2. Benchmarking for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Norman, Ed.; Lund, Helen, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the concept of benchmarking as it is being used and developed in higher education (HE). Case studies and reviews show how universities in the United Kingdom are using benchmarking to aid in self-regulation and self-improvement. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction to Benchmarking" (Norman Jackson…

  3. Closed-Loop Neuromorphic Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Terrence C.; DeWolf, Travis; Kleinhans, Ashley; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the effectiveness and performance of neuromorphic hardware is difficult. It is even more difficult when the task of interest is a closed-loop task; that is, a task where the output from the neuromorphic hardware affects some environment, which then in turn affects the hardware's future input. However, closed-loop situations are one of the primary potential uses of neuromorphic hardware. To address this, we present a methodology for generating closed-loop benchmarks that makes use of a hybrid of real physical embodiment and a type of “minimal” simulation. Minimal simulation has been shown to lead to robust real-world performance, while still maintaining the practical advantages of simulation, such as making it easy for the same benchmark to be used by many researchers. This method is flexible enough to allow researchers to explicitly modify the benchmarks to identify specific task domains where particular hardware excels. To demonstrate the method, we present a set of novel benchmarks that focus on motor control for an arbitrary system with unknown external forces. Using these benchmarks, we show that an error-driven learning rule can consistently improve motor control performance across a randomly generated family of closed-loop simulations, even when there are up to 15 interacting joints to be controlled. PMID:26696820

  4. Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerr, Fabian; Muthirayan, Buvaneshwari; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-08-01

    Integral to photovoltaics is the need to provide improved economic viability. To achieve this goal, photovoltaic technology has to be able to harness more light at less cost. A large variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts has provided cause for pursuit. To obtain a detailed profitability analysis, a flexible evaluation is crucial for benchmarking the cost-performance of this variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts. To save time and capital, a way to estimate the cost-performance of a complete solar energy system is to use computer aided modeling. In this work a benchmark tool is introduced based on a modular programming concept. The overall implementation is done in MATLAB whereas Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) is used for ray tracing calculations. This allows for a flexible and extendable structuring of all important modules, namely an advanced source modeling including time and local dependence, and an advanced optical system analysis of various optical designs to obtain an evaluation of the figure of merit. An important figure of merit: the energy yield for a given photovoltaic system at a geographical position over a specific period, can be calculated.

  5. Aer and Tsr guide Escherichia coli in spatial gradients of oxidizable substrates.

    PubMed

    Greer-Phillips, Suzanne E; Alexandre, Gladys; Taylor, Barry L; Zhulin, Igor B

    2003-09-01

    The Aer and Tsr chemoreceptors in Escherichia coli govern tactic responses to oxygen and redox potential that are parts of an overall behaviour known as energy taxis. They are also proposed to mediate responses to rapidly utilized carbon sources, glycerol and succinate, via the energy taxis mechanism. In this study, the Aer and Tsr proteins were individually expressed in an 'all-transducer-knockout' strain of E. coli and taxis was analysed in gradients of various oxidizable carbon sources. In addition to the known response to glycerol and succinate, it was found that Aer directed taxis towards ribose, galactose, maltose, malate, proline and alanine as well as the phosphotransferase system (PTS) carbohydrates glucose, mannitol, mannose, sorbitol and fructose, but not to aspartate, glutamate, glycine and arabinose. Tsr directed taxis towards sugars (including those transported by the PTS), but not to organic acids or amino acids. When a mutated Aer protein unable to bind the FAD cofactor was expressed in the receptor-less strain, chemotaxis was not restored to any substrate. Aer appears to mediate responses to rapidly oxidizable substrates, whether or not they are effective growth substrates, whereas Tsr appears to mediate taxis to substrates that support maximal growth, whether or not they are rapidly oxidizable. This correlates with the hypothesis that Aer and Tsr sense redox and proton motive force, respectively. Taken together, the results demonstrate that Aer and Tsr mediate responses to a broad range of chemicals and their attractant repertoires overlap with those of specialized chemoreceptors, namely Trg (ribose, galactose) and Tar (maltose).

  6. Fusion Welding of AerMet 100 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    ENGLEHART, DAVID A.; MICHAEL, JOSEPH R.; NOVOTNY, PAUL M.; ROBINO, CHARLES V.

    1999-08-01

    A database of mechanical properties for weldment fusion and heat-affected zones was established for AerMet{reg_sign}100 alloy, and a study of the welding metallurgy of the alloy was conducted. The properties database was developed for a matrix of weld processes (electron beam and gas-tungsten arc) welding parameters (heat inputs) and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions. In order to insure commercial utility and acceptance, the matrix was commensurate with commercial welding technology and practice. Second, the mechanical properties were correlated with fundamental understanding of microstructure and microstructural evolution in this alloy. Finally, assessments of optimal weld process/PWHT combinations for cotildent application of the alloy in probable service conditions were made. The database of weldment mechanical properties demonstrated that a wide range of properties can be obtained in welds in this alloy. In addition, it was demonstrated that acceptable welds, some with near base metal properties, could be produced from several different initial heat treatments. This capability provides a means for defining process parameters and PWHT's to achieve appropriate properties for different applications, and provides useful flexibility in design and manufacturing. The database also indicated that an important region in welds is the softened region which develops in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and analysis within the welding metallurgy studies indicated that the development of this region is governed by a complex interaction of precipitate overaging and austenite formation. Models and experimental data were therefore developed to describe overaging and austenite formation during thermal cycling. These models and experimental data can be applied to essentially any thermal cycle, and provide a basis for predicting the evolution of microstructure and properties during thermal processing.

  7. Bag of Events: An Efficient Probability-Based Feature Extraction Method for AER Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xi; Zhao, Bo; Yan, Rui; Tang, Huajin; Yi, Zhang

    2016-03-18

    Address event representation (AER) image sensors represent the visual information as a sequence of events that denotes the luminance changes of the scene. In this paper, we introduce a feature extraction method for AER image sensors based on the probability theory, namely, bag of events (BOE). The proposed approach represents each object as the joint probability distribution of the concurrent events, and each event corresponds to a unique activated pixel of the AER sensor. The advantages of BOE include: 1) it is a statistical learning method and has a good interpretability in mathematics; 2) BOE can significantly reduce the effort to tune parameters for different data sets, because it only has one hyperparameter and is robust to the value of the parameter; 3) BOE is an online learning algorithm, which does not require the training data to be collected in advance; 4) BOE can achieve competitive results in real time for feature extraction (>275 frames/s and >120,000 events/s); and 5) the implementation complexity of BOE only involves some basic operations, e.g., addition and multiplication. This guarantees the hardware friendliness of our method. The experimental results on three popular AER databases (i.e., MNIST-dynamic vision sensor, Poker Card, and Posture) show that our method is remarkably faster than two recently proposed AER categorization systems while preserving a good classification accuracy.

  8. Unstructured Adaptive (UA) NAS Parallel Benchmark. Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Huiyu; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biswas, Rupak; Mavriplis, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    We present a complete specification of a new benchmark for measuring the performance of modern computer systems when solving scientific problems featuring irregular, dynamic memory accesses. It complements the existing NAS Parallel Benchmark suite. The benchmark involves the solution of a stylized heat transfer problem in a cubic domain, discretized on an adaptively refined, unstructured mesh.

  9. 42 CFR 422.258 - Calculation of benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of benchmarks. 422.258 Section 422.258... and Plan Approval § 422.258 Calculation of benchmarks. (a) The term “MA area-specific non-drug monthly... the plan bids. (c) Calculation of MA regional non-drug benchmark amount. CMS calculates the...

  10. Neutron Reference Benchmark Field Specification: ACRR 44 Inch Lead-Boron (LB44) Bucket Environment (ACRR-LB44-CC-32-CL).

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, Richard Manuel; Parma, Edward J.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Vehar, David W.

    2015-07-01

    This report was put together to support the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) REAL- 2016 activity to validate the dosimetry community’s ability to use a consistent set of activation data and to derive consistent spectral characterizations. The report captures details of integral measurements taken in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) central cavity with the 44 inch Lead-Boron (LB44) bucket, reference neutron benchmark field. The field is described and an “a priori” calculated neutron spectrum is reported, based on MCNP6 calculations, and a subject matter expert (SME) based covariance matrix is given for this “a priori” spectrum. The results of 31 integral dosimetry measurements in the neutron field are reported.

  11. PRISMATIC CORE COUPLED TRANSIENT BENCHMARK

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; G. Strydom; R.S. Sen; M.D. DeHart; H.D. Gougar; C. Ellis; A. Baxter; V. Seker; T.J. Downar; K. Vierow; K. Ivanov

    2011-06-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  12. Magic Mirror on the Wall, Who’s the Fastest Database of Them All? A survey of Database Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-21

    Wars" and " Benchmarketing "[51. lowing criteria for a good domain-specific benchmark: The best defense is to have knowledge about the DBMS benchmarks...will be examined: by vendors. Gray sites two major benchmark abuses: "Benchmark Wars", and " Benchmarketing "!51. The o TPC Benchmark A (TPC-A) "Benchmark...the standard benchmarks defined by the the benchmark run faster. " Benchmarketing " is where a TPC. The Wisconsin benchmark is a benchmark for com

  13. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  14. Benchmarks in Management Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan C.

    1997-01-01

    Data were collected from 12 states with Certified Public Manager training programs to establish benchmarks. The 38 benchmarks were in the following areas: program leadership, stability of administrative/financial support, consistent management philosophy, administrative control, participant selection/support, accessibility, application of…

  15. New NAS Parallel Benchmarks Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarrow, Maurice; Saphir, William; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Woo, Alex; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NPB2 (NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks 2) is an implementation, based on Fortran and the MPI (message passing interface) message passing standard, of the original NAS Parallel Benchmark specifications. NPB2 programs are run with little or no tuning, in contrast to NPB vendor implementations, which are highly optimized for specific architectures. NPB2 results complement, rather than replace, NPB results. Because they have not been optimized by vendors, NPB2 implementations approximate the performance a typical user can expect for a portable parallel program on distributed memory parallel computers. Together these results provide an insightful comparison of the real-world performance of high-performance computers. New NPB2 features: New implementation (CG), new workstation class problem sizes, new serial sample versions, more performance statistics.

  16. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  17. ICSBEP Benchmarks For Nuclear Data Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. Blair

    2005-05-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) — Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro (formerly Yugoslavia), Kazakhstan, Spain, Israel, Brazil, Poland, and the Czech Republic are now participating. South Africa, India, China, and Germany are considering participation. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled "International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments." The 2004 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 3331 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data. New to the 2004 Edition of the Handbook is a draft criticality alarm / shielding type benchmark that should be finalized in 2005 along with two other similar benchmarks. The Handbook is being used extensively for nuclear data testing and is expected to be a valuable resource for code and data validation and improvement efforts for decades to come. Specific benchmarks that are useful for testing structural materials such as iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese; beryllium; lead; thorium; and 238U are highlighted.

  18. A Seafloor Benchmark for 3-dimensional Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwell, C. D.; Webb, S. C.; Nooner, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an inexpensive, permanent seafloor benchmark to increase the longevity of seafloor geodetic measurements. The benchmark provides a physical tie to the sea floor lasting for decades (perhaps longer) on which geodetic sensors can be repeatedly placed and removed with millimeter resolution. Global coordinates estimated with seafloor geodetic techniques will remain attached to the benchmark allowing for the interchange of sensors as they fail or become obsolete, or for the sensors to be removed and used elsewhere, all the while maintaining a coherent series of positions referenced to the benchmark. The benchmark has been designed to free fall from the sea surface with transponders attached. The transponder can be recalled via an acoustic command sent from the surface to release from the benchmark and freely float to the sea surface for recovery. The duration of the sensor attachment to the benchmark will last from a few days to a few years depending on the specific needs of the experiment. The recovered sensors are then available to be reused at other locations, or again at the same site in the future. Three pins on the sensor frame mate precisely and unambiguously with three grooves on the benchmark. To reoccupy a benchmark a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) uses its manipulator arm to place the sensor pins into the benchmark grooves. In June 2014 we deployed four benchmarks offshore central Oregon. We used the ROV Jason to successfully demonstrate the removal and replacement of packages onto the benchmark. We will show the benchmark design and its operational capabilities. Presently models of megathrust slip within the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) are mostly constrained by the sub-aerial GPS vectors from the Plate Boundary Observatory, a part of Earthscope. More long-lived seafloor geodetic measures are needed to better understand the earthquake and tsunami risk associated with a large rupture of the thrust fault within the Cascadia subduction zone

  19. Limb development and evolution: a frog embryo with no apical ectodermal ridge (AER)

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDSON, MICHAEL K.; CARL, TIMOTHY F.; HANKEN, JAMES; ELINSON, RICHARD P.; COPE, CELIA; BAGLEY, PETER

    1998-01-01

    The treefrog Eleutherodactylus coqui is a direct developer — it has no tadpole stage. The limb buds develop earlier than in metamorphosing species (indirect developers, such as Xenopus laevis). Previous molecular studies suggest that at least some mechanisms of limb development in E. coqui are similar to those of other vertebrates and we wished to see how limb morphogenesis in this species compares with that in other vertebrates. We found that the hind limb buds are larger and more advanced than the forelimbs at all stages examined, thus differing from the typical amniote pattern. The limb buds were also small compared to those in the chick. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed that although the apical ectoderm is thickened, there was no apical ectodermal ridge (AER). In addition, the limb buds lacked the dorsoventral flattening seen in many amniotes. These findings could suggest a mechanical function for the AER in maintaining dorsoventral flattening, although not all data are consistent with this view. Removal of distal ectoderm from E. coqui hindlimb buds does not stop outgrowth, although it does produce anterior defects in the skeletal pattern. The defects are less severe when the excisions are performed earlier. These results contrast with the chick, in which AER excision leads to loss of distal structures. We suggest that an AER was present in the common ancestor of anurans and amniotes and has been lost in at least some direct developers including E. coqui. PMID:9688504

  20. Benchmarking expert system tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Gary

    1988-01-01

    As part of its evaluation of new technologies, the Artificial Intelligence Section of the Mission Planning and Analysis Div. at NASA-Johnson has made timing tests of several expert system building tools. Among the production systems tested were Automated Reasoning Tool, several versions of OPS5, and CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System), an expert system builder developed by the AI section. Also included in the test were a Zetalisp version of the benchmark along with four versions of the benchmark written in Knowledge Engineering Environment, an object oriented, frame based expert system tool. The benchmarks used for testing are studied.

  1. Toxicological Benchmarks for Wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E. Opresko, D.M. Suter, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated by using a two-tiered process. In the first tier, a screening assessment is performed where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks represent concentrations of chemicals (i.e., concentrations presumed to be nonhazardous to the biota) in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.). While exceedance of these benchmarks does not indicate any particular level or type of risk, concentrations below the benchmarks should not result in significant effects. In practice, when contaminant concentrations in food or water resources are less than these toxicological benchmarks, the contaminants may be excluded from further consideration. However, if the concentration of a contaminant exceeds a benchmark, that contaminant should be retained as a contaminant of potential concern (COPC) and investigated further. The second tier in ecological risk assessment, the baseline ecological risk assessment, may use toxicological benchmarks as part of a weight-of-evidence approach (Suter 1993). Under this approach, based toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. Other sources of evidence include media toxicity tests, surveys of biota (abundance and diversity), measures of contaminant body burdens, and biomarkers. This report presents NOAEL- and lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL)-based toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 85 chemicals on 9 representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, little brown bat, meadow vole, white-footed mouse, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer) or 11 avian wildlife species (American robin, rough-winged swallow, American woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, barn owl, Cooper's hawk, and red-tailed hawk

  2. Benchmarking neuromorphic systems with Nengo

    PubMed Central

    Bekolay, Trevor; Stewart, Terrence C.; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Nengo is a software package for designing and simulating large-scale neural models. Nengo is architected such that the same Nengo model can be simulated on any of several Nengo backends with few to no modifications. Backends translate a model to specific platforms, which include GPUs and neuromorphic hardware. Nengo also contains a large test suite that can be run with any backend and focuses primarily on functional performance. We propose that Nengo's large test suite can be used to benchmark neuromorphic hardware's functional performance and simulation speed in an efficient, unbiased, and future-proof manner. We implement four benchmark models and show that Nengo can collect metrics across five different backends that identify situations in which some backends perform more accurately or quickly. PMID:26539076

  3. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  4. TWODANT benchmark. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung

    1994-01-11

    TWODANT (Two-Dimensional, Diffusion-Accelerated, Neutral-Particle Transport) code has been benchmarked against 6 critical experiments (Jezebel plutonium critical assembly) and their k effective values compared with those of KENO and MCNP codes.

  5. Benchmarking TENDL-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marck, S. C.; Koning, A. J.; Rochman, D. A.

    2014-04-01

    The new release of the TENDL nuclear data library, TENDL-2012, was tested by performing many benchmark calculations. Close to 2000 criticality safety benchmark cases were used, as well as many benchmark shielding cases. All the runs could be compared with similar runs based on the nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0, and JEFF-3.1.1 respectively. The results are that many of the criticality safety results obtained with TENDL-2012 are close to the ones for the other libraries. In particular the results for the thermal spectrum cases with LEU fuel are good. Nevertheless, there is a fair amount of cases for which the TENDL-2012 results are not as good as the other libraries. Especially a number of fast spectrum cases with reflectors are not well described. The results for the shielding benchmarks are mostly similar to the ones for the other libraries. Some isolated cases with differences are identified.

  6. The General Concept of Benchmarking and Its Application in Higher Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarko, Joanicjusz; Kuzmicz, Katarzyna Anna; Szubzda-Prutis, Elzbieta; Urban, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are twofold: a presentation of the theoretical basis of benchmarking and a discussion on practical benchmarking applications. Benchmarking is also analyzed as a productivity accelerator. The authors study benchmarking usage in the private and public sectors with due consideration of the specificities of the two areas.…

  7. Benchmarking in Foodservice Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    51. Lingle JH, Schiemann WA. From balanced scorecard to strategic gauges: Is measurement worth it? Mgt Rev. 1996; 85(3):56-61. 52. Struebing L...studies lasted from nine to twelve months, and could extend beyond that time for numerous reasons (49). Benchmarking was not industrial tourism , a...not simply data comparison, a fad, a means for reducing resources, a quick-fix program, or industrial tourism . Benchmarking was a complete process

  8. Bacterial Energy Sensor Aer Modulates the Activity of the Chemotaxis Kinase CheA Based on the Redox State of the Flavin Cofactor.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Dipanjan; Widom, Joanne; Borbat, Peter P; Freed, Jack H; Crane, Brian R

    2016-12-09

    Flagellated bacteria modulate their swimming behavior in response to environmental cues through the CheA/CheY signaling pathway. In addition to responding to external chemicals, bacteria also monitor internal conditions that reflect the availability of oxygen, light, and reducing equivalents, in a process termed "energy taxis." In Escherichia coli, the transmembrane receptor Aer is the primary energy sensor for motility. Genetic and physiological data suggest that Aer monitors the electron transport chain through the redox state of its FAD cofactor. However, direct biochemical data correlating FAD redox chemistry with CheA kinase activity have been lacking. Here, we test this hypothesis via functional reconstitution of Aer into nanodiscs. As purified, Aer contains fully oxidized FAD, which can be chemically reduced to the anionic semiquinone (ASQ). Oxidized Aer activates CheA, whereas ASQ Aer reversibly inhibits CheA. Under these conditions, Aer cannot be further reduced to the hydroquinone, in contrast to the proposed Aer signaling model. Pulse ESR spectroscopy of the ASQ corroborates a potential mechanism for signaling in that the resulting distance between the two flavin-binding PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domains implies that they tightly sandwich the signal-transducing HAMP domain in the kinase-off state. Aer appears to follow oligomerization patterns observed for related chemoreceptors, as higher loading of Aer dimers into nanodiscs increases kinase activity. These results provide a new methodological platform to study Aer function along with new mechanistic details into its signal transduction process.

  9. XWeB: The XML Warehouse Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahboubi, Hadj; Darmont, Jérôme

    With the emergence of XML as a standard for representing business data, new decision support applications are being developed. These XML data warehouses aim at supporting On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) operations that manipulate irregular XML data. To ensure feasibility of these new tools, important performance issues must be addressed. Performance is customarily assessed with the help of benchmarks. However, decision support benchmarks do not currently support XML features. In this paper, we introduce the XML Warehouse Benchmark (XWeB), which aims at filling this gap. XWeB derives from the relational decision support benchmark TPC-H. It is mainly composed of a test data warehouse that is based on a unified reference model for XML warehouses and that features XML-specific structures, and its associate XQuery decision support workload. XWeB's usage is illustrated by experiments on several XML database management systems.

  10. NAS Grid Benchmarks. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob; Frumkin, Michael; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We provide a paper-and-pencil specification of a benchmark suite for computational grids. It is based on the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) and is called the NAS Grid Benchmarks (NGB). NGB problems are presented as data flow graphs encapsulating an instance of a slightly modified NPB task in each graph node, which communicates with other nodes by sending/receiving initialization data. Like NPB, NGB specifies several different classes (problem sizes). In this report we describe classes S, W, and A, and provide verification values for each. The implementor has the freedom to choose any language, grid environment, security model, fault tolerance/error correction mechanism, etc., as long as the resulting implementation passes the verification test and reports the turnaround time of the benchmark.

  11. DOE Commercial Building Benchmark Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Torcelini, P.; Deru, M.; Griffith, B.; Benne, K.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Crawley, D. B.

    2008-07-01

    To provide a consistent baseline of comparison and save time conducting such simulations, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a set of standard benchmark building models. This paper will provide an executive summary overview of these benchmark buildings, and how they can save building analysts valuable time. Fully documented and implemented to use with the EnergyPlus energy simulation program, the benchmark models are publicly available and new versions will be created to maintain compatibility with new releases of EnergyPlus. The benchmark buildings will form the basis for research on specific building technologies, energy code development, appliance standards, and measurement of progress toward DOE energy goals. Having a common starting point allows us to better share and compare research results and move forward to make more energy efficient buildings.

  12. PNNL Information Technology Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    DD Hostetler

    1999-09-08

    Benchmarking is a methodology for searching out industry best practices that lead to superior performance. It is exchanging information, not just with any organization, but with organizations known to be the best within PNNL, in industry, or in dissimilar industries with equivalent functions. It is used as a continuous improvement tool for business and technical processes, products, and services. Information technology--comprising all computer and electronic communication products and services--underpins the development and/or delivery of many PNNL products and services. This document describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL's) approach to information technology (IT) benchmarking. The purpose is to engage other organizations in the collaborative process of benchmarking in order to improve the value of IT services provided to customers. TM document's intended audience consists of other US Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories and their IT staff. Although the individual participants must define the scope of collaborative benchmarking, an outline of IT service areas for possible benchmarking is described.

  13. Translational benchmark risk analysis

    PubMed Central

    Piegorsch, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Translational development – in the sense of translating a mature methodology from one area of application to another, evolving area – is discussed for the use of benchmark doses in quantitative risk assessment. Illustrations are presented with traditional applications of the benchmark paradigm in biology and toxicology, and also with risk endpoints that differ from traditional toxicological archetypes. It is seen that the benchmark approach can apply to a diverse spectrum of risk management settings. This suggests a promising future for this important risk-analytic tool. Extensions of the method to a wider variety of applications represent a significant opportunity for enhancing environmental, biomedical, industrial, and socio-economic risk assessments. PMID:20953283

  14. Microstructural Mitigation of Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement of Ultra-High Strength AerMet(Trademark) 100

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    composition and processing conditions based on such existing models. Qualitatively, increasing incoherence of M2C precipitates does not result in reduced...AerMetTM 100, including nanoscale carbides ( M2C = (Cr,Mo) 2C), cementite, undissolved alloy carbides, martensite laths and packet interfaces, prior...temper (482°C) are those associated with M2C carbides and martensite lath and packet boundaries. Those studies concluded that nano-scale, coherent and

  15. A polishing hybrid AER/UF membrane process for the treatment of a high DOC content surface water.

    PubMed

    Humbert, H; Gallard, H; Croué, J-P

    2012-03-15

    The efficacy of a combined AER/UF (Anion Exchange Resin/Ultrafiltration) process for the polishing treatment of a high DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon) content (>8 mgC/L) surface water was investigated at lab-scale using a strong base AER. Both resin dose and bead size had a significant impact on the kinetic removal of DOC for short contact times (i.e. <15 min). For resin doses higher than 700 mg/L and median bead sizes below 250 μm DOC removal remained constant after 30 min of contact time with very high removal rates (80%). Optimum AER treatment conditions were applied in combination with UF membrane filtration on water previously treated by coagulation-flocculation (i.e. 3 mgC/L). A more severe fouling was observed for each filtration run in the presence of AER. This fouling was shown to be mainly reversible and caused by the progressive attrition of the AER through the centrifugal pump leading to the production of resin particles below 50 μm in diameter. More important, the presence of AER significantly lowered the irreversible fouling (loss of permeability recorded after backwash) and reduced the DOC content of the clarified water to l.8 mgC/L (40% removal rate), concentration that remained almost constant throughout the experiment.

  16. Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marck, Steven C.

    2006-12-01

    The new major release VII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library has been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. These were based upon MCNP-4C3 continuous-energy Monte Carlo neutronics simulations, together with nuclear data processed using the code NJOY. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz., criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 700 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C, N, O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for 6Li, 7Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D 2O, H 2O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). For testing delayed neutron data more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems were used. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, and two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. In criticality safety, many benchmarks were chosen from the category with a thermal spectrum, low-enriched uranium, compound fuel (LEU-COMP-THERM), because this is typical of most current-day reactors, and because these benchmarks were previously underpredicted by as much as 0.5% by most nuclear data libraries (such as ENDF/B-VI.8, JEFF-3.0). The calculated results presented here show that this underprediction is no longer there for ENDF/B-VII.0. The average over 257

  17. Mask Waves Benchmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    24 . Measured frequency vs. set frequency for all data .............................................. 23 25. Benchmark Probe#1 wave amplitude variation...4 8 A- 24 . Wave amplitude by probe, blower speed, lip setting for 0.768 Hz on the short I b an k...frequency and wavemaker bank .................................... 24 B- 1. Coefficient of variation as percentage for all conditions for long bank and bridge

  18. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  19. Python/Lua Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, L.

    2014-08-01

    This is an adaptation of the pre-existing Scimark benchmark code to a variety of Python and Lua implementations. It also measures performance of the Fparser expression parser and C and C++ code on a variety of simple scientific expressions.

  20. Monte Carlo Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-20

    The "Monte Carlo Benchmark" (MCB) is intended to model the computatiional performance of Monte Carlo algorithms on parallel architectures. It models the solution of a simple heuristic transport equation using a Monte Carlo technique. The MCB employs typical features of Monte Carlo algorithms such as particle creation, particle tracking, tallying particle information, and particle destruction. Particles are also traded among processors using MPI calls.

  1. Benchmarking the World's Best

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    A century ago, the United States was a world leader in industrial benchmarking. However, after World War II, once no one could compete with the U.S., it became complacent. Many industrialized countries now have higher student achievement and more equitable and efficient education systems. A higher proportion of young people in their workforces…

  2. HPCS HPCchallenge Benchmark Suite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    measured HPCchallenge Benchmark performance on various HPC architectures — from Cray X1s to Beowulf clusters — in the presentation and paper...from Cray X1s to Beowulf clusters — using the updated results at http://icl.cs.utk.edu/hpcc/hpcc_results.cgi Even a small percentage of random

  3. Metabolism-dependent taxis towards (methyl)phenols is coupled through the most abundant of three polar localized Aer-like proteins of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Sarand, Inga; Osterberg, Sofia; Holmqvist, Sofie; Holmfeldt, Per; Skärfstad, Eleonore; Parales, Rebecca E; Shingler, Victoria

    2008-05-01

    Comparatively little is known about directed motility of environmental bacteria to common aromatic pollutants. Here, by expressing different parts of a (methyl)phenol-degradative pathway and the use of specific mutants, we show that taxis of Pseudomonas putida towards (methyl)phenols is dictated by its ability to catabolize the aromatic compound. Thus, in contrast to previously described chemoreceptor-mediated chemotaxis mechanisms towards benzoate, naphthalene and toluene, taxis in response to (methyl)phenols is mediated by metabolism-dependent behaviour. Here we show that P. putida differentially expresses three Aer-like receptors that are all polar-localized through interactions with CheA, and that inactivation of the most abundant Aer2 protein significantly decreases taxis towards phenolics. In addition, the participation of a sensory signal transduction protein composed of a PAS, a GGDEF and an EAL domain in motility towards these compounds is demonstrated. The results are discussed in the context of the versatility of metabolism-dependent coupling and the necessity for P. putida to integrate diverse metabolic signals from its native heterogeneous soil and water environments.

  4. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams. This report describes a method to characterize the relationship between the extirpation (the effective extinction) of invertebrate genera and salinity (measured as conductivity) and from that relationship derives a freshwater aquatic life benchmark. This benchmark of 300 µS/cm may be applied to waters in Appalachian streams that are dominated by calcium and magnesium salts of sulfate and bicarbonate at circum-neutral to mildly alkaline pH. This report provides scientific evidence for a conductivity benchmark in a specific region rather than for the entire United States.

  5. Principles for an ETL Benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Len; Caufield, Brian; Pol, Daniel

    Conditions in the marketplace for ETL tools suggest that an industry standard benchmark is needed. The benchmark should provide useful data for comparing the performance of ETL systems, be based on a meaningful scenario, and be scalable over a wide range of data set sizes. This paper gives a general scoping of the proposed benchmark and outlines some key decision points. The Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) has formed a development subcommittee to define and produce such a benchmark.

  6. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Friedley, Andrew

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8) with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.

  7. Benchmark Airport Charges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Wit, A.; Cohn, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) commissioned Hague Consulting Group (HCG) to complete a benchmark study of airport charges at twenty eight airports in Europe and around the world, based on 1996 charges. This study followed previous DGCA research on the topic but included more airports in much more detail. The main purpose of this new benchmark study was to provide insight into the levels and types of airport charges worldwide and into recent changes in airport charge policy and structure. This paper describes the 1996 analysis. It is intended that this work be repeated every year in order to follow developing trends and provide the most up-to-date information possible.

  8. Benchmark Problems for Spacecraft Formation Flying Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Leitner, Jesse A.; Burns, Richard D.; Folta, David C.

    2003-01-01

    To provide high-level focus to distributed space system flight dynamics and control research, several benchmark problems are suggested. These problems are not specific to any current or proposed mission, but instead are intended to capture high-level features that would be generic to many similar missions.

  9. Algebraic Multigrid Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-06

    AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumps and an anisotropy in one part.

  10. MPI Multicore Linktest Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Martin

    2008-01-25

    The MPI Multicore Linktest (LinkTest) measures the aggregate bandwidth from/to a multicore node in a parallel system. It allows the user to specify a variety of different node layout and communication routine variations and reports the maximal observed bandwidth across all specified options. In particular, this benchmark is able to vary the number of tasks on the root node and thereby allows users to study the impact of multicore architectures on MPI communication performance.

  11. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    DBE Xeon Dual Socket Blackford Server Motherboard; 2 Intel Xeon Dual-Core 2.66 GHz processors; 1 GB DDR2 PC2-5300 RAM (2 x 512); 80GB Hard Drive (Seagate SATA II Barracuda). The Fusion board is presently capable of 4X in a PCIe slot. The image resampling benchmark was run on a dual Xeon workstation with NVIDIA graphics card (see Chapter 5 for full specification). An XtremeData Opteron+FPGA was used for the language classification application. We observed that these benchmarks are not uniformly I/O intensive. The only benchmark that showed greater that 50% of the time in I/O was the graph algorithm when it accessed data files over NFS. When local disk was used, the graph benchmark spent at most 40% of its time in I/O. The other benchmarks were CPU dominated. The image resampling benchmark and language classification showed order of magnitude speedup over software by using co-processor technology to offload the CPU-intensive kernels. Our experiments to date suggest that emerging hardware technologies offer significant benefit to boosting the performance of data-intensive algorithms. Using GPU and FPGA co-processors, we were able to improve performance by more than an order of magnitude on the benchmark algorithms, eliminating the processor bottleneck of CPU-bound tasks. Experiments with a prototype solid state nonvolative memory available today show 10X better throughput on random reads than disk, with a 2X speedup on a graph processing benchmark when compared to the use of local SATA disk.

  12. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.

    2009-11-15

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) are a suite of parallel computer performance benchmarks. They were originally developed at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1991 to assess high-end parallel supercomputers. Although they are no longer used as widely as they once were for comparing high-end system performance, they continue to be studied and analyzed a great deal in the high-performance computing community. The acronym 'NAS' originally stood for the Numerical Aeronautical Simulation Program at NASA Ames. The name of this organization was subsequently changed to the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Program, and more recently to the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Center, although the acronym remains 'NAS.' The developers of the original NPB suite were David H. Bailey, Eric Barszcz, John Barton, David Browning, Russell Carter, LeoDagum, Rod Fatoohi, Samuel Fineberg, Paul Frederickson, Thomas Lasinski, Rob Schreiber, Horst Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan and Sisira Weeratunga. The original NAS Parallel Benchmarks consisted of eight individual benchmark problems, each of which focused on some aspect of scientific computing. The principal focus was in computational aerophysics, although most of these benchmarks have much broader relevance, since in a much larger sense they are typical of many real-world scientific computing applications. The NPB suite grew out of the need for a more rational procedure to select new supercomputers for acquisition by NASA. The emergence of commercially available highly parallel computer systems in the late 1980s offered an attractive alternative to parallel vector supercomputers that had been the mainstay of high-end scientific computing. However, the introduction of highly parallel systems was accompanied by a regrettable level of hype, not only on the part of the commercial vendors but even, in some cases, by scientists using the systems. As a result, it was difficult to discern whether the new systems offered any fundamental performance advantage

  13. Uncertainties in modelling Mt. Pinatubo eruption with 2-D AER model and CCM SOCOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    Large volcanic eruptions may introduce a strong forcing on climate. They challenge the skills of climate models. In addition to the short time attenuation of solar light by ashes the formation of stratospheric sulphate aerosols, due to volcanic sulphur dioxide injection into the lower stratosphere, may lead to a significant enhancement of the global albedo. The sulphate aerosols have a residence time of about 2 years. As a consequence of the enhanced sulphate aerosol concentration both the stratospheric chemistry and dynamics are strongly affected. Due to absorption of longwave and near infrared radiation the temperature in the lower stratosphere increases. So far chemistry climate models overestimate this warming [Eyring et al. 2006]. We present an extensive validation of extinction measurements and model runs of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1991. Even if Mt. Pinatubo eruption has been the best quantified volcanic eruption of this magnitude, the measurements show considerable uncertainties. For instance the total amount of sulphur emitted to the stratosphere ranges from 5-12 Mt sulphur [e.g. Guo et al. 2004, McCormick, 1992]. The largest uncertainties are in the specification of the main aerosol cloud. SAGE II, for instance, could not measure the peak of the aerosol extinction for about 1.5 years, because optical termination was reached. The gap-filling of the SAGE II [Thomason and Peter, 2006] using lidar measurements underestimates the total extinctions in the tropics for the first half year after the eruption by 30% compared to AVHRR [Rusell et. al 1992]. The same applies to the optical dataset described by Stenchikov et al. [1998]. We compare these extinction data derived from measurements with extinctions derived from AER 2D aerosol model calculations [Weisenstein et al., 2007]. Full microphysical calculations with injections of 14, 17, 20 and 26 Mt SO2 in the lower stratosphere were performed. The optical aerosol properties derived from SAGE II

  14. Adiabatic shear band formation in explosively driven AerMet-100 alloy cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A J; Becker, R; Goto, D M; Orzechowski, T J; Springer, H K; Syn, C K; Zhou, J

    2006-02-08

    Two differently heat-treated AerMet-100 alloy cylinders were explosively driven to fragmentation. Soft-captured fragments were studied to characterize the deformation and damage induced by high explosive loading. The characterization of the fragments reveals that the dominant failure mechanism appears to be dynamic fracture along adiabatic shear bands. These shear bands differ in size and morphology depending on the heat-treated conditions. Nanoindentation measurements of the adiabatic shear bands in either material condition indicate higher hardness in the bands compared to the matrix regions of the fragments.

  15. Benchmarking: applications to transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Apelseth, Torunn Oveland; Molnar, Laura; Arnold, Emmy; Heddle, Nancy M

    2012-10-01

    Benchmarking is as a structured continuous collaborative process in which comparisons for selected indicators are used to identify factors that, when implemented, will improve transfusion practices. This study aimed to identify transfusion medicine studies reporting on benchmarking, summarize the benchmarking approaches used, and identify important considerations to move the concept of benchmarking forward in the field of transfusion medicine. A systematic review of published literature was performed to identify transfusion medicine-related studies that compared at least 2 separate institutions or regions with the intention of benchmarking focusing on 4 areas: blood utilization, safety, operational aspects, and blood donation. Forty-five studies were included: blood utilization (n = 35), safety (n = 5), operational aspects of transfusion medicine (n = 5), and blood donation (n = 0). Based on predefined criteria, 7 publications were classified as benchmarking, 2 as trending, and 36 as single-event studies. Three models of benchmarking are described: (1) a regional benchmarking program that collects and links relevant data from existing electronic sources, (2) a sentinel site model where data from a limited number of sites are collected, and (3) an institutional-initiated model where a site identifies indicators of interest and approaches other institutions. Benchmarking approaches are needed in the field of transfusion medicine. Major challenges include defining best practices and developing cost-effective methods of data collection. For those interested in initiating a benchmarking program, the sentinel site model may be most effective and sustainable as a starting point, although the regional model would be the ideal goal.

  16. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul; Ganguly, Srirupa; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in data centers. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing data centers - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, data center designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior data center benchmarking studies supported by the California Energy Commission. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the LBNL data center benchmarking database that was developed from these studies. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including facility designers and energy managers. This guide also builds on recent research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Save Energy Now program.

  17. Challenges and Benchmarks in Bioimage Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kozubek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Similar to the medical imaging community, the bioimaging community has recently realized the need to benchmark various image analysis methods to compare their performance and assess their suitability for specific applications. Challenges sponsored by prestigious conferences have proven to be an effective means of encouraging benchmarking and new algorithm development for a particular type of image data. Bioimage analysis challenges have recently complemented medical image analysis challenges, especially in the case of the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI). This review summarizes recent progress in this respect and describes the general process of designing a bioimage analysis benchmark or challenge, including the proper selection of datasets and evaluation metrics. It also presents examples of specific target applications and biological research tasks that have benefited from these challenges with respect to the performance of automatic image analysis methods that are crucial for the given task. Finally, available benchmarks and challenges in terms of common features, possible classification and implications drawn from the results are analysed.

  18. Algorithm and Architecture Independent Benchmarking with SEAK

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Gawande, Nitin A.; Kang, Seung-Hwa; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy; Cross, Joseph

    2016-05-23

    Many applications of high performance embedded computing are limited by performance or power bottlenecks. We have designed the Suite for Embedded Applications & Kernels (SEAK), a new benchmark suite, (a) to capture these bottlenecks in a way that encourages creative solutions; and (b) to facilitate rigorous, objective, end-user evaluation for their solutions. To avoid biasing solutions toward existing algorithms, SEAK benchmarks use a mission-centric (abstracted from a particular algorithm) and goal-oriented (functional) specification. To encourage solutions that are any combination of software or hardware, we use an end-user black-box evaluation that can capture tradeoffs between performance, power, accuracy, size, and weight. The tradeoffs are especially informative for procurement decisions. We call our benchmarks future proof because each mission-centric interface and evaluation remains useful despite shifting algorithmic preferences. It is challenging to create both concise and precise goal-oriented specifications for mission-centric problems. This paper describes the SEAK benchmark suite and presents an evaluation of sample solutions that highlights power and performance tradeoffs.

  19. Differential auxin transport and accumulation in the stem base lead to profuse adventitious root primordia formation in the aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Mignolli, F; Mariotti, L; Picciarelli, P; Vidoz, M L

    2017-02-27

    The aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato is characterized by a profuse and precocious formation of adventitious root primordia along the stem. We demonstrated that auxin is involved in the aer phenotype but ruled out higher auxin sensitivity of mutant plants. Interestingly, polar auxin transport was altered in aer, as young seedlings showed a reduced response to an auxin transport inhibitor and higher expression of auxin export carriers SlPIN1 and SlPIN3. An abrupt reduction in transcripts of auxin efflux and influx genes in older aer hypocotyls caused a marked deceleration of auxin transport in more mature tissues. Indeed, in 20days old aer plants, the transport of labeled IAA was faster in apices than in hypocotyls, displaying an opposite trend in comparison to a wild type. In addition, auxin transport facilitators (SlPIN1, SlPIN4, SlLAX5) were more expressed in aer apices than in hypocotyls, suggesting that auxin moves faster from the upper to the lower part of the stem. Consequently, a significantly higher level of free and conjugated IAA was found at the base of aer stems with respect to their apices. This auxin accumulation is likely the cause of the aer phenotype.

  20. Core Benchmarks Descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-05-24

    Actual regulations while designing of new fuel cycles for nuclear power installations comprise a calculational justification to be performed by certified computer codes. It guarantees that obtained calculational results will be within the limits of declared uncertainties that are indicated in a certificate issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russian Federation (GAN) and concerning a corresponding computer code. A formal justification of declared uncertainties is the comparison of calculational results obtained by a commercial code with the results of experiments or of calculational tests that are calculated with an uncertainty defined by certified precision codes of MCU type or of other one. The actual level of international cooperation provides an enlarging of the bank of experimental and calculational benchmarks acceptable for a certification of commercial codes that are being used for a design of fuel loadings with MOX fuel. In particular, the work is practically finished on the forming of calculational benchmarks list for a certification of code TVS-M as applied to MOX fuel assembly calculations. The results on these activities are presented.

  1. HSCT Assessment Calculations with the AER 2-D Model: Sensitivities to Transport Formulation, PSC Formulation, Interannual Temperature Variation. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Jackman, Charles; Fleming, Eric; Considine, David; Kinnison, Douglas; Connell, Peter; Rotman, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    The summary are: (1) Some chemical differences in background atmosphere are surprisingly large (NOY). (2) Differences in model transport explain a majority of the intertnodel differences in the absence of PSCs. (3) With PSCS, large differences exist in predicted O3 depletion between models with the same transport. (4) AER/LLNL model calculates more O3 depletion in NH than LLNL. (5) AER/GSFC model cannot match calculated O3 depletion of GSFC model in SH. and (6) Results sensitive to interannual temperature variations (at least in NH).

  2. Finding a benchmark for monitoring hospital cleanliness.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, D; Redding, P; Robertson, C; Woodall, C; Kingsmore, P; Bedwell, D; Dancer, S J

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated three methods for monitoring hospital cleanliness. The aim was to find a benchmark that could indicate risk to patients from a contaminated environment. We performed visual monitoring, ATP bioluminescence and microbiological screening of five clinical surfaces before and after detergent-based cleaning on two wards over a four-week period. Five additional sites that were not featured in the routine domestic specification were also sampled. Measurements from all three methods were integrated and compared in order to choose appropriate levels for routine monitoring. We found that visual assessment did not reflect ATP values nor environmental contamination with microbial flora including Staphylococcus aureus and meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). There was a relationship between microbial growth categories and the proportion of ATP values exceeding a chosen benchmark but neither reliably predicted the presence of S. aureus or MRSA. ATP values were occasionally diverse. Detergent-based cleaning reduced levels of organic soil by 32% (95% confidence interval: 16-44%; P<0.001) but did not necessarily eliminate indicator staphylococci, some of which survived the cleaning process. An ATP benchmark value of 100 relative light units offered the closest correlation with microbial growth levels <2.5 cfu/cm(2) (receiver operating characteristic ROC curve sensitivity: 57%; specificity: 57%). In conclusion, microbiological and ATP monitoring confirmed environmental contamination, persistence of hospital pathogens and measured the effect on the environment from current cleaning practices. This study has provided provisional benchmarks to assist with future assessment of hospital cleanliness. Further work is required to refine practical sampling strategy and choice of benchmarks.

  3. Cleanroom energy benchmarking results

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang

    2001-09-01

    A utility market transformation project studied energy use and identified energy efficiency opportunities in cleanroom HVAC design and operation for fourteen cleanrooms. This paper presents the results of this work and relevant observations. Cleanroom owners and operators know that cleanrooms are energy intensive but have little information to compare their cleanroom's performance over time, or to others. Direct comparison of energy performance by traditional means, such as watts/ft{sup 2}, is not a good indicator with the wide range of industrial processes and cleanliness levels occurring in cleanrooms. In this project, metrics allow direct comparison of the efficiency of HVAC systems and components. Energy and flow measurements were taken to determine actual HVAC system energy efficiency. The results confirm a wide variation in operating efficiency and they identify other non-energy operating problems. Improvement opportunities were identified at each of the benchmarked facilities. Analysis of the best performing systems and components is summarized, as are areas for additional investigation.

  4. Benchmarking monthly homogenization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2011-08-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random break-type inhomogeneities were added to the simulated datasets modeled as a Poisson process with normally distributed breakpoint sizes. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  5. Benchmarking foreign electronics technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bostian, C.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Leachman, R.C.; Sheridan, T.B.; Tsang, W.T.; White, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report has been drafted in response to a request from the Japanese Technology Evaluation Center`s (JTEC) Panel on Benchmarking Select Technologies. Since April 1991, the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing (CSM) Program at the University of California at Berkeley has been engaged in a detailed study of quality, productivity, and competitiveness in semiconductor manufacturing worldwide. The program is a joint activity of the College of Engineering, the Haas School of Business, and the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, under sponsorship of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and with the cooperation of semiconductor producers from Asia, Europe and the United States. Professors David A. Hodges and Robert C. Leachman are the project`s Co-Directors. The present report for JTEC is primarily based on data and analysis drawn from that continuing program. The CSM program is being conducted by faculty, graduate students and research staff from UC Berkeley`s Schools of Engineering and Business, and Department of Economics. Many of the participating firms are represented on the program`s Industry Advisory Board. The Board played an important role in defining the research agenda. A pilot study was conducted in 1991 with the cooperation of three semiconductor plants. The research plan and survey documents were thereby refined. The main phase of the CSM benchmarking study began in mid-1992 and will continue at least through 1997. reports are presented on the manufacture of integrated circuits; data storage; wireless technology; human-machine interfaces; and optoelectronics. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Internal Benchmarking for Institutional Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    Internal benchmarking is an established practice in business and industry for identifying best in-house practices and disseminating the knowledge about those practices to other groups in the organization. Internal benchmarking can be done with structures, processes, outcomes, or even individuals. In colleges or universities with multicampuses or a…

  7. Benchmarking: A Process for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peischl, Thomas M.

    One problem with the outcome-based measures used in higher education is that they measure quantity but not quality. Benchmarking, or the use of some external standard of quality to measure tasks, processes, and outputs, is partially solving that difficulty. Benchmarking allows for the establishment of a systematic process to indicate if outputs…

  8. AerGOM, an improved algorithm for stratospheric aerosol extinction retrieval from GOMOS observations - Part 1: Algorithm description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Blanot, Laurent; Étienne Robert, Charles; Bingen, Christine; Sofieva, Viktoria; Dalaudier, Francis; Tétard, Cédric; Fussen, Didier; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Kyrölä, Erkki; Laine, Marko; Tamminen, Johanna; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    The GOMOS instrument on Envisat has successfully demonstrated that a UV-Vis-NIR spaceborne stellar occultation instrument is capable of delivering quality data on the gaseous and particulate composition of Earth's atmosphere. Still, some problems related to data inversion remained to be examined. In the past, it was found that the aerosol extinction profile retrievals in the upper troposphere and stratosphere are of good quality at a reference wavelength of 500 nm but suffer from anomalous, retrieval-related perturbations at other wavelengths. Identification of algorithmic problems and subsequent improvement was therefore necessary. This work has been carried out; the resulting AerGOM Level 2 retrieval algorithm together with the first data version AerGOMv1.0 forms the subject of this paper. The AerGOM algorithm differs from the standard GOMOS IPF processor in a number of important ways: more accurate physical laws have been implemented, all retrieval-related covariances are taken into account, and the aerosol extinction spectral model is strongly improved. Retrieval examples demonstrate that the previously observed profile perturbations have disappeared, and the obtained extinction spectra look in general more consistent. We present a detailed validation study in a companion paper; here, to give a first idea of the data quality, a worst-case comparison at 386 nm shows SAGE II-AerGOM correlation coefficients that are up to 1 order of magnitude larger than the ones obtained with the GOMOS IPFv6.01 data set.

  9. Applications of Integral Benchmark Data

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Teruhiko Kugo; Fitz Trumble; Albert C. Kahler; Dale Lancaster

    2014-10-09

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) provide evaluated integral benchmark data that may be used for validation of reactor physics / nuclear criticality safety analytical methods and data, nuclear data testing, advanced modeling and simulation, and safety analysis licensing activities. The handbooks produced by these programs are used in over 30 countries. Five example applications are presented in this paper: (1) Use of IRPhEP Data in Uncertainty Analyses and Cross Section Adjustment, (2) Uncertainty Evaluation Methods for Reactor Core Design at JAEA Using Reactor Physics Experimental Data, (3) Application of Benchmarking Data to a Broad Range of Criticality Safety Problems, (4) Cross Section Data Testing with ICSBEP Benchmarks, and (5) Use of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments to Support the Power Industry.

  10. How to Advance TPC Benchmarks with Dependability Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Raquel; Poess, Meikel; Nambiar, Raghunath; Patil, Indira; Vieira, Marco

    Transactional systems are the core of the information systems of most organizations. Although there is general acknowledgement that failures in these systems often entail significant impact both on the proceeds and reputation of companies, the benchmarks developed and managed by the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TPC) still maintain their focus on reporting bare performance. Each TPC benchmark has to pass a list of dependability-related tests (to verify ACID properties), but not all benchmarks require measuring their performances. While TPC-E measures the recovery time of some system failures, TPC-H and TPC-C only require functional correctness of such recovery. Consequently, systems used in TPC benchmarks are tuned mostly for performance. In this paper we argue that nowadays systems should be tuned for a more comprehensive suite of dependability tests, and that a dependability metric should be part of TPC benchmark publications. The paper discusses WHY and HOW this can be achieved. Two approaches are introduced and discussed: augmenting each TPC benchmark in a customized way, by extending each specification individually; and pursuing a more unified approach, defining a generic specification that could be adjoined to any TPC benchmark.

  11. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward phenylacetic acid is mediated by the energy taxis receptor Aer2.

    PubMed

    Luu, Rita A; Schneider, Benjamin J; Ho, Christie C; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V; Ditty, Jayna L; Parales, Rebecca E

    2013-04-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway.

  12. Taxis of Pseudomonas putida F1 toward Phenylacetic Acid Is Mediated by the Energy Taxis Receptor Aer2

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Rita A.; Schneider, Benjamin J.; Ho, Christie C.; Nesteryuk, Vasyl; Ngwesse, Stacy E.; Liu, Xianxian; Parales, Juanito V.; Ditty, Jayna L.

    2013-01-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is a widely distributed funneling pathway for the catabolism of aromatic compounds, including the environmental pollutants styrene and ethylbenzene. However, bacterial chemotaxis to PAA has not been studied. The chemotactic strain Pseudomonas putida F1 has the ability to utilize PAA as a sole carbon and energy source. We identified a putative PAA degradation gene cluster (paa) in P. putida F1 and demonstrated that PAA serves as a chemoattractant. The chemotactic response was induced during growth with PAA and was dependent on PAA metabolism. A functional cheA gene was required for the response, indicating that PAA is sensed through the conserved chemotaxis signal transduction system. A P. putida F1 mutant lacking the energy taxis receptor Aer2 was deficient in PAA taxis, indicating that Aer2 is responsible for mediating the response to PAA. The requirement for metabolism and the role of Aer2 in the response indicate that P. putida F1 uses energy taxis to detect PAA. We also revealed that PAA is an attractant for Escherichia coli; however, a mutant lacking a functional Aer energy receptor had a wild-type response to PAA in swim plate assays, suggesting that PAA is detected through a different mechanism in E. coli. The role of Aer2 as an energy taxis receptor provides the potential to sense a broad range of aromatic growth substrates as chemoattractants. Since chemotaxis has been shown to enhance the biodegradation of toxic pollutants, the ability to sense PAA gradients may have implications for the bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons that are degraded via the PAA pathway. PMID:23377939

  13. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  14. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    was its software assurance practices, which seemed to rate well in comparison to the other organizational groups and also seemed to include a larger scope of activities. An unexpected benefit of the software benchmarking study was the identification of many opportunities for collaboration in areas including metrics, training, sharing of CMMI experiences and resources such as instructors and CMMI Lead Appraisers, and even sharing of assets such as documented processes. A further unexpected benefit of the study was the feedback on NASA practices that was received from some of the organizations interviewed. From that feedback, other potential areas where NASA could improve were highlighted, such as accuracy of software cost estimation and budgetary practices. The detailed report contains discussion of the practices noted in each of the topic areas, as well as a summary of observations and recommendations from each of the topic areas. The resulting 24 recommendations from the topic areas were then consolidated to eliminate duplication and culled into a set of 14 suggested actionable recommendations. This final set of actionable recommendations, listed below, are items that can be implemented to improve NASA's software engineering practices and to help address many of the items that were listed in the NASA top software engineering issues. 1. Develop and implement standard contract language for software procurements. 2. Advance accurate and trusted software cost estimates for both procured and in-house software and improve the capture of actual cost data to facilitate further improvements. 3. Establish a consistent set of objectives and expectations, specifically types of metrics at the Agency level, so key trends and models can be identified and used to continuously improve software processes and each software development effort. 4. Maintain the CMMI Maturity Level requirement for critical NASA projects and use CMMI to measure organizations developing software for NASA. 5

  15. Benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments.

    PubMed

    Bosso, John A; Chisholm-Burns, Marie; Nappi, Jean; Gubbins, Paul O; Ross, Leigh Ann

    2010-10-11

    Benchmarking in academic pharmacy, and recommendations for the potential uses of benchmarking in academic pharmacy departments are discussed in this paper. Benchmarking is the process by which practices, procedures, and performance metrics are compared to an established standard or best practice. Many businesses and industries use benchmarking to compare processes and outcomes, and ultimately plan for improvement. Institutions of higher learning have embraced benchmarking practices to facilitate measuring the quality of their educational and research programs. Benchmarking is used internally as well to justify the allocation of institutional resources or to mediate among competing demands for additional program staff or space. Surveying all chairs of academic pharmacy departments to explore benchmarking issues such as department size and composition, as well as faculty teaching, scholarly, and service productivity, could provide valuable information. To date, attempts to gather this data have had limited success. We believe this information is potentially important, urge that efforts to gather it should be continued, and offer suggestions to achieve full participation.

  16. A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1999-09-27

    A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results.

  17. Phase-covariant quantum benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Calsamiglia, J.; Aspachs, M.; Munoz-Tapia, R.; Bagan, E.

    2009-05-15

    We give a quantum benchmark for teleportation and quantum storage experiments suited for pure and mixed test states. The benchmark is based on the average fidelity over a family of phase-covariant states and certifies that an experiment cannot be emulated by a classical setup, i.e., by a measure-and-prepare scheme. We give an analytical solution for qubits, which shows important differences with standard state estimation approach, and compute the value of the benchmark for coherent and squeezed states, both pure and mixed.

  18. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the identities of building owners might be revealed and

  19. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report adapts the standard U.S. EPA methodology for deriving ambient water quality criteria. Rather than use toxicity test results, the adaptation uses field data to determine the loss of 5% of genera from streams. The method is applied to derive effect benchmarks for dissolved salts as measured by conductivity in Central Appalachian streams using data from West Virginia and Kentucky. This report provides scientific evidence for a conductivity benchmark in a specific region rather than for the entire United States.

  20. AerGOM, an improved algorithm for stratospheric aerosol extinction retrieval from GOMOS observations - Part 2: Intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Étienne Robert, Charles; Bingen, Christine; Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Tétard, Cédric; Fussen, Didier; Bourassa, Adam; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    AerGOM is a retrieval algorithm developed for the GOMOS instrument onboard Envisat as an alternative to the operational retrieval (IPF). AerGOM enhances the quality of the stratospheric aerosol extinction retrieval due to the extension of the spectral range used, refines the aerosol spectral parameterization, the simultaneous inversion of all atmospheric species as well as an improvement of the Rayleigh scattering correction. The retrieval algorithm allows for a good characterization of the stratospheric aerosol extinction for a wide range of wavelengths.In this work, we present the results of stratospheric aerosol extinction comparisons between AerGOM and various spaceborne instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, ACE-MAESTRO and OSIRIS) for different wavelengths. The aerosol extinction intercomparisons for λ < 700 nm and above 20 km show agreements with SAGE II version 7 and SAGE III version 4.0 within ±15 % and ±45 %, respectively. There is a strong positive bias below 20 km at λ < 700 nm, which suggests that cirrus clouds at these altitudes have a large impact on the extinction values. Comparisons performed with GOMOS IPF v6.01 alongside AerGOM show that at short wavelengths and altitudes below 20 km, IPF retrievals are more accurate when evaluated against SAGE II and SAGE III but are much less precise than AerGOM. A modified aerosol spectral parameterization can improve AerGOM in this spectral and altitude range and leads to results that have an accuracy similar to IPF retrievals. Comparisons of AerGOM aerosol extinction coefficients with OSIRIS and SAGE III measurements at wavelengths larger than 700 nm show a very large negative bias at altitudes above 25 km. Therefore, the use of AerGOM aerosol extinction data is not recommended for λ > 700 nm.Due to the unique observational technique of GOMOS, some of the results appear to be dependent on the star occultation parameters such as star apparent temperature and magnitude, solar zenith angle

  1. Benchmarking for Bayesian Reinforcement Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Damien; Couëtoux, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    In the Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL) setting, agents try to maximise the collected rewards while interacting with their environment while using some prior knowledge that is accessed beforehand. Many BRL algorithms have already been proposed, but the benchmarks used to compare them are only relevant for specific cases. The paper addresses this problem, and provides a new BRL comparison methodology along with the corresponding open source library. In this methodology, a comparison criterion that measures the performance of algorithms on large sets of Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) drawn from some probability distributions is defined. In order to enable the comparison of non-anytime algorithms, our methodology also includes a detailed analysis of the computation time requirement of each algorithm. Our library is released with all source code and documentation: it includes three test problems, each of which has two different prior distributions, and seven state-of-the-art RL algorithms. Finally, our library is illustrated by comparing all the available algorithms and the results are discussed. PMID:27304891

  2. Benchmarking for Bayesian Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Castronovo, Michael; Ernst, Damien; Couëtoux, Adrien; Fonteneau, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    In the Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL) setting, agents try to maximise the collected rewards while interacting with their environment while using some prior knowledge that is accessed beforehand. Many BRL algorithms have already been proposed, but the benchmarks used to compare them are only relevant for specific cases. The paper addresses this problem, and provides a new BRL comparison methodology along with the corresponding open source library. In this methodology, a comparison criterion that measures the performance of algorithms on large sets of Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) drawn from some probability distributions is defined. In order to enable the comparison of non-anytime algorithms, our methodology also includes a detailed analysis of the computation time requirement of each algorithm. Our library is released with all source code and documentation: it includes three test problems, each of which has two different prior distributions, and seven state-of-the-art RL algorithms. Finally, our library is illustrated by comparing all the available algorithms and the results are discussed.

  3. Data-Intensive Benchmarking Suite

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-26

    The Data-Intensive Benchmark Suite is a set of programs written for the study of data-or storage-intensive science and engineering problems, The benchmark sets cover: general graph searching (basic and Hadoop Map/Reduce breadth-first search), genome sequence searching, HTTP request classification (basic and Hadoop Map/Reduce), low-level data communication, and storage device micro-beachmarking

  4. Benchmarking hypercube hardware and software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunwald, Dirk C.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    It was long a truism in computer systems design that balanced systems achieve the best performance. Message passing parallel processors are no different. To quantify the balance of a hypercube design, an experimental methodology was developed and the associated suite of benchmarks was applied to several existing hypercubes. The benchmark suite includes tests of both processor speed in the absence of internode communication and message transmission speed as a function of communication patterns.

  5. Benchmarks for GADRAS performance validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, John K.; Mitchell, Dean James; Rhykerd, Charles L., Jr.

    2009-09-01

    The performance of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) was validated by comparing GADRAS model results to experimental measurements for a series of benchmark sources. Sources for the benchmark include a plutonium metal sphere, bare and shielded in polyethylene, plutonium oxide in cans, a highly enriched uranium sphere, bare and shielded in polyethylene, a depleted uranium shell and spheres, and a natural uranium sphere. The benchmark experimental data were previously acquired and consist of careful collection of background and calibration source spectra along with the source spectra. The calibration data were fit with GADRAS to determine response functions for the detector in each experiment. A one-dimensional model (pie chart) was constructed for each source based on the dimensions of the benchmark source. The GADRAS code made a forward calculation from each model to predict the radiation spectrum for the detector used in the benchmark experiment. The comparisons between the GADRAS calculation and the experimental measurements are excellent, validating that GADRAS can correctly predict the radiation spectra for these well-defined benchmark sources.

  6. NAS Grid Benchmarks: A Tool for Grid Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present an approach for benchmarking services provided by computational Grids. It is based on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) and is called NAS Grid Benchmark (NGB) in this paper. We present NGB as a data flow graph encapsulating an instance of an NPB code in each graph node, which communicates with other nodes by sending/receiving initialization data. These nodes may be mapped to the same or different Grid machines. Like NPB, NGB will specify several different classes (problem sizes). NGB also specifies the generic Grid services sufficient for running the bench-mark. The implementor has the freedom to choose any specific Grid environment. However, we describe a reference implementation in Java, and present some scenarios for using NGB.

  7. How to avoid 'death by benchmarking'.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Dave; Libby, Darin

    2015-08-01

    Hospitals and health systems should adopt four key principles and practices when applying benchmarks to determine physician compensation: Acknowledge that a lower percentile may be appropriate. Use the median as the all-in benchmark. Use peer benchmarks when available. Use alternative benchmarks.

  8. Benchmarking for the Learning and Skills Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    This document is designed to introduce practitioners in the United Kingdom's learning and skills sector to the principles and practice of benchmarking. The first section defines benchmarking and differentiates metric, diagnostic, and process benchmarking. The remainder of the booklet details the following steps of the benchmarking process: (1) get…

  9. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  10. Benchmark simulation models, quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Jeppsson, U; Alex, J; Batstone, D J; Benedetti, L; Comas, J; Copp, J B; Corominas, L; Flores-Alsina, X; Gernaey, K V; Nopens, I; Pons, M-N; Rodríguez-Roda, I; Rosen, C; Steyer, J-P; Vanrolleghem, P A; Volcke, E I P; Vrecko, D

    2013-01-01

    As the work of the IWA Task Group on Benchmarking of Control Strategies for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is coming to an end, it is essential to disseminate the knowledge gained. For this reason, all authors of the IWA Scientific and Technical Report on benchmarking have come together to provide their insights, highlighting areas where knowledge may still be deficient and where new opportunities are emerging, and to propose potential avenues for future development and application of the general benchmarking framework and its associated tools. The paper focuses on the topics of temporal and spatial extension, process modifications within the WWTP, the realism of models, control strategy extensions and the potential for new evaluation tools within the existing benchmark system. We find that there are major opportunities for application within all of these areas, either from existing work already being done within the context of the benchmarking simulation models (BSMs) or applicable work in the wider literature. Of key importance is increasing capability, usability and transparency of the BSM package while avoiding unnecessary complexity.

  11. Continued development and validation of the AER two-dimensional interactive model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, M. K. W.; Sze, N. D.; Shia, R. L.; Mackay, M.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Zhou, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    Results from two-dimensional chemistry-transport models have been used to predict the future behavior of ozone in the stratosphere. Since the transport circulation, temperature, and aerosol surface area are fixed in these models, they cannot account for the effects of changes in these quantities, which could be modified because of ozone redistribution and/or other changes in the troposphere associated with climate changes. Interactive two-dimensional models, which calculate the transport circulation and temperature along with concentrations of the chemical species, could provide answers to complement the results from three-dimension model calculations. In this project, we performed the following tasks in pursuit of the respective goals: (1) We continued to refine the 2-D chemistry-transport model; (2) We developed a microphysics model to calculate the aerosol loading and its size distribution; (3) The treatment of physics in the AER 2-D interactive model were refined in the following areas--the heating rate in the troposphere, and wave-forcing from propagation of planetary waves.

  12. A Bio-Inspired AER Temporal Tri-Color Differentiator Pixel Array.

    PubMed

    Farian, Łukasz; Leñero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Häfliger, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the potential of a bio-inspired vision sensor with pixels that detect transients between three primary colors. The in-pixel color processing is inspired by the retinal color opponency that are found in mammalian retinas. Color transitions in a pixel are represented by voltage spikes, which are akin to a neuron's action potential. These spikes are conveyed off-chip by the Address Event Representation (AER) protocol. To achieve sensitivity to three different color spectra within the visual spectrum, each pixel has three stacked photodiodes at different depths in the silicon substrate. The sensor has been fabricated in the standard TSMC 90 nm CMOS technology. A post-processing method to decode events into color transitions has been proposed and implemented as a custom interface to display real-time color changes in the visual scene. Experimental results are provided. Color transitions can be detected at high speed (up to 2.7 kHz). The sensor has a dynamic range of 58 dB and a power consumption of 22.5 mW. This type of sensor can be of use in industrial, robotics, automotive and other applications where essential information is contained in transient emissions shifts within the visual spectrum.

  13. FLOWTRAN-TF code benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A description of the code is given by Flach et al. (1990). This report provides benchmarking results for the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit (Smith et al., 1990a; 1990b). Individual constitutive relations are benchmarked in Sections 2 through 5 while in Sections 6 and 7 integral code benchmarking results are presented. An overall assessment of FLOWTRAN-TF for its intended use in computing the ECS power limit completes the document.

  14. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for

  15. Benchmarking: a method for continuous quality improvement in health.

    PubMed

    Ettorchi-Tardy, Amina; Levif, Marie; Michel, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    Benchmarking, a management approach for implementing best practices at best cost, is a recent concept in the healthcare system. The objectives of this paper are to better understand the concept and its evolution in the healthcare sector, to propose an operational definition, and to describe some French and international experiences of benchmarking in the healthcare sector. To this end, we reviewed the literature on this approach's emergence in the industrial sector, its evolution, its fields of application and examples of how it has been used in the healthcare sector. Benchmarking is often thought to consist simply of comparing indicators and is not perceived in its entirety, that is, as a tool based on voluntary and active collaboration among several organizations to create a spirit of competition and to apply best practices. The key feature of benchmarking is its integration within a comprehensive and participatory policy of continuous quality improvement (CQI). Conditions for successful benchmarking focus essentially on careful preparation of the process, monitoring of the relevant indicators, staff involvement and inter-organizational visits. Compared to methods previously implemented in France (CQI and collaborative projects), benchmarking has specific features that set it apart as a healthcare innovation. This is especially true for healthcare or medical-social organizations, as the principle of inter-organizational visiting is not part of their culture. Thus, this approach will need to be assessed for feasibility and acceptability before it is more widely promoted.

  16. Benchmarking: A Method for Continuous Quality Improvement in Health

    PubMed Central

    Ettorchi-Tardy, Amina; Levif, Marie; Michel, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking, a management approach for implementing best practices at best cost, is a recent concept in the healthcare system. The objectives of this paper are to better understand the concept and its evolution in the healthcare sector, to propose an operational definition, and to describe some French and international experiences of benchmarking in the healthcare sector. To this end, we reviewed the literature on this approach's emergence in the industrial sector, its evolution, its fields of application and examples of how it has been used in the healthcare sector. Benchmarking is often thought to consist simply of comparing indicators and is not perceived in its entirety, that is, as a tool based on voluntary and active collaboration among several organizations to create a spirit of competition and to apply best practices. The key feature of benchmarking is its integration within a comprehensive and participatory policy of continuous quality improvement (CQI). Conditions for successful benchmarking focus essentially on careful preparation of the process, monitoring of the relevant indicators, staff involvement and inter-organizational visits. Compared to methods previously implemented in France (CQI and collaborative projects), benchmarking has specific features that set it apart as a healthcare innovation. This is especially true for healthcare or medical–social organizations, as the principle of inter-organizational visiting is not part of their culture. Thus, this approach will need to be assessed for feasibility and acceptability before it is more widely promoted. PMID:23634166

  17. Effective Communication and File-I/O Bandwidth Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A E; Rabenseifner, R

    2001-05-02

    We describe the design and MPI implementation of two benchmarks created to characterize the balanced system performance of high-performance clusters and supercomputers: b{_}eff, the communication-specific benchmark examines the parallel message passing performance of a system, and b{_}eff{_}io, which characterizes the effective 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks have two goals: (a) to get a detailed insight into the Performance strengths and weaknesses of different parallel communication and I/O patterns, and based on this, (b) to obtain a single bandwidth number that characterizes the average performance of the system namely communication and 1/0 bandwidth. Both benchmarks use a time driven approach and loop over a variety of communication and access patterns to characterize a system in an automated fashion. Results of the two benchmarks are given for several systems including IBM SPs, Cray T3E, NEC SX-5, and Hitachi SR 8000. After a redesign of b{_}eff{_}io, I/O bandwidth results for several compute partition sizes are achieved in an appropriate time for rapid benchmarking.

  18. SPICE benchmark for global tomographic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yilong; Capdeville, Yann; Maupin, Valerie; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Lebedev, Sergei; Beucler, Eric

    2008-11-01

    The existing global tomographic methods result in different models due to different parametrization, scale resolution and theoretical approach. To test how current imaging techniques are limited by approximations in theory and by the inadequacy of data quality and coverage, it is necessary to perform a global-scale benchmark to understand the resolving properties of each specific imaging algorithm. In the framework of the Seismic wave Propagation and Imaging in Complex media: a European network (SPICE) project, it was decided to perform a benchmark experiment of global inversion algorithms. First, a preliminary benchmark with a simple isotropic model is carried out to check the feasibility in terms of acquisition geometry and numerical accuracy. Then, to fully validate tomographic schemes with a challenging synthetic data set, we constructed one complex anisotropic global model, which is characterized by 21 elastic constants and includes 3-D heterogeneities in velocity, anisotropy (radial and azimuthal anisotropy), attenuation, density, as well as surface topography and bathymetry. The intermediate-period (>32 s), high fidelity anisotropic modelling was performed by using state-of-the-art anisotropic anelastic modelling code, that is, coupled spectral element method (CSEM), on modern massively parallel computing resources. The benchmark data set consists of 29 events and three-component seismograms are recorded by 256 stations. Because of the limitation of the available computing power, synthetic seismograms have a minimum period of 32 s and a length of 10 500 s. The inversion of the benchmark data set demonstrates several well-known problems of classical surface wave tomography, such as the importance of crustal correction to recover the shallow structures, the loss of resolution with depth, the smearing effect, both horizontal and vertical, the inaccuracy of amplitude of isotropic S-wave velocity variation, the difficulty of retrieving the magnitude of azimuthal

  19. ENDF/B-V, LIB-V, and the CSEWG benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kidman, R.B.

    1981-08-01

    A 70-group library, LIB-V, generated with the NJOY processing code from ENDF/B-V, is tested on most of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) fast reactor benchmarks. Every experimental measurement reported in the benchmark specifications is compared to both diffusion theory and transport theory calculations. Several comparisons with prior benchmark calculations attempt to assess the effects of data and code improvements.

  20. Engine Benchmarking - Final CRADA Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Detailed benchmarking of the powertrains of three light-duty vehicles was performed. Results were presented and provided to CRADA partners. The vehicles included a MY2011 Audi A4, a MY2012 Mini Cooper and a MY2014 Nissan Versa.

  1. A comparison of five benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huss, Janice E.; Pennline, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Five benchmark programs were obtained and run on the NASA Lewis CRAY X-MP/24. A comparison was made between the programs codes and between the methods for calculating performance figures. Several multitasking jobs were run to gain experience in how parallel performance is measured.

  2. Benchmark Lisp And Ada Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gloria; Galant, David; Lim, Raymond; Stutz, John; Gibson, J.; Raghavan, B.; Cheesema, P.; Taylor, W.

    1992-01-01

    Suite of nonparallel benchmark programs, ELAPSE, designed for three tests: comparing efficiency of computer processing via Lisp vs. Ada; comparing efficiencies of several computers processing via Lisp; or comparing several computers processing via Ada. Tests efficiency which computer executes routines in each language. Available for computer equipped with validated Ada compiler and/or Common Lisp system.

  3. Processor Emulator with Benchmark Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, G. Scott; Pearce, Roger; Gokhale, Maya

    2015-11-13

    A processor emulator and a suite of benchmark applications have been developed to assist in characterizing the performance of data-centric workloads on current and future computer architectures. Some of the applications have been collected from other open source projects. For more details on the emulator and an example of its usage, see reference [1].

  4. Austin Community College Benchmarking Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Community Coll., TX. Office of Institutional Effectiveness.

    Austin Community College contracted with MGT of America, Inc. in spring 1999 to develop a peer and benchmark (best) practices analysis on key indicators. These indicators were updated in spring 2002 using data from eight Texas community colleges and four non-Texas institutions that represent large, comprehensive, urban community colleges, similar…

  5. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-08

    Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks Congressional Research Service 2 Kirkuk ( Tamim province) will join the Kurdish region (Article 140); designation...security control over areas inhabited by Kurds, and the Kurds’ claim that the province of Tamim (Kirkuk) be formally integrated into the KRG. These

  6. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-15

    referendum on whether . Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks Congressional Research Service 2 Kirkuk ( Tamim province) would join the Kurdish...areas inhabited by Kurds, and the Kurds’ claim that the province of Tamim (Kirkuk) be formally integrated into the KRG. These disputes were aggravated

  7. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-28

    Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks Congressional Research Service 2 Kirkuk ( Tamim province) would join the Kurdish region (Article 140...18 Maliki: 8; INA: 9; Iraqiyya: 1 Sulaymaniyah 17 Kurdistan Alliance: 8; other Kurds: 9 Kirkuk ( Tamim ) 12 Iraqiyya: 6; Kurdistan Alliance: 6

  8. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-21

    Benchmarks Congressional Research Service 2 Kirkuk ( Tamim province) will join the Kurdish region (Article 140); designation of Islam as “a main source” of...security control over areas inhabited by Kurds, and the Kurds’ claim that the province of Tamim (Kirkuk) be formally integrated into the KRG. These

  9. Benchmark 3 - Incremental sheet forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elford, Michael; Saha, Pradip; Seong, Daeyong; Haque, MD Ziaul; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2013-12-01

    Benchmark-3 is designed to predict strains, punch load and deformed profile after spring-back during single tool incremental sheet forming. AA 7075-O material has been selected. A corn shape is formed to 45 mm depth with an angle of 45°. Problem description, material properties, and simulation reports with experimental data are summarized.

  10. The Vitamin B12-Dependent Photoreceptor AerR Relieves Photosystem Gene Repression by Extending the Interaction of CrtJ with Photosystem Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Mingxu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purple nonsulfur bacteria adapt their physiology to a wide variety of environmental conditions often through the control of transcription. One of the main transcription factors involved in controlling expression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus photosystem is CrtJ, which functions as an aerobic repressor of photosystem genes. Recently, we reported that a vitamin B12 binding antirepressor of CrtJ called AerR is required for anaerobic expression of the photosystem. However, the mechanism whereby AerR regulates CrtJ activity is unclear. In this study, we used a combination of next-generation sequencing and biochemical methods to globally identify genes under control of CrtJ and the role of AerR in controlling this regulation. Our results indicate that CrtJ has a much larger regulon than previously known, with a surprising regulatory function under both aerobic and anaerobic photosynthetic growth conditions. A combination of in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation-DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and ChIP-seq and exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) studies and in vitro biochemical studies demonstrate that AerR forms a 1:2 complex with CrtJ (AerR-CrtJ2) and that this complex binds to many promoters under photosynthetic conditions. The results of in vitro and in vivo DNA binding studies indicate that AerR-CrtJ2 anaerobically forms an extended interaction with the bacteriochlorophyll bchC promoter to relieve repression by CrtJ. This is contrasted by aerobic growth conditions where CrtJ alone functions as an aerobic repressor of bchC expression. These results indicate that the DNA binding activity of CrtJ is modified by interacting with AerR in a redox-regulated manner and that this interaction alters CrtJ’s function. PMID:28325764

  11. H.B. Robinson-2 pressure vessel benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, I.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1998-02-01

    The H. B. Robinson Unit 2 Pressure Vessel Benchmark (HBR-2 benchmark) is described and analyzed in this report. Analysis of the HBR-2 benchmark can be used as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the qualification of the methodology for calculating neutron fluence in pressure vessels, as required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide DG-1053, Calculational and Dosimetry Methods for Determining Pressure Vessel Neutron Fluence. Section 1 of this report describes the HBR-2 benchmark and provides all the dimensions, material compositions, and neutron source data necessary for the analysis. The measured quantities, to be compared with the calculated values, are the specific activities at the end of fuel cycle 9. The characteristic feature of the HBR-2 benchmark is that it provides measurements on both sides of the pressure vessel: in the surveillance capsule attached to the thermal shield and in the reactor cavity. In section 2, the analysis of the HBR-2 benchmark is described. Calculations with the computer code DORT, based on the discrete-ordinates method, were performed with three multigroup libraries based on ENDF/B-VI: BUGLE-93, SAILOR-95 and BUGLE-96. The average ratio of the calculated-to-measured specific activities (C/M) for the six dosimeters in the surveillance capsule was 0.90 {+-} 0.04 for all three libraries. The average C/Ms for the cavity dosimeters (without neptunium dosimeter) were 0.89 {+-} 0.10, 0.91 {+-} 0.10, and 0.90 {+-} 0.09 for the BUGLE-93, SAILOR-95 and BUGLE-96 libraries, respectively. It is expected that the agreement of the calculations with the measurements, similar to the agreement obtained in this research, should typically be observed when the discrete-ordinates method and ENDF/B-VI libraries are used for the HBR-2 benchmark analysis.

  12. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  13. TPC-V: A Benchmark for Evaluating the Performance of Database Applications in Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuraman, Priya; Reza Taheri, H.

    For two decades, TPC benchmarks have been the gold standards for evaluating the performance of database servers. An area that TPC benchmarks had not addressed until now was virtualization. Virtualization is now a major technology in use in data centers, and is the number one technology on Gartner Group's Top Technologies List. In 2009, the TPC formed a Working Group to develop a benchmark specifically intended for virtual environments that run database applications. We will describe the characteristics of this benchmark, and provide a status update on its development.

  14. Benchmarking clinical photography services in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Arbon, Giles

    2015-01-01

    Benchmarking is used in services across the National Health Service (NHS) using various benchmarking programs. Clinical photography services do not have a program in place and services have to rely on ad hoc surveys of other services. A trial benchmarking exercise was undertaken with 13 services in NHS Trusts. This highlights valuable data and comparisons that can be used to benchmark and improve services throughout the profession.

  15. The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Johnson, Mark S.; Harding, Gordon P.; Zuccarelli, Anthony J.; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Taylor, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    We identified a protein, Aer, as a signal transducer that senses intracellular energy levels rather than the external environment and that transduces signals for aerotaxis (taxis to oxygen) and other energy-dependent behavioral responses in Escherichia coli. Domains in Aer are similar to the signaling domain in chemotaxis receptors and the putative oxygen-sensing domain of some transcriptional activators. A putative FAD-binding site in the N-terminal domain of Aer shares a consensus sequence with the NifL, Bat, and Wc-1 signal-transducing proteins that regulate gene expression in response to redox changes, oxygen, and blue light, respectively. A double mutant deficient in aer and tsr, which codes for the serine chemoreceptor, was negative for aerotaxis, redox taxis, and glycerol taxis, each of which requires the proton motive force and/or electron transport system for signaling. We propose that Aer and Tsr sense the proton motive force or cellular redox state and thereby integrate diverse signals that guide E. coli to environments where maximal energy is available for growth. PMID:9380671

  16. How Benchmarking and Higher Education Came Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gary D.; Ronco, Sharron L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter introduces the concept of benchmarking and how higher education institutions began to use benchmarking for a variety of purposes. Here, benchmarking is defined as a strategic and structured approach whereby an organization compares aspects of its processes and/or outcomes to those of another organization or set of organizations to…

  17. Benchmarking New Designs for the Two-Year Institution of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copa, George H.; Ammentorp, William

    This report, which is intended for technical institutions planning to use benchmark processes to facilitate change, contains five benchmarking studies describing future-oriented practices at two-year technical and community colleges that meet the design specifications stated in the report "New Designs for the Two-Year Institution of Higher…

  18. Journal Benchmarking for Strategic Publication Management and for Improving Journal Positioning in the World Ranking Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskovkin, Vladimir M.; Bocharova, Emilia A.; Balashova, Oksana V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce and develop the methodology of journal benchmarking. Design/Methodology/ Approach: The journal benchmarking method is understood to be an analytic procedure of continuous monitoring and comparing of the advance of specific journal(s) against that of competing journals in the same subject area,…

  19. Pro: benchmarking is the absolute prerequisite for timely and significant business process improvement.

    PubMed

    Hill, Bradford T; Workman, Ronald

    2006-11-28

    Benchmarking in industry has been around for nearly a century, helping companies in nearly every sector imaginable improve their overall performance. Benchmarking's importance in health care, and specifically the clinical laboratory, can be summed up in one simple phrase--"If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it." Here is why.

  20. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  1. Reducing accounts receivable through benchmarking and best practices identification.

    PubMed

    Berkey, T

    1998-01-01

    As HIM professionals look for ways to become more competitive and achieve the best results, the importance of discovering best practices becomes more apparent. Here's how one team used a benchmarking project to provide specific best practices that reduced accounts receivable days.

  2. RASSP Benchmark 4 Technical Description.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-09

    of both application and VHDL code . 5.3.4.1 Lines of Code . The lines of code for each application and VHDL source file shall be reported. This...Developer shall provide source files for the VHDL files used in defining the Virtual Prototype as well as in programming the FPGAs . Benchmark-4...programmable devices running application code writ- ten in a high-level source language such as C, except that more detailed models may be required to

  3. MPI Multicore Torus Communication Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M.

    2008-02-05

    The MPI Multicore Torus Communications Benchmark (TorusTest) measues the aggegate bandwidth across all six links from/to any multicore node in a logical torus. It can run in wo modi: using a static or a random mapping of tasks to torus locations. The former can be used to achieve optimal mappings and aggregate bandwidths that can be achieved with varying node mappings.

  4. Restaurant Energy Use Benchmarking Guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, R.; Smith, V.; Field, K.

    2011-07-01

    A significant operational challenge for food service operators is defining energy use benchmark metrics to compare against the performance of individual stores. Without metrics, multiunit operators and managers have difficulty identifying which stores in their portfolios require extra attention to bring their energy performance in line with expectations. This report presents a method whereby multiunit operators may use their own utility data to create suitable metrics for evaluating their operations.

  5. Thermal Performance Benchmarking: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, Gilbert

    2016-04-08

    The goal for this project is to thoroughly characterize the performance of state-of-the-art (SOA) automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Information obtained from these studies will be used to: Evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management strategies; establish baseline metrics for the thermal management systems; identify methods of improvement to advance the SOA; increase the publicly available information related to automotive traction-drive thermal management systems; help guide future electric drive technologies (EDT) research and development (R&D) efforts. The performance results combined with component efficiency and heat generation information obtained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may then be used to determine the operating temperatures for the EDT components under drive-cycle conditions. In FY15, the 2012 Nissan LEAF power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems were benchmarked. Testing of the 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid power electronics thermal management system started in FY15; however, due to time constraints it was not possible to include results for this system in this report. The focus of this project is to benchmark the thermal aspects of the systems. ORNL's benchmarking of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technology reports provide detailed descriptions of the electrical and packaging aspects of these automotive systems.

  6. Simplified two and three dimensional HTTR benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan Zhang; Dingkang Zhang; Justin M. Pounders; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-05-01

    To assess the accuracy of diffusion or transport methods for reactor calculations, it is desirable to create heterogeneous benchmark problems that are typical of whole core configurations. In this paper we have created two and three dimensional numerical benchmark problems typical of high temperature gas cooled prismatic cores. Additionally, a single cell and single block benchmark problems are also included. These problems were derived from the HTTR start-up experiment. Since the primary utility of the benchmark problems is in code-to-code verification, minor details regarding geometry and material specification of the original experiment have been simplified while retaining the heterogeneity and the major physics properties of the core from a neutronics viewpoint. A six-group material (macroscopic) cross section library has been generated for the benchmark problems using the lattice depletion code HELIOS. Using this library, Monte Carlo solutions are presented for three configurations (all-rods-in, partially-controlled and all-rods-out) for both the 2D and 3D problems. These solutions include the core eigenvalues, the block (assembly) averaged fission densities, local peaking factors, the absorption densities in the burnable poison and control rods, and pin fission density distribution for selected blocks. Also included are the solutions for the single cell and single block problems.

  7. Multisensor benchmark data for riot control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Uwe; Höpken, Marc; Dürr, Bernhard; Metzler, Jürgen; Willersinn, Dieter

    2008-10-01

    Quick and precise response is essential for riot squads when coping with escalating violence in crowds. Often it is just a single person, known as the leader of the gang, who instigates other people and thus is responsible of excesses. Putting this single person out of action in most cases leads to a de-escalating situation. Fostering de-escalations is one of the main tasks of crowd and riot control. To do so, extensive situation awareness is mandatory for the squads and can be promoted by technical means such as video surveillance using sensor networks. To develop software tools for situation awareness appropriate input data with well-known quality is needed. Furthermore, the developer must be able to measure algorithm performance and ongoing improvements. Last but not least, after algorithm development has finished and marketing aspects emerge, meeting of specifications must be proved. This paper describes a multisensor benchmark which exactly serves this purpose. We first define the underlying algorithm task. Then we explain details about data acquisition and sensor setup and finally we give some insight into quality measures of multisensor data. Currently, the multisensor benchmark described in this paper is applied to the development of basic algorithms for situational awareness, e.g. tracking of individuals in a crowd.

  8. Benchmark 2 - Springback of a Jaguar Land Rover Aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Martin; Oliveira, Marta; Hazra, Sumit; Adetoro, Oluwamayokun; Das, Abhishek; Cardoso, Rui

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this benchmark is the numerical prediction of the springback of an aluminium panel used in the production of a Jaguar car. The numerical simulation of springback has been very important for the reduction of die try outs through the design of the tools with die compensation, thereby allowing for the production of dimensionally accurate complex parts at a reduced cost. The forming stage of this benchmark includes one single forming operation followed by a trimming operation. Cross-sectional profiles should be reported at specific (provided) sections in the part before and after springback. Problem description, tool geometries, material properties, and the required simulation reports are summarized in this benchmark briefing.

  9. Memory-intensive benchmarks: IRAM vs. cache-based machines

    SciTech Connect

    Gaeke, Brian G.; Husbands, Parry; Kim, Hyun Jin; Li, Xiaoye S.; Moon, Hyun Jin; Oliker, Leonid; Yelick, Katherine A.; Biswas, Rupak

    2001-09-29

    The increasing gap between processor and memory performance has led to new architectural models for memory-intensive applications. In this paper, we explore the performance of a set of memory-intensive benchmarks and use them to compare the performance of conventional cache-based microprocessors to a mixed logic and DRAM processor called VIRAM. The benchmarks are based on problem statements, rather than specific implementations, and in each case we explore the fundamental hardware requirements of the problem, as well as alternative algorithms and data structures that can help expose fine-grained parallelism or simplify memory access patterns. The benchmarks are characterized by their memory access patterns, their basic structures, and the ratio of computation to memory operation.

  10. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous in Aer Sag, Erlian Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; De Batist, Marc; Wu, Chonglong

    2014-05-01

    The concepts of sequence stratigraphy, initially developed for the study of marine depositional systems, are increasingly also being applied to sequences deposited in lacustrine basins, particularly in the context of petroleum exploration. However, lacustrine basins differ from marine basins. They are typically smaller, exhibit a strong diversification in sedimentary facies, generally contain thinner sequences and are characterized by multiple sedimentary source regions. These characteristics should be taken into account when analyzing sequence stratigraphy in lacustrine basins. Aer Sag is a balanced-fill sag in Erlian basin, North China. During the Early Cretaceous tectonic subsidence is the main controlling factor for sequence development. Based on the unconformities observed at the top of different inversion-induced depositional cycles, the 2nd-order sequence of the Lower Cretaceous can be sub-divided into six 3rd-order sequences of which the lower four, which bear most of the hydrocarbon reservoirs, are the focus of this study. Generally, a complete 3rd-order sequence can be partitioned into four systems tracts: i.e. lowstand systems tract (LST), transgressive systems tract (TST), highstand systems tract (HST) and forced regression systems tract (FRST). In LSTs, tectonic activity is weak and there is a slow subsidence rate. Thus, the rate of creation of accommodation space is so slow that coarsening-upward prograding sedimentary units develop. In TSTs, tectonic activity becomes stronger and the rate of creation of accommodation space outpaces the rate of sediment supply. TSTs are characterized by fining-upward retrograding sedimentary units and by onlaps on seismic profiles that are caused by the expansion of the lake. In HSTs, tectonic activity slows down again and the rate of creation of accommodation space becomes lower than the rate of sediment supply, which causes the lake to shrink and the development of coarsening-upward prograding sedimentary units. In

  11. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-09-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR’06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed.

  12. Determination of distribution coefficient of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in soil from AERE, Savar

    SciTech Connect

    Mollah, A.S.; Ullah, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    The sorption characteristics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on soil matrix have been studied by the batch technique. The sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) and retardation factor (R{sub f}) have been determined for these radionuclides on soil matrices collected from a number of locations in and around the proposed site for shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) campus, Savar. The K{sub d} values varied from 1,278 to 2,156 ml/g for {sup 137}Cs and from 350 to 640 ml/g for {sup 90}Sr. The retardation factors varied from 1,709 to 3,072 for {sup 137}Cs and from 409 to 903 for {sub 90}Sr. The results obtained indicated that the AERE soils have good sorption capacity for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides. These data could be used in radionuclides transport and safety assessment models.

  13. Building a knowledge base of severe adverse drug events based on AERS reporting data using semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    A semantically coded knowledge base of adverse drug events (ADEs) with severity information is critical for clinical decision support systems and translational research applications. However it remains challenging to measure and identify the severity information of ADEs. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a semantic web based approach for building a knowledge base of severe ADEs based on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) reporting data. We utilized a normalized AERS reporting dataset and extracted putative drug-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes in the domain of cardiac disorders. We validated the drug-ADE associations using ADE datasets from SIDe Effect Resource (SIDER) and the UMLS. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified and validated 2,444 unique Drug-ADE pairs in the domain of cardiac disorders, of which 760 pairs are in Grade 5, 775 pairs in Grade 4 and 2,196 pairs in Grade 3.

  14. Gaia FGK benchmark stars: Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofré, P.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Worley, C. C.; Pancino, E.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Magrini, L.; Bergemann, M.; González Hernández, J. I.; Hill, V.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Lind, K.; Masseron, T.; Montes, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Nordlander, T.; Recio Blanco, A.; Sobeck, J.; Sordo, R.; Sousa, S. G.; Tabernero, H.; Vallenari, A.; Van Eck, S.

    2014-04-01

    Context. To calibrate automatic pipelines that determine atmospheric parameters of stars, one needs a sample of stars, or "benchmark stars", with well-defined parameters to be used as a reference. Aims: We provide detailed documentation of the iron abundance determination of the 34 FGK-type benchmark stars that are selected to be the pillars for calibration of the one billion Gaia stars. They cover a wide range of temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities. Methods: Up to seven different methods were used to analyze an observed spectral library of high resolutions and high signal-to-noise ratios. The metallicity was determined by assuming a value of effective temperature and surface gravity obtained from fundamental relations; that is, these parameters were known a priori and independently from the spectra. Results: We present a set of metallicity values obtained in a homogeneous way for our sample of benchmark stars. In addition to this value, we provide detailed documentation of the associated uncertainties. Finally, we report a value of the metallicity of the cool giant ψ Phe for the first time. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.Tables 6-76 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/564/A133

  15. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, Sally; Rarick, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking was very interesting and provided a wealth of information (1) We did see potential solutions to some of our "top 10" issues (2) We have an assessment of where NASA stands with relation to other aerospace/defense groups We formed new contacts and potential collaborations (1) Several organizations sent us examples of their templates, processes (2) Many of the organizations were interested in future collaboration: sharing of training, metrics, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) appraisers, instructors, etc. We received feedback from some of our contractors/ partners (1) Desires to participate in our training; provide feedback on procedures (2) Welcomed opportunity to provide feedback on working with NASA

  16. Nuclear Data Performance Testing Using Sensitive, but Less Frequently Used ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess

    2011-08-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has published the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments annually since 1995. The Handbook now spans over 51,000 pages with benchmark specifications for 4,283 critical, near critical, or subcritical configurations; 24 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each; and 200 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Benchmark data in the ICSBEP Handbook were originally intended for validation of criticality safety methods and data; however, the benchmark specifications are now used extensively for nuclear data testing. There are several, less frequently used benchmarks within the Handbook that are very sensitive to thorium and certain key structural and moderating materials. Calculated results for many of those benchmarks using modern nuclear data libraries suggest there is still room for improvement. These and other highly sensitive, but rarely quoted benchmarks are highlighted and data testing results provided using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) code and continuous energy ENDF/B-V, VI.8, and VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3 nuclear data libraries.

  17. A comprehensive benchmarking system for evaluating global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. I.; Prentice, I. C.; Harrison, S. P.; Wang, H.; Simard, M.; Fisher, J. B.; Willis, K. O.

    2013-05-01

    We present a benchmark system for global vegetation models. This system provides a quantitative evaluation of multiple simulated vegetation properties, including primary production; seasonal net ecosystem production; vegetation cover; composition and height; fire regime; and runoff. The benchmarks are derived from remotely sensed gridded datasets and site-based observations. The datasets allow comparisons of annual average conditions and seasonal and inter-annual variability, and they allow the impact of spatial and temporal biases in means and variability to be assessed separately. Specifically designed metrics quantify model performance for each process, and are compared to scores based on the temporal or spatial mean value of the observations and a "random" model produced by bootstrap resampling of the observations. The benchmark system is applied to three models: a simple light-use efficiency and water-balance model (the Simple Diagnostic Biosphere Model: SDBM), the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) and Land Processes and eXchanges (LPX) dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In general, the SDBM performs better than either of the DGVMs. It reproduces independent measurements of net primary production (NPP) but underestimates the amplitude of the observed CO2 seasonal cycle. The two DGVMs show little difference for most benchmarks (including the inter-annual variability in the growth rate and seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2), but LPX represents burnt fraction demonstrably more accurately. Benchmarking also identified several weaknesses common to both DGVMs. The benchmarking system provides a quantitative approach for evaluating how adequately processes are represented in a model, identifying errors and biases, tracking improvements in performance through model development, and discriminating among models. Adoption of such a system would do much to improve confidence in terrestrial model predictions of climate change impacts and feedbacks.

  18. A comprehensive benchmarking system for evaluating global vegetation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. I.; Prentice, I. Colin; Harrison, S. P.; Wang, H.; Simard, M.; Fisher, J. B.; Willis, K. O.

    2012-11-01

    We present a benchmark system for global vegetation models. This system provides a quantitative evaluation of multiple simulated vegetation properties, including primary production; seasonal net ecosystem production; vegetation cover, composition and height; fire regime; and runoff. The benchmarks are derived from remotely sensed gridded datasets and site-based observations. The datasets allow comparisons of annual average conditions and seasonal and inter-annual variability, and they allow the impact of spatial and temporal biases in means and variability to be assessed separately. Specifically designed metrics quantify model performance for each process, and are compared to scores based on the temporal or spatial mean value of the observations and a "random" model produced by bootstrap resampling of the observations. The benchmark system is applied to three models: a simple light-use efficiency and water-balance model (the Simple Diagnostic Biosphere Model: SDBM), and the Lund-Potsdam-Jena (LPJ) and Land Processes and eXchanges (LPX) dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). SDBM reproduces observed CO2 seasonal cycles, but its simulation of independent measurements of net primary production (NPP) is too high. The two DGVMs show little difference for most benchmarks (including the inter-annual variability in the growth rate and seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2), but LPX represents burnt fraction demonstrably more accurately. Benchmarking also identified several weaknesses common to both DGVMs. The benchmarking system provides a quantitative approach for evaluating how adequately processes are represented in a model, identifying errors and biases, tracking improvements in performance through model development, and discriminating among models. Adoption of such a system would do much to improve confidence in terrestrial model predictions of climate change impacts and feedbacks.

  19. [Benchmarking in health care: conclusions and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Geraedts, Max; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad

    2011-01-01

    The German Health Ministry funded 10 demonstration projects and accompanying research of benchmarking in health care. The accompanying research work aimed to infer generalisable findings and recommendations. We performed a meta-evaluation of the demonstration projects and analysed national and international approaches to benchmarking in health care. It was found that the typical benchmarking sequence is hardly ever realised. Most projects lack a detailed analysis of structures and processes of the best performers as a starting point for the process of learning from and adopting best practice. To tap the full potential of benchmarking in health care, participation in voluntary benchmarking projects should be promoted that have been demonstrated to follow all the typical steps of a benchmarking process.

  20. Benchmarking pathology services: implementing a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M; Holmes, S; McGrath, K; Neil, A

    1999-05-01

    This paper details the benchmarking process and its application to the activities of pathology laboratories participating in a benchmark pilot study [the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasian (RCPA) Benchmarking Project]. The discussion highlights the primary issues confronted in collecting, processing, analysing and comparing benchmark data. The paper outlines the benefits of engaging in a benchmarking exercise and provides a framework which can be applied across a range of public health settings. This information is then applied to a review of the development of the RCPA Benchmarking Project. Consideration is also given to the nature of the preliminary results of the project and the implications of these results to the on-going conduct of the study.

  1. Pynamic: the Python Dynamic Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G L; Ahn, D H; de Supinksi, B R; Gyllenhaal, J C; Miller, P J

    2007-07-10

    Python is widely used in scientific computing to facilitate application development and to support features such as computational steering. Making full use of some of Python's popular features, which improve programmer productivity, leads to applications that access extremely high numbers of dynamically linked libraries (DLLs). As a result, some important Python-based applications severely stress a system's dynamic linking and loading capabilities and also cause significant difficulties for most development environment tools, such as debuggers. Furthermore, using the Python paradigm for large scale MPI-based applications can create significant file IO and further stress tools and operating systems. In this paper, we present Pynamic, the first benchmark program to support configurable emulation of a wide-range of the DLL usage of Python-based applications for large scale systems. Pynamic has already accurately reproduced system software and tool issues encountered by important large Python-based scientific applications on our supercomputers. Pynamic provided insight for our system software and tool vendors, and our application developers, into the impact of several design decisions. As we describe the Pynamic benchmark, we will highlight some of the issues discovered in our large scale system software and tools using Pynamic.

  2. BENCHMARK DOSE TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA conducts risk assessments for an array of health effects that may result from exposure to environmental agents, and that require an analysis of the relationship between exposure and health-related outcomes. The dose-response assessment is essentially a two-step process, the first being the definition of a point of departure (POD), and the second extrapolation from the POD to low environmentally-relevant exposure levels. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach provides a more quantitative alternative to the first step in the dose-response assessment than the current NOAEL/LOAEL process for noncancer health effects, and is similar to that for determining the POD proposed for cancer endpoints. As the Agency moves toward harmonization of approaches for human health risk assessment, the dichotomy between cancer and noncancer health effects is being replaced by consideration of mode of action and whether the effects of concern are likely to be linear or nonlinear at low doses. Thus, the purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the BMD approach in determining the POD for all types of health effects data, whether a linear or nonlinear low dose extrapolation is used. A guidance document is being developed under the auspices of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum. The purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the benchmark dose (BMD) appr

  3. Benchmarking for Excellence and the Nursing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleboda, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Nursing is a service profession. The services provided are essential to life and welfare. Therefore, setting the benchmark for high quality care is fundamental. Exploring the definition of a benchmark value will help to determine a best practice approach. A benchmark is the descriptive statement of a desired level of performance against which quality can be judged. It must be sufficiently well understood by managers and personnel in order that it may serve as a standard against which to measure value.

  4. Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 101 NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Computational Chemistry Comparison and Benchmark Database is a collection of experimental and ab initio thermochemical properties for a selected set of molecules. The goals are to provide a benchmark set of molecules for the evaluation of ab initio computational methods and allow the comparison between different ab initio computational methods for the prediction of thermochemical properties.

  5. HPGMG 1.0: A Benchmark for Ranking High Performance Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Mark; Brown, Jed; Shalf, John; Straalen, Brian Van; Strohmaier, Erich; Williams, Sam

    2014-05-05

    This document provides an overview of the benchmark ? HPGMG ? for ranking large scale general purpose computers for use on the Top500 list [8]. We provide a rationale for the need for a replacement for the current metric HPL, some background of the Top500 list and the challenges of developing such a metric; we discuss our design philosophy and methodology, and an overview of the specification of the benchmark. The primary documentation with maintained details on the specification can be found at hpgmg.org and the Wiki and benchmark code itself can be found in the repository https://bitbucket.org/hpgmg/hpgmg.

  6. Method and system for benchmarking computers

    DOEpatents

    Gustafson, John L.

    1993-09-14

    A testing system and method for benchmarking computer systems. The system includes a store containing a scalable set of tasks to be performed to produce a solution in ever-increasing degrees of resolution as a larger number of the tasks are performed. A timing and control module allots to each computer a fixed benchmarking interval in which to perform the stored tasks. Means are provided for determining, after completion of the benchmarking interval, the degree of progress through the scalable set of tasks and for producing a benchmarking rating relating to the degree of progress for each computer.

  7. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  8. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  9. Benchmark for evaluation and validation of reactor simulations (BEAVRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Horelik, N.; Herman, B.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    Advances in parallel computing have made possible the development of high-fidelity tools for the design and analysis of nuclear reactor cores, and such tools require extensive verification and validation. This paper introduces BEAVRS, a new multi-cycle full-core Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) depletion benchmark based on two operational cycles of a commercial nuclear power plant that provides a detailed description of fuel assemblies, burnable absorbers, in-core fission detectors, core loading patterns, and numerous in-vessel components. This benchmark enables analysts to develop extremely detailed reactor core models that can be used for testing and validation of coupled neutron transport, thermal-hydraulics, and fuel isotopic depletion. The benchmark also provides measured reactor data for Hot Zero Power (HZP) physics tests, boron letdown curves, and three-dimensional in-core flux maps from fifty-eight instrumented assemblies. Initial comparisons between calculations performed with MIT's OpenMC Monte Carlo neutron transport code and measured cycle 1 HZP test data are presented, and these results display an average deviation of approximately 100 pcm for the various critical configurations and control rod worth measurements. Computed HZP radial fission detector flux maps also agree reasonably well with the available measured data. All results indicate that this benchmark will be extremely useful in validation of coupled-physics codes and uncertainty quantification of in-core physics computational predictions. The detailed BEAVRS specification and its associated data package is hosted online at the MIT Computational Reactor Physics Group web site (http://crpg.mit.edu/), where future revisions and refinements to the benchmark specification will be made publicly available. (authors)

  10. COG validation: SINBAD Benchmark Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lent, E M; Sale, K E; Buck, R M; Descalle, M

    2004-02-23

    We validated COG, a 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport code, against experimental data and MNCP4C simulations from the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD) compiled by RSICC. We modeled three experiments: the Osaka Nickel and Aluminum sphere experiments conducted at the OKTAVIAN facility, and the liquid oxygen experiment conducted at the FNS facility. COG results are in good agreement with experimental data and generally within a few % of MCNP results. There are several possible sources of discrepancy between MCNP and COG results: (1) the cross-section database versions are different, MCNP uses ENDFB VI 1.1 while COG uses ENDFB VIR7, (2) the code implementations are different, and (3) the models may differ slightly. We also limited the use of variance reduction methods when running the COG version of the problems.

  11. Reconceptualizing Benchmarks for Residency Training

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Postgraduate medical education (PGME) is currently transitioning to a competency-based framework. This model clarifies the desired outcome of residency training - competence. However, since the popularization of Ericsson's work on the effect of time and deliberate practice on performance level, his findings have been applied in some areas of residency training. Though this may be grounded in a noble effort to maximize patient well-being, it imposes unrealistic expectations on trainees. This work aims to demonstrate the fundamental flaws of this application and therefore the lack of validity in using Ericsson's work to develop training benchmarks at the postgraduate level as well as expose potential harms in doing so.

  12. Benchmarking Multipacting Simulations in VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nieter, C. Roark, P. Stoltz, K. Tian

    2009-05-01

    We will present the results of benchmarking simulations run to test the ability of VORPAL to model multipacting processes in Superconducting Radio Frequency structures. VORPAL is an electromagnetic (FDTD) particle-in-cell simulation code originally developed for applications in plasma and beam physics. The addition of conformal boundaries and algorithms for secondary electron emission allow VORPAL to be applied to multipacting processes. We start with simulations of multipacting between parallel plates where there are well understood theoretical predictions for the frequency bands where multipacting is expected to occur. We reproduce the predicted multipacting bands and demonstrate departures from the theoretical predictions when a more sophisticated model of secondary emission is used. Simulations of existing cavity structures developed at Jefferson National Laboratories will also be presented where we compare results from VORPAL to experimental data.

  13. Benchmarking ICRF simulations for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    R. V. Budny, L. Berry, R. Bilato, P. Bonoli, M. Brambilla, R.J. Dumont, A. Fukuyama, R. Harvey, E.F. Jaeger, E. Lerche, C.K. Phillips, V. Vdovin, J. Wright, and members of the ITPA-IOS

    2010-09-28

    Abstract Benchmarking of full-wave solvers for ICRF simulations is performed using plasma profiles and equilibria obtained from integrated self-consistent modeling predictions of four ITER plasmas. One is for a high performance baseline (5.3 T, 15 MA) DT H-mode plasma. The others are for half-field, half-current plasmas of interest for the pre-activation phase with bulk plasma ion species being either hydrogen or He4. The predicted profiles are used by seven groups to predict the ICRF electromagnetic fields and heating profiles. Approximate agreement is achieved for the predicted heating power partitions for the DT and He4 cases. Profiles of the heating powers and electromagnetic fields are compared.

  14. Benchmarking Asteroid-Deflection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remington, Tane; Bruck Syal, Megan; Owen, John Michael; Miller, Paul L.

    2016-10-01

    An asteroid impacting Earth could have devastating consequences. In preparation to deflect or disrupt one before it reaches Earth, it is imperative to have modeling capabilities that adequately simulate the deflection actions. Code validation is key to ensuring full confidence in simulation results used in an asteroid-mitigation plan. We are benchmarking well-known impact experiments using Spheral, an adaptive smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code, to validate our modeling of asteroid deflection. We describe our simulation results, compare them with experimental data, and discuss what we have learned from our work. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-695540

  15. NAS Parallel Benchmark Results 11-96. 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. These results represent the best results that have been reported to us by the vendors for the specific 3 systems listed. In this report, we present new NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin200, and SGI Origin2000. We also report High Performance Fortran (HPF) based NPB results for IBM SP2 Wide Nodes, HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, and SGI/CRAY T3D. These results have been submitted by Applied Parallel Research (APR) and Portland Group Inc. (PGI). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  16. Preliminary Benchmarking Efforts and MCNP Simulation Results for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-18

    It is shown in this work that basic measurements made from well defined source detector configurations can be readily converted in to benchmark quality results by which Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) input stacks can be validated. Specifically, a recent measurement made in support of national security at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is described with sufficient detail to be submitted to the American Nuclear Society’s (ANS) Joint Benchmark Committee (JBC) for consideration as a radiation measurement benchmark. From this very basic measurement, MCNP input stacks are generated and validated both in predicted signal amplitude and spectral shape. Not modeled at this time are those perturbations from the more recent pulse height light (PHL) tally feature, although what spectral deviations are seen can be largely attributed to not including this small correction. The value of this work is as a proof-of-concept demonstration that with well documented historical testing can be converted into formal radiation measurement benchmarks. This effort would support virtual testing of algorithms and new detector configurations.

  17. Benchmarking Learning and Teaching: Developing a Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson-Smart, Cheryl; Winning, Tracey; Gerzina, Tania; King, Shalinie; Hyde, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for benchmarking teaching and learning in response to an institutional need to validate a new program in Dentistry at the University of Sydney, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: After a collaborative partner, University of Adelaide, was identified, the areas of teaching and learning to be benchmarked, PBL…

  18. Beyond Benchmarking: Value-Adding Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-enz, Jac

    2007-01-01

    HR metrics has grown up a bit over the past two decades, moving away from simple benchmarking practices and toward a more inclusive approach to measuring institutional performance and progress. In this article, the acknowledged "father" of human capital performance benchmarking provides an overview of several aspects of today's HR metrics…

  19. Benchmarking can add up for healthcare accounting.

    PubMed

    Czarnecki, M T

    1994-09-01

    In 1993, a healthcare accounting and finance benchmarking survey of hospital and nonhospital organizations gathered statistics about key common performance areas. A low response did not allow for statistically significant findings, but the survey identified performance measures that can be used in healthcare financial management settings. This article explains the benchmarking process and examines some of the 1993 study's findings.

  20. A performance benchmark test for geodynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Heien, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the last ten years, a number of numerical dynamo models have successfully represented basic characteristics of the geomagnetic field. As new models and numerical methods continue to be developed, it is important to update and extend benchmarks for testing these models. The first dynamo benchmark of Christensen et al. (2001) was applied to models based on spherical harmonic expansion methods. However, only a few groups have reported results of the dynamo benchmark using local methods (Harder and Hansen, 2005; Matsui and Okuda, 2005; Chan et al., 2007) because of the difficulty treating magnetic boundary conditions based on the local methods. On the other hand, spherical harmonics expansion methods perform poorly on massively parallel computers because global data communications are required for the spherical harmonics expansions to evaluate nonlinear terms. We perform benchmark tests to asses various numerical methods for the next generation of geodynamo simulations. The purpose of this benchmark test is to assess numerical geodynamo models on a massively parallel computational platform. To compare among many numerical methods as possible, we consider the model with the insulated magnetic boundary by Christensen et al. (2001) and with the pseudo vacuum magnetic boundary, because the pseudo vacuum boundaries are implemented easier by using the local method than the magnetic insulated boundaries. In the present study, we consider two kinds of benchmarks, so-called accuracy benchmark and performance benchmark. In the accuracy benchmark, we compare the dynamo models by using modest Ekman and Rayleigh numbers proposed by Christensen et. al. (2001). We investigate a required spatial resolution for each dynamo code to obtain less than 1% difference from the suggested solution of the benchmark test using the two magnetic boundary conditions. In the performance benchmark, we investigate computational performance under the same computational environment. We perform these

  1. Performance measures and their benchmarks for assessing organizational cultural competency in behavioral health care service delivery.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole; Haugland, Gary; Chambers, Ethel Davis

    2003-11-01

    A project is described in which performance measures of cultural competency in behavioral health care were selected and benchmarked. Input from an Expert Panel representing the four major ethnic and racial groups in the U.S. and persons with extensive experience in implementing cultural competency in health care, along with survey data from 21 sites were used in the process. Measures and benchmarks are made specific to organizations that administrate care networks, and to service entities that deliver care. Measures were selected to parallel an implementation process, and benchmarks were set at "gold standard" levels.

  2. Benchmarking--Measuring and Comparing for Continuous Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henczel, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of benchmarking focuses on the use of internal and external benchmarking by special librarians. Highlights include defining types of benchmarking; historical development; benefits, including efficiency, improved performance, increased competitiveness, and better decision making; problems, including inappropriate adaptation; developing a…

  3. Effective File I/O Bandwidth Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Rabenseifner, R.; Koniges, A.E.

    2000-02-15

    The effective I/O bandwidth benchmark (b{_}eff{_}io) covers two goals: (1) to achieve a characteristic average number for the I/O bandwidth achievable with parallel MPI-I/O applications, and (2) to get detailed information about several access patterns and buffer lengths. The benchmark examines ''first write'', ''rewrite'' and ''read'' access, strided (individual and shared pointers) and segmented collective patterns on one file per application and non-collective access to one file per process. The number of parallel accessing processes is also varied and well-formed I/O is compared with non-well formed. On systems, meeting the rule that the total memory can be written to disk in 10 minutes, the benchmark should not need more than 15 minutes for a first pass of all patterns. The benchmark is designed analogously to the effective bandwidth benchmark for message passing (b{_}eff) that characterizes the message passing capabilities of a system in a few minutes. First results of the b{_}eff{_}io benchmark are given for IBM SP and Cray T3E systems and compared with existing benchmarks based on parallel Posix-I/O.

  4. Benchmarking Measures of Network Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramson, Aaron; Vandermarliere, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Identifying key agents for the transmission of diseases (ideas, technology, etc.) across social networks has predominantly relied on measures of centrality on a static base network or a temporally flattened graph of agent interactions. Various measures have been proposed as the best trackers of influence, such as degree centrality, betweenness, and k-shell, depending on the structure of the connectivity. We consider SIR and SIS propagation dynamics on a temporally-extruded network of observed interactions and measure the conditional marginal spread as the change in the magnitude of the infection given the removal of each agent at each time: its temporal knockout (TKO) score. We argue that this TKO score is an effective benchmark measure for evaluating the accuracy of other, often more practical, measures of influence. We find that none of the network measures applied to the induced flat graphs are accurate predictors of network propagation influence on the systems studied; however, temporal networks and the TKO measure provide the requisite targets for the search for effective predictive measures.

  5. Benchmarking pKa prediction

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Matthew N; Toseland, Christopher P; Moss, David S; Flower, Darren R

    2006-01-01

    Background pKa values are a measure of the protonation of ionizable groups in proteins. Ionizable groups are involved in intra-protein, protein-solvent and protein-ligand interactions as well as solubility, protein folding and catalytic activity. The pKa shift of a group from its intrinsic value is determined by the perturbation of the residue by the environment and can be calculated from three-dimensional structural data. Results Here we use a large dataset of experimentally-determined pKas to analyse the performance of different prediction techniques. Our work provides a benchmark of available software implementations: MCCE, MEAD, PROPKA and UHBD. Combinatorial and regression analysis is also used in an attempt to find a consensus approach towards pKa prediction. The tendency of individual programs to over- or underpredict the pKa value is related to the underlying methodology of the individual programs. Conclusion Overall, PROPKA is more accurate than the other three programs. Key to developing accurate predictive software will be a complete sampling of conformations accessible to protein structures. PMID:16749919

  6. Benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter-Locklear, Freda

    1994-01-01

    A recent directive at NASA Langley is aimed at numerically predicting principal noise sources. During my summer stay, I worked with high-order ENO code, developed by Dr. Harold Atkins, for solving the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, as it applies to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). A CAA workshop, composed of six categories of benchmark problems, has been organized to test various numerical properties of code. My task was to determine the robustness of Atkins' code for these test problems. In one category, we tested the nonlinear wave propagation of the code for the one-dimensional Euler equations, with initial pressure, density, and velocity conditions. Using freestream boundary conditions, our results were plausible. In another category, we solved the linearized two-dimensional Euler equations to test the effectiveness of radiation boundary conditions. Here we utilized MAPLE to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Jacobian given variable and flux vectors. We experienced a minor problem with inflow and outflow boundary conditions. Next, we solved the quasi one dimensional unsteady flow equations with an incoming acoustic wave of amplitude 10(exp -6). The small amplitude sound wave was incident on a convergent-divergent nozzle. After finding a steady-state solution and then marching forward, our solution indicated that after 30 periods the acoustic wave had dissipated (a period is time required for sound wave to traverse one end of nozzle to other end).

  7. Benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter-Locklear, Freda

    1994-12-01

    A recent directive at NASA Langley is aimed at numerically predicting principal noise sources. During my summer stay, I worked with high-order ENO code, developed by Dr. Harold Atkins, for solving the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations, as it applies to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). A CAA workshop, composed of six categories of benchmark problems, has been organized to test various numerical properties of code. My task was to determine the robustness of Atkins' code for these test problems. In one category, we tested the nonlinear wave propagation of the code for the one-dimensional Euler equations, with initial pressure, density, and velocity conditions. Using freestream boundary conditions, our results were plausible. In another category, we solved the linearized two-dimensional Euler equations to test the effectiveness of radiation boundary conditions. Here we utilized MAPLE to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Jacobian given variable and flux vectors. We experienced a minor problem with inflow and outflow boundary conditions. Next, we solved the quasi one dimensional unsteady flow equations with an incoming acoustic wave of amplitude 10(exp -6). The small amplitude sound wave was incident on a convergent-divergent nozzle. After finding a steady-state solution and then marching forward, our solution indicated that after 30 periods the acoustic wave had dissipated (a period is time required for sound wave to traverse one end of nozzle to other end).

  8. Benchmarking Measures of Network Influence

    PubMed Central

    Bramson, Aaron; Vandermarliere, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying key agents for the transmission of diseases (ideas, technology, etc.) across social networks has predominantly relied on measures of centrality on a static base network or a temporally flattened graph of agent interactions. Various measures have been proposed as the best trackers of influence, such as degree centrality, betweenness, and k-shell, depending on the structure of the connectivity. We consider SIR and SIS propagation dynamics on a temporally-extruded network of observed interactions and measure the conditional marginal spread as the change in the magnitude of the infection given the removal of each agent at each time: its temporal knockout (TKO) score. We argue that this TKO score is an effective benchmark measure for evaluating the accuracy of other, often more practical, measures of influence. We find that none of the network measures applied to the induced flat graphs are accurate predictors of network propagation influence on the systems studied; however, temporal networks and the TKO measure provide the requisite targets for the search for effective predictive measures. PMID:27670635

  9. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  10. Clinically meaningful performance benchmarks in MS

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Scagnelli, John; Pula, John H.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Cadavid, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identify and validate clinically meaningful Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW) performance benchmarks in individuals living with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Cross-sectional study of 159 MS patients first identified candidate T25FW benchmarks. To characterize the clinical meaningfulness of T25FW benchmarks, we ascertained their relationships to real-life anchors, functional independence, and physiologic measurements of gait and disease progression. Candidate T25FW benchmarks were then prospectively validated in 95 subjects using 13 measures of ambulation and cognition, patient-reported outcomes, and optical coherence tomography. Results: T25FW of 6 to 7.99 seconds was associated with a change in occupation due to MS, occupational disability, walking with a cane, and needing “some help” with instrumental activities of daily living; T25FW ≥8 seconds was associated with collecting Supplemental Security Income and government health care, walking with a walker, and inability to do instrumental activities of daily living. During prospective benchmark validation, we trichotomized data by T25FW benchmarks (<6 seconds, 6–7.99 seconds, and ≥8 seconds) and found group main effects on 12 of 13 objective and subjective measures (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Using a cross-sectional design, we identified 2 clinically meaningful T25FW benchmarks of ≥6 seconds (6–7.99) and ≥8 seconds. Longitudinal and larger studies are needed to confirm the clinical utility and relevance of these proposed T25FW benchmarks and to parse out whether there are additional benchmarks in the lower (<6 seconds) and higher (>10 seconds) ranges of performance. PMID:24174581

  11. Development of an ICSBEP Benchmark Evaluation, Nearly 20 Years of Experience

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess

    2011-06-01

    The basic structure of all ICSBEP benchmark evaluations is essentially the same and includes (1) a detailed description of the experiment; (2) an evaluation of the experiment, including an exhaustive effort to quantify the effects of uncertainties on measured quantities; (3) a concise presentation of benchmark-model specifications; (4) sample calculation results; and (5) a summary of experimental references. Computer code input listings and other relevant information are generally preserved in appendixes. Details of an ICSBEP evaluation is presented.

  12. Updates to the integrated protein-protein interaction benchmarks: Docking benchmark version 5 and affinity benchmark version 2

    PubMed Central

    Vreven, Thom; Moal, Iain H.; Vangone, Anna; Pierce, Brian G.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; Chaleil, Raphael; Jiménez-García, Brian; Bates, Paul A.; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Weng, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    We present an updated and integrated version of our widely used protein-protein docking and binding affinity benchmarks. The benchmarks consist of non-redundant, high quality structures of protein-protein complexes along with the unbound structures of their components. Fifty-five new complexes were added to the docking benchmark, 35 of which have experimentally-measured binding affinities. These updated docking and affinity benchmarks now contain 230 and 179 entries, respectively. In particular, the number of antibody-antigen complexes has increased significantly, by 67% and 74% in the docking and affinity benchmarks, respectively. We tested previously developed docking and affinity prediction algorithms on the new cases. Considering only the top ten docking predictions per benchmark case, a prediction accuracy of 38% is achieved on all 55 cases, and up to 50% for the 32 rigid-body cases only. Predicted affinity scores are found to correlate with experimental binding energies up to r=0.52 overall, and r=0.72 for the rigid complexes. PMID:26231283

  13. Updates to the Integrated Protein-Protein Interaction Benchmarks: Docking Benchmark Version 5 and Affinity Benchmark Version 2.

    PubMed

    Vreven, Thom; Moal, Iain H; Vangone, Anna; Pierce, Brian G; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; Chaleil, Raphael; Jiménez-García, Brian; Bates, Paul A; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Weng, Zhiping

    2015-09-25

    We present an updated and integrated version of our widely used protein-protein docking and binding affinity benchmarks. The benchmarks consist of non-redundant, high-quality structures of protein-protein complexes along with the unbound structures of their components. Fifty-five new complexes were added to the docking benchmark, 35 of which have experimentally measured binding affinities. These updated docking and affinity benchmarks now contain 230 and 179 entries, respectively. In particular, the number of antibody-antigen complexes has increased significantly, by 67% and 74% in the docking and affinity benchmarks, respectively. We tested previously developed docking and affinity prediction algorithms on the new cases. Considering only the top 10 docking predictions per benchmark case, a prediction accuracy of 38% is achieved on all 55 cases and up to 50% for the 32 rigid-body cases only. Predicted affinity scores are found to correlate with experimental binding energies up to r=0.52 overall and r=0.72 for the rigid complexes.

  14. Benchmarking strategies for measuring the quality of healthcare: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few years, increasing attention has been directed toward the problems inherent to measuring the quality of healthcare and implementing benchmarking strategies. Besides offering accreditation and certification processes, recent approaches measure the performance of healthcare institutions in order to evaluate their effectiveness, defined as the capacity to provide treatment that modifies and improves the patient's state of health. This paper, dealing with hospital effectiveness, focuses on research methods for effectiveness analyses within a strategy comparing different healthcare institutions. The paper, after having introduced readers to the principle debates on benchmarking strategies, which depend on the perspective and type of indicators used, focuses on the methodological problems related to performing consistent benchmarking analyses. Particularly, statistical methods suitable for controlling case-mix, analyzing aggregate data, rare events, and continuous outcomes measured with error are examined. Specific challenges of benchmarking strategies, such as the risk of risk adjustment (case-mix fallacy, underreporting, risk of comparing noncomparable hospitals), selection bias, and possible strategies for the development of consistent benchmarking analyses, are discussed. Finally, to demonstrate the feasibility of the illustrated benchmarking strategies, an application focused on determining regional benchmarks for patient satisfaction (using 2009 Lombardy Region Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire) is proposed.

  15. Semi-Analytical Benchmarks for MCNP6

    SciTech Connect

    Grechanuk, Pavel Aleksandrovi

    2016-11-07

    Code verification is an extremely important process that involves proving or disproving the validity of code algorithms by comparing them against analytical results of the underlying physics or mathematical theory on which the code is based. Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP6 must undergo verification and testing upon every release to ensure that the codes are properly simulating nature. Specifically, MCNP6 has multiple sets of problems with known analytic solutions that are used for code verification. Monte Carlo codes primarily specify either current boundary sources or a volumetric fixed source, either of which can be very complicated functions of space, energy, direction and time. Thus, most of the challenges with modeling analytic benchmark problems in Monte Carlo codes come from identifying the correct source definition to properly simulate the correct boundary conditions. The problems included in this suite all deal with mono-energetic neutron transport without energy loss, in a homogeneous material. The variables that differ between the problems are source type (isotropic/beam), medium dimensionality (infinite/semi-infinite), etc.

  16. Benchmark for license plate character segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Gabriel Resende; da Silva, Sirlene Pio Gomes; Menotti, David; Shwartz, William Robson

    2016-09-01

    Automatic license plate recognition (ALPR) has been the focus of many researches in the past years. In general, ALPR is divided into the following problems: detection of on-track vehicles, license plate detection, segmentation of license plate characters, and optical character recognition (OCR). Even though commercial solutions are available for controlled acquisition conditions, e.g., the entrance of a parking lot, ALPR is still an open problem when dealing with data acquired from uncontrolled environments, such as roads and highways when relying only on imaging sensors. Due to the multiple orientations and scales of the license plates captured by the camera, a very challenging task of the ALPR is the license plate character segmentation (LPCS) step, because its effectiveness is required to be (near) optimal to achieve a high recognition rate by the OCR. To tackle the LPCS problem, this work proposes a benchmark composed of a dataset designed to focus specifically on the character segmentation step of the ALPR within an evaluation protocol. Furthermore, we propose the Jaccard-centroid coefficient, an evaluation measure more suitable than the Jaccard coefficient regarding the location of the bounding box within the ground-truth annotation. The dataset is composed of 2000 Brazilian license plates consisting of 14000 alphanumeric symbols and their corresponding bounding box annotations. We also present a straightforward approach to perform LPCS efficiently. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation for the dataset based on five LPCS approaches and demonstrate the importance of character segmentation for achieving an accurate OCR.

  17. Statistical benchmark for BosonSampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walschaers, Mattia; Kuipers, Jack; Urbina, Juan-Diego; Mayer, Klaus; Tichy, Malte Christopher; Richter, Klaus; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Boson samplers—set-ups that generate complex many-particle output states through the transmission of elementary many-particle input states across a multitude of mutually coupled modes—promise the efficient quantum simulation of a classically intractable computational task, and challenge the extended Church-Turing thesis, one of the fundamental dogmas of computer science. However, as in all experimental quantum simulations of truly complex systems, one crucial problem remains: how to certify that a given experimental measurement record unambiguously results from enforcing the claimed dynamics, on bosons, fermions or distinguishable particles? Here we offer a statistical solution to the certification problem, identifying an unambiguous statistical signature of many-body quantum interference upon transmission across a multimode, random scattering device. We show that statistical analysis of only partial information on the output state allows to characterise the imparted dynamics through particle type-specific features of the emerging interference patterns. The relevant statistical quantifiers are classically computable, define a falsifiable benchmark for BosonSampling, and reveal distinctive features of many-particle quantum dynamics, which go much beyond mere bunching or anti-bunching effects.

  18. The skyshine benchmark experiment revisited.

    PubMed

    Terry, Ian R

    2005-01-01

    With the coming renaissance of nuclear power, heralded by new nuclear power plant construction in Finland, the issue of qualifying modern tools for calculation becomes prominent. Among the calculations required may be the determination of radiation levels outside the plant owing to skyshine. For example, knowledge of the degree of accuracy in the calculation of gamma skyshine through the turbine hall roof of a BWR plant is important. Modern survey programs which can calculate skyshine dose rates tend to be qualified only by verification with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. However, in the past, exacting experimental work has been performed in the field for gamma skyshine, notably the benchmark work in 1981 by Shultis and co-workers, which considered not just the open source case but also the effects of placing a concrete roof above the source enclosure. The latter case is a better reflection of reality as safety considerations nearly always require the source to be shielded in some way, usually by substantial walls but by a thinner roof. One of the tools developed since that time, which can both calculate skyshine radiation and accurately model the geometrical set-up of an experiment, is the code RANKERN, which is used by Framatome ANP and other organisations for general shielding design work. The following description concerns the use of this code to re-address the experimental results from 1981. This then provides a realistic gauge to validate, but also to set limits on, the program for future gamma skyshine applications within the applicable licensing procedures for all users of the code.

  19. Social benchmarking to improve river ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Cary, John; Pisarski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To complement physical measures or indices of river health a social benchmarking instrument has been developed to measure community dispositions and behaviour regarding river health. This instrument seeks to achieve three outcomes. First, to provide a benchmark of the social condition of communities' attitudes, values, understanding and behaviours in relation to river health; second, to provide information for developing management and educational priorities; and third, to provide an assessment of the long-term effectiveness of community education and engagement activities in achieving changes in attitudes, understanding and behaviours in relation to river health. In this paper the development of the social benchmarking instrument is described and results are presented from the first state-wide benchmark study in Victoria, Australia, in which the social dimensions of river health, community behaviours related to rivers, and community understanding of human impacts on rivers were assessed.

  20. Public Relations in Accounting: A Benchmark Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, J. David; Pincus, Karen V.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a national study of one segment of the professional services market: the accounting profession. Benchmark data on CPA firms' attitudes toward and uses of public relations are presented and practical and theoretical/research issues are discussed. (JC)

  1. Aquatic Life Benchmarks for Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each Aquatic Life Benchmark is based on the most sensitive, scientifically acceptable toxicity endpoint available to EPA for a given taxon (for example, freshwater fish) of all scientifically acceptable toxicity data available to EPA.

  2. BENCHMARKING ORTEC ISOTOPIC MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dewberry, R; Raymond Sigg, R; Vito Casella, V; Nitin Bhatt, N

    2008-09-29

    This report represents a description of compiled benchmark tests conducted to probe and to demonstrate the extensive utility of the Ortec ISOTOPIC {gamma}-ray analysis computer program. The ISOTOPIC program performs analyses of {gamma}-ray spectra applied to specific acquisition configurations in order to apply finite-geometry correction factors and sample-matrix-container photon absorption correction factors. The analysis program provides an extensive set of preset acquisition configurations to which the user can add relevant parameters in order to build the geometry and absorption correction factors that the program determines from calculus and from nuclear g-ray absorption and scatter data. The Analytical Development Section field nuclear measurement group of the Savannah River National Laboratory uses the Ortec ISOTOPIC analysis program extensively for analyses of solid waste and process holdup applied to passive {gamma}-ray acquisitions. Frequently the results of these {gamma}-ray acquisitions and analyses are to determine compliance with facility criticality safety guidelines. Another use of results is to designate 55-gallon drum solid waste as qualified TRU waste3 or as low-level waste. Other examples of the application of the ISOTOPIC analysis technique to passive {gamma}-ray acquisitions include analyses of standard waste box items and unique solid waste configurations. In many passive {gamma}-ray acquisition circumstances the container and sample have sufficient density that the calculated energy-dependent transmission correction factors have intrinsic uncertainties in the range 15%-100%. This is frequently the case when assaying 55-gallon drums of solid waste with masses of up to 400 kg and when assaying solid waste in extensive unique containers. Often an accurate assay of the transuranic content of these containers is not required, but rather a good defensible designation as >100 nCi/g (TRU waste) or <100 nCi/g (low level solid waste) is required. In

  3. A framework for benchmarking land models

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yiqi; Randerson, J.; Abramowitz, G.; Bacour, C.; Blyth, E.; Carvalhais, N.; Ciais, Philippe; Dalmonech, D.; Fisher, J.B.; Fisher, R.; Friedlingstein, P.; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Huntzinger, Deborah; Jones, C.; Koven, C.; Lawrence, David M.; Li, D.J.; Mahecha, M.; Niu, S.L.; Norby, Richard J.; Piao, S.L.; Qi, X.; Peylin, P.; Prentice, I.C.; Riley, William; Reichstein, M.; Schwalm, C.; Wang, Y.; Xia, J. Y.; Zaehle, S.; Zhou, X. H.

    2012-10-09

    Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data–model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models

  4. A framework for benchmarking land models

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yiqi; Randerson, James T.; Hoffman, Forrest; Norby, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Land models, which have been developed by the modeling community in the past few decades to predict future states of ecosystems and climate, have to be critically evaluated for their performance skills of simulating ecosystem responses and feedback to climate change. Benchmarking is an emerging procedure to measure performance of models against a set of defined standards. This paper proposes a benchmarking framework for evaluation of land model performances and, meanwhile, highlights major challenges at this infant stage of benchmark analysis. The framework includes (1) targeted aspects of model performance to be evaluated, (2) a set of benchmarks as defined references to test model performance, (3) metrics to measure and compare performance skills among models so as to identify model strengths and deficiencies, and (4) model improvement. Land models are required to simulate exchange of water, energy, carbon and sometimes other trace gases between the atmosphere and land surface, and should be evaluated for their simulations of biophysical processes, biogeochemical cycles, and vegetation dynamics in response to climate change across broad temporal and spatial scales. Thus, one major challenge is to select and define a limited number of benchmarks to effectively evaluate land model performance. The second challenge is to develop metrics of measuring mismatches between models and benchmarks. The metrics may include (1) a priori thresholds of acceptable model performance and (2) a scoring system to combine data model mismatches for various processes at different temporal and spatial scales. The benchmark analyses should identify clues of weak model performance to guide future development, thus enabling improved predictions of future states of ecosystems and climate. The near-future research effort should be on development of a set of widely acceptable benchmarks that can be used to objectively, effectively, and reliably evaluate fundamental properties of land models

  5. The MCNP6 Analytic Criticality Benchmark Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-06-16

    Analytical benchmarks provide an invaluable tool for verifying computer codes used to simulate neutron transport. Several collections of analytical benchmark problems [1-4] are used routinely in the verification of production Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP® [5,6]. Verification of a computer code is a necessary prerequisite to the more complex validation process. The verification process confirms that a code performs its intended functions correctly. The validation process involves determining the absolute accuracy of code results vs. nature. In typical validations, results are computed for a set of benchmark experiments using a particular methodology (code, cross-section data with uncertainties, and modeling) and compared to the measured results from the set of benchmark experiments. The validation process determines bias, bias uncertainty, and possibly additional margins. Verification is generally performed by the code developers, while validation is generally performed by code users for a particular application space. The VERIFICATION_KEFF suite of criticality problems [1,2] was originally a set of 75 criticality problems found in the literature for which exact analytical solutions are available. Even though the spatial and energy detail is necessarily limited in analytical benchmarks, typically to a few regions or energy groups, the exact solutions obtained can be used to verify that the basic algorithms, mathematics, and methods used in complex production codes perform correctly. The present work has focused on revisiting this benchmark suite. A thorough review of the problems resulted in discarding some of them as not suitable for MCNP benchmarking. For the remaining problems, many of them were reformulated to permit execution in either multigroup mode or in the normal continuous-energy mode for MCNP. Execution of the benchmarks in continuous-energy mode provides a significant advance to MCNP verification methods.

  6. Implementation of NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry

    2000-01-01

    A number of features make Java an attractive but a debatable choice for High Performance Computing (HPC). In order to gauge the applicability of Java to the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) we have implemented NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would move Java closer to Fortran in the competition for CFD applications.

  7. Benchmarking Attosecond Physics with Atomic Hydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-25

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 Mar 12 – 11 Mar 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The research team obtained uniquely reliable reference data on atomic interactions with intense few-cycle laser pulses...AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  8. Benchmarking for Cost Improvement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) conducted the Benchmarking for Cost Improvement initiative with three objectives: Pilot test benchmarking as an EM cost improvement tool; identify areas for cost improvement and recommend actions to address these areas; provide a framework for future cost improvement. The benchmarking initiative featured the use of four principal methods (program classification, nationwide cost improvement survey, paired cost comparison and component benchmarking). Interested parties contributed during both the design and execution phases. The benchmarking initiative was conducted on an accelerated basis. Of necessity, it considered only a limited set of data that may not be fully representative of the diverse and complex conditions found at the many DOE installations. The initiative generated preliminary data about cost differences and it found a high degree of convergence on several issues. Based on this convergence, the report recommends cost improvement strategies and actions. This report describes the steps taken as part of the benchmarking initiative and discusses the findings and recommended actions for achieving cost improvement. The results and summary recommendations, reported below, are organized by the study objectives.

  9. Machine characterization and benchmark performance prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.

    1988-01-01

    From runs of standard benchmarks or benchmark suites, it is not possible to characterize the machine nor to predict the run time of other benchmarks which have not been run. A new approach to benchmarking and machine characterization is reported. The creation and use of a machine analyzer is described, which measures the performance of a given machine on FORTRAN source language constructs. The machine analyzer yields a set of parameters which characterize the machine and spotlight its strong and weak points. Also described is a program analyzer, which analyzes FORTRAN programs and determines the frequency of execution of each of the same set of source language operations. It is then shown that by combining a machine characterization and a program characterization, we are able to predict with good accuracy the run time of a given benchmark on a given machine. Characterizations are provided for the Cray-X-MP/48, Cyber 205, IBM 3090/200, Amdahl 5840, Convex C-1, VAX 8600, VAX 11/785, VAX 11/780, SUN 3/50, and IBM RT-PC/125, and for the following benchmark programs or suites: Los Alamos (BMK8A1), Baskett, Linpack, Livermore Loops, Madelbrot Set, NAS Kernels, Shell Sort, Smith, Whetstone and Sieve of Erathostenes.

  10. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  11. BUGLE-93 (ENDF/B-VI) cross-section library data testing using shielding benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Slater, C.O.; White, J.E.

    1994-06-01

    Several integral shielding benchmarks were selected to perform data testing for new multigroup cross-section libraries compiled from the ENDF/B-VI data for light water reactor (LWR) shielding and dosimetry. The new multigroup libraries, BUGLE-93 and VITAMIN-B6, were studied to establish their reliability and response to the benchmark measurements by use of radiation transport codes, ANISN and DORT. Also, direct comparisons of BUGLE-93 and VITAMIN-B6 to BUGLE-80 (ENDF/B-IV) and VITAMIN-E (ENDF/B-V) were performed. Some benchmarks involved the nuclides used in LWR shielding and dosimetry applications, and some were sensitive specific nuclear data, i.e. iron due to its dominant use in nuclear reactor systems and complex set of cross-section resonances. Five shielding benchmarks (four experimental and one calculational) are described and results are presented.

  12. The Activities of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Joseph Blair

    2001-10-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) – Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Kazakhstan, Spain, and Israel are now participating. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments”. The 2001 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark specifications for 2642 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for use in validation efforts and for testing basic nuclear data.

  13. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  14. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  15. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  16. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  17. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section 440.330 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  18. Benchmarking local healthcare-associated infections: available benchmarks and interpretation challenges.

    PubMed

    El-Saed, Aiman; Balkhy, Hanan H; Weber, David J

    2013-10-01

    Growing numbers of healthcare facilities are routinely collecting standardized data on healthcare-associated infection (HAI), which can be used not only to track internal performance but also to compare local data to national and international benchmarks. Benchmarking overall (crude) HAI surveillance metrics without accounting or adjusting for potential confounders can result in misleading conclusions. Methods commonly used to provide risk-adjusted metrics include multivariate logistic regression analysis, stratification, indirect standardization, and restrictions. The characteristics of recognized benchmarks worldwide, including the advantages and limitations are described. The choice of the right benchmark for the data from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) states is challenging. The chosen benchmark should have similar data collection and presentation methods. Additionally, differences in surveillance environments including regulations should be taken into consideration when considering such a benchmark. The GCC center for infection control took some steps to unify HAI surveillance systems in the region. GCC hospitals still need to overcome legislative and logistic difficulties in sharing data to create their own benchmark. The availability of a regional GCC benchmark may better enable health care workers and researchers to obtain more accurate and realistic comparisons.

  19. The Concepts "Benchmarks and Benchmarking" Used in Education Planning: Teacher Education as Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steyn, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Planning in education is a structured activity that includes several phases and steps that take into account several kinds of information (Steyn, Steyn, De Waal & Wolhuter, 2002: 146). One of the sets of information that are usually considered is the (so-called) "benchmarks" and "benchmarking" regarding the focus of a…

  20. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1994 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    The process by which ecological risks of environmental contaminants are evaluated is two-tiered. The first tier is a screening assessment where concentrations of contaminants in the environment are compared to toxicological benchmarks which represent concentrations of chemicals in environmental media (water, sediment, soil, food, etc.) that are presumed to be nonhazardous to the surrounding biota. The second tier is a baseline ecological risk assessment where toxicological benchmarks are one of several lines of evidence used to support or refute the presence of ecological effects. The report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 76 chemicals on 8 representative mammalian wildlife species and 31 chemicals on 9 avian wildlife species. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy waste sites; the wildlife species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. Further descriptions of the chosen wildlife species and chemicals are provided in the report. The benchmarks presented in this report represent values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species. These benchmarks only consider contaminant exposure through oral ingestion of contaminated media; exposure through inhalation or direct dermal exposure are not considered in this report.

  1. Benchmarking Image Matching for Surface Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haala, Norbert; Stößel, Wolfgang; Gruber, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert; Fritsch, Dieter

    2013-04-01

    Semi Global Matching algorithms have encompassed a renaissance to process stereoscopic data sets for surface reconstructions. This method is capable to provide very dense point clouds with sampling distances close to the Ground Sampling Resolution (GSD) of aerial images. EuroSDR, the pan-European organization of Spatial Data Research has initiated a benchmark for dense image matching. The expected outcomes of this benchmark are assessments for suitability, quality measures for dense surface reconstructions and run-time aspects. In particular, aerial image blocks of two sites covering two types of landscapes (urban and rural) are analysed. The benchmark' participants provide their results with respect to several criteria. As a follow-up an overall evaluation is given. Finally, point clouds of rural and urban surfaces delivered by very dense image matching algorithms and software packages are presented and results are compared.

  2. Standardized benchmarking in the quest for orthologs.

    PubMed

    Altenhoff, Adrian M; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Schreiber, Fabian; da Silva, Alan Sousa; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Martin, Maria J; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E; Thomas, Paul D; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is essential for many comparative, evolutionary and functional genomic analyses, yet the true evolutionary history of genes is generally unknown and orthologs are used for very different applications across phyla, requiring different precision-recall trade-offs. As a result, it is difficult to assess the performance of orthology inference methods. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards and an automated web-based service to facilitate orthology benchmarking. Using this service, we characterize 15 well-established inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardized benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimum requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods.

  3. OpenSHMEM Implementation of HPCG Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, Sarah S; Imam, Neena

    2016-01-01

    We describe the effort to implement the HPCG benchmark using OpenSHMEM and MPI one-sided communication. Unlike the High Performance LINPACK (HPL) benchmark that places em- phasis on large dense matrix computations, the HPCG benchmark is dominated by sparse operations such as sparse matrix-vector product, sparse matrix triangular solve, and long vector operations. The MPI one-sided implementation is developed using the one-sided OpenSHMEM implementation. Pre- liminary results comparing the original MPI, OpenSHMEM, and MPI one-sided implementations on an SGI cluster, Cray XK7 and Cray XC30 are presented. The results suggest the MPI, OpenSHMEM, and MPI one-sided implementations all obtain similar overall performance but the MPI one-sided im- plementation seems to slightly increase the run time for multigrid preconditioning in HPCG on the Cray XK7 and Cray XC30.

  4. NAS Parallel Benchmarks, Multi-Zone Versions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Haopiang, Jin

    2003-01-01

    We describe an extension of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) suite that involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy, which is common among structured-mesh production flow solver codes in use at NASA Ames and elsewhere, provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Since the individual application benchmarks also allow fine-grain parallelism themselves, this NPB extension, named NPB Multi-Zone (NPB-MZ), is a good candidate for testing hybrid and multi-level parallelization tools and strategies.

  5. Coral benchmarks in the center of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Licuanan, W Y; Robles, R; Dygico, M; Songco, A; van Woesik, R

    2017-01-30

    There is an urgent need to quantify coral reef benchmarks that assess changes and recovery rates through time and serve as goals for management. Yet, few studies have identified benchmarks for hard coral cover and diversity in the center of marine diversity. In this study, we estimated coral cover and generic diversity benchmarks on the Tubbataha reefs, the largest and best-enforced no-take marine protected area in the Philippines. The shallow (2-6m) reef slopes of Tubbataha were monitored annually, from 2012 to 2015, using hierarchical sampling. Mean coral cover was 34% (σ±1.7) and generic diversity was 18 (σ±0.9) per 75m by 25m station. The southeastern leeward slopes supported on average 56% coral cover, whereas the northeastern windward slopes supported 30%, and the western slopes supported 18% coral cover. Generic diversity was more spatially homogeneous than coral cover.

  6. Benchmarking criticality safety calculations with subcritical experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1984-06-01

    Calculation of the neutron multiplication factor at delayed criticality may be necessary for benchmarking calculations but it may not be sufficient. The use of subcritical experiments to benchmark criticality safety calculations could result in substantial savings in fuel material costs for experiments. In some cases subcritical configurations could be used to benchmark calculations where sufficient fuel to achieve delayed criticality is not available. By performing a variety of measurements with subcritical configurations, much detailed information can be obtained which can be compared directly with calculations. This paper discusses several measurements that can be performed with subcritical assemblies and presents examples that include comparisons between calculation and experiment where possible. Where not, examples from critical experiments have been used but the measurement methods could also be used for subcritical experiments.

  7. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.F.; Sale, K. ); Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C. )

    1991-06-10

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry. 18 refs.

  8. Outlier Benchmark Systems With Gaia Primaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, Federico; Pinfield, David J.; Montes, David; Zapatero Osorio, Maria Rosa; Smart, Richard L.; Cook, Neil J.; Caballero, José A.; Jones, Hugh, R. A.; Lucas, Phil W.

    2016-07-01

    Benchmark systems are critical to assisting sub-stellar physics. While the known population of benchmarks hasincreased significantly in recent years, large portions of the age-metallicity parameter space remain unexplored.Gaia will expand enormously the pool of well characterized primary stars, and our simulations show that we couldpotentially have access to more than 6000 benchmark systems out to 300 pc, allowing us to whittle down thesenbsp;systems into a large sample with outlier properties that will reveal the nature of ultra-cool dwarfs in rare parameternbsp;space. In this contribution we present the preliminary results from our effort to identify and characterize ultra-coolnbsp;companions to Gaia-imaged stars with unusual values of metallicity. Since these systems are intrinsically rare, wenbsp;expand the volume probed by targeting faint, low-proper motion systems.nbsp;/p>

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory computer benchmarking 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Evaluating the performance of computing machinery is a continual effort of the Computer Research and Applications Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report summarizes the results of the group's benchmarking activities performed between October 1981 and September 1982, presenting compilation and execution times as well as megaflop rates for a set of benchmark codes. Tests were performed on the following computers: Cray Research, Inc. (CRI) Cray-1S; Control Data Corporation (CDC) 7600, 6600, Cyber 73, Cyber 825, Cyber 835, Cyber 855, and Cyber 205; Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX 11/780 and VAX 11/782; and Apollo Computer, Inc., Apollo.

  10. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife: 1996 Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, B.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Suter, G.W., II

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of certain chemicals on mammalian and avian wildlife species. Publication of this document meets a milestone for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Risk Assessment Program. This document provides the ER Program with toxicological benchmarks that may be used as comparative tools in screening assessments as well as lines of evidence to support or refute the presence of ecological effects in ecological risk assessments. The chemicals considered in this report are some that occur at US DOE waste sites, and the wildlife species evaluated herein were chosen because they represent a range of body sizes and diets.

  11. Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1.1 with MCNP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marck, Steven C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent releases of three major world nuclear reaction data libraries, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0, and JEFF-3.1.1, have been tested extensively using benchmark calculations. The calculations were performed with the latest release of the continuous energy Monte Carlo neutronics code MCNP, i.e. MCNP6. Three types of benchmarks were used, viz. criticality safety benchmarks, (fusion) shielding benchmarks, and reference systems for which the effective delayed neutron fraction is reported. For criticality safety, more than 2000 benchmarks from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments were used. Benchmarks from all categories were used, ranging from low-enriched uranium, compound fuel, thermal spectrum ones (LEU-COMP-THERM), to mixed uranium-plutonium, metallic fuel, fast spectrum ones (MIX-MET-FAST). For fusion shielding many benchmarks were based on IAEA specifications for the Oktavian experiments (for Al, Co, Cr, Cu, LiF, Mn, Mo, Si, Ti, W, Zr), Fusion Neutronics Source in Japan (for Be, C, N, O, Fe, Pb), and Pulsed Sphere experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (for 6Li, 7Li, Be, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Ti, Fe, Pb, D2O, H2O, concrete, polyethylene and teflon). The new functionality in MCNP6 to calculate the effective delayed neutron fraction was tested by comparison with more than thirty measurements in widely varying systems. Among these were measurements in the Tank Critical Assembly (TCA in Japan) and IPEN/MB-01 (Brazil), both with a thermal spectrum, two cores in Masurca (France) and three cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA, Japan), all with fast spectra. The performance of the three libraries, in combination with MCNP6, is shown to be good. The results for the LEU-COMP-THERM category are on average very close to the benchmark value. Also for most other categories the results are satisfactory. Deviations from the benchmark values do occur in certain benchmark series, or in isolated cases within benchmark series. Such

  12. Overview of TPC Benchmark E: The Next Generation of OLTP Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, Trish

    Set to replace the aging TPC-C, the TPC Benchmark E is the next generation OLTP benchmark, which more accurately models client database usage. TPC-E addresses the shortcomings of TPC-C. It has a much more complex workload, requires the use of RAID-protected storage, generates much less I/O, and is much cheaper and easier to set up, run, and audit. After a period of overlap, it is expected that TPC-E will become the de facto OLTP benchmark.

  13. Benchmarking 2011: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grantmakers for Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The analysis in "Benchmarking 2011" is based on data from an unduplicated sample of 184 education grantmaking organizations--approximately two-thirds of Grantmakers for Education's (GFE's) network of grantmakers--who responded to an online survey consisting of fixed-choice and open-ended questions. Because a different subset of funders elects to…

  14. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  15. MHEC Survey Establishes Midwest Property Insurance Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midwestern Higher Education Commission Risk Management Institute Research Bulletin, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This publication presents the results of a survey of over 200 midwestern colleges and universities on their property insurance programs and establishes benchmarks to help these institutions evaluate their insurance programs. Findings included the following: (1) 51 percent of respondents currently purchase their property insurance as part of a…

  16. Benchmark Generation and Simulation at Extreme Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Lagadapati, Mahesh; Mueller, Frank; Engelmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The path to extreme scale high-performance computing (HPC) poses several challenges related to power, performance, resilience, productivity, programmability, data movement, and data management. Investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale on future architectures and the performance impact of different architectural choices is an important component of HPC hardware/software co-design. Simulations using models of future HPC systems and communication traces from applications running on existing HPC systems can offer an insight into the performance of future architectures. This work targets technology developed for scalable application tracing of communication events. It focuses on extreme-scale simulation of HPC applications and their communication behavior via lightweight parallel discrete event simulation for performance estimation and evaluation. Instead of simply replaying a trace within a simulator, this work promotes the generation of a benchmark from traces. This benchmark is subsequently exposed to simulation using models to reflect the performance characteristics of future-generation HPC systems. This technique provides a number of benefits, such as eliminating the data intensive trace replay and enabling simulations at different scales. The presented work features novel software co-design aspects, combining the ScalaTrace tool to generate scalable trace files, the ScalaBenchGen tool to generate the benchmark, and the xSim tool to assess the benchmark characteristics within a simulator.

  17. Standardised Benchmarking in the Quest for Orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A.; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Schreiber, Fabian; Sousa da Silva, Alan; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Juhl Jensen, Lars; Martin, Maria J.; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Thomas, Paul D.; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The identification of evolutionarily related genes across different species—orthologs in particular—forms the backbone of many comparative, evolutionary, and functional genomic analyses. Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is thus essential. Yet the true evolutionary history of genes, required to ascertain orthology, is generally unknown. Furthermore, orthologs are used for very different applications across different phyla, with different requirements in terms of the precision-recall trade-off. As a result, assessing the performance of orthology inference methods remains difficult for both users and method developers. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards in orthology benchmarking and facilitate orthology benchmarking through an automated web-based service (http://orthology.benchmarkservice.org). Using this new service, we characterise the performance of 15 well-established orthology inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardised benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimal requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods. PMID:27043882

  18. Benchmarking Year Five Students' Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chang Kuan; Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Reading and understanding a written text is one of the most important skills in English learning.This study attempts to benchmark Year Five students' reading abilities of fifteen rural schools in a district in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are to develop a set of standardised written reading comprehension and a set of indicators to inform…

  19. 2010 Recruiting Benchmarks Survey. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers conducted its annual survey of employer members from June 15, 2010 to August 15, 2010, to benchmark data relevant to college recruiting. From a base of 861 employers holding organizational membership, there were 268 responses for a response rate of 31 percent. Following are some of the major…

  20. A MULTIMODEL APPROACH FOR CALCULATING BENCHMARK DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory


    A Multimodel Approach for Calculating Benchmark Dose
    Ramon I. Garcia and R. Woodrow Setzer

    In the assessment of dose response, a number of plausible dose- response models may give fits that are consistent with the data. If no dose response formulation had been speci...

  1. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency: Metrics and Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative; Mathew, Paul A.; Tschudi, William; Sartor, Dale; Beasley, James

    2010-07-07

    Cleanrooms are among the most energy-intensive types of facilities. This is primarily due to the cleanliness requirements that result in high airflow rates and system static pressures, as well as process requirements that result in high cooling loads. Various studies have shown that there is a wide range of cleanroom energy efficiencies and that facility managers may not be aware of how energy efficient their cleanroom facility can be relative to other cleanroom facilities with the same cleanliness requirements. Metrics and benchmarks are an effective way to compare one facility to another and to track the performance of a given facility over time. This article presents the key metrics and benchmarks that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage their cleanroom energy efficiency or to set energy efficiency targets for new construction. These include system-level metrics such as air change rates, air handling W/cfm, and filter pressure drops. Operational data are presented from over 20 different cleanrooms that were benchmarked with these metrics and that are part of the cleanroom benchmark dataset maintained by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Overall production efficiency metrics for cleanrooms in 28 semiconductor manufacturing facilities in the United States and recorded in the Fabs21 database are also presented.

  2. Benchmarking in Universities: League Tables Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the practice of benchmarking universities using a "league table" approach. Taking the example of the "Sunday Times University League Table", the author reanalyses the descriptive data on UK universities. Using a linear programming technique, data envelope analysis (DEA), the author uses the re-analysis to…

  3. Benchmarking 2010: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Benchmarking 2010" offers insights into the current priorities, practices and concerns of education grantmakers. The report is divided into five sections: (1) Mapping the Education Grantmaking Landscape; (2) 2010 Funding Priorities; (3) Strategies for Leveraging Greater Impact; (4) Identifying Significant Trends in Education Funding; and (5)…

  4. Seven Benchmarks for Information Technology Investment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallen, David; Leach, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Offers benchmarks to help campuses evaluate their efforts in supplying information technology (IT) services. The first three help understand the IT budget, the next three provide insight into staffing levels and emphases, and the seventh relates to the pervasiveness of institutional infrastructure. (EV)

  5. Benchmarking Peer Production Mechanisms, Processes & Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Thomas; Kretschmer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This deliverable identifies key approaches for quality management in peer production by benchmarking peer production practices and processes in other areas. (Contains 29 footnotes, 13 figures and 2 tables.)[This report has been authored with contributions of: Kaisa Honkonen-Ratinen, Matti Auvinen, David Riley, Jose Pinzon, Thomas Fischer, Thomas…

  6. Increased Uptake of HCV Testing through a Community-Based Educational Intervention in Difficult-to-Reach People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the ANRS-AERLI Study

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Perrine; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Ndiaye, Khadim; Debrus, Marie; Protopopescu, Camélia; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Haas, Aurélie; Mora, Marion; Spire, Bruno; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Carrieri, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID) about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing. Methods The national multisite intervention study ANRS-AERLI consisted in assessing the impact of an injection-centered face-to-face educational session offered in volunteer harm reduction (HR) centers (“with intervention”) compared with standard HR centers (“without intervention”). The study included 271 PWID interviewed on three occasions: enrolment, 6 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received at least one face-to-face educational session during the first 6 months. Measurements The primary outcome of this analysis was reporting to have been tested for HCV during the previous 6 months. Statistical analyses used a two-step Heckman approach to account for bias arising from the non-randomized clustering design. This approach identified factors associated with HCV testing during the previous 6 months. Findings Of the 271 participants, 127 and 144 were enrolled in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. For the present analysis, we selected 114 and 88 participants eligible for HCV testing in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 44% of participants reported having being tested for HCV during the previous 6 months at enrolment and 85% at 6 months or 12 months. In the control group, these percentages were 51% at enrolment and 78% at 12 months. Multivariable analyses showed that participants who received at least one educational session during follow-up were more likely to report HCV testing

  7. SPOC Benchmark Case: SNRE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vishal Patel; Michael Eades; Claude Russel Joyner II

    2016-02-01

    The Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE) was modeled in the Center for Space Nuclear Research’s (CSNR) Space Propulsion Optimization Code (SPOC). SPOC aims to create nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) geometries quickly to perform parametric studies on design spaces of historic and new NTP designs. The SNRE geometry was modeled in SPOC and a critical core with a reasonable amount of criticality margin was found. The fuel, tie-tubes, reflector, and control drum masses were predicted rather well. These are all very important for neutronics calculations so the active reactor geometries created with SPOC can continue to be trusted. Thermal calculations of the average and hot fuel channels agreed very well. The specific impulse calculations used historically and in SPOC disagree so mass flow rates and impulses differed. Modeling peripheral and power balance components that do not affect nuclear characteristics of the core is not a feature of SPOC and as such, these components should continue to be designed using other tools. A full paper detailing the available SNRE data and comparisons with SPOC outputs will be submitted as a follow-up to this abstract.

  8. 42 CFR 425.602 - Establishing the benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computing an ACO's fixed historical benchmark that is adjusted for historical growth and beneficiary... program. (2) Makes separate expenditure calculations for each of the following populations of... making up the historical benchmark, determines national growth rates and trends expenditures for...

  9. 42 CFR 425.602 - Establishing the benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... computing an ACO's fixed historical benchmark that is adjusted for historical growth and beneficiary... program. (2) Makes separate expenditure calculations for each of the following populations of... making up the historical benchmark, determines national growth rates and trends expenditures for...

  10. 42 CFR 425.602 - Establishing the benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... computing an ACO's fixed historical benchmark that is adjusted for historical growth and beneficiary... program. (2) Makes separate expenditure calculations for each of the following populations of... making up the historical benchmark, determines national growth rates and trends expenditures for...

  11. Using Benchmarking To Influence Tuition and Fee Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbell, Loren W. Loomis; Massa, Robert J.; Lapovsky, Lucie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of benchmarking in managing enrollment. Using a case study, illustrates how benchmarking can help administrators develop strategies for planning and implementing admissions and pricing practices. (EV)

  12. SU-E-T-148: Benchmarks and Pre-Treatment Reviews: A Study of Quality Assurance Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, J; Nguyen, H; Roll, J; Walsh, A; Tailor, A; Followill, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the impact benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews have on improving the quality of submitted clinical trial data. Methods: Benchmarks are used to evaluate a site’s ability to develop a treatment that meets a specific protocol’s treatment guidelines prior to placing their first patient on the protocol. A pre-treatment review is an actual patient placed on the protocol in which the dosimetry and contour volumes are evaluated to be per protocol guidelines prior to allowing the beginning of the treatment. A key component of these QA mechanisms is that sites are provided timely feedback to educate them on how to plan per the protocol and prevent protocol deviations on patients accrued to a protocol. For both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews a dose volume analysis (DVA) was performed using MIM softwareTM. For pre-treatment reviews a volume contour evaluation was also performed. Results: IROC Houston performed a QA effectiveness analysis of a protocol which required both benchmarks and pre-treatment reviews. In 70 percent of the patient cases submitted, the benchmark played an effective role in assuring that the pre-treatment review of the cases met protocol requirements. The 35 percent of sites failing the benchmark subsequently modified there planning technique to pass the benchmark before being allowed to submit a patient for pre-treatment review. However, in 30 percent of the submitted cases the pre-treatment review failed where the majority (71 percent) failed the DVA. 20 percent of sites submitting patients failed to correct their dose volume discrepancies indicated by the benchmark case. Conclusion: Benchmark cases and pre-treatment reviews can be an effective QA tool to educate sites on protocol guidelines and to minimize deviations. Without the benchmark cases it is possible that 65 percent of the cases undergoing a pre-treatment review would have failed to meet the protocols requirements.Support: U24-CA-180803.

  13. Results Oriented Benchmarking: The Evolution of Benchmarking at NASA from Competitive Comparisons to World Class Space Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Informal benchmarking using personal or professional networks has taken place for many years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognized early on, the need to formalize the benchmarking process for better utilization of resources and improved benchmarking performance. The need to compete in a faster, better, cheaper environment has been the catalyst for formalizing these efforts. A pioneering benchmarking consortium was chartered at KSC in January 1994. The consortium known as the Kennedy Benchmarking Clearinghouse (KBC), is a collaborative effort of NASA and all major KSC contractors. The charter of this consortium is to facilitate effective benchmarking, and leverage the resulting quality improvements across KSC. The KBC acts as a resource with experienced facilitators and a proven process. One of the initial actions of the KBC was to develop a holistic methodology for Center-wide benchmarking. This approach to Benchmarking integrates the best features of proven benchmarking models (i.e., Camp, Spendolini, Watson, and Balm). This cost-effective alternative to conventional Benchmarking approaches has provided a foundation for consistent benchmarking at KSC through the development of common terminology, tools, and techniques. Through these efforts a foundation and infrastructure has been built which allows short duration benchmarking studies yielding results gleaned from world class partners that can be readily implemented. The KBC has been recognized with the Silver Medal Award (in the applied research category) from the International Benchmarking Clearinghouse.

  14. Taking Stock of Corporate Benchmarking Practices: Panacea or Pandora's Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleisher, Craig S.; Burton, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Discusses why corporate communications/public relations (cc/pr) should be benchmarked (an approach used by cc/pr managers to demonstrate the value of their activities to skeptical organizational executives). Discusses myths about cc/pr benchmarking; types, targets, and focus of cc/pr benchmarking; a process model; and critical decisions about…

  15. Discovering and Implementing Best Practices to Strengthen SEAs: Collaborative Benchmarking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building State Capacity and Productivity Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper is written for state educational agency (SEA) leaders who are considering the benefits of collaborative benchmarking, and it addresses the following questions: (1) What does benchmarking of best practices entail?; (2) How does "collaborative benchmarking" enhance the process?; (3) How do SEAs control the process so that "their" needs…

  16. Resistance and uptake of cadmium by yeast, Pichia hampshirensis 4Aer, isolated from industrial effluent and its potential use in decontamination of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zaman; Rehman, Abdul; Hussain, Syed Z

    2016-09-01

    Pichia hampshirensis 4Aer is first ever used yeast for the bioremediation of environmental cadmium (Cd(+2)) which could maximally remove 22 mM/g and 28 mM/g Cd(+2) from aqueous medium at lab and large scales, respectively. The biosorption was found to be the function of temperature, pH of solution, initial Cd(+2) concentration and biomass dosage. Competitive biosorption was investigated in binary and multi-metal system which indicated the decrease in Cd(+2) biosorption with increasing the competitive metal ions attributed to their higher electronegativity and larger radius. FTIR analysis revealed the active participation of amide and carbonyl moieties in Cd(+2) adsorption confirmed by EDX analysis. Electron micrographs summoned further surface adsorption and increased cell size due to intracellular Cd(+2) accumulation. Cd(+2) was the causative agent of some metal binding proteins as well as prodigious increase in glutathione and other non-protein thiols levels which is the crucial for the yeast to thrive oxidative stress generated by Cd(+2). Our experimental data were consistent with Langmuir as well as Freundlich isotherm models. The yeast obeyed pseudo second order kinetic model which makes it an effective biosorbent for Cd(+2). High bioremediation potential and spontaneity and feasibility of the process make P. hampshirensis 4Aer an impending foundation for green chemistry to exterminate environmental Cd(+2).

  17. Experimental Criticality Benchmarks for SNAP 10A/2 Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Krass, A.W.

    2005-12-19

    This report describes computational benchmark models for nuclear criticality derived from descriptions of the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) Critical Assembly (SCA)-4B experimental criticality program conducted by Atomics International during the early 1960's. The selected experimental configurations consist of fueled SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores subject to varied conditions of water immersion and reflection under experimental control to measure neutron multiplication. SNAP 10A/2-type reactor cores are compact volumes fueled and moderated with the hydride of highly enriched uranium-zirconium alloy. Specifications for the materials and geometry needed to describe a given experimental configuration for a model using MCNP5 are provided. The material and geometry specifications are adequate to permit user development of input for alternative nuclear safety codes, such as KENO. A total of 73 distinct experimental configurations are described.

  18. Using Grid Benchmarks for Dynamic Scheduling of Grid Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Hood, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Navigation or dynamic scheduling of applications on computational grids can be improved through the use of an application-specific characterization of grid resources. Current grid information systems provide a description of the resources, but do not contain any application-specific information. We define a GridScape as dynamic state of the grid resources. We measure the dynamic performance of these resources using the grid benchmarks. Then we use the GridScape for automatic assignment of the tasks of a grid application to grid resources. The scalability of the system is achieved by limiting the navigation overhead to a few percent of the application resource requirements. Our task submission and assignment protocol guarantees that the navigation system does not cause grid congestion. On a synthetic data mining application we demonstrate that Gridscape-based task assignment reduces the application tunaround time.

  19. ASBench: benchmarking sets for allosteric discovery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenkang; Wang, Guanqiao; Shen, Qiancheng; Liu, Xinyi; Lu, Shaoyong; Geng, Lv; Huang, Zhimin; Zhang, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Allostery allows for the fine-tuning of protein function. Targeting allosteric sites is gaining increasing recognition as a novel strategy in drug design. The key challenge in the discovery of allosteric sites has strongly motivated the development of computational methods and thus high-quality, publicly accessible standard data have become indispensable. Here, we report benchmarking data for experimentally determined allosteric sites through a complex process, including a 'Core set' with 235 unique allosteric sites and a 'Core-Diversity set' with 147 structurally diverse allosteric sites. These benchmarking sets can be exploited to develop efficient computational methods to predict unknown allosteric sites in proteins and reveal unique allosteric ligand-protein interactions to guide allosteric drug design.

  20. Recommendations for Benchmarking Preclinical Studies of Nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Dawidczyk, Charlene M; Russell, Luisa M; Searson, Peter C

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery systems provide new opportunities to overcome the limitations associated with traditional small-molecule drug therapy for cancer and to achieve both therapeutic and diagnostic functions in the same platform. Preclinical trials are generally designed to assess therapeutic potential and not to optimize the design of the delivery platform. Consequently, progress in developing design rules for cancer nanomedicines has been slow, hindering progress in the field. Despite the large number of preclinical trials, several factors restrict comparison and benchmarking of different platforms, including variability in experimental design, reporting of results, and the lack of quantitative data. To solve this problem, we review the variables involved in the design of preclinical trials and propose a protocol for benchmarking that we recommend be included in in vivo preclinical studies of drug-delivery platforms for cancer therapy. This strategy will contribute to building the scientific knowledge base that enables development of design rules and accelerates the translation of new technologies.

  1. A new tool for benchmarking cardiovascular fluoroscopes.

    PubMed

    Balter, S; Heupler, F A; Lin, P J; Wondrow, M H

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the status of a new cardiovascular fluoroscopy benchmarking phantom. A joint working group of the Society for Cardiac Angiography and Interventions (SCA&I) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) developed the phantom. The device was adopted as NEMA standard XR 21-2000, "Characteristics of and Test Procedures for a Phantom to Benchmark Cardiac Fluoroscopic and Photographic Performance," in August 2000. The test ensemble includes imaging field geometry, spatial resolution, low-contrast iodine detectability, working thickness range, visibility of moving targets, and phantom entrance dose. The phantom tests systems under conditions simulating normal clinical use for fluoroscopically guided invasive and interventional procedures. Test procedures rely on trained human observers.

  2. Toxicological benchmarks for wildlife. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents toxicological benchmarks for assessment of effects of 55 chemicals on six representative mammalian wildlife species (short-tailed shrew, white-footed mouse, cottontail ink, red fox, and whitetail deer) and eight avian wildlife species (American robin, woodcock, wild turkey, belted kingfisher, great blue heron, barred owl, Cooper`s hawk, and redtailed hawk) (scientific names are presented in Appendix C). These species were chosen because they are widely distributed and provide a representative range of body sizes and diets. The chemicals are some of those that occur at United States Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. The benchmarks presented in this report are values believed to be nonhazardous for the listed wildlife species.

  3. Parton distribution benchmarking with LHC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Richard D.; Carrazza, Stefano; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Gao, Jun; Hartland, Nathan; Huston, Joey; Nadolsky, Pavel; Rojo, Juan; Stump, Daniel; Thorne, Robert S.; Yuan, C.-P.

    2013-04-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the most recent sets of NNLO PDFs from the ABM, CT, HERAPDF, MSTW and NNPDF collaborations. We compare parton distributions at low and high scales and parton luminosities relevant for LHC phenomenology. We study the PDF dependence of LHC benchmark inclusive cross sections and differential distributions for electroweak boson and jet production in the cases in which the experimental covariance matrix is available. We quantify the agreement between data and theory by computing the χ 2 for each data set with all the various PDFs. PDF comparisons are performed consistently for common values of the strong coupling. We also present a benchmark comparison of jet production at the LHC, comparing the results from various available codes and scale settings. Finally, we discuss the implications of the updated NNLO PDF sets for the combined PDF+ α s uncertainty in the gluon fusion Higgs production cross section.

  4. Benchmark On Sensitivity Calculation (Phase III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Laville, Cedric; Dyrda, James; Mennerdahl, Dennis; Golovko, Yury; Raskach, Kirill; Tsiboulia, Anatoly; Lee, Gil Soo; Woo, Sweng-Woong; Bidaud, Adrien; Patel, Amrit; Bledsoe, Keith C; Rearden, Bradley T; Gulliford, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivities of the keff eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods.

  5. Assessing and benchmarking multiphoton microscopes for biologists

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Kaitlin; Pinkard, Henry; Peck, Sebastian; Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2017-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become staple tool for tracking cells within tissues and organs due to superior depth of penetration, low excitation volumes, and reduced phototoxicity. Many factors, ranging from laser pulse width to relay optics to detectors and electronics, contribute to the overall ability of these microscopes to excite and detect fluorescence deep within tissues. However, we have found that there are few standard ways already described in the literature to distinguish between microscopes or to benchmark existing microscopes to measure the overall quality and efficiency of these instruments. Here, we discuss some simple parameters and methods that can either be used within a multiphoton facility or by a prospective purchaser to benchmark performance. This can both assist in identifying decay in microscope performance and in choosing features of a scope that are suited to experimental needs. PMID:24974026

  6. Assessing and benchmarking multiphoton microscopes for biologists.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Kaitlin; Pinkard, Henry; Peck, Sebastian; Beemiller, Peter; Krummel, Matthew F

    2014-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has become staple tool for tracking cells within tissues and organs due to superior depth of penetration, low excitation volumes, and reduced phototoxicity. Many factors, ranging from laser pulse width to relay optics to detectors and electronics, contribute to the overall ability of these microscopes to excite and detect fluorescence deep within tissues. However, we have found that there are few standard ways already described in the literature to distinguish between microscopes or to benchmark existing microscopes to measure the overall quality and efficiency of these instruments. Here, we discuss some simple parameters and methods that can either be used within a multiphoton facility or by a prospective purchaser to benchmark performance. This can both assist in identifying decay in microscope performance and in choosing features of a scope that are suited to experimental needs.

  7. Developing of Indicators of an E-Learning Benchmarking Model for Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sae-Khow, Jirasak

    2014-01-01

    This study was the development of e-learning indicators used as an e-learning benchmarking model for higher education institutes. Specifically, it aimed to: 1) synthesize the e-learning indicators; 2) examine content validity by specialists; and 3) explore appropriateness of the e-learning indicators. Review of related literature included…

  8. CFD validation in OECD/NEA t-junction benchmark.

    SciTech Connect

    Obabko, A. V.; Fischer, P. F.; Tautges, T. J.; Karabasov, S.; Goloviznin, V. M.; Zaytsev, M. A.; Chudanov, V. V.; Pervichko, V. A.; Aksenova, A. E.

    2011-08-23

    When streams of rapidly moving flow merge in a T-junction, the potential arises for large oscillations at the scale of the diameter, D, with a period scaling as O(D/U), where U is the characteristic flow velocity. If the streams are of different temperatures, the oscillations result in experimental fluctuations (thermal striping) at the pipe wall in the outlet branch that can accelerate thermal-mechanical fatigue and ultimately cause pipe failure. The importance of this phenomenon has prompted the nuclear energy modeling and simulation community to establish a benchmark to test the ability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to predict thermal striping. The benchmark is based on thermal and velocity data measured in an experiment designed specifically for this purpose. Thermal striping is intrinsically unsteady and hence not accessible to steady state simulation approaches such as steady state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models.1 Consequently, one must consider either unsteady RANS or large eddy simulation (LES). This report compares the results for three LES codes: Nek5000, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (USA), and Cabaret and Conv3D, developed at the Moscow Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety at (IBRAE) in Russia. Nek5000 is based on the spectral element method (SEM), which is a high-order weighted residual technique that combines the geometric flexibility of the finite element method (FEM) with the tensor-product efficiencies of spectral methods. Cabaret is a 'compact accurately boundary-adjusting high-resolution technique' for fluid dynamics simulation. The method is second-order accurate on nonuniform grids in space and time, and has a small dispersion error and computational stencil defined within one space-time cell. The scheme is equipped with a conservative nonlinear correction procedure based on the maximum principle. CONV3D is based on the immersed boundary method and is validated on a wide set of the experimental and

  9. BN-600 full MOX core benchmark analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. I.; Hill, R. N.; Grimm, K.; Rimpault, G.; Newton, T.; Li, Z. H.; Rineiski, A.; Mohanakrishan, P.; Ishikawa, M.; Lee, K. B.; Danilytchev, A.; Stogov, V.; Nuclear Engineering Division; International Atomic Energy Agency; CEA SERCO Assurance; China Inst. of Atomic Energy; Forschnungszentrum Karlsruhe; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research; Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst.; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up of the BN-600 hybrid core benchmark, a full MOX core benchmark was performed within the framework of the IAEA co-ordinated research project. Discrepancies between the values of main reactivity coefficients obtained by the participants for the BN-600 full MOX core benchmark appear to be larger than those in the previous hybrid core benchmarks on traditional core configurations. This arises due to uncertainties in the proper modelling of the axial sodium plenum above the core. It was recognized that the sodium density coefficient strongly depends on the core model configuration of interest (hybrid core vs. fully MOX fuelled core with sodium plenum above the core) in conjunction with the calculation method (diffusion vs. transport theory). The effects of the discrepancies revealed between the participants results on the ULOF and UTOP transient behaviours of the BN-600 full MOX core were investigated in simplified transient analyses. Generally the diffusion approximation predicts more benign consequences for the ULOF accident but more hazardous ones for the UTOP accident when compared with the transport theory results. The heterogeneity effect does not have any significant effect on the simulation of the transient. The comparison of the transient analyses results concluded that the fuel Doppler coefficient and the sodium density coefficient are the two most important coefficients in understanding the ULOF transient behaviour. In particular, the uncertainty in evaluating the sodium density coefficient distribution has the largest impact on the description of reactor dynamics. This is because the maximum sodium temperature rise takes place at the top of the core and in the sodium plenum.

  10. Experimental Benchmarking of the Magnetized Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Galnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL BENCHMARKING OF THE MAGNETIZED FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; GALNANDER, B.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; LOFNES, T.; SIDORIN, A.O.; SMIRNOV, A.V.; ZIEMANN, V.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling, presently considered as essential tool for several applications in high-energy and nuclear physics, requires accurate description of the friction force. A series of measurements were performed at CELSIUS with the goal to provide accurate data needed for the benchmarking of theories and simulations. Some results of accurate comparison of experimental data with the friction force formulas are presented.

  12. Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment: Subsonic Fixed Wing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florance, Jennifer P.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental technical challenge in computational aeroelasticity is the accurate prediction of unsteady aerodynamic phenomena and the effect on the aeroelastic response of a vehicle. Currently, a benchmarking standard for use in validating the accuracy of computational aeroelasticity codes does not exist. Many aeroelastic data sets have been obtained in wind-tunnel and flight testing throughout the world; however, none have been globally presented or accepted as an ideal data set. There are numerous reasons for this. One reason is that often, such aeroelastic data sets focus on the aeroelastic phenomena alone (flutter, for example) and do not contain associated information such as unsteady pressures and time-correlated structural dynamic deflections. Other available data sets focus solely on the unsteady pressures and do not address the aeroelastic phenomena. Other discrepancies can include omission of relevant data, such as flutter frequency and / or the acquisition of only qualitative deflection data. In addition to these content deficiencies, all of the available data sets present both experimental and computational technical challenges. Experimental issues include facility influences, nonlinearities beyond those being modeled, and data processing. From the computational perspective, technical challenges include modeling geometric complexities, coupling between the flow and the structure, grid issues, and boundary conditions. The Aeroelasticity Benchmark Assessment task seeks to examine the existing potential experimental data sets and ultimately choose the one that is viewed as the most suitable for computational benchmarking. An initial computational evaluation of that configuration will then be performed using the Langley-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FUN3D1 as part of its code validation process. In addition to the benchmarking activity, this task also includes an examination of future research directions. Researchers within the

  13. Data Intensive Systems (DIS) Benchmark Performance Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    calculated. These give a rough measure of the texture of each ROI. A gray-level co-occurrence matrix ( GLCM ) contains information about the spatial...sum and difference histograms.19 The descriptors chosen as features for this benchmark are GLCM entropy and GLCM energy, and are defined in terms of...stressmark, the relationships of pairs of pixels within a randomly generated image are measured. These features quantify the texture of the image

  14. Measurement Analysis When Benchmarking Java Card Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradinas, Pierre; Cordry, Julien; Bouzefrane, Samia

    The advent of the Java Card standard has been a major turning point in smart card technology. With the growing acceptance of this standard, understanding the performance behaviour of these platforms is becoming crucial. To meet this need, we present in this paper, a benchmark framework that enables performance evaluation at the bytecode level. This paper focuses on the validity of our time measurements on smart cards.

  15. Optimal Quantum Control Using Randomized Benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Fowler, A. G.; Hoi, I.-C.; Jeffrey, E.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a method for optimizing quantum control in experimental systems, using a subset of randomized benchmarking measurements to rapidly infer error. This is demonstrated to improve single- and two-qubit gates, minimize gate bleedthrough, where a gate mechanism can cause errors on subsequent gates, and identify control crosstalk in superconducting qubits. This method is able to correct parameters so that control errors no longer dominate and is suitable for automated and closed-loop optimization of experimental systems.

  16. A Simplified HTTR Diffusion Theory Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Rodolfo M. Ferrer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Farzad Rahnema

    2010-10-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology (GA-Tech) recently developed a transport theory benchmark based closely on the geometry and the features of the HTTR reactor that is operational in Japan. Though simplified, the benchmark retains all the principal physical features of the reactor and thus provides a realistic and challenging test for the codes. The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first goal is an extension of the benchmark to diffusion theory applications by generating the additional data not provided in the GA-Tech prior work. The second goal is to use the benchmark on the HEXPEDITE code available to the INL. The HEXPEDITE code is a Green’s function-based neutron diffusion code in 3D hexagonal-z geometry. The results showed that the HEXPEDITE code accurately reproduces the effective multiplication factor of the reference HELIOS solution. A secondary, but no less important, conclusion is that in the testing against actual HTTR data of a full sequence of codes that would include HEXPEDITE, in the apportioning of inevitable discrepancies between experiment and models, the portion of error attributable to HEXPEDITE would be expected to be modest. If large discrepancies are observed, they would have to be explained by errors in the data fed into HEXPEDITE. Results based on a fully realistic model of the HTTR reactor are presented in a companion paper. The suite of codes used in that paper also includes HEXPEDITE. The results shown here should help that effort in the decision making process for refining the modeling steps in the full sequence of codes.

  17. Review of the GMD Benchmark Event in TPL-007-1

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, Scott N.; Rivera, Michael Kelly

    2015-07-21

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) examined the approaches suggested in NERC Standard TPL-007-1 for defining the geo-electric field for the Benchmark Geomagnetic Disturbance (GMD) Event. Specifically; 1. Estimating 100-year exceedance geo-electric field magnitude; The scaling of the GMD Benchmark Event to geomagnetic latitudes below 60 degrees north; and 3. The effect of uncertainties in earth conductivity data on the conversion from geomagnetic field to geo-electric field. This document summarizes the review and presents recommendations for consideration

  18. 42 CFR 440.385 - Delivery of benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage through managed care entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of benchmark and benchmark-equivalent coverage through managed care entities. 440.385 Section 440.385 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit...

  19. Cause‐specific long‐term mortality in survivors of childhood cancer in Switzerland: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; Ammann, Roland A.; Ansari, Marc; Michel, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer have a higher mortality than the general population. We describe cause‐specific long‐term mortality in a population‐based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. We included all children diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland (1976–2007) at age 0–14 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis and followed survivors until December 31, 2012. We obtained causes of death (COD) from the Swiss mortality statistics and used data from the Swiss general population to calculate age‐, calendar year‐, and sex‐standardized mortality ratios (SMR), and absolute excess risks (AER) for different COD, by Poisson regression. We included 3,965 survivors and 49,704 person years at risk. Of these, 246 (6.2%) died, which was 11 times higher than expected (SMR 11.0). Mortality was particularly high for diseases of the respiratory (SMR 14.8) and circulatory system (SMR 12.7), and for second cancers (SMR 11.6). The pattern of cause‐specific mortality differed by primary cancer diagnosis, and changed with time since diagnosis. In the first 10 years after 5‐year survival, 78.9% of excess deaths were caused by recurrence of the original cancer (AER 46.1). Twenty‐five years after diagnosis, only 36.5% (AER 9.1) were caused by recurrence, 21.3% by second cancers (AER 5.3) and 33.3% by circulatory diseases (AER 8.3). Our study confirms an elevated mortality in survivors of childhood cancer for at least 30 years after diagnosis with an increased proportion of deaths caused by late toxicities of the treatment. The results underline the importance of clinical follow‐up continuing years after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:26950898

  20. Introduction to the HPC Challenge Benchmark Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Luszczek, Piotr; Dongarra, Jack J.; Koester, David; Rabenseifner,Rolf; Lucas, Bob; Kepner, Jeremy; McCalpin, John; Bailey, David; Takahashi, Daisuke

    2005-04-25

    The HPC Challenge benchmark suite has been released by the DARPA HPCS program to help define the performance boundaries of future Petascale computing systems. HPC Challenge is a suite of tests that examine the performance of HPC architectures using kernels with memory access patterns more challenging than those of the High Performance Linpack (HPL) benchmark used in the Top500 list. Thus, the suite is designed to augment the Top500 list, providing benchmarks that bound the performance of many real applications as a function of memory access characteristics e.g., spatial and temporal locality, and providing a framework for including additional tests. In particular, the suite is composed of several well known computational kernels (STREAM, HPL, matrix multiply--DGEMM, parallel matrix transpose--PTRANS, FFT, RandomAccess, and bandwidth/latency tests--b{sub eff}) that attempt to span high and low spatial and temporal locality space. By design, the HPC Challenge tests are scalable with the size of data sets being a function of the largest HPL matrix for the tested system.

  1. Benchmarking the Multidimensional Stellar Implicit Code MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffrey, T.; Pratt, J.; Viallet, M.; Baraffe, I.; Popov, M. V.; Walder, R.; Folini, D.; Geroux, C.; Constantino, T.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of a numerical benchmark study for the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC) based on widely applicable two- and three-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics problems relevant to stellar interiors. MUSIC is an implicit large eddy simulation code that uses implicit time integration, implemented as a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov method. A physics based preconditioning technique which can be adjusted to target varying physics is used to improve the performance of the solver. The problems used for this benchmark study include the Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, and the decay of the Taylor-Green vortex. Additionally we show a test of hydrostatic equilibrium, in a stellar environment which is dominated by radiative effects. In this setting the flexibility of the preconditioning technique is demonstrated. This work aims to bridge the gap between the hydrodynamic test problems typically used during development of numerical methods and the complex flows of stellar interiors. A series of multidimensional tests were performed and analysed. Each of these test cases was analysed with a simple, scalar diagnostic, with the aim of enabling direct code comparisons. As the tests performed do not have analytic solutions, we verify MUSIC by comparing it to established codes including ATHENA and the PENCIL code. MUSIC is able to both reproduce behaviour from established and widely-used codes as well as results expected from theoretical predictions. This benchmarking study concludes a series of papers describing the development of the MUSIC code and provides confidence in future applications.

  2. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  3. Utilizing benchmark data from the ANL-ZPR diagnostic cores program

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R. W.; McKnight, R. D.

    2000-02-15

    The support of the criticality safety community is allowing the production of benchmark descriptions of several assemblies from the ZPR Diagnostic Cores Program. The assemblies have high sensitivities to nuclear data for a few isotopes. This can highlight limitations in nuclear data for selected nuclides or in standard methods used to treat these data. The present work extends the use of the simplified model of the U9 benchmark assembly beyond the validation of k{sub eff}. Further simplifications have been made to produce a data testing benchmark in the style of the standard CSEWG benchmark specifications. Calculations for this data testing benchmark are compared to results obtained with more detailed models and methods to determine their biases. These biases or corrections factors can then be applied in the use of the less refined methods and models. Data testing results using Versions IV, V, and VI of the ENDF/B nuclear data are presented for k{sub eff}, f{sup 28}/f{sup 25}, c{sup 28}/f{sup 25}, and {beta}{sub eff}. These limited results demonstrate the importance of studying other integral parameters in addition to k{sub eff} in trying to improve nuclear data and methods and the importance of accounting for methods and/or modeling biases when using data testing results to infer the quality of the nuclear data files.

  4. Improvements to the Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Benchmark with 3-D Parallel SN PENTRAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Christopher A.; Sjoden, Glenn E.; Yi, Ce

    2014-06-01

    The internationally circulated Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) Pressure Vessel Benchmark was analyzed using the PENTRAN Parallel SN code system for the geometry, material, and source specifications as described in the PCA Benchmark documentation. Improvements to the benchmark are proposed here through the application of more representative flux and volume weighted homogenized cross sections for the PCA reactor core, which were obtained from a rigorous heterogeneous modeling of all fuel assembly types in the core. A new source term definition is also proposed based on calculated relative power in each core fuel assembly with a spectrum based on the Uranium-235 fission spectra. This research focused on utilizing the BUGLE-96 cross section library and accompanying reaction rates, while also examining PENTRAN's adaptive differencing implemented on a coarse mesh basis, as well as fixed use of Directional Theta-Weighted (DTW) SN differencing scheme in order to compare the calculated PENTRAN results to measured data. The results show good comparison with the measured benchmark data, which suggests PENTRAN is a viable, reliable code system for calculation of light water reactor neutron shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry calculations. Furthermore, the improvements to the benchmark methodology resulting from this work provide a 6 percent increase in accuracy of the calculation (based on the average of all calculation points), when compared with experimentally measured results at the same spatial locations in the PCA pressure vessel simulator.

  5. The challenge of benchmarking health systems: is ICT innovation capacity more systemic than organizational dependent?

    PubMed

    Lapão, Luís Velez

    2015-01-01

    The article by Catan et al. presents a benchmarking exercise comparing Israel and Portugal on the implementation of Information and Communication Technologies in the healthcare sector. Special attention was given to e-Health and m-Health. The authors collected information via a set of interviews with key stakeholders. They compared two different cultures and societies, which have reached slightly different implementation outcomes. Although the comparison is very enlightening, it is also challenging. Benchmarking exercises present a set of challenges, such as the choice of methodologies and the assessment of the impact on organizational strategy. Precise benchmarking methodology is a valid tool for eliciting information about alternatives for improving health systems. However, many beneficial interventions, which benchmark as effective, fail to translate into meaningful healthcare outcomes across contexts. There is a relationship between results and the innovational and competitive environments. Differences in healthcare governance and financing models are well known; but little is known about their impact on Information and Communication Technology implementation. The article by Catan et al. provides interesting clues about this issue. Public systems (such as those of Portugal, UK, Sweden, Spain, etc.) present specific advantages and disadvantages concerning Information and Communication Technology development and implementation. Meanwhile, private systems based fundamentally on insurance packages, (such as Israel, Germany, Netherlands or USA) present a different set of advantages and disadvantages - especially a more open context for innovation. Challenging issues from both the Portuguese and Israeli cases will be addressed. Clearly, more research is needed on both benchmarking methodologies and on ICT implementation strategies.

  6. The rotating movement of three immiscible fluids - A benchmark problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, M.; Oude, Essink G.H.P.; Langevin, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    A benchmark problem involving the rotating movement of three immiscible fluids is proposed for verifying the density-dependent flow component of groundwater flow codes. The problem consists of a two-dimensional strip in the vertical plane filled with three fluids of different densities separated by interfaces. Initially, the interfaces between the fluids make a 45??angle with the horizontal. Over time, the fluids rotate to the stable position whereby the interfaces are horizontal; all flow is caused by density differences. Two cases of the problem are presented, one resulting in a symmetric flow field and one resulting in an asymmetric flow field. An exact analytical solution for the initial flow field is presented by application of the vortex theory and complex variables. Numerical results are obtained using three variable-density groundwater flow codes (SWI, MOCDENS3D, and SEAWAT). Initial horizontal velocities of the interfaces, as simulated by the three codes, compare well with the exact solution. The three codes are used to simulate the positions of the interfaces at two times; the three codes produce nearly identical results. The agreement between the results is evidence that the specific rotational behavior predicted by the models is correct. It also shows that the proposed problem may be used to benchmark variable-density codes. It is concluded that the three models can be used to model accurately the movement of interfaces between immiscible fluids, and have little or no numerical dispersion. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance Comparison of HPF and MPI Based NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash

    1997-01-01

    Compilers supporting High Performance Form (HPF) features first appeared in late 1994 and early 1995 from Applied Parallel Research (APR), Digital Equipment Corporation, and The Portland Group (PGI). IBM introduced an HPF compiler for the IBM RS/6000 SP2 in April of 1996. Over the past two years, these implementations have shown steady improvement in terms of both features and performance. The performance of various hardware/ programming model (HPF and MPI) combinations will be compared, based on latest NAS Parallel Benchmark results, thus providing a cross-machine and cross-model comparison. Specifically, HPF based NPB results will be compared with MPI based NPB results to provide perspective on performance currently obtainable using HPF versus MPI or versus hand-tuned implementations such as those supplied by the hardware vendors. In addition, we would also present NPB, (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu CAPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, and SGI Origin2000. We would also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  8. Implementation, capabilities, and benchmarking of Shift, a massively parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport code

    DOE PAGES

    Pandya, Tara M.; Johnson, Seth R.; Evans, Thomas M.; ...

    2015-12-21

    This paper discusses the implementation, capabilities, and validation of Shift, a massively parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport package developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has been developed to scale well from laptop to small computing clusters to advanced supercomputers. Special features of Shift include hybrid capabilities for variance reduction such as CADIS and FW-CADIS, and advanced parallel decomposition and tally methods optimized for scalability on supercomputing architectures. Shift has been validated and verified against various reactor physics benchmarks and compares well to other state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiation transport codes such as MCNP5, CE KENO-VI, and OpenMC. Somemore » specific benchmarks used for verification and validation include the CASL VERA criticality test suite and several Westinghouse AP1000® problems. These benchmark and scaling studies show promising results.« less

  9. Implementation, capabilities, and benchmarking of Shift, a massively parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Tara M.; Johnson, Seth R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Davidson, Gregory G.; Hamilton, Steven P.; Godfrey, Andrew T.

    2015-12-21

    This paper discusses the implementation, capabilities, and validation of Shift, a massively parallel Monte Carlo radiation transport package developed and maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has been developed to scale well from laptop to small computing clusters to advanced supercomputers. Special features of Shift include hybrid capabilities for variance reduction such as CADIS and FW-CADIS, and advanced parallel decomposition and tally methods optimized for scalability on supercomputing architectures. Shift has been validated and verified against various reactor physics benchmarks and compares well to other state-of-the-art Monte Carlo radiation transport codes such as MCNP5, CE KENO-VI, and OpenMC. Some specific benchmarks used for verification and validation include the CASL VERA criticality test suite and several Westinghouse AP1000® problems. These benchmark and scaling studies show promising results.

  10. Benchmarking--an approach to efficiency enhancement in planning, construction and operation of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Stemplewski, J; Schulz, A; Schön, J

    2001-01-01

    In the following paper the technique of benchmarking was transferred to the field of wastewater treatment. The method was developed within a pilot project, in which 4 wastewater treatment plants (WVTP) (size category: 10,000-100,000 p. e.) of the Emschergenossenschaft/Lippeverband and the Aggerverband were involved. Meanwhile this method is applied to more than 100 WWTP. Specific technical and economic parameters were determined for the whole treatment plant and afterwards assigned to the different treatment steps. With these numbers differences between the examined plants and the respective benchmarks were visible. On the basis of the following cause analysis a schedule could be developed containing at first measures, which could be translated into action immediately. The less obvious reasons for differences between individual numbers required a deeper cause analysis. Because of external influences not all the plants can reach the benchmarks.

  11. Protein-Protein Docking Benchmark Version 3.0

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Howook; Pierce, Brian; Mintseris, Julian; Janin, Joël; Weng, Zhiping

    2009-01-01

    We present version 3.0 of our publicly available protein-protein docking benchmark. This update includes 40 new test cases, representing a 48% increase from Benchmark 2.0. For all of the new cases, the crystal structures of both binding partners are available. As with Benchmark 2.0, SCOP1 (Structural Classification of Proteins) was used to remove redundant test cases. The 124 unbound-unbound test cases in Benchmark 3.0 are classified into 88 rigid-body cases, 19 medium difficulty cases, and 17 difficult cases, based on the degree of conformational change at the interface upon complex formation. In addition to providing the community with more test cases for evaluating docking methods, the expansion of Benchmark 3.0 will facilitate the development of new algorithms that require a large number of training examples. Benchmark 3.0 is available to the public at http://zlab.bu.edu/benchmark. PMID:18491384

  12. Results of benchmarking of advanced CD-SEMs at the 90-nm CMOS technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin D.; Bishop, Michael; Allgair, John A.

    2004-05-01

    The Advanced Metrology Advisory Group (AMAG) is a council composed of the chief CD-metrologists from the International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative (ISMI) consortium"s Member Companies and from the National Institute of Standards (NIST). The AMAG wrote and, in 2002, with CD-SEM supplier involvement, updated the "Unified Advanced CD-SEM Specification for Sub-130nm Technology (Version 2002)" to be a living document which outlines the required performance of advanced CD-SEMs for supplier compliance to the 2003 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, and also conveys member companies" other collective needs to vendors. Through applying this specification during the mid-2003 timeframe, a benchmarking effort of the currently available advanced CD-SEMs has been performed. These results are presented here. The AMAG Unified Specification includes sections outlining the test methodologies, metrics, and wafer-target requirements for each parameter included in the benchmark, and, when applicable, prescribes a target specification compatible with the ITRS and methodologies compatible with the demands of 90nm technology. Parameters to be considered include: ×Precision, Repeatability and Reproducibility ×Accuracy, Apparent Beam Width and Resolution ×Charging and Contamination ×Tool-to-Tool Matching ×Pattern Recognition and Navigation Accuracy ×Throughput ×Instrumentation Outputs ×Tool Automation and Utility ×Precision and Accuracy of Profile Measurement ×Precision and Accuracy of Roughness Measurement. Previous studies under this same project have been published, with the initial version of the International Sematech Unified Specification in 1998, and multi-supplier benchmarks in 1999 and 2001. The results for the 2003 benchmark will be shown and compared to the ITRS, and composite viewpoints showing these 2003 benchmark results compared to the past results are also shown, demonstrating interesting CD-SEM industry trends.

  13. Middleware Evaluation and Benchmarking for Use in Mission Operations Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, Rob; Waktola, Waka

    2005-01-01

    Middleware technologies have been promoted as timesaving, cost-cutting alternatives to the point-to-point communication used in traditional mission operations systems. However, missions have been slow to adopt the new technology. The lack of existing middleware-based missions has given rise to uncertainty about middleware's ability to perform in an operational setting. Most mission architects are also unfamiliar with the technology and do not know the benefits and detriments to architectural choices - or even what choices are available. We will present the findings of a study that evaluated several middleware options specifically for use in a mission operations system. We will address some common misconceptions regarding the applicability of middleware-based architectures, and we will identify the design decisions and tradeoffs that must be made when choosing a middleware solution. The Middleware Comparison and Benchmark Study was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to comprehensively evaluate candidate middleware products, compare and contrast the performance of middleware solutions with the traditional point- to-point socket approach, and assess data delivery and reliability strategies. The study focused on requirements of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, validating the potential use of middleware in the GPM mission ground system. The study was jointly funded by GPM and the Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC), a virtual organization for providing mission enabling solutions and promoting the use of appropriate new technologies for mission support. The study was broken into two phases. To perform the generic middleware benchmarking and performance analysis, a network was created with data producers and consumers passing data between themselves. The benchmark monitored the delay, throughput, and reliability of the data as the characteristics were changed. Measurements were taken under a variety of topologies, data demands

  14. A Uranium Bioremediation Reactive Transport Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Sengor, Sevinc; Fang, Yilin

    2015-06-01

    A reactive transport benchmark problem set has been developed based on in situ uranium bio-immobilization experiments that have been performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. Acetate-amended groundwater stimulates indigenous microorganisms to catalyze the reduction of U(VI) to a sparingly soluble U(IV) mineral. The interplay between the flow, acetate loading periods and rates, microbially-mediated and geochemical reactions leads to dynamic behavior in metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, pH, alkalinity, and reactive mineral surfaces. The benchmark is based on an 8.5 m long one-dimensional model domain with constant saturated flow and uniform porosity. The 159-day simulation introduces acetate and bromide through the upgradient boundary in 14-day and 85-day pulses separated by a 10 day interruption. Acetate loading is tripled during the second pulse, which is followed by a 50 day recovery period. Terminal electron accepting processes for goethite, phyllosilicate Fe(III), U(VI), and sulfate are modeled using Monod-type rate laws. Major ion geochemistry modeled includes mineral reactions, as well as aqueous and surface complexation reactions for UO2++, Fe++, and H+. In addition to the dynamics imparted by the transport of the acetate pulses, U(VI) behavior involves the interplay between bioreduction, which is dependent on acetate availability, and speciation-controlled surface complexation, which is dependent on pH, alkalinity and available surface complexation sites. The general difficulty of this benchmark is the large number of reactions (74), multiple rate law formulations, a multisite uranium surface complexation model, and the strong interdependency and sensitivity of the reaction processes. Results are presented for three simulators: HYDROGEOCHEM, PHT3D, and PHREEQC.

  15. Towards Systematic Benchmarking of Climate Model Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleckler, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The process by which climate models are evaluated has evolved substantially over the past decade, with the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) serving as a centralizing activity for coordinating model experimentation and enabling research. Scientists with a broad spectrum of expertise have contributed to the CMIP model evaluation process, resulting in many hundreds of publications that have served as a key resource for the IPCC process. For several reasons, efforts are now underway to further systematize some aspects of the model evaluation process. First, some model evaluation can now be considered routine and should not require "re-inventing the wheel" or a journal publication simply to update results with newer models. Second, the benefit of CMIP research to model development has not been optimal because the publication of results generally takes several years and is usually not reproducible for benchmarking newer model versions. And third, there are now hundreds of model versions and many thousands of simulations, but there is no community-based mechanism for routinely monitoring model performance changes. An important change in the design of CMIP6 can help address these limitations. CMIP6 will include a small set standardized experiments as an ongoing exercise (CMIP "DECK": ongoing Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima), so that modeling groups can submit them at any time and not be overly constrained by deadlines. In this presentation, efforts to establish routine benchmarking of existing and future CMIP simulations will be described. To date, some benchmarking tools have been made available to all CMIP modeling groups to enable them to readily compare with CMIP5 simulations during the model development process. A natural extension of this effort is to make results from all CMIP simulations widely available, including the results from newer models as soon as the simulations become available for research. Making the results from routine

  16. Toward real-time performance benchmarks for Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Russell M.; Duchesneau, Louis; Volz, Richard A.; Mudge, Trevor N.; Schultze, Timothy

    1986-01-01

    The issue of real-time performance measurements for the Ada programming language through the use of benchmarks is addressed. First, the Ada notion of time is examined and a set of basic measurement techniques are developed. Then a set of Ada language features believed to be important for real-time performance are presented and specific measurement methods discussed. In addition, other important time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time related features which are not explicitly part of the language but are part of the run-time system are also identified and measurement techniques developed. The measurement techniques are applied to the language and run-time system features and the results are presented.

  17. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    White, Mark D.; Podgorney, Robert; Kelkar, Sharad M.; McClure, Mark W.; Danko, George; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Fu, Pengcheng; Bahrami, Davood; Barbier, Charlotte; Cheng, Qinglu; Chiu, Kit-Kwan; Detournay, Christine; Elsworth, Derek; Fang, Yi; Furtney, Jason K.; Gan, Quan; Gao, Qian; Guo, Bin; Hao, Yue; Horne, Roland N.; Huang, Kai; Im, Kyungjae; Norbeck, Jack; Rutqvist, Jonny; Safari, M. R.; Sesetty, Varahanaresh; Sonnenthal, Eric; Tao, Qingfeng; White, Signe K.; Wong, Yang; Xia, Yidong

    2016-12-02

    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  18. NAS Parallel Benchmarks. 2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new problem size, called Class D, for the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB), whose MPI source code implementation is being released as NPB 2.4. A brief rationale is given for how the new class is derived. We also describe the modifications made to the MPI (Message Passing Interface) implementation to allow the new class to be run on systems with 32-bit integers, and with moderate amounts of memory. Finally, we give the verification values for the new problem size.

  19. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sandor, Debra; Chung, Donald; Keyser, David; Mann, Margaret; Engel-Cox, Jill

    2017-01-01

    The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Benchmarks of Global Clean Energy Manufacturing sheds light on several fundamental questions about the global clean technology manufacturing enterprise: How does clean energy technology manufacturing impact national economies? What are the economic opportunities across the manufacturing supply chain? What are the global dynamics of clean energy technology manufacturing?

  20. Benchmarking boiler tube failures - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, J.; Oldani, R.; von Behren, D.

    2005-10-01

    Boiler tube failures continue to be the leading cause of downtime for steam power plants. That should not be a surprise; a typical steam generator has miles of tubes that operate at high temperatures and pressures. Are your experiences comparable to those of your peers? Could you learn something from tube-leak benchmarking data that could improve the operation of your plant? The Electric Utility Cost Group (EUCG) recently completed a boiler-tube failure study that is available only to its members. But Power magazine has been given exclusive access to some of the results, published in this article. 4 figs.

  1. Benchmarking East Tennessee`s economic capacity

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-20

    This presentation is comprised of viewgraphs delineating major economic factors operating in 15 counties in East Tennessee. The purpose of the information presented is to provide a benchmark analysis of economic conditions for use in guiding economic growth in the region. The emphasis of the presentation is economic infrastructure, which is classified into six categories: human resources, technology, financial resources, physical infrastructure, quality of life, and tax and regulation. Data for analysis of key indicators in each of the categories are presented. Preliminary analyses, in the form of strengths and weaknesses and comparison to reference groups, are given.

  2. New benchmarks and design criteria for laboratory consolidations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Linda S

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks and design criteria previously used for planning consolidated laboratories such as bed size, staffing, and test volumes no longer apply. To achieve greater operational efficiencies, consolidated laboratories should be designed with open, flexible, and adaptable space using work flow/workstations, instrumentation requirements, and the degree of automation as the key design criteria. The primary objective of most consolidations is the reduction of staff with a substantial increase in workload. A critical factor when planning a consolidated laboratory is the ability of the space to accommodate the increase in testing and procedures to serve multiple facilities and growing outreach programs with fewer FTEs. Designing the laboratory starts with a thorough evaluation of work flow, testing procedures, desired adjacencies, and relationships within the laboratory. An area analysis should be developed describing in detail projected space requirements. Consideration should be given for the incorporation of automation/robotics and new, more efficient, and comprehensive instrumentation. Safety, noise, vibration control, lighting, and engineering support systems are all critical issues that also must be effectively addressed and incorporated into the design. Specific issues that will be discussed at this program include projected space requirements; review and development of existing and projected workstations; equipment requirements; lighting options; workload and procedures review; staffing procedures; flexibility/adaptability; relationships and adjacencies; flow diagrams; plan development; cost implications, on-site versus off-site facilities; and new construction versus renovation construction cost comparisons. Using specific examples from consolidated laboratory projects, we have designed a case study presentation by the laboratory director from a recently completed laboratory consolidation project serving a multihospital system. We will discuss the new design

  3. Learning Through Benchmarking: Developing a Relational, Prospective Approach to Benchmarking ICT in Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Moore, Roger R.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses benchmarking the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning between two universities with different missions: one an Australian campus-based metropolitan university and the other a British distance-education provider. It argues that the differences notwithstanding, it is possible to…

  4. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  5. MARS code developments, benchmarking and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2000-03-24

    Recent developments of the MARS Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electron volt up to 100 TeV are described. The physical model of hadron and lepton interactions with nuclei and atoms has undergone substantial improvements. These include a new nuclear cross section library, a model for soft prior production, a cascade-exciton model, a dual parton model, deuteron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus interaction models, a detailed description of negative hadron and muon absorption, and a unified treatment of muon and charged hadron electro-magnetic interactions with matter. New algorithms have been implemented into the code and benchmarked against experimental data. A new Graphical-User Interface has been developed. The code capabilities to simulate cascades and generate a variety of results in complex systems have been enhanced. The MARS system includes links to the MCNP code for neutron and photon transport below 20 MeV, to the ANSYS code for thermal and stress analyses and to the STRUCT code for multi-turn particle tracking in large synchrotrons and collider rings. Results of recent benchmarking of the MARS code are presented. Examples of non-trivial code applications are given for the Fermilab Booster and Main Injector, for a 1.5 MW target station and a muon storage ring.

  6. Parallel Ada benchmarks for the SVMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of parallel processing paradigm to design and develop faster and more reliable computers appear to clearly mark the future of information processing. NASA started the development of such an architecture: the Spaceborne VHSIC Multi-processor System (SVMS). Ada will be one of the languages used to program the SVMS. One of the unique characteristics of Ada is that it supports parallel processing at the language level through the tasking constructs. It is important for the SVMS project team to assess how efficiently the SVMS architecture will be implemented, as well as how efficiently Ada environment will be ported to the SVMS. AUTOCLASS II, a Bayesian classifier written in Common Lisp, was selected as one of the benchmarks for SVMS configurations. The purpose of the R and D effort was to provide the SVMS project team with the version of AUTOCLASS II, written in Ada, that would make use of Ada tasking constructs as much as possible so as to constitute a suitable benchmark. Additionally, a set of programs was developed that would measure Ada tasking efficiency on parallel architectures as well as determine the critical parameters influencing tasking efficiency. All this was designed to provide the SVMS project team with a set of suitable tools in the development of the SVMS architecture.

  7. Benchmarking database performance for genomic data.

    PubMed

    Khushi, Matloob

    2015-06-01

    Genomic regions represent features such as gene annotations, transcription factor binding sites and epigenetic modifications. Performing various genomic operations such as identifying overlapping/non-overlapping regions or nearest gene annotations are common research needs. The data can be saved in a database system for easy management, however, there is no comprehensive database built-in algorithm at present to identify overlapping regions. Therefore I have developed a novel region-mapping (RegMap) SQL-based algorithm to perform genomic operations and have benchmarked the performance of different databases. Benchmarking identified that PostgreSQL extracts overlapping regions much faster than MySQL. Insertion and data uploads in PostgreSQL were also better, although general searching capability of both databases was almost equivalent. In addition, using the algorithm pair-wise, overlaps of >1000 datasets of transcription factor binding sites and histone marks, collected from previous publications, were reported and it was found that HNF4G significantly co-locates with cohesin subunit STAG1 (SA1).Inc.

  8. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a `lone wolf' identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  9. Non-Markovianity in Randomized Benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Harrison; Stace, Tom M.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    Randomized benchmarking is routinely employed to recover information about the fidelity of a quantum operation by exploiting probabilistic twirling errors over an implementation of the Clifford group. Standard assumptions of Markovianity in the underlying noise environment, however, remain at odds with realistic, correlated noise encountered in real systems. We model single-qubit randomized benchmarking experiments as a sequence of ideal Clifford operations interleaved with stochastic dephasing errors, implemented as unitary rotations about σz. Successive error rotations map to a sequence of random variables whose correlations introduce non-Markovian effects emulating realistic colored-noise environments. The Markovian limit is recovered by turning off all correlations, reducing each error to an independent Gaussian-distributed random variable. We examine the dependence of the statistical distribution of fidelity outcomes on these noise correlations, deriving analytic expressions for probability density functions and related statistics for relevant fidelity metrics. This enables us to characterize and bear out the distinction between the Markovian and non-Markovian cases, with implications for interpretation and handling of experimental data.

  10. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Neil F; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-12-10

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another - from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a 'lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds.

  11. Transparency benchmarking on audio watermarks and steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana; Lang, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The evaluation of transparency plays an important role in the context of watermarking and steganography algorithms. This paper introduces a general definition of the term transparency in the context of steganography, digital watermarking and attack based evaluation of digital watermarking algorithms. For this purpose the term transparency is first considered individually for each of the three application fields (steganography, digital watermarking and watermarking algorithm evaluation). From the three results a general definition for the overall context is derived in a second step. The relevance and applicability of the definition given is evaluated in practise using existing audio watermarking and steganography algorithms (which work in time, frequency and wavelet domain) as well as an attack based evaluation suite for audio watermarking benchmarking - StirMark for Audio (SMBA). For this purpose selected attacks from the SMBA suite are modified by adding transparency enhancing measures using a psychoacoustic model. The transparency and robustness of the evaluated audio watermarking algorithms by using the original and modifid attacks are compared. The results of this paper show hat transparency benchmarking will lead to new information regarding the algorithms under observation and their usage. This information can result in concrete recommendations for modification, like the ones resulting from the tests performed here.

  12. Computational Thermochemistry and Benchmarking of Reliable Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, David F.; Dixon, David A.; Dunning, Thom H.; Dupuis, Michel; McClemore, Doug; Peterson, Kirk A.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Bernholdt, David E.; Windus, Theresa L.; Chalasinski, Grzegorz; Fosada, Rubicelia; Olguim, Jorge; Dobbs, Kerwin D.; Frurip, Donald; Stevens, Walter J.; Rondan, Nelson; Chase, Jared M.; Nichols, Jeffrey A.

    2006-06-20

    During the first and second years of the Computational Thermochemistry and Benchmarking of Reliable Methods project, we completed several studies using the parallel computing capabilities of the NWChem software and Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF), including large-scale density functional theory (DFT), second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory, and CCSD(T) calculations. During the third year, we continued to pursue the computational thermodynamic and benchmarking studies outlined in our proposal. With the issues affecting the robustness of the coupled cluster part of NWChem resolved, we pursued studies of the heats-of-formation of compounds containing 5 to 7 first- and/or second-row elements and approximately 10 to 14 hydrogens. The size of these systems, when combined with the large basis sets (cc-pVQZ and aug-cc-pVQZ) that are necessary for extrapolating to the complete basis set limit, creates a formidable computational challenge, for which NWChem on NWMPP1 is well suited.

  13. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  14. Simple mathematical law benchmarks human confrontations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Neil F.; Medina, Pablo; Zhao, Guannan; Messinger, Daniel S.; Horgan, John; Gill, Paul; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Mattson, Whitney; Gangi, Devon; Qi, Hong; Manrique, Pedro; Velasquez, Nicolas; Morgenstern, Ana; Restrepo, Elvira; Johnson, Nicholas; Spagat, Michael; Zarama, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Many high-profile societal problems involve an individual or group repeatedly attacking another – from child-parent disputes, sexual violence against women, civil unrest, violent conflicts and acts of terror, to current cyber-attacks on national infrastructure and ultrafast cyber-trades attacking stockholders. There is an urgent need to quantify the likely severity and timing of such future acts, shed light on likely perpetrators, and identify intervention strategies. Here we present a combined analysis of multiple datasets across all these domains which account for >100,000 events, and show that a simple mathematical law can benchmark them all. We derive this benchmark and interpret it, using a minimal mechanistic model grounded by state-of-the-art fieldwork. Our findings provide quantitative predictions concerning future attacks; a tool to help detect common perpetrators and abnormal behaviors; insight into the trajectory of a ‘lone wolf'; identification of a critical threshold for spreading a message or idea among perpetrators; an intervention strategy to erode the most lethal clusters; and more broadly, a quantitative starting point for cross-disciplinary theorizing about human aggression at the individual and group level, in both real and online worlds. PMID:24322528

  15. Improving Mass Balance Modeling of Benchmark Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beusekom, A. E.; March, R. S.; O'Neel, S.

    2009-12-01

    The USGS monitors long-term glacier mass balance at three benchmark glaciers in different climate regimes. The coastal and continental glaciers are represented by Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers in Alaska, respectively. Field measurements began in 1966 and continue. We have reanalyzed the published balance time series with more modern methods and recomputed reference surface and conventional balances. Addition of the most recent data shows a continuing trend of mass loss. We compare the updated balances to the previously accepted balances and discuss differences. Not all balance quantities can be determined from the field measurements. For surface processes, we model missing information with an improved degree-day model. Degree-day models predict ablation from the sum of daily mean temperatures and an empirical degree-day factor. We modernize the traditional degree-day model as well as derive new degree-day factors in an effort to closer match the balance time series and thus better predict the future state of the benchmark glaciers. For subsurface processes, we model the refreezing of meltwater for internal accumulation. We examine the sensitivity of the balance time series to the subsurface process of internal accumulation, with the goal of determining the best way to include internal accumulation into balance estimates.

  16. VLSI Implementation of a 2.8 Gevent/s Packet-Based AER Interface with Routing and Event Sorting Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Scholze, Stefan; Schiefer, Stefan; Partzsch, Johannes; Hartmann, Stephan; Mayr, Christian Georg; Höppner, Sebastian; Eisenreich, Holger; Henker, Stephan; Vogginger, Bernhard; Schüffny, Rene

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art large-scale neuromorphic systems require sophisticated spike event communication between units of the neural network. We present a high-speed communication infrastructure for a waferscale neuromorphic system, based on application-specific neuromorphic communication ICs in an field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)-maintained environment. The ICs implement configurable axonal delays, as required for certain types of dynamic processing or for emulating spike-based learning among distant cortical areas. Measurements are presented which show the efficacy of these delays in influencing behavior of neuromorphic benchmarks. The specialized, dedicated address-event-representation communication in most current systems requires separate, low-bandwidth configuration channels. In contrast, the configuration of the waferscale neuromorphic system is also handled by the digital packet-based pulse channel, which transmits configuration data at the full bandwidth otherwise used for pulse transmission. The overall so-called pulse communication subgroup (ICs and FPGA) delivers a factor 25–50 more event transmission rate than other current neuromorphic communication infrastructures. PMID:22016720

  17. VLSI Implementation of a 2.8 Gevent/s Packet-Based AER Interface with Routing and Event Sorting Functionality.

    PubMed

    Scholze, Stefan; Schiefer, Stefan; Partzsch, Johannes; Hartmann, Stephan; Mayr, Christian Georg; Höppner, Sebastian; Eisenreich, Holger; Henker, Stephan; Vogginger, Bernhard; Schüffny, Rene

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art large-scale neuromorphic systems require sophisticated spike event communication between units of the neural network. We present a high-speed communication infrastructure for a waferscale neuromorphic system, based on application-specific neuromorphic communication ICs in an field programmable gate arrays (FPGA)-maintained environment. The ICs implement configurable axonal delays, as required for certain types of dynamic processing or for emulating spike-based learning among distant cortical areas. Measurements are presented which show the efficacy of these delays in influencing behavior of neuromorphic benchmarks. The specialized, dedicated address-event-representation communication in most current systems requires separate, low-bandwidth configuration channels. In contrast, the configuration of the waferscale neuromorphic system is also handled by the digital packet-based pulse channel, which transmits configuration data at the full bandwidth otherwise used for pulse transmission. The overall so-called pulse communication subgroup (ICs and FPGA) delivers a factor 25-50 more event transmission rate than other current neuromorphic communication infrastructures.

  18. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks 2.1 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saphir, William; Woo, Alex; Yarrow, Maurice

    1996-01-01

    We present performance results for version 2.1 of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) on the following architectures: IBM SP2/66 MHz; SGI Power Challenge Array/90 MHz; Cray Research T3D; and Intel Paragon. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks are a widely-recognized suite of benchmarks originally designed to compare the performance of highly parallel computers with that of traditional supercomputers.

  19. Criticality safety benchmark experiments derived from ANL ZPR assemblies.

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R. W.; Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.

    2003-09-01

    Numerous criticality safety benchmarks have been, and continue to be, developed from experiments performed on Argonne National Laboratory's plate-type fast critical assemblies. The nature and scope of assemblies suitable for deriving these benchmarks are discussed. The benchmark derivation process, including full treatment of all significant uncertainties, is explained. Calculational results are presented that support the small uncertainty assigned to the key derivation step in which complex geometric detail is removed.

  20. Hospital Energy Benchmarking Guidance - Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.

    2009-09-08

    This document describes an energy benchmarking framework for hospitals. The document is organized as follows. The introduction provides a brief primer on benchmarking and its application to hospitals. The next two sections discuss special considerations including the identification of normalizing factors. The presentation of metrics is preceded by a description of the overall framework and the rationale for the grouping of metrics. Following the presentation of metrics, a high-level protocol is provided. The next section presents draft benchmarks for some metrics; benchmarks are not available for many metrics owing to a lack of data. This document ends with a list of research needs for further development.

  1. Using benchmarks for radiation testing of microprocessors and FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather; Robinson, William H.; Rech, Paolo; Aguirre, Miguel; Barnard, Arno; Desogus, Marco; Entrena, Luis; Garcia-Valderas, Mario; Guertin, Steven M.; Kaeli, David; Kastensmidt, Fernanda Lima; Kiddie, Bradley T.; Sanchez-Clemente, Antonio; Reorda, Matteo Sonza; Sterpone, Luca; Wirthlin, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Performance benchmarks have been used over the years to compare different systems. These benchmarks can be useful for researchers trying to determine how changes to the technology, architecture, or compiler affect the system's performance. No such standard exists for systems deployed into high radiation environments, making it difficult to assess whether changes in the fabrication process, circuitry, architecture, or software affect reliability or radiation sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a benchmark suite for high-reliability systems that is designed for field-programmable gate arrays and microprocessors. As a result, we describe the development process and report neutron test data for the hardware and software benchmarks.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Supercomputers using HPCC and IMB Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saini, Subhash; Ciotti, Robert; Gunney, Brian T. N.; Spelce, Thomas E.; Koniges, Alice; Dossa, Don; Adamidis, Panagiotis; Rabenseifner, Rolf; Tiyyagura, Sunil R.; Mueller, Matthias; Fatoohi, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The HPC Challenge (HPCC) benchmark suite and the Intel MPI Benchmark (IMB) are used to compare and evaluate the combined performance of processor, memory subsystem and interconnect fabric of five leading supercomputers - SGI Altix BX2, Cray XI, Cray Opteron Cluster, Dell Xeon cluster, and NEC SX-8. These five systems use five different networks (SGI NUMALINK4, Cray network, Myrinet, InfiniBand, and NEC IXS). The complete set of HPCC benchmarks are run on each of these systems. Additionally, we present Intel MPI Benchmarks (IMB) results to study the performance of 11 MPI communication functions on these systems.

  3. Towards Automated Benchmarking of Atomistic Forcefields: Neat Liquid Densities and Static Dielectric Constants from the ThermoML Data Archive

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Kyle A.; Behr, Julie M.; Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Bayly, Christopher I.; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Chodera, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Atomistic molecular simulations are a powerful way to make quantitative predictions, but the accuracy of these predictions depends entirely on the quality of the forcefield employed. While experimental measurements of fundamental physical properties offer a straightforward approach for evaluating forcefield quality, the bulk of this information has been tied up in formats that are not machine-readable. Compiling benchmark datasets of physical properties from non-machine-readable sources requires substantial human effort and is prone to the accumulation of human errors, hindering the development of reproducible benchmarks of forcefield accuracy. Here, we examine the feasibility of benchmarking atomistic forcefields against the NIST ThermoML data archive of physicochemical measurements, which aggregates thousands of experimental measurements in a portable, machine-readable, self-annotating IUPAC-standard format. As a proof of concept, we present a detailed benchmark of the generalized Amber small molecule forcefield (GAFF) using the AM1-BCC charge model against experimental measurements (specifically bulk liquid densities and static dielectric constants at ambient pressure) automatically extracted from the archive, and discuss the extent of data available for use in larger scale (or continuously performed) benchmarks. The results of even this limited initial benchmark highlight a general problem with fixed-charge forcefields in the representation low dielectric environments such as those seen in binding cavities or biological membranes. PMID:26339862

  4. A Benchmark and Comparative Study of Video-Based Face Recognition on COX Face Database.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiwu; Shan, Shiguang; Wang, Ruiping; Zhang, Haihong; Lao, Shihong; Kuerban, Alifu; Chen, Xilin

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition with still face images has been widely studied, while the research on video-based face recognition is inadequate relatively, especially in terms of benchmark datasets and comparisons. Real-world video-based face recognition applications require techniques for three distinct scenarios: 1) Videoto-Still (V2S); 2) Still-to-Video (S2V); and 3) Video-to-Video (V2V), respectively, taking video or still image as query or target. To the best of our knowledge, few datasets and evaluation protocols have benchmarked for all the three scenarios. In order to facilitate the study of this specific topic, this paper contributes a benchmarking and comparative study based on a newly collected still/video face database, named COX(1) Face DB. Specifically, we make three contributions. First, we collect and release a largescale still/video face database to simulate video surveillance with three different video-based face recognition scenarios (i.e., V2S, S2V, and V2V). Second, for benchmarking the three scenarios designed on our database, we review and experimentally compare a number of existing set-based methods. Third, we further propose a novel Point-to-Set Correlation Learning (PSCL) method, and experimentally show that it can be used as a promising baseline method for V2S/S2V face recognition on COX Face DB. Extensive experimental results clearly demonstrate that video-based face recognition needs more efforts, and our COX Face DB is a good benchmark database for evaluation.

  5. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  6. Benchmark cyclic plastic notch strain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, W. N., Jr.; Ward, M.

    1983-01-01

    Plastic strains at the roots of notched specimens of Inconel 718 subjected to tension-compression cycling at 650 C are reported. These strains were measured with a laser-based technique over a gage length of 0.1 mm and are intended to serve as 'benchmark' data for further development of experimental, analytical, and computational approaches. The specimens were 250 mm by 2.5 mm in the test section with double notches of 4.9 mm radius subjected to axial loading sufficient to cause yielding at the notch root on the tensile portion of the first cycle. The tests were run for 1000 cycles at 10 cpm or until cracks initiated at the notch root. The experimental techniques are described, and then representative data for the various load spectra are presented. All the data for each cycle of every test are available on floppy disks from NASA.

  7. Benchmarking finite- β ITG gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevins, W. M.; Dimits, A. M.; Candy, J.; Holland, C.; Howard, N.

    2016-10-01

    We report the results of an electromagnetic gyrokinetic-simulation benchmarking study based on a well-diagnosed ion-temperature-gradient (ITG)-turbulence dominated experimental plasma. We compare the 4x3 matrix of transport/transfer quantities for each plasma species; namely the (a) particle flux, Γa, (b) momentum flux, Πa, (c) energy flux, Qa, and (d) anomalous heat exchange, Sa, with each transport coefficient broken down into: (1) electrostatic (δφ) (2) transverse electromagnetic (δA∥) , and (3) compressional electromagnetic, (δB∥) contributions. We compare realization-independent quantities (correlation functions, spectral densities, etc.), which characterize the fluctuating fields from various gyrokinetic simulation codes. Prepared for US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by GA under Contract DE-FG03-95ER54309. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences.

  8. Gatemon Benchmarking and Two-Qubit Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casparis, Lucas; Larsen, Thorvald; Olsen, Michael; Petersson, Karl; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygard, Jesper; Marcus, Charles

    Recent experiments have demonstrated superconducting transmon qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions. These hybrid gatemon qubits utilize field effect tunability singular to semiconductors to allow complete qubit control using gate voltages, potentially a technological advantage over conventional flux-controlled transmons. Here, we present experiments with a two-qubit gatemon circuit. We characterize qubit coherence and stability and use randomized benchmarking to demonstrate single-qubit gate errors of ~0.5 % for all gates, including voltage-controlled Z rotations. We show coherent capacitive coupling between two gatemons and coherent SWAP operations. Finally, we perform a two-qubit controlled-phase gate with an estimated fidelity of ~91 %, demonstrating the potential of gatemon qubits for building scalable quantum processors. We acknowledge financial support from Microsoft Project Q and the Danish National Research Foundation.

  9. Benchmarking Big Data Systems and the BigData Top100 List.

    PubMed

    Baru, Chaitanya; Bhandarkar, Milind; Nambiar, Raghunath; Poess, Meikel; Rabl, Tilmann

    2013-03-01

    "Big data" has become a major force of innovation across enterprises of all sizes. New platforms with increasingly more features for managing big datasets are being announced almost on a weekly basis. Yet, there is currently a lack of any means of comparability among such platforms. While the performance of traditional database systems is well understood and measured by long-established institutions such as the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TCP), there is neither a clear definition of the performance of big data systems nor a generally agreed upon metric for comparing these systems. In this article, we describe a community-based effort for defining a big data benchmark. Over the past year, a Big Data Benchmarking Community has become established in order to fill this void. The effort focuses on defining an end-to-end application-layer benchmark for measuring the performance of big data applications, with the ability to easily adapt the benchmark specification to evolving challenges in the big data space. This article describes the efforts that have been undertaken thus far toward the definition of a BigData Top100 List. While highlighting the major technical as well as organizational challenges, through this article, we also solicit community input into this process.

  10. Benchmarking farmer performance as an incentive for sustainable farming: environmental impacts of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kragten, S; De Snoo, G R

    2003-01-01

    Pesticide use in The Netherlands is very high, and pesticides are found across all environmental compartments. Among individual farmers, though, there is wide variation in both pesticide use and the potential environmental impact of that use, providing policy leverage for environmental protection. This paper reports on a benchmarking tool with which farmers can compare their environmental and economic performance with that of other farmers, thereby serving as an incentive for them to adopt more sustainable methods of food production methods. The tool is also designed to provide farmers with a more detailed picture of the environmental impacts of their methods of pest management. It is interactive and available on the internet: www.agriwijzer.nl. The present version has been developed specifically for arable farmers, but it is to be extended to encompass other agricultural sectors, in particular horticulture (bulb flowers, stem fruits), as well as various other aspects of sustainability (nutrient inputs, 'on-farm' biodiversity, etc.). The benchmarking methodology was tested on a pilot group of 20 arable farmers, whose general response was positive. They proved to be more interested in comparative performance in terms of economic rather than environmental indicators. In their judgment the benchmarking tool can serve a useful purpose in steering them towards more sustainable forms of agricultural production. The benchmarking results can also be used by other actors in the agroproduction chain, such as food retailers and the food industry.

  11. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, Raj; Messina, Elena; Tunstel, Edward

    2009-09-01

    To design and develop capable, dependable, and affordable intelligent systems, their performance must be measurable. Scientific methodologies for standardization and benchmarking are crucial for quantitatively evaluating the performance of emerging robotic and intelligent systems technologies. There is currently no accepted standard for quantitatively measuring the performance of these systems against user-defined requirements; and furthermore, there is no consensus on what objective evaluation procedures need to be followed to understand the performance of these systems. The lack of reproducible and repeatable test methods has precluded researchers working towards a common goal from exchanging and communicating results, inter-comparing system performance, and leveraging previous work that could otherwise avoid duplication and expedite technology transfer. Currently, this lack of cohesion in the community hinders progress in many domains, such as manufacturing, service, healthcare, and security. By providing the research community with access to standardized tools, reference data sets, and open source libraries of solutions, researchers and consumers will be able to evaluate the cost and benefits associated with intelligent systems and associated technologies. In this vein, the edited book volume addresses performance evaluation and metrics for intelligent systems, in general, while emphasizing the need and solutions for standardized methods. To the knowledge of the editors, there is not a single book on the market that is solely dedicated to the subject of performance evaluation and benchmarking of intelligent systems. Even books that address this topic do so only marginally or are out of date. The research work presented in this volume fills this void by drawing from the experiences and insights of experts gained both through theoretical development and practical implementation of intelligent systems in a variety of diverse application domains. The book presents

  12. Benchmarking analogue models of brittle thrust wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreurs, Guido; Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Boutelier, Jennifer; Burberry, Caroline; Callot, Jean-Paul; Cavozzi, Cristian; Cerca, Mariano; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cristallini, Ernesto; Cruden, Alexander R.; Cruz, Leonardo; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Da Poian, Gabriela; Garcia, Victor H.; Gomes, Caroline J. S.; Grall, Céline; Guillot, Yannick; Guzmán, Cecilia; Hidayah, Triyani Nur; Hilley, George; Klinkmüller, Matthias; Koyi, Hemin A.; Lu, Chia-Yu; Maillot, Bertrand; Meriaux, Catherine; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Pan, Chang-Chih; Pillot, Daniel; Portillo, Rodrigo; Rosenau, Matthias; Schellart, Wouter P.; Schlische, Roy W.; Take, Andy; Vendeville, Bruno; Vergnaud, Marine; Vettori, Matteo; Wang, Shih-Hsien; Withjack, Martha O.; Yagupsky, Daniel; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We performed a quantitative comparison of brittle thrust wedge experiments to evaluate the variability among analogue models and to appraise the reproducibility and limits of model interpretation. Fifteen analogue modeling laboratories participated in this benchmark initiative. Each laboratory received a shipment of the same type of quartz and corundum sand and all laboratories adhered to a stringent model building protocol and used the same type of foil to cover base and sidewalls of the sandbox. Sieve structure, sifting height, filling rate, and details on off-scraping of excess sand followed prescribed procedures. Our analogue benchmark shows that even for simple plane-strain experiments with prescribed stringent model construction techniques, quantitative model results show variability, most notably for surface slope, thrust spacing and number of forward and backthrusts. One of the sources of the variability in model results is related to slight variations in how sand is deposited in the sandbox. Small changes in sifting height, sifting rate, and scraping will result in slightly heterogeneous material bulk densities, which will affect the mechanical properties of the sand, and will result in lateral and vertical differences in peak and boundary friction angles, as well as cohesion values once the model is constructed. Initial variations in basal friction are inferred to play the most important role in causing model variability. Our comparison shows that the human factor plays a decisive role, and even when one modeler repeats the same experiment, quantitative model results still show variability. Our observations highlight the limits of up-scaling quantitative analogue model results to nature or for making comparisons with numerical models. The frictional behavior of sand is highly sensitive to small variations in material state or experimental set-up, and hence, it will remain difficult to scale quantitative results such as number of thrusts, thrust spacing

  13. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M. J.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratianni, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.

    2012-01-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies and because they represent two important types of statistics (additive and multiplicative). The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. The benchmark contains real inhomogeneous data as well as simulated data with inserted inhomogeneities. Random independent break-type inhomogeneities with normally distributed breakpoint sizes were added to the simulated datasets. To approximate real world conditions, breaks were introduced that occur simultaneously in multiple station series within a simulated network of station data. The simulated time series also contained outliers, missing data periods and local station trends. Further, a stochastic nonlinear global (network-wide) trend was added. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study. After the deadline at which details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed, 22 additional solutions were submitted. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including (i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous value at various averaging scales, (ii) the error in linear trend estimates and (iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Contingency scores by themselves are not very informative. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data

  14. Benchmarking and testing the "Sea Level Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, G.; Barletta, V. R.; Klemann, V.; van der Wal, W.; James, T. S.; Simon, K.; Riva, R. E. M.; Martinec, Z.; Gasperini, P.; Lund, B.; Wolf, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; King, M. A.

    2012-04-01

    The study of the process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and of the consequent sea level variations is gaining an increasingly important role within the geophysical community. Understanding the response of the Earth to the waxing and waning ice sheets is crucial in various contexts, ranging from the interpretation of modern satellite geodetic measurements to the projections of future sea level trends in response to climate change. All the processes accompanying GIA can be described solving the so-called Sea Level Equation (SLE), an integral equation that accounts for the interactions between the ice sheets, the solid Earth, and the oceans. Modern approaches to the SLE are based on various techniques that range from purely analytical formulations to fully numerical methods. Despite various teams independently investigating GIA, we do not have a suitably large set of agreed numerical results through which the methods may be validated. Following the example of the mantle convection community and our recent successful Benchmark for Post Glacial Rebound codes (Spada et al., 2011, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.04952.x), here we present the results of a benchmark study of independently developed codes designed to solve the SLE. This study has taken place within a collaboration facilitated through the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action ES0701. The tests involve predictions of past and current sea level variations, and 3D deformations of the Earth surface. In spite of the signi?cant differences in the numerical methods employed, the test computations performed so far show a satisfactory agreement between the results provided by the participants. The differences found, which can be often attributed to the different numerical algorithms employed within the community, help to constrain the intrinsic errors in model predictions. These are of fundamental importance for a correct interpretation of the geodetic variations observed today, and

  15. Benchmarking Competitiveness: Is America's Technological Hegemony Waning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubell, Michael S.

    2006-03-01

    For more than half a century, by almost every standard, the United States has been the world's leader in scientific discovery, innovation and technological competitiveness. To a large degree, that dominant position stemmed from the circumstances our nation inherited at the conclusion of the World War Two: we were, in effect, the only major nation left standing that did not have to repair serious war damage. And we found ourselves with an extraordinary science and technology base that we had developed for military purposes. We had the laboratories -- industrial, academic and government -- as well as the scientific and engineering personnel -- many of them immigrants who had escaped from war-time Europe. What remained was to convert the wartime machinery into peacetime uses. We adopted private and public policies that accomplished the transition remarkably well, and we have prospered ever since. Our higher education system, our protection of intellectual property rights, our venture capital system, our entrepreneurial culture and our willingness to commit government funds for the support of science and engineering have been key components to our success. But recent competitiveness benchmarks suggest that our dominance is waning rapidly, in part because other nations have begun to emulate our successful model, in part because globalization has ``flattened'' the world and in part because we have been reluctant to pursue the public policies that are necessary to ensure our leadership. We will examine these benchmarks and explore the policy changes that are needed to keep our nation's science and technology enterprise vibrant and our economic growth on an upward trajectory.

  16. Information-Theoretic Benchmarking of Land Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nearing, Grey; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Xia, Youlong

    2016-04-01

    Benchmarking is a type of model evaluation that compares model performance against a baseline metric that is derived, typically, from a different existing model. Statistical benchmarking was used to qualitatively show that land surface models do not fully utilize information in boundary conditions [1] several years before Gong et al [2] discovered the particular type of benchmark that makes it possible to *quantify* the amount of information lost by an incorrect or imperfect model structure. This theoretical development laid the foundation for a formal theory of model benchmarking [3]. We here extend that theory to separate uncertainty contributions from the three major components of dynamical systems models [4]: model structures, model parameters, and boundary conditions describe time-dependent details of each prediction scenario. The key to this new development is the use of large-sample [5] data sets that span multiple soil types, climates, and biomes, which allows us to segregate uncertainty due to parameters from the two other sources. The benefit of this approach for uncertainty quantification and segregation is that it does not rely on Bayesian priors (although it is strictly coherent with Bayes' theorem and with probability theory), and therefore the partitioning of uncertainty into different components is *not* dependent on any a priori assumptions. We apply this methodology to assess the information use efficiency of the four land surface models that comprise the North American Land Data Assimilation System (Noah, Mosaic, SAC-SMA, and VIC). Specifically, we looked at the ability of these models to estimate soil moisture and latent heat fluxes. We found that in the case of soil moisture, about 25% of net information loss was from boundary conditions, around 45% was from model parameters, and 30-40% was from the model structures. In the case of latent heat flux, boundary conditions contributed about 50% of net uncertainty, and model structures contributed

  17. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; Snoj, Luka

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greater than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  18. 47 CFR 69.108 - Transport rate benchmark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport rate benchmark. 69.108 Section 69.108... Computation of Charges § 69.108 Transport rate benchmark. (a) For transport charges computed in accordance... interoffice transmission using the telephone company's DS1 special access rates. (b) Initial transport...

  19. Benchmarking with the BLASST Sessional Staff Standards Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzia, Karina; Harvey, Marina; Parker, Nicola; McCormack, Coralie; Brown, Natalie R.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking as a type of knowledge-sharing around good practice within and between institutions is increasingly common in the higher education sector. More recently, benchmarking as a process that can contribute to quality enhancement has been deployed across numerous institutions with a view to systematising frameworks to assure and enhance the…

  20. Practical Considerations when Using Benchmarking for Accountability in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achtemeier, Sue D.; Simpson, Ronald D.

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative study on which this article is based examined key individuals' perceptions, both within a research university community and beyond in its external governing board, of how to improve benchmarking as an accountability method in higher education. Differing understanding of benchmarking revealed practical implications for using it as…

  1. What Are the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks? Information Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The ACT College Readiness Benchmarks are the minimum ACT® college readiness assessment scores required for students to have a high probability of success in credit-bearing college courses--English Composition, social sciences courses, College Algebra, or Biology. This report identifies the College Readiness Benchmarks on the ACT Compass scale…

  2. Presidential Address 1997--Benchmarks for the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Pamela C.

    1997-01-01

    Reflects on the century's preeminent benchmarks, including the evolution in the lives of people with disabilities and the prevention of many causes of mental retardation. The ethical challenges of genetic engineering and diagnostic technology and the need for new benchmarks in policy, practice, and research are discussed. (CR)

  3. Benchmark Evaluation of HTR-PROTEUS Pebble Bed Experimental Program

    DOE PAGES

    Bess, John D.; Montierth, Leland; Köberl, Oliver; ...

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate 11 critical core configurations of the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed experimental program. Various additional reactor physics measurements were performed as part of this program; currently only a total of 37 absorber rod worth measurements have been evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for Cores 4, 9, and 10. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the ²³⁵U enrichment of the fuel, impurities in the moderator pebbles, and the density and impurity content of the radial reflector. Calculations of keff with MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron nuclear data are greatermore » than the benchmark values but within 1% and also within the 3σ uncertainty, except for Core 4, which is the only randomly packed pebble configuration. Repeated calculations of keff with MCNP6.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 are lower than the benchmark values and within 1% (~3σ) except for Cores 5 and 9, which calculate lower than the benchmark eigenvalues within 4σ. The primary difference between the two nuclear data libraries is the adjustment of the absorption cross section of graphite. Simulations of the absorber rod worth measurements are within 3σ of the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.« less

  4. Constructing Benchmarks for Monitoring Purposes: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherman, Vanessa; Howie, Sarah J.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2011-01-01

    In information-rich environments, schools are often presented with a myriad of data from which decisions need to be made. The use of the information on a classroom level may be facilitated if performance could be described in terms of levels of proficiency or benchmarks. The aim of this article is to explore benchmarks using data from a monitoring…

  5. Teaching Benchmark Strategy for Fifth-Graders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lai, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    The key purpose of this study was how we taught the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction for fifth-graders in Taiwan. 26 fifth graders from a public elementary in south Taiwan were selected to join this study. Results of this case study showed that students had a much progress on the use of benchmark strategy when comparing fraction…

  6. Benchmark problems for numerical implementations of phase field models

    SciTech Connect

    Jokisaari, A. M.; Voorhees, P. W.; Guyer, J. E.; Warren, J.; Heinonen, O. G.

    2016-10-01

    Here, we present the first set of benchmark problems for phase field models that are being developed by the Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). While many scientific research areas use a limited set of well-established software, the growing phase field community continues to develop a wide variety of codes and lacks benchmark problems to consistently evaluate the numerical performance of new implementations. Phase field modeling has become significantly more popular as computational power has increased and is now becoming mainstream, driving the need for benchmark problems to validate and verify new implementations. We follow the example set by the micromagnetics community to develop an evolving set of benchmark problems that test the usability, computational resources, numerical capabilities and physical scope of phase field simulation codes. In this paper, we propose two benchmark problems that cover the physics of solute diffusion and growth and coarsening of a second phase via a simple spinodal decomposition model and a more complex Ostwald ripening model. We demonstrate the utility of benchmark problems by comparing the results of simulations performed with two different adaptive time stepping techniques, and we discuss the needs of future benchmark problems. The development of benchmark problems will enable the results of quantitative phase field models to be confidently incorporated into integrated computational materials science and engineering (ICME), an important goal of the Materials Genome Initiative.

  7. Using benchmarking data to determine vascular access device selection.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Margy

    2002-01-01

    Benchmarking data has validated that patients with planned vascular access device (VAD) placement have fewer device placements, less difficulty with device insertions, fewer venipunctures, earlier assessment for placement of central VADs, and shorter hospital stays. This article will discuss VAD program planning, early assessment for VAD selection, and benchmarking of program data used to achieve positive infusion-related outcomes.

  8. Integrating the Nqueens Algorithm into a Parameterized Benchmark Suite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    ARL-TR-7585 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Integrating the Nqueens Algorithm into a Parameterized Benchmark Suite by...the Nqueens Algorithm into a Parameterized Benchmark Suite by Jamie K Infantolino and Mikayla Malley Computational and Information Sciences...

  9. Benchmark problems for numerical implementations of phase field models

    DOE PAGES

    Jokisaari, A. M.; Voorhees, P. W.; Guyer, J. E.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Here, we present the first set of benchmark problems for phase field models that are being developed by the Center for Hierarchical Materials Design (CHiMaD) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). While many scientific research areas use a limited set of well-established software, the growing phase field community continues to develop a wide variety of codes and lacks benchmark problems to consistently evaluate the numerical performance of new implementations. Phase field modeling has become significantly more popular as computational power has increased and is now becoming mainstream, driving the need for benchmark problems to validate and verifymore » new implementations. We follow the example set by the micromagnetics community to develop an evolving set of benchmark problems that test the usability, computational resources, numerical capabilities and physical scope of phase field simulation codes. In this paper, we propose two benchmark problems that cover the physics of solute diffusion and growth and coarsening of a second phase via a simple spinodal decomposition model and a more complex Ostwald ripening model. We demonstrate the utility of benchmark problems by comparing the results of simulations performed with two different adaptive time stepping techniques, and we discuss the needs of future benchmark problems. The development of benchmark problems will enable the results of quantitative phase field models to be confidently incorporated into integrated computational materials science and engineering (ICME), an important goal of the Materials Genome Initiative.« less

  10. Writing Better Goals and Short-Term Objectives or Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Marchand-Martella, Nancy; Martella, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides strategies for writing precise goals and short-term objectives or benchmarks as part of individualized education programs (IEPs). Guidelines and examples address: definitions, reasons for clarity and precision, individual parts of goals and objectives, inclusion of time factors in objectives and benchmarks, number of…

  11. The Snowmass points and slopes: Benchmarks for SUSY searches

    SciTech Connect

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2002-03-04

    The ''Snowmass Points and Slopes'' (SPS) are a set of benchmark points and parameter lines in the MSSM parameter space corresponding to different scenarios in the search for Supersymmetry at present and future experiments. This set of benchmarks was agreed upon at the 2001 ''Snowmass Workshop on the Future of Particle Physics'' as a consensus based on different existing proposals.

  12. Nomenclatural Benchmarking: The roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of nomenclatural benchmarking is the examination of type specimens of all available names to ascertain which currently accepted species the specimen bearing the name falls within. We propose a strategy for addressing four challenges for nomenclatural benchmarking. First, there is the mat...

  13. Higher Education Ranking and Leagues Tables: Lessons Learned from Benchmarking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The paper intends to contribute to the debate on ranking and league tables by adopting a critical approach to ranking methodologies from the point of view of a university benchmarking exercise. The absence of a strict benchmarking exercise in the ranking process has been, in the opinion of the author, one of the major problems encountered in the…

  14. The Geography Benchmark: A View from the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the benchmark statements of the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education in the United Kingdom. Addresses the document "Geography for Life: The National Geography Standards" created within the United States. Believes that the benchmark statement is useful for geographers within the United States. (CMK)

  15. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  16. Safety, codes and standards for hydrogen installations. Metrics development and benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Aaron P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; LaFleur, Angela Christine; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2014-04-01

    Automakers and fuel providers have made public commitments to commercialize light duty fuel cell electric vehicles and fueling infrastructure in select US regions beginning in 2014. The development, implementation, and advancement of meaningful codes and standards is critical to enable the effective deployment of clean and efficient fuel cell and hydrogen solutions in the energy technology marketplace. Metrics pertaining to the development and implementation of safety knowledge, codes, and standards are important to communicate progress and inform future R&D investments. This document describes the development and benchmarking of metrics specific to the development of hydrogen specific codes relevant for hydrogen refueling stations. These metrics will be most useful as the hydrogen fuel market transitions from pre-commercial to early-commercial phases. The target regions in California will serve as benchmarking case studies to quantify the success of past investments in research and development supporting safety codes and standards R&D.

  17. A new numerical benchmark of a freshwater lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeckl, L.; Walther, M.; Graf, T.

    2016-04-01

    A numerical benchmark for 2-D variable-density flow and solute transport in a freshwater lens is presented. The benchmark is based on results of laboratory experiments conducted by Stoeckl and Houben (2012) using a sand tank on the meter scale. This benchmark describes the formation and degradation of a freshwater lens over time as it can be found under real-world islands. An error analysis gave the appropriate spatial and temporal discretization of 1 mm and 8.64 s, respectively. The calibrated parameter set was obtained using the parameter estimation tool PEST. Comparing density-coupled and density-uncoupled results showed that the freshwater-saltwater interface position is strongly dependent on density differences. A benchmark that adequately represents saltwater intrusion and that includes realistic features of coastal aquifers or freshwater lenses was lacking. This new benchmark was thus developed and is demonstrated to be suitable to test variable-density groundwater models applied to saltwater intrusion investigations.

  18. Benchmarking Soft Costs for PV Systems in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, K.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents results from the first U.S. based data collection effort to quantify non-hardware, business process costs for PV systems at the residential and commercial scales, using a bottom-up approach. Annual expenditure and labor hour productivity data are analyzed to benchmark business process costs in the specific areas of: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection; (3) labor costs of third party financing; and (4) installation labor.

  19. MCNP benchmarking of an inelastic neutron scattering system for soil carbon analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doron, Oded; Wielopolski, Lucian; Mitra, Sudeep; Biegalski, Steven

    2014-01-01

    We benchmark here a Monte Carlo model simulating an inelastic neutron scattering (INS) system for quantitative analysis of carbon in soil. Specifically, we compare the simulations with experimental results of copper foils activations, INS system calibration, INS system optimization of the height above the ground and comparing pulse height distributions due to 137Cs and 60Co sources. Most of the simulations and the measurements agree better than 10%, although some of them registered discrepancies larger than 20%.

  20. Convergence study of Rattlesnake solutions for the two-dimensional C5G7 MOX benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark David; Gaston, Derek Ray; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; Martineau, Richard Charles; Peterson, John William; Schunert, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the convergence study of a specific transport scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with the discrete ordinates (SN) method and continuous finite element method (CFEM), implemented with Rattlesnake, on solving the well known two-dimensional C5G7 MOX benchmark. Both the convergence in space and angle are studied. Numerical results show the convergence of the spatial and angular refinements.

  1. REVIEW OF RESULTS FOR THE OECD/NEA PHASE VII BENCHMARK: STUDY OF SPENT FUEL COMPOSITIONS FOR LONG TERM DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Wagner, John C

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the problem specification and compares participants results for the OECD/NEA/WPNCS Expert Group on Burn-up Credit Criticality Safety Phase VII Benchmark Study of Spent Fuel Compositions for Long-Term Disposal. The Phase VII benchmark was developed to study the ability of relevant computer codes and associated nuclear data to predict spent fuel isotopic compositions and corresponding keff values in a cask configuration over the time duration relevant to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal. The benchmark was divided into two sets of calculations: (1) decay calculations out to 1,000,000 years for provided pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) UO2 discharged fuel compositions and (2) burnup credit criticality calculations for a representative cask model at selected time steps. Contributions from 15 organizations and companies in 10 countries were submitted to the Phase VII benchmark exercise. This paper provides a description of the Phase VII benchmark and detailed comparisons of the participants isotopic compositions and keff values that were calculated with a diversity of computer codes and nuclear data sets. Differences observed in the calculated time-dependent nuclide densities are attributed to different decay data or code-specific numerical approximations. The variability of the keff results is consistent with the evaluated uncertainty associated with cross-section data.

  2. A benchmark investigation on cleaning photomasks using wafer cleaning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Burnham, Jay; Marmillion, Pat

    2004-12-01

    As new technologies are developed for smaller linewidths, the specifications for mask cleanliness become much stricter. Not only must the particle removal efficiency increase, but the largest allowable particle size decreases. Specifications for film thickness and surface roughness are becoming tighter and consequently the integrity of these films must be maintained in order to preserve the functionality of the masks. Residual contamination remaining on the surface of the mask after cleaning processes can lead to subpellicle defect growth once the mask is exposed in a stepper environment. Only during the last several years, has an increased focus been put on improving mask cleaning. Over the years, considerably more effort has been put into developing advanced wafer cleaning technologies. However, because of the small market involved with mask cleaning, wafer cleaning equipment vendors have been reluctant to invest time and effort into developing cleaning processes and adapting their toolset to accommodate masks. With the advent of 300 mm processing, wafer cleaning tools are now more easily adapted to processing masks. These wafer cleaning technologies may offer a solution to the difficulties of mask cleaning and need to be investigated to determine whether or not they warrant continued investigation. This paper focuses on benchmarking advanced wafer cleaning technologies applied to mask cleaning. Ozonated water, hydrogenated water, super critical fluids, and cryogenic cleaning have been investigated with regards to stripping resist and cleaning particles from masks. Results that include film thickness changes, surface contamination, and particle removal efficiency will be discussed.

  3. A Benchmarking Initiative for Reactive Transport Modeling Applied to Subsurface Environmental Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steefel, C. I.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, we have seen the evolution of multicomponent reactive transport modeling and the expanding range and increasing complexity of subsurface environmental applications it is being used to address. Reactive transport modeling is being asked to provide accurate assessments of engineering performance and risk for important issues with far-reaching consequences. As a result, the complexity and detail of subsurface processes, properties, and conditions that can be simulated have significantly expanded. Closed form solutions are necessary and useful, but limited to situations that are far simpler than typical applications that combine many physical and chemical processes, in many cases in coupled form. In the absence of closed form and yet realistic solutions for complex applications, numerical benchmark problems with an accepted set of results will be indispensable to qualifying codes for various environmental applications. The intent of this benchmarking exercise, now underway for more than five years, is to develop and publish a set of well-described benchmark problems that can be used to demonstrate simulator conformance with norms established by the subsurface science and engineering community. The objective is not to verify this or that specific code--the reactive transport codes play a supporting role in this regard—but rather to use the codes to verify that a common solution of the problem can be achieved. Thus, the objective of each of the manuscripts is to present an environmentally-relevant benchmark problem that tests the conceptual model capabilities, numerical implementation, process coupling, and accuracy. The benchmark problems developed to date include 1) microbially-mediated reactions, 2) isotopes, 3) multi-component diffusion, 4) uranium fate and transport, 5) metal mobility in mining affected systems, and 6) waste repositories and related aspects.

  4. Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Nitrate Solution Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Marshall; J. D. Bess

    2011-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approach-to-critical experiments were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas{reg_sign} reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were performed to fill a gap in experimental data regarding criticality limits for storing and handling arrays of Pu solution in reprocessing facilities. Of the thirteen approach-to-critical experiments eleven resulted in extrapolations to critical configurations. Four of the approaches were extrapolated to the critical number of bottles; these were not evaluated further due to the large uncertainty associated with the modeling of a fraction of a bottle. The remaining seven approaches were extrapolated to critical array spacing of 3-4 and 4-4 arrays; these seven critical configurations were evaluation for inclusion as acceptable benchmark experiments in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook. Detailed and simple models of these configurations were created and the associated bias of these simplifications was determined to range from 0.00116 and 0.00162 {+-} 0.00006 ?keff. Monte Carlo analysis of all models was completed using MCNP5 with ENDF/BVII.0 neutron cross section libraries. A thorough uncertainty analysis of all critical, geometric, and material parameters was performed using parameter

  5. Benchmarking real-time HEVC streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2012-06-01

    Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently gaining pace. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC). Thus far, work on HEVC has concentrated on improvements to the coding efficiency and has not yet addressed transmission in networks other than to mandate byte stream compliance with Annex B of H.264/AVC. For practical networked HEVC applications a number of essential building blocks have yet to be defined. In this work, we design and prototype a real-time HEVC streaming system and empirically evaluate its performance, in particular we consider the robustness of the current Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM4.0) for HEVC to packet loss caused by a reduction in available bandwidth both in terms of decoder resilience and degradation in perceptual video quality. A NAL unit packetisation and streaming framework for HEVC encoded video streams is designed, implemented and empirically tested in a number of streaming environments including wired, wireless, single path and multiple path network scenarios. As a first step the HEVC decoder's error resilience is tested under a comprehensive set of packet loss conditions and a simple error concealment method for HEVC is implemented. Similarly to H.264 encoded streams, the size and distribution of NAL units within an HEVC stream and the nature of the NAL unit dependencies influences the packetisation and streaming strategies which may be employed for such streams. The relationships between HEVC encoding mode and the quality of the received video are shown under a wide range of bandwidth constraints. HEVC streaming is evaluated in both single and multipath network configuration scenarios. Through the use of extensive experimentation, we establish a comprehensive set of benchmarks for HEVC streaming in loss prone network environments. We show the visual quality

  6. Measurements and ALE3D Simulations for Violence in a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment with LX-10 and AerMet 100 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Yoh, J J; deHaven, M R; Strand, O T

    2005-06-03

    We completed a Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) and performed ALE3D simulations for the HMX-based explosive, LX-10, confined in an AerMet 100 (iron-cobalt-nickel alloy) vessel. The explosive was heated at 1 C/h until cookoff at 182 C using a controlled temperature profile. During the explosion, the expansion of the tube and fragment velocities were measured with strain gauges, Photonic-Doppler-Velocimeters (PDVs), and micropower radar units. These results were combined to produce a single curve describing 15 cm of tube wall motion. A majority of the metal fragments were captured and cataloged. A fragment size distribution was constructed, and a typical fragment had a length scale of 2 cm. Based on these results, the explosion was considered to be a violent deflagration. ALE3D models for chemical, thermal, and mechanical behavior were developed for the heating and explosive processes. A four-step chemical kinetics model is employed for the HMX while a one-step model is used for the Viton. A pressure-dependent deflagration model is employed during the expansion. The mechanical behavior of the solid constituents is represented by a Steinberg-Guinan model while polynomial and gamma-law expressions are used for the equation of state of the solid and gas species, respectively. A gamma-law model is employed for the air in gaps, and a mixed material model is used for the interface between air and explosive. A Johnson-Cook model with an empirical rule for failure strain is used to describe fracture behavior. Parameters for the kinetics model were specified using measurements of the One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX), while measurements for burn rate were employed to determine parameters in the burn front model. The ALE3D models provide good predictions for the thermal behavior and time to explosion, but the predicted wall expansion curve is higher than the measured curve. Possible contributions to this discrepancy include inaccuracies in the chemical models

  7. The Model Averaging for Dichotomous Response Benchmark Dose (MADr-BMD) Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Providing quantal response models, which are also used in the U.S. EPA benchmark dose software suite, and generates a model-averaged dose response model to generate benchmark dose and benchmark dose lower bound estimates.

  8. Performance benchmarking of core optical networking paradigms.

    PubMed

    Drakos, Andreas; Orphanoudakis, Theofanis G; Stavdas, Alexandros

    2012-07-30

    The sustainability of Future Internet critically depends on networking paradigms able to provide optimum and balanced performance over an extended set of efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) metrics. In this work we benchmark the most established networking modes through appropriate performance metrics for three network topologies. The results demonstrate that the static reservation of WDM channels, as used in IP/WDM schemes, is severely limiting scalability, since it cannot efficiently adapt to the dynamic traffic fluctuations that are frequently observed in today's networks. Optical Burst Switching (OBS) schemes do provide dynamic resource reservation but their performance is compromised due to high burst loss. It is shown that the CANON (Clustered Architecture for Nodes in an Optical Network) architecture exploiting statistical multiplexing over a large scale core optical network and efficient grooming at appropriate granularity levels could be a viable alternative to existing static as well as dynamic wavelength reservation schemes. Through extensive simulation results we quantify performance gains and we show that CANON demonstrates the highest efficiency achieving both targets for statistical multiplexing gains and QoS guarantees.

  9. Some benchmark problems for computational aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. J.

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents analytical results for high-speed leading-edge noise which may be useful for benchmark testing of computational aeroacoustics codes. The source of the noise is a convected gust striking the leading edge of a wing or fan blade at arbitrary subsonic Mach number; the streamwise shape of the gust is top-hat, Gaussian, or sinusoidal, and the cross-stream shape is top-hat, Gaussian, or uniform. Detailed results are given for all nine combinations of shapes; six combinations give three-dimensional sound fields, and three give two-dimensional fields. The gust shapes depend on numerical parameters, such as frequency, rise time, and width, which may be varied arbitrarily in relation to aeroacoustic code parameters, such as time-step, grid size, and artificial viscosity. Hence it is possible to determine values of code parameters suitable for accurate calculation of a given acoustic feature, e.g., the impulsive sound field produced by a gust with sharp edges, or a full three-dimensional acoustic directivity pattern, or a complicated multi-lobed directivity. Another possibility is to check how accurately a code can determine the far acoustic field from nearfield data; a parameter here would be the distance from the leading edge at which the data are taken.

  10. Direct Simulation of a Solidification Benchmark Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carozzani, Tommy; Gandin, Charles-André; Digonnet, Hugues; Bellet, Michel; Zaidat, Kader; Fautrelle, Yves

    2013-02-01

    A solidification benchmark experiment is simulated using a three-dimensional cellular automaton—finite element solidification model. The experiment consists of a rectangular cavity containing a Sn-3 wt pct Pb alloy. The alloy is first melted and then solidified in the cavity. A dense array of thermocouples permits monitoring of temperatures in the cavity and in the heat exchangers surrounding the cavity. After solidification, the grain structure is revealed by metallography. X-ray radiography and inductively coupled plasma spectrometry are also conducted to access a distribution map of Pb, or macrosegregation map. The solidification model consists of solutions for heat, solute mass, and momentum conservations using the finite element method. It is coupled with a description of the development of grain structure using the cellular automaton method. A careful and direct comparison with experimental results is possible thanks to boundary conditions deduced from the temperature measurements, as well as a careful choice of the values of the material properties for simulation. Results show that the temperature maps and the macrosegregation map can only be approached with a three-dimensional simulation that includes the description of the grain structure.

  11. Effect of noise correlations on randomized benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Harrison; Stace, Thomas M.; Flammia, Steven T.; Biercuk, Michael J.

    2016-02-01

    Among the most popular and well-studied quantum characterization, verification, and validation techniques is randomized benchmarking (RB), an important statistical tool used to characterize the performance of physical logic operations useful in quantum information processing. In this work we provide a detailed mathematical treatment of the effect of temporal noise correlations on the outcomes of RB protocols. We provide a fully analytic framework capturing the accumulation of error in RB expressed in terms of a three-dimensional random walk in "Pauli space." Using this framework we derive the probability density function describing RB outcomes (averaged over noise) for both Markovian and correlated errors, which we show is generally described by a Γ distribution with shape and scale parameters depending on the correlation structure. Long temporal correlations impart large nonvanishing variance and skew in the distribution towards high-fidelity outcomes—consistent with existing experimental data—highlighting potential finite-sampling pitfalls and the divergence of the mean RB outcome from worst-case errors in the presence of noise correlations. We use the filter-transfer function formalism to reveal the underlying reason for these differences in terms of effective coherent averaging of correlated errors in certain random sequences. We conclude by commenting on the impact of these calculations on the utility of single-metric approaches to quantum characterization, verification, and validation.

  12. Benchmarking homogenization algorithms for monthly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, V. K. C.; Mestre, O.; Aguilar, E.; Auer, I.; Guijarro, J. A.; Domonkos, P.; Vertacnik, G.; Szentimrey, T.; Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.; Viarre, J.; Müller-Westermeier, G.; Lakatos, M.; Williams, C. N.; Menne, M. J.; Lindau, R.; Rasol, D.; Rustemeier, E.; Kolokythas, K.; Marinova, T.; Andresen, L.; Acquaotta, F.; Fratiannil, S.; Cheval, S.; Klancar, M.; Brunetti, M.; Gruber, C.; Prohom Duran, M.; Likso, T.; Esteban, P.; Brandsma, T.; Willett, K.

    2013-09-01

    The COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME) has executed a blind intercomparison and validation study for monthly homogenization algorithms. Time series of monthly temperature and precipitation were evaluated because of their importance for climate studies. The algorithms were validated against a realistic benchmark dataset. Participants provided 25 separate homogenized contributions as part of the blind study as well as 22 additional solutions submitted after the details of the imposed inhomogeneities were revealed. These homogenized datasets were assessed by a number of performance metrics including i) the centered root mean square error relative to the true homogeneous values at various averaging scales, ii) the error in linear trend estimates and iii) traditional contingency skill scores. The metrics were computed both using the individual station series as well as the network average regional series. The performance of the contributions depends significantly on the error metric considered. Although relative homogenization algorithms typically improve the homogeneity of temperature data, only the best ones improve precipitation data. Moreover, state-of-the-art relative homogenization algorithms developed to work with an inhomogeneous reference are shown to perform best. The study showed that currently automatic algorithms can perform as well as manual ones.

  13. Successful database benchmarking: what do we need?

    PubMed

    Backiel, R B

    2001-01-01

    As the technology of on-line healthcare information advances, hospitals and data vendors are faced with a variety of challenges. What are the accepted standard fields? What kind of DSS system should we use? Which system will give us the information we need? Does the server have enough space to handle increased business? Healthcare organizations are now looking at comparative information through the Internet instead of buying data and loading it onto their own servers. They are asking: Are servers necessary now? Is the software user-friendly? How current and accurate is the information being offered? How secure is the Web site it is on? Data vendors are asking: Is our server large enough to handle the volume of data we now have and as the company grows? How do we make sure the data are accurate? How do we keep the data secure? This article educates and informs healthcare facilities about the factors that should be considered when comparing their own data with those of other hospitals in an on-line benchmarking database warehouse.

  14. Geant4 Computing Performance Benchmarking and Monitoring

    DOE PAGES

    Dotti, Andrea; Elvira, V. Daniel; Folger, Gunter; ...

    2015-12-23

    Performance evaluation and analysis of large scale computing applications is essential for optimal use of resources. As detector simulation is one of the most compute intensive tasks and Geant4 is the simulation toolkit most widely used in contemporary high energy physics (HEP) experiments, it is important to monitor Geant4 through its development cycle for changes in computing performance and to identify problems and opportunities for code improvements. All Geant4 development and public releases are being profiled with a set of applications that utilize different input event samples, physics parameters, and detector configurations. Results from multiple benchmarking runs are compared tomore » previous public and development reference releases to monitor CPU and memory usage. Observed changes are evaluated and correlated with code modifications. Besides the full summary of call stack and memory footprint, a detailed call graph analysis is available to Geant4 developers for further analysis. The set of software tools used in the performance evaluation procedure, both in sequential and multi-threaded modes, include FAST, IgProf and Open|Speedshop. In conclusion, the scalability of the CPU time and memory performance in multi-threaded application is evaluated by measuring event throughput and memory gain as a function of the number of threads for selected event samples.« less

  15. Geant4 Computing Performance Benchmarking and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dotti, Andrea; Elvira, V. Daniel; Folger, Gunter; Genser, Krzysztof; Jun, Soon Yung; Kowalkowski, James B.; Paterno, Marc

    2015-12-23

    Performance evaluation and analysis of large scale computing applications is essential for optimal use of resources. As detector simulation is one of the most compute intensive tasks and Geant4 is the simulation toolkit most widely used in contemporary high energy physics (HEP) experiments, it is important to monitor Geant4 through its development cycle for changes in computing performance and to identify problems and opportunities for code improvements. All Geant4 development and public releases are being profiled with a set of applications that utilize different input event samples, physics parameters, and detector configurations. Results from multiple benchmarking runs are compared to previous public and development reference releases to monitor CPU and memory usage. Observed changes are evaluated and correlated with code modifications. Besides the full summary of call stack and memory footprint, a detailed call graph analysis is available to Geant4 developers for further analysis. The set of software tools used in the performance evaluation procedure, both in sequential and multi-threaded modes, include FAST, IgProf and Open|Speedshop. In conclusion, the scalability of the CPU time and memory performance in multi-threaded application is evaluated by measuring event throughput and memory gain as a function of the number of threads for selected event samples.

  16. Benchmarking electrophysiological models of human atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelms, Mathias; Hettmann, Hanne; Maleckar, Mary M.; Koivumäki, Jussi T.; Dössel, Olaf; Seemann, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of cardiac electrophysiology is an insightful method to investigate the underlying mechanisms responsible for arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF). In past years, five models of human atrial electrophysiology with different formulations of ionic currents, and consequently diverging properties, have been published. The aim of this work is to give an overview of strengths and weaknesses of these models depending on the purpose and the general requirements of simulations. Therefore, these models were systematically benchmarked with respect to general mathematical properties and their ability to reproduce certain electrophysiological phenomena, such as action potential (AP) alternans. To assess the models' ability to replicate modified properties of human myocytes and tissue in cardiac disease, electrical remodeling in chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF) was chosen as test case. The healthy and remodeled model variants were compared with experimental results in single-cell, 1D and 2D tissue simulations to investigate AP and restitution properties, as well as the initiation of reentrant circuits. PMID:23316167

  17. Benchmark notch test for life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domas, P. A.; Sharpe, W. N.; Ward, M.; Yau, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    The laser Interferometric Strain Displacement Gage (ISDG) was used to measure local strains in notched Inconel 718 test bars subjected to six different load histories at 649 C (1200 F) and including effects of tensile and compressive hold periods. The measurements were compared to simplified Neuber notch analysis predictions of notch root stress and strain. The actual strains incurred at the root of a discontinuity in cyclically loaded test samples subjected to inelastic deformation at high temperature where creep deformations readily occur were determined. The steady state cyclic, stress-strain response at the root of the discontinuity was analyzed. Flat, double notched uniaxially loaded fatigue specimens manufactured from the nickel base, superalloy Inconel 718 were used. The ISDG was used to obtain cycle by cycle recordings of notch root strain during continuous and hold time cycling at 649 C. Comparisons to Neuber and finite element model analyses were made. The results obtained provide a benchmark data set in high technology design where notch fatigue life is the predominant component service life limitation.

  18. Benchmarking Calculations of Excitonic Couplings between Bacteriochlorophylls.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Elise P; Kassal, Ivan

    2016-01-14

    Excitonic couplings between (bacterio)chlorophyll molecules are necessary for simulating energy transport in photosynthetic complexes. Many techniques for calculating the couplings are in use, from the simple (but inaccurate) point-dipole approximation to fully quantum-chemical methods. We compared several approximations to determine their range of applicability, noting that the propagation of experimental uncertainties poses a fundamental limit on the achievable accuracy. In particular, the uncertainty in crystallographic coordinates yields an uncertainty of about 20% in the calculated couplings. Because quantum-chemical corrections are smaller than 20% in most biologically relevant cases, their considerable computational cost is rarely justified. We therefore recommend the electrostatic TrEsp method across the entire range of molecular separations and orientations because its cost is minimal and it generally agrees with quantum-chemical calculations to better than the geometric uncertainty. Understanding these uncertainties can guard against striving for unrealistic precision; at the same time, detailed benchmarks can allow important qualitative questions-which do not depend on the precise values of the simulation parameters-to be addressed with greater confidence about the conclusions.

  19. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  20. Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fuqiu , Zhou; Huawen, Xiong; Xuemin, Zeng; Lan, Wang

    2008-07-30

    The Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool (BEST) Cement is a process-based tool based on commercially available efficiency technologies used anywhere in the world applicable to the cement industry. This version has been designed for use in China. No actual cement facility with every single efficiency measure included in the benchmark will likely exist; however, the benchmark sets a reasonable standard by which to compare for plants striving to be the best. The energy consumption of the benchmark facility differs due to differences in processing at a given cement facility. The tool accounts for most of these variables and allows the user to adapt the model to operational variables specific for his/her cement facility. Figure 1 shows the boundaries included in a plant modeled by BEST Cement. In order to model the benchmark, i.e., the most energy efficient cement facility, so that it represents a facility similar to the user's cement facility, the user is first required to input production variables in the input sheet (see Section 6 for more information on how to input variables). These variables allow the tool to estimate a benchmark facility that is similar to the user's cement plant, giving a better picture of the potential for that particular facility, rather than benchmarking against a generic one. The input variables required include the following: (1) the amount of raw materials used in tonnes per year (limestone, gypsum, clay minerals, iron ore, blast furnace slag, fly ash, slag from other industries, natural pozzolans, limestone powder (used post-clinker stage), municipal wastes and others); the amount of raw materials that are preblended (prehomogenized and proportioned) and crushed (in tonnes per year); (2) the amount of additives that are dried and ground (in tonnes per year); (3) the production of clinker (in tonnes per year) from each kiln by kiln type; (4) the amount of raw materials, coal and clinker that is ground by mill type (in tonnes per year); (5

  1. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota: 1996 revision

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II; Tsao, C.L.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life form contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening for benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. This report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility. Also included is the updates of benchmark values where appropriate, new benchmark values, secondary sources are replaced by primary sources, and a more complete documentation of the sources and derivation of all values are presented.

  2. International land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Package v001.00

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mu, Mingquan [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Riley, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Hoffman, Forrest M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2016-05-02

    As a contribution to International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Project, we are providing new analysis approaches, benchmarking tools, and science leadership. The goal of ILAMB is to assess and improve the performance of land models through international cooperation and to inform the design of new measurement campaigns and field studies to reduce uncertainties associated with key biogeochemical processes and feedbacks. ILAMB is expected to be a primary analysis tool for CMIP6 and future model-data intercomparison experiments. This team has developed initial prototype benchmarking systems for ILAMB, which will be improved and extended to include ocean model metrics and diagnostics.

  3. International land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Package v002.00

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, Nathaniel; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Mu, Mingquan; Randerson, James T.; Riley, William J.

    2016-05-09

    As a contribution to International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) Project, we are providing new analysis approaches, benchmarking tools, and science leadership. The goal of ILAMB is to assess and improve the performance of land models through international cooperation and to inform the design of new measurement campaigns and field studies to reduce uncertainties associated with key biogeochemical processes and feedbacks. ILAMB is expected to be a primary analysis tool for CMIP6 and future model-data intercomparison experiments. This team has developed initial prototype benchmarking systems for ILAMB, which will be improved and extended to include ocean model metrics and diagnostics.

  4. INL Results for Phases I and III of the OECD/NEA MHTGR-350 Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Javier Ortensi; Sonat Sen; Hans Hammer

    2013-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) Methods Core Simulation group led the construction of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) 350 MW benchmark for comparing and evaluating prismatic VHTR analysis codes. The benchmark is sponsored by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), and the project will yield a set of reference steady-state, transient, and lattice depletion problems that can be used by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and vendors to assess their code suits. The Methods group is responsible for defining the benchmark specifications, leading the data collection and comparison activities, and chairing the annual technical workshops. This report summarizes the latest INL results for Phase I (steady state) and Phase III (lattice depletion) of the benchmark. The INSTANT, Pronghorn and RattleSnake codes were used for the standalone core neutronics modeling of Exercise 1, and the results obtained from these codes are compared in Section 4. Exercise 2 of Phase I requires the standalone steady-state thermal fluids modeling of the MHTGR-350 design, and the results for the systems code RELAP5-3D are discussed in Section 5. The coupled neutronics and thermal fluids steady-state solution for Exercise 3 are reported in Section 6, utilizing the newly developed Parallel and Highly Innovative Simulation for INL Code System (PHISICS)/RELAP5-3D code suit. Finally, the lattice depletion models and results obtained for Phase III are compared in Section 7. The MHTGR-350 benchmark proved to be a challenging simulation set of problems to model accurately, and even with the simplifications introduced in the benchmark specification this activity is an important step in the code-to-code verification of modern prismatic VHTR codes. A final OECD/NEA comparison report will compare the Phase I and III results

  5. Benchmarking Investments in Advancement: Results of the Inaugural CASE Advancement Investment Metrics Study (AIMS). CASE White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Juidith A.

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural Advancement Investment Metrics Study, or AIMS, benchmarked investments and staffing in each of the advancement disciplines (advancement services, alumni relations, communications and marketing, fundraising and advancement management) as well as the return on the investment in fundraising specifically. This white paper reports on the…

  6. Consistency and Magnitude of Differences in Reading Curriculum-Based Measurement Slopes in Benchmark versus Strategic Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Sterett H.; Keller-Margulis, Milena A.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in oral reading curriculum-based measurement (R-CBM) slopes based on two commonly used progress monitoring practices in field-based data were compared in this study. Semester-specific R-CBM slopes were calculated for 150 Grade 1 and 2 students who completed benchmark (i.e., 3 R-CBM probes collected 3 times per year) and strategic…

  7. Benchmark and gap analysis of current mask carriers vs future requirements: example of the carrier contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, H.; Davenet, M.; Cheung, D.; Hoellein, I.; Richsteiger, P.; Dejaune, P.; Torsy, A.

    2007-02-01

    In the frame of the European Medea+ 2T302 MUSCLE project, an extensive mask carriers benchmark was carried out in order to evaluate whether some containers answer to the 65nm technology needs. Ten different containers, currently used or expected in the future all along the mask supply chain (blank, maskhouse and fab carriers) were selected at different steps of their life cycle (new, aged, aged & cleaned). The most critical parameters identified for analysis versus future technologies were: automation, particle contamination, chemical contamination (organic outgassing, ionic contamination), cleanability, ESD, airtightness and purgeability. Furthermore, experimental protocols corresponding to suitable methods were then developed and implemented to test each criterion. The benchmark results are presented giving a "state of the art" of mask carriers currently available and allowing a gap analysis for the tested parameters related to future needs. This approach is detailed through the particular case of carrier contamination measurements. Finally, this benchmark / gap analysis leads to propose advisable mask carrier specifications (and the test protocols associated) on various key parameters which can also be taken as guidelines for a standardization perspective for the 65nm technology. This also indicates that none of tested carriers fulfills all the specifications proposed.

  8. SUMMARY OF GENERAL WORKING GROUP A+B+D: CODES BENCHMARKING.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.; SHAPOSHNIKOVA, E.; ZIMMERMANN, F.; HOFMANN, I.

    2006-05-29

    Computer simulation is an indispensable tool in assisting the design, construction, and operation of accelerators. In particular, computer simulation complements analytical theories and experimental observations in understanding beam dynamics in accelerators. The ultimate function of computer simulation is to study mechanisms that limit the performance of frontier accelerators. There are four goals for the benchmarking of computer simulation codes, namely debugging, validation, comparison and verification: (1) Debugging--codes should calculate what they are supposed to calculate; (2) Validation--results generated by the codes should agree with established analytical results for specific cases; (3) Comparison--results from two sets of codes should agree with each other if the models used are the same; and (4) Verification--results from the codes should agree with experimental measurements. This is the summary of the joint session among working groups A, B, and D of the HI32006 Workshop on computer codes benchmarking.

  9. A algorithm benchmark data suite for chemical and biological (chem/bio) defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamani, Mohamed-Adel; Fisk, Brian; Chyba, Thomas; Emge, Darren; Waugh, Steve

    2008-04-01

    A Chem/Bio Defense Algorithm Benchmark is proposed as a way to leverage algorithm expertise and apply it to high fidelity Chem/Bio challenge problems in a high fidelity simulation environment. Initially intended to provide risk mitigation to the DTRA-sponsored US Army CUGR ACTD, its intent is to enable the assessment and transition of algorithms to support P3I of future spiral updates. The key chemical sensor in the CUGR ACTD is the Joint Contaminated Surface Detector (JCSD), a short-range stand-off Raman spectroscopy sensor for tactical in-the-field applications. The significant challenges in discriminating chemical signatures in such a system include, but are not limited to, complex background clutter and low signal to noise ratios (SNR). This paper will present an overview of the Chem-Bio Defense Algorithm Benchmark, and the JCSD Challenge Problem specifically.

  10. Three-index Model for Westenberger-Kallrath Benchmark Scheduling Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vooradi, Ramsagar; Shaik, Munawar A.; Gupta, Nikhil M.

    2010-10-01

    Short-term scheduling of batch operations has become an important research area in the last two decades. Recently Shaik and Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling using unit-specific event based continuous time representation employing three-index binary and continuous variables. In this work, we extend this three index model to solve a challenging benchmark problem from the scheduling literature that covers most of the features contributing to the complexity of batch process scheduling in industry. In order to implement the problem, new sets of constraints and modifications are incorporated into the three-index model. The different demand instances of the benchmark problem have been solved using the developed model and the results are compared with the literature to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed three-index model.

  11. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Benchmark Definition and Test Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Frederik Reitsma; Hans Gougar; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are essential elements of the reactor simulation code verification and validation process. Although several international uncertainty quantification activities have been launched in recent years in the LWR, BWR and VVER domains (e.g. the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program [1], from which the current OECD/NEA LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) benchmark [2] effort was derived), the systematic propagation of uncertainties in cross-section, manufacturing and model parameters for High Temperature Reactor (HTGR) designs has not been attempted yet. This paper summarises the scope, objectives and exercise definitions of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR UAM [3]. Note that no results will be included here, as the HTGR UAM benchmark was only launched formally in April 2012, and the specification is currently still under development.

  12. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Converter Heater Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  13. Structural Benchmark Testing for Stirling Convertor Heater Heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, David L.; Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bowman, Randy R.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified high efficiency Stirling technology for potential use on long duration Space Science missions such as Mars rovers, deep space missions, and lunar applications. For the long life times required, a structurally significant design limit for the Stirling convertor heater head is creep deformation induced even under relatively low stress levels at high material temperatures. Conventional investigations of creep behavior adequately rely on experimental results from uniaxial creep specimens, and much creep data is available for the proposed Inconel-718 (IN-718) and MarM-247 nickel-based superalloy materials of construction. However, very little experimental creep information is available that directly applies to the atypical thin walls, the specific microstructures, and the low stress levels. In addition, the geometry and loading conditions apply multiaxial stress states on the heater head components, far from the conditions of uniaxial testing. For these reasons, experimental benchmark testing is underway to aid in accurately assessing the durability of Stirling heater heads. The investigation supplements uniaxial creep testing with pneumatic testing of heater head test articles at elevated temperatures and with stress levels ranging from one to seven times design stresses. This paper presents experimental methods, results, post-test microstructural analyses, and conclusions for both accelerated and non-accelerated tests. The Stirling projects use the results to calibrate deterministic and probabilistic analytical creep models of the heater heads to predict their life times.

  14. An experimental phylogeny to benchmark ancestral sequence reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Ryan N.; Radford, Caelan E.; Roof, Kelsey A.; Natarajan, Divya K.; Gaucher, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) is a still-burgeoning method that has revealed many key mechanisms of molecular evolution. One criticism of the approach is an inability to validate its algorithms within a biological context as opposed to a computer simulation. Here we build an experimental phylogeny using the gene of a single red fluorescent protein to address this criticism. The evolved phylogeny consists of 19 operational taxonomic units (leaves) and 17 ancestral bifurcations (nodes) that display a wide variety of fluorescent phenotypes. The 19 leaves then serve as ‘modern' sequences that we subject to ASR analyses using various algorithms and to benchmark against the known ancestral genotypes and ancestral phenotypes. We confirm computer simulations that show all algorithms infer ancient sequences with high accuracy, yet we also reveal wide variation in the phenotypes encoded by incorrectly inferred sequences. Specifically, Bayesian methods incorporating rate variation significantly outperform the maximum parsimony criterion in phenotypic accuracy. Subsampling of extant sequences had minor effect on the inference of ancestral sequences. PMID:27628687

  15. Visco-Resistive MHD Modeling Benchmark of Forced Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidler, M. T.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.; Callen, J. D.; Ferraro, N. M.

    2016-10-01

    The presence of externally-applied 3D magnetic fields can affect important phenomena in tokamaks, including mode locking, disruptions, and edge localized modes. External fields penetrate into the plasma and can lead to forced magnetic reconnection (FMR), and hence magnetic islands, on resonant surfaces if the local plasma rotation relative to the external field is slow. Preliminary visco-resistive MHD simulations of FMR in a slab geometry are consistent with theory. Specifically, linear simulations exhibit proper scaling of the penetrated field with resistivity, viscosity, and flow, and nonlinear simulations exhibit a bifurcation from a flow-screened to a field-penetrated, magnetic island state as the external field is increased, due to the 3D electromagnetic force. These results will be compared to simulations of FMR in a circular cross-section, cylindrical geometry by way of a benchmark between the NIMROD and M3D-C1 extended-MHD codes. Because neither this geometry nor the MHD model has the physics of poloidal flow damping, the theory of will be expanded to include poloidal flow effects. The resulting theory will be tested with linear and nonlinear simulations that vary the resistivity, viscosity, flow, and external field. Supported by OFES DoE Grants DE-FG02-92ER54139, DE-FG02-86ER53218, DE-AC02-09CH11466, and the SciDAC Center for Extended MHD Modeling.

  16. A comparison and benchmark of two electron cloud packages

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Amundson, James F; Spentzouris, Panagiotis G; Veitzer, Seth A

    2012-01-01

    We present results from precision simulations of the electron cloud (EC) problem in the Fermilab Main Injector using two distinct codes. These two codes are (i)POSINST, a F90 2D+ code, and (ii)VORPAL, a 2D/3D electrostatic and electromagnetic code used for self-consistent simulations of plasma and particle beam problems. A specific benchmark has been designed to demonstrate the strengths of both codes that are relevant to the EC problem in the Main Injector. As differences between results obtained from these two codes were bigger than the anticipated model uncertainties, a set of changes to the POSINST code were implemented. These changes are documented in this note. This new version of POSINST now gives EC densities that agree with those predicted by VORPAL, within {approx}20%, in the beam region. The root cause of remaining differences are most likely due to differences in the electrostatic Poisson solvers. From a software engineering perspective, these two codes are very different. We comment on the pros and cons of both approaches. The design(s) for a new EC package are briefly discussed.

  17. Benchmarking wastewater treatment plants under an eco-efficiency perspective.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Amores, María José; Termes-Rifé, Montserrat; Marín-Navarro, Desirée; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2016-10-01

    The new ISO 14045 framework is expected to slowly start shifting the definition of eco-efficiency toward a life-cycle perspective, using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as the environmental impact assessment method together with a system value assessment method for the economic analysis. In the present study, a set of 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Spain were analyzed on the basis of eco-efficiency criteria, using LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) as a system value assessment method. The study is intended to be useful to decision-makers in the wastewater treatment sector, since the combined method provides an alternative scheme for analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and costs. Two midpoint impact categories, global warming and eutrophication potential, as well as an endpoint single score indicator were used for the environmental assessment, while LCC was used for value assessment. Results demonstrated that substantial differences can be observed between different WWTPs depending on a wide range of factors such as plant configuration, plant size or even legal discharge limits. Based on these results the benchmarking of wastewater treatment facilities was performed by creating a specific classification and certification scheme. The proposed eco-label for the WWTPs rating is based on the integration of the three environmental indicators and an economic indicator calculated within the study under the eco-efficiency new framework.

  18. Benchmarking the QUAD4/TRIA3 element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitrof, Stephen M.; Venkayya, Vipperla B.

    1993-01-01

    The QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements are the primary plate/shell elements in NASTRAN. These elements enable the user to analyze thin plate/shell structures for membrane, bending and shear phenomena. They are also very new elements in the NASTRAN library. These elements are extremely versatile and constitute a substantially enhanced analysis capability in NASTRAN. However, with the versatility comes the burden of understanding a myriad of modeling implications and their effect on accuracy and analysis quality. The validity of many aspects of these elements were established through a series of benchmark problem results and comparison with those available in the literature and obtained from other programs like MSC/NASTRAN and CSAR/NASTRAN. Never-the-less such a comparison is never complete because of the new and creative use of these elements in complex modeling situations. One of the important features of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements is the offset capability which allows the midsurface of the plate to be noncoincident with the surface of the grid points. None of the previous elements, with the exception of bar (beam), has this capability. The offset capability played a crucial role in the design of QUAD4 and TRIA3 elements. It allowed modeling layered composites, laminated plates and sandwich plates with the metal and composite face sheets. Even though the basic implementation of the offset capability is found to be sound in the previous applications, there is some uncertainty in relatively simple applications. The main purpose of this paper is to test the integrity of the offset capability and provide guidelines for its effective use. For the purpose of simplicity, references in this paper to the QUAD4 element will also include the TRIA3 element.

  19. Isprs Benchmark for Multi-Platform Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nex, F.; Gerke, M.; Remondino, F.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Bäumker, M.; Zurhorst, A.

    2015-03-01

    Airborne high resolution oblique imagery systems and RPAS/UAVs are very promising technologies that will keep on influencing the development of geomatics in the future years closing the gap between terrestrial and classical aerial acquisitions. These two platforms are also a promising solution for National Mapping and Cartographic Agencies (NMCA) as they allow deriving complementary mapping information. Although the interest for the registration and integration of aerial and terrestrial data is constantly increasing, only limited work has been truly performed on this topic. Several investigations still need to be undertaken concerning algorithms ability for automatic co-registration, accurate point cloud generation and feature extraction from multiplatform image data. One of the biggest obstacles is the non-availability of reliable and free datasets to test and compare new algorithms and procedures. The Scientific Initiative "ISPRS benchmark for multi-platform photogrammetry", run in collaboration with EuroSDR, aims at collecting and sharing state-of-the-art multi-sensor data (oblique airborne, UAV-based and terrestrial images) over an urban area. These datasets are used to assess different algorithms and methodologies for image orientation and dense matching. As ground truth, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) as well as topographic networks and GNSS points were acquired to compare 3D coordinates on check points (CPs) and evaluate cross sections and residuals on generated point cloud surfaces. In this paper, the acquired data, the pre-processing steps, the evaluation procedures as well as some preliminary results achieved with commercial software will be presented.

  20. Nanomagnet Logic: Architectures, design, and benchmarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Steven J.

    Nanomagnet Logic (NML) is an emerging technology being studied as a possible replacement or supplementary device for Complimentary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) Field-Effect Transistors (FET) by the year 2020. NML devices offer numerous potential advantages including: low energy operation, steady state non-volatility, radiation hardness and a clear path to fabrication and integration with CMOS. However, maintaining both low-energy operation and non-volatility while scaling from the device to the architectural level is non-trivial as (i) nearest neighbor interactions within NML circuits complicate the modeling of ensemble nanomagnet behavior and (ii) the energy intensive clock structures required for re-evaluation and NML's relatively high latency challenge its ability to offer system-level performance wins against other emerging nanotechnologies. Thus, further research efforts are required to model more complex circuits while also identifying circuit design techniques that balance low-energy operation with steady state non-volatility. In addition, further work is needed to design and model low-power on-chip clocks while simultaneously identifying application spaces where NML systems (including clock overhead) offer sufficient energy savings to merit their inclusion in future processors. This dissertation presents research advancing the understanding and modeling of NML at all levels including devices, circuits, and line clock structures while also benchmarking NML against both scaled CMOS and tunneling FETs (TFET) devices. This is accomplished through the development of design tools and methodologies for (i) quantifying both energy and stability in NML circuits and (ii) evaluating line-clocked NML system performance. The application of these newly developed tools improves the understanding of ideal design criteria (i.e., magnet size, clock wire geometry, etc.) for NML architectures. Finally, the system-level performance evaluation tool offers the ability to

  1. Benchmarking transport solvers for fracture flow problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkiewicz, Piotr; Dabrowski, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Fracture flow may dominate in rocks with low porosity and it can accompany both industrial and natural processes. Typical examples of such processes are natural flows in crystalline rocks and industrial flows in geothermal systems or hydraulic fracturing. Fracture flow provides an important mechanism for transporting mass and energy. For example, geothermal energy is primarily transported by the flow of the heated water or steam rather than by the thermal diffusion. The geometry of the fracture network and the distribution of the mean apertures of individual fractures are the key parameters with regard to the fracture network transmissivity. Transport in fractures can occur through the combination of advection and diffusion processes like in the case of dissolved chemical components. The local distribution of the fracture aperture may play an important role for both flow and transport processes. In this work, we benchmark various numerical solvers for flow and transport processes in a single fracture in 2D and 3D. Fracture aperture distributions are generated by a number of synthetic methods. We examine a single-phase flow of an incompressible viscous Newtonian fluid in the low Reynolds number limit. Periodic boundary conditions are used and a pressure difference is imposed in the background. The velocity field is primarly found using the Stokes equations. We systematically compare the obtained velocity field to the results obtained by solving the Reynolds equation. This allows us to examine the impact of the aperture distribution on the permeability of the medium and the local velocity distribution for two different mathematical descriptions of the fracture flow. Furthermore, we analyse the impact of aperture distribution on the front characteristics such as the standard deviation and the fractal dimension for systems in 2D and 3D.

  2. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  3. Nomenclatural benchmarking: the roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Quentin; Bourgoin, Thierry; Coddington, Jonathan; Gostony, Timothy; Hamilton, Andrew; Larimer, Roy; Polaszek, Andrew; Schauff, Michael; Solis, M. Alma

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nomenclatural benchmarking is the periodic realignment of species names with species theories and is necessary for the accurate and uniform use of Linnaean binominals in the face of changing species limits. Gaining access to types, often for little more than a cursory examination by an expert, is a major bottleneck in the advance and availability of biodiversity informatics. For the nearly two million described species it has been estimated that five to six million name-bearing type specimens exist, including those for synonymized binominals. Recognizing that examination of types in person will remain necessary in special cases, we propose a four-part strategy for opening access to types that relies heavily on digitization and that would eliminate much of the bottleneck: (1) modify codes of nomenclature to create registries of nomenclatural acts, such as the proposed ZooBank, that include a requirement for digital representations (e-types) for all newly described species to avoid adding to backlog; (2) an “r” strategy that would engineer and deploy a network of automated instruments capable of rapidly creating 3-D images of type specimens not requiring participation of taxon experts; (3) a “K” strategy using remotely operable microscopes to engage taxon experts in targeting and annotating informative characters of types to supplement and extend information content of rapidly acquired e-types, a process that can be done on an as-needed basis as in the normal course of revisionary taxonomy; and (4) creation of a global e-type archive associated with the commissions on nomenclature and species registries providing one-stop-shopping for e-types. We describe a first generation implementation of the “K” strategy that adapts current technology to create a network of Remotely Operable Benchmarkers Of Types (ROBOT) specifically engineered to handle the largest backlog of types, pinned insect specimens. The three initial instruments will be in the

  4. A guide for mental health clinicians to develop and undertake benchmarking activities.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Walter, Garry; Tong, Lizabeth

    2010-04-01

    There is a growing expectation for staff to participate in benchmarking activities. If benchmarking projects are to be successful, managers and clinicians need to be aware of the steps involved. In this article, we identify key aspects of benchmarking and consider how clinicians and managers can respond to and meet contemporary requirements for the development of sound benchmarking relationships. Practicalities and issues that must be considered by benchmarking teams are also outlined. Before commencing a benchmarking project, ground rules and benchmarking agreements must be developed and ratified. An understandable benchmarking framework is required: one that is sufficiently robust for clinicians to engage in benchmarking activities and convince others that benchmarking has taken place. There is a need to build the capacity of clinicians in relation to benchmarking.

  5. Benchmarks, Estimation Skills, and the "Real World." Teaching Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Lola J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities designed to help elementary school students estimate distance, weight, and time through benchmarks. Activities include using length of stride to pace-off distances, using coins to estimate weight, and counting out loud to estimate time. (MDM)

  6. A proposed benchmark for simulation in radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Deresch, A.; Bellon, C.; Schumm, A.; Guerin, P.

    2014-02-18

    The purpose of this benchmark study is to compare simulation results predicted by various models of radiographic testing, in particular those that are capable of separately predicting primary and scatter radiation for specimens of arbitrary geometry.

  7. Seismo-acoustic ray model benchmarking against experimental tank data.

    PubMed

    Camargo Rodríguez, Orlando; Collis, Jon M; Simpson, Harry J; Ey, Emanuel; Schneiderwind, Joseph; Felisberto, Paulo

    2012-08-01

    Acoustic predictions of the recently developed traceo ray model, which accounts for bottom shear properties, are benchmarked against tank experimental data from the EPEE-1 and EPEE-2 (Elastic Parabolic Equation Experiment) experiments. Both experiments are representative of signal propagation in a Pekeris-like shallow-water waveguide over a non-flat isotropic elastic bottom, where significant interaction of the signal with the bottom can be expected. The benchmarks show, in particular, that the ray model can be as accurate as a parabolic approximation model benchmarked in similar conditions. The results of benchmarking are important, on one side, as a preliminary experimental validation of the model and, on the other side, demonstrates the reliability of the ray approach for seismo-acoustic applications.

  8. Derivation of criticality safety benchmarks from ZPR fast critical assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.W.; McKnight, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Scores of critical assemblies were constructed, over a period of about three decades, at the Argonne National Laboratory ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9, and zero power plutonium reactor (ZPPR) fast critical assembly facilities. Most of the assemblies were mock-ups of various liquid-metal fast breeder reactor designs. These tended to be complex, containing, for example, mock-ups of control rods and control rod positions. Some assemblies, however, were {open_quotes}physics benchmarks.{close_quotes} These relatively {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} assemblies had uniform compositions and simple geometry and were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods. Assemblies in this last category are well suited to form the basis for new criticality safety benchmarks. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of some of these benchmark candidates and to describe the strategy being used to create the benchmarks.

  9. Derivation of criticality safety benchmarks from ZPR fast critical assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R.W.; McKnight, R.D.

    1997-09-01

    Scores of critical assemblies were constructed, over a period of about three decades, at the Argonne National Laboratory ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9, and ZPPR fast critical assembly facilities. Most of the assemblies were mockups of various liquid-metal fast breeder reactor designs. These tended to be complex, containing, for example, mockups of control rods and control rod positions. Some assemblies, however, were `physics benchmarks`. These relatively `clean` assemblies had uniform compositions and simple geometry and were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods. Assemblies in this last category are well suited to form the basis for new criticality safety benchmarks. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of some of these benchmark candidates and to describe the strategy being used to create the benchmarks.

  10. Benchmarking of OEM Hybrid Electric Vehicles at NREL: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K. J.; Rajagopalan, A.

    2001-10-26

    A milestone report that describes the NREL's progress and activities related to the DOE FY2001 Annual Operating Plan milestone entitled ''Benchmark 2 new production or pre-production hybrids with ADVISOR.''

  11. Issues in Benchmarking Human Reliability Analysis Methods: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; John A. Forester; Tuan Q. Tran; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study comparing and evaluating HRA methods in assessing operator performance in simulator experiments is currently underway. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  12. Status and Benchmarking of the Free Boundary Equilibrium Code FREEBIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Jakub; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Basiuk, Vincent; Besseghir, Karim; Huynh, Philippe; Kim, Sunhee; Lister, Jonathan Bryan; Nardon, Eric

    2013-10-01

    FREEBIE is a recent free boundary equilibrium (FBE) code, which solves the temporal evolution of tokamak equilibrium, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation and circuit equations for active and passive poloidal field components. FREEBIE can be run stand-alone, within the transport code CRONOS or on the ITM (European Integrated Tokamak Modelling) platform. FREEBIE with prescribed plasma profiles has already been successfully benchmarked against DINA simulations and TCV experiments. Here we report on the current status of the code coupling with transport solvers and benchmarking of fully consistent transport-FBE simulations. A benchmarking procedure is developed and applied to several ITER cases using FREEBIE, DINA and CEDRES++. The benchmarks indicate that because of the different methods and the complexity of the problem, results obtained from the different codes are comparable only to a certain extent. Supported by GACR 13-38121P, EURATOM, AS CR AV0Z 20430508, MSMT 7G10072 and MSMT LM2011021.

  13. Benchmark Solutions for Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Code Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA has conducted a series of Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Workshops on Benchmark Problems to develop a set of realistic CAA problems that can be used for code validation. In the Third (1999) and Fourth (2003) Workshops, the single airfoil gust response problem, with real geometry effects, was included as one of the benchmark problems. Respondents were asked to calculate the airfoil RMS pressure and far-field acoustic intensity for different airfoil geometries and a wide range of gust frequencies. This paper presents the validated that have been obtained to the benchmark problem, and in addition, compares them with classical flat plate results. It is seen that airfoil geometry has a strong effect on the airfoil unsteady pressure, and a significant effect on the far-field acoustic intensity. Those parts of the benchmark problem that have not yet been adequately solved are identified and presented as a challenge to the CAA research community.

  14. Using benchmarks for radiation testing of microprocessors and FPGAs

    DOE PAGES

    Quinn, Heather; Robinson, William H.; Rech, Paolo; ...

    2015-12-01

    Performance benchmarks have been used over the years to compare different systems. These benchmarks can be useful for researchers trying to determine how changes to the technology, architecture, or compiler affect the system's performance. No such standard exists for systems deployed into high radiation environments, making it difficult to assess whether changes in the fabrication process, circuitry, architecture, or software affect reliability or radiation sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a benchmark suite for high-reliability systems that is designed for field-programmable gate arrays and microprocessors. As a result, we describe the development process and report neutron test data for themore » hardware and software benchmarks.« less

  15. Issues in benchmarking human reliability analysis methods : a literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Lois, Erasmia; Forester, John Alan; Tran, Tuan Q.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Boring, Ronald L.

    2008-04-01

    There is a diversity of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods available for use in assessing human performance within probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Due to the significant differences in the methods, including the scope, approach, and underlying models, there is a need for an empirical comparison investigating the validity and reliability of the methods. To accomplish this empirical comparison, a benchmarking study is currently underway that compares HRA methods with each other and against operator performance in simulator studies. In order to account for as many effects as possible in the construction of this benchmarking study, a literature review was conducted, reviewing past benchmarking studies in the areas of psychology and risk assessment. A number of lessons learned through these studies are presented in order to aid in the design of future HRA benchmarking endeavors.

  16. The State of Energy and Performance Benchmarking for Enterprise Servers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanara, Andrew; Haines, Evan; Howard, Arthur

    To address the server industry’s marketing focus on performance, benchmarking organizations have played a pivotal role in developing techniques to determine the maximum achievable performance level of a system. Generally missing has been an assessment of energy use to achieve that performance. The connection between performance and energy consumption is becoming necessary information for designers and operators as they grapple with power constraints in the data center. While industry and policy makers continue to strategize about a universal metric to holistically measure IT equipment efficiency, existing server benchmarks for various workloads could provide an interim proxy to assess the relative energy efficiency of general servers. This paper discusses ideal characteristics a future energy-performance benchmark might contain, suggests ways in which current benchmarks might be adapted to provide a transitional step to this end, and notes the need for multiple workloads to provide a holistic proxy for a universal metric.

  17. Benchmarking Ada tasking on tightly coupled multiprocessor architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collard, Philippe; Goforth, Andre; Marquardt, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    The development of benchmarks and performance measures for parallel Ada tasking is reported with emphasis on the macroscopic behavior of the benchmark across a set of load parameters. The application chosen for the study was the NASREM model for telerobot control, relevant to many NASA missions. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of parallel Ada in accomplishing the task of developing a control system for a system such as the Flight Telerobotic Servicer using the NASREM framework.

  18. Measurement, Standards, and Peer Benchmarking: One Hospital's Journey.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brian S; Arbore, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Peer-to-peer benchmarking is an important component of rapid-cycle performance improvement in patient safety and quality-improvement efforts. Institutions should carefully examine critical success factors before engagement in peer-to-peer benchmarking in order to maximize growth and change opportunities. Solutions for Patient Safety has proven to be a high-yield engagement for Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with measureable improvement in both organizational process and culture.

  19. The Army Pollution Prevention Program: Improving Performance Through Benchmarking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    questionnaire, which had with 30 questions addressing 12 key maintenance performance measures. The measures were selected to represent a balanced scorecard of...in practice. While the continuing concern for the hazardous waste stream is genu- ine and well-founded, the Army must seek a more balanced approach...exactly what the benchmarking proc- ess entails. For example, benchmarking is commonly confused with industrial tourism — simply visiting a partner’s site

  20. Performance and Scalability of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael A.; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several features make Java an attractive choice for scientific applications. In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would position Java closer to Fortran in the competition for scientific applications.

  1. Benchmark Evaluation of the NRAD Reactor LEU Core Startup Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bess; T. L. Maddock; M. A. Marshall

    2011-09-01

    The Neutron Radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250-kW TRIGA-(Training, Research, Isotope Production, General Atomics)-conversion-type reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory; it is primarily used for neutron radiography analysis of irradiated and unirradiated fuels and materials. The NRAD reactor was converted from HEU to LEU fuel with 60 fuel elements and brought critical on March 31, 2010. This configuration of the NRAD reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment and is available in the 2011 editions of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook) and the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook). Significant effort went into precisely characterizing all aspects of the reactor core dimensions and material properties; detailed analyses of reactor parameters minimized experimental uncertainties. The largest contributors to the total benchmark uncertainty were the 234U, 236U, Er, and Hf content in the fuel; the manganese content in the stainless steel cladding; and the unknown level of water saturation in the graphite reflector blocks. A simplified benchmark model of the NRAD reactor was prepared with a keff of 1.0012 {+-} 0.0029 (1s). Monte Carlo calculations with MCNP5 and KENO-VI and various neutron cross section libraries were performed and compared with the benchmark eigenvalue for the 60-fuel-element core configuration; all calculated eigenvalues are between 0.3 and 0.8% greater than the benchmark value. Benchmark evaluations of the NRAD reactor are beneficial in understanding biases and uncertainties affecting criticality safety analyses of storage, handling, or transportation applications with LEU-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  2. Implementation of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks in Java

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael A.; Schultz, Matthew; Jin, Haoqiang; Yan, Jerry; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Several features make Java an attractive choice for High Performance Computing (HPC). In order to gauge the applicability of Java to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), we have implemented the NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmarks in Java. The performance and scalability of the benchmarks point out the areas where improvement in Java compiler technology and in Java thread implementation would position Java closer to Fortran in the competition for CFD applications.

  3. WIPP Benchmark calculations with the large strain SPECTROM codes

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.; DeVries, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This report provides calculational results from the updated Lagrangian structural finite-element programs SPECTROM-32 and SPECTROM-333 for the purpose of qualifying these codes to perform analyses of structural situations in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Results are presented for the Second WIPP Benchmark (Benchmark II) Problems and for a simplified heated room problem used in a parallel design calculation study. The Benchmark II problems consist of an isothermal room problem and a heated room problem. The stratigraphy involves 27 distinct geologic layers including ten clay seams of which four are modeled as frictionless sliding interfaces. The analyses of the Benchmark II problems consider a 10-year simulation period. The evaluation of nine structural codes used in the Benchmark II problems shows that inclusion of finite-strain effects is not as significant as observed for the simplified heated room problem, and a variety of finite-strain and small-strain formulations produced similar results. The simplified heated room problem provides stratigraphic complexity equivalent to the Benchmark II problems but neglects sliding along the clay seams. The simplified heated problem does, however, provide a calculational check case where the small strain-formulation produced room closures about 20 percent greater than those obtained using finite-strain formulations. A discussion is given of each of the solved problems, and the computational results are compared with available published results. In general, the results of the two SPECTROM large strain codes compare favorably with results from other codes used to solve the problems.

  4. Benchmarks for measurement of duplicate detection methods in nucleotide databases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingyu; Zobel, Justin; Verspoor, Karin

    2017-01-08

    Duplication of information in databases is a major data quality challenge. The presence of duplicates, implying either redundancy or inconsistency, can have a range of impacts on the quality of analyses that use the data. To provide a sound basis for research on this issue in databases of nucleotide sequences, we have developed new, large-scale validated collections of duplicates, which can be used to test the effectiveness of duplicate detection methods. Previous collections were either designed primarily to test efficiency, or contained only a limited number of duplicates of limited kinds. To date, duplicate detection methods have been evaluated on separate, inconsistent benchmarks, leading to results that cannot be compared and, due to limitations of the benchmarks, of questionable generality. In this study, we present three nucleotide sequence database benchmarks, based on information drawn from a range of resources, including information derived from mapping to two data sections within the UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB), UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL. Each benchmark has distinct characteristics. We quantify these characteristics and argue for their complementary value in evaluation. The benchmarks collectively contain a vast number of validated biological duplicates; the largest has nearly half a billion duplicate pairs (although this is probably only a tiny fraction of the total that is present). They are also the first benchmarks targeting the primary nucleotide databases. The records include the 21 most heavily studied organisms in molecular biology research. Our quantitative analysis shows that duplicates in the different benchmarks, and in different organisms, have different characteristics. It is thus unreliable to evaluate duplicate detection methods against any single benchmark. For example, the benchmark derived from UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot mappings identifies more diverse types of duplicates, showing the importance of expert curation, but

  5. Benchmarking in the Globalised World and Its Impact on South African Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses what benchmarking is and reflects on the importance and development of benchmarking in universities on a national and international level. Offers examples of transnational benchmarking activities, including the International Benchmarking Club, in which South African higher education institutions participate. (EV)

  6. Key findings of the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's clinical practice benchmarking project.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael P; Sabadosa, Kathryn A; Quinton, Hebe B; Marshall, Bruce C; Schechter, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Benchmarking is the process of using outcome data to identify high-performing centres and determine practices associated with their outstanding performance. The US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) Patient Registry contains centre-specific outcomes data for all CFF-certified paediatric and adult cystic fibrosis (CF) care programmes in the USA. The CFF benchmarking project analysed these registry data, adjusting for differences in patient case mix known to influence outcomes, and identified the top-performing US paediatric and adult CF care programmes for pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. Separate multidisciplinary paediatric and adult benchmarking teams each visited 10 CF care programmes, five in the top quintile for pulmonary outcomes and five in the top quintile for nutritional outcomes. Key practice patterns and approaches present in both paediatric and adult programmes with outstanding clinical outcomes were identified and could be summarised as systems, attitudes, practices, patient/family empowerment and projects. These included: (1) the presence of strong leadership and a well-functioning care team working with a systematic approach to providing consistent care; (2) high expectations for outcomes among providers and families; (3) early and aggressive management of clinical declines, avoiding reliance on 'rescues'; and (4) patients/families that were engaged, empowered and well informed on disease management and its rationale. In summary, assessment of practice patterns at CF care centres with top-quintile pulmonary and nutritional outcomes provides insight into characteristic practices that may aid in optimising patient outcomes.

  7. Strategies for energy benchmarking in cleanrooms and laboratory-type facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sartor, Dale; Piette, Mary Ann; Tschudi, William; Fok, Stephen

    2000-06-01

    Buildings with cleanrooms and laboratories are growing in terms of total floor area and energy intensity. This building type is common in institutions such as universities and in many industries such as microelectronics and biotechnology. These buildings, with high ventilation rates and special environmental considerations, consume from 4 to 100 times more energy per square foot than conventional commercial buildings. Owners and operators of such facilities know they are expensive to operate, but have little way of knowing if their facilities are efficient or inefficient. A simple comparison of energy consumption per square foot is of little value. A growing interest in benchmarking is also fueled by: A new U.S. Executive Order removing the exemption of federal laboratories from energy efficiency goals, setting a 25% savings target, and calling for baseline guidance to measure progress; A new U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE initiative, Laboratories for the 21st Century, establishing voluntary performance goals and criteria for recognition; and A new PG and E market transformation program to improve energy efficiency in high tech facilities, including a cleanroom energy use benchmarking project. This paper identifies the unique issues associated with benchmarking energy use in high-tech facilities. Specific options discussed include statistical comparisons, point-based rating systems, model-based techniques, and hierarchical end-use and performance-metrics evaluations.

  8. Certifying quantumness: Benchmarks for the optimal processing of generalized coherent and squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Quantum technology promises revolutionary advantages in information processing and transmission compared to classical technology; however, determining which specific resources are needed to surpass the capabilities of classical machines often remains a nontrivial problem. To address such a problem, one first needs to establish the best classical solutions, which set benchmarks that must be beaten by any implementation claiming to harness quantum features for an enhanced performance. Here we introduce and develop a self-contained formalism to obtain the ultimate, generally probabilistic benchmarks for quantum information protocols including teleportation and approximate cloning, with arbitrary ensembles of input states generated by a group action, so-called Gilmore-Perelomov coherent states. This allows us to construct explicit fidelity thresholds for the transmission of multimode Gaussian and non-Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems, as well as qubit and qudit pure states drawn according to nonuniform distributions on the Bloch hypersphere, which accurately model the current laboratory facilities. The performance of deterministic classical procedures such as square-root measurement strategies is further compared with the optimal probabilistic benchmarks, and the state-of-the-art performance of experimental quantum implementations against our newly derived thresholds is discussed. This work provides a comprehensive collection of directly useful criteria for the reliable certification of quantum communication technologies.

  9. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  10. Defining core elements and outstanding practice in Nutritional Science through collaborative benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Samman, Samir; McCarthur, Jennifer O; Peat, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Benchmarking has been adopted by educational institutions as a potentially sensitive tool for improving learning and teaching. To date there has been limited application of benchmarking methodology in the Discipline of Nutritional Science. The aim of this survey was to define core elements and outstanding practice in Nutritional Science through collaborative benchmarking. Questionnaires that aimed to establish proposed core elements for Nutritional Science, and inquired about definitions of " good" and " outstanding" practice were posted to named representatives at eight Australian universities. Seven respondents identified core elements that included knowledge of nutrient metabolism and requirement, food production and processing, modern biomedical techniques that could be applied to understanding nutrition, and social and environmental issues as related to Nutritional Science. Four of the eight institutions who agreed to participate in the present survey identified the integration of teaching with research as an indicator of outstanding practice. Nutritional Science is a rapidly evolving discipline. Further and more comprehensive surveys are required to consolidate and update the definition of the discipline, and to identify the optimal way of teaching it. Global ideas and specific regional requirements also need to be considered.

  11. Design and Application of a Community Land Benchmarking System for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Lawrence, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Koven, C. D.; Kluzek, E. B.; Mao, J.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Benchmarking has been widely used to assess the ability of climate models to capture the spatial and temporal variability of observations during the historical era. For the carbon cycle and terrestrial ecosystems, the design and development of an open-source community platform has been an important goal as part of the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) project. Here we developed a new benchmarking software system that enables the user to specify the models, benchmarks, and scoring metrics, so that results can be tailored to specific model intercomparison projects. Evaluation data sets included soil and aboveground carbon stocks, fluxes of energy, carbon and water, burned area, leaf area, and climate forcing and response variables. We used this system to evaluate simulations from the 5th Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) with prognostic atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the period from 1850 to 2005 (i.e., esmHistorical simulations archived on the Earth System Grid Federation). We found that the multi-model ensemble had a high bias in incoming solar radiation across Asia, likely as a consequence of incomplete representation of aerosol effects in this region, and in South America, primarily as a consequence of a low bias in mean annual precipitation. The reduced precipitation in South America had a larger influence on gross primary production than the high bias in incoming light, and as a consequence gross primary production had a low bias relative to the observations. Although model to model variations were large, the multi-model mean had a positive bias in atmospheric carbon dioxide that has been attributed in past work to weak ocean uptake of fossil emissions. In mid latitudes of the northern hemisphere, most models overestimate latent heat fluxes in the early part of the growing season, and underestimate these fluxes in mid-summer and early fall, whereas sensible heat fluxes show the opposite trend.

  12. Benchmarking on Tsunami Currents with ComMIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharghi vand, N.; Kanoglu, U.

    2015-12-01

    There were no standards for the validation and verification of tsunami numerical models before 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Even, number of numerical models has been used for inundation mapping effort, evaluation of critical structures, etc. without validation and verification. After 2004, NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) established standards for the validation and verification of tsunami numerical models (Synolakis et al. 2008 Pure Appl. Geophys. 165, 2197-2228), which will be used evaluation of critical structures such as nuclear power plants against tsunami attack. NCTR presented analytical, experimental and field benchmark problems aimed to estimate maximum runup and accepted widely by the community. Recently, benchmark problems were suggested by the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Mapping & Modeling Benchmarking Workshop: Tsunami Currents on February 9-10, 2015 at Portland, Oregon, USA (http://nws.weather.gov/nthmp/index.html). These benchmark problems concentrated toward validation and verification of tsunami numerical models on tsunami currents. Three of the benchmark problems were: current measurement of the Japan 2011 tsunami in Hilo Harbor, Hawaii, USA and in Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand, and single long-period wave propagating onto a small-scale experimental model of the town of Seaside, Oregon, USA. These benchmark problems were implemented in the Community Modeling Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) (Titov et al. 2011 Pure Appl. Geophys. 168, 2121-2131), which is a user-friendly interface to the validated and verified Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) (Titov and Synolakis 1995 J. Waterw. Port Coastal Ocean Eng. 121, 308-316) model and is developed by NCTR. The modeling results are compared with the required benchmark data, providing good agreements and results are discussed. Acknowledgment: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant

  13. An unbiased method to build benchmarking sets for ligand-based virtual screening and its application to GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Jin, Hongwei; Liu, Zhenming; Zhang, Liangren; Wang, Xiang Simon

    2014-05-27

    Benchmarking data sets have become common in recent years for the purpose of virtual screening, though the main focus had been placed on the structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) approaches. Due to the lack of crystal structures, there is great need for unbiased benchmarking sets to evaluate various ligand-based virtual screening (LBVS) methods for important drug targets such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). To date these ready-to-apply data sets for LBVS are fairly limited, and the direct usage of benchmarking sets designed for SBVS could bring the biases to the evaluation of LBVS. Herein, we propose an unbiased method to build benchmarking sets for LBVS and validate it on a multitude of GPCRs targets. To be more specific, our methods can (1) ensure chemical diversity of ligands, (2) maintain the physicochemical similarity between ligands and decoys, (3) make the decoys dissimilar in chemical topology to all ligands to avoid false negatives, and (4) maximize spatial random distribution of ligands and decoys. We evaluated the quality of our Unbiased Ligand Set (ULS) and Unbiased Decoy Set (UDS) using three common LBVS approaches, with Leave-One-Out (LOO) Cross-Validation (CV) and a metric of average AUC of the ROC curves. Our method has greatly reduced the "artificial enrichment" and "analogue bias" of a published GPCRs benchmarking set, i.e., GPCR Ligand Library (GLL)/GPCR Decoy Database (GDD). In addition, we addressed an important issue about the ratio of decoys per ligand and found that for a range of 30 to 100 it does not affect the quality of the benchmarking set, so we kept the original ratio of 39 from the GLL/GDD.

  14. Benchmarking: More Aspects of High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindrudu, Rahul

    2004-01-01

    The original HPL algorithm makes the assumption that all data can be fit entirely in the main memory. This assumption will obviously give a good performance due to the absence of disk I/O. However, not all applications can fit their entire data in memory. These applications which require a fair amount of I/O to move data to and from main memory and secondary storage, are more indicative of usage of an Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) System. Given this scenario a well designed I/O architecture will play a significant part in the performance of the MPP System on regular jobs. And, this is not represented in the current Benchmark. The modified HPL algorithm is hoped to be a step in filling this void. The most important factor in the performance of out-of-core algorithms is the actual I/O operations performed and their efficiency in transferring data to/from main memory and disk, Various methods were introduced in the report for performing I/O operations. The I/O method to use depends on the design of the out-of-core algorithm. Conversely, the performance of the out-of-core algorithm is affected by the choice of I/O operations. This implies, good performance is achieved when I/O efficiency is closely tied with the out-of-core algorithms. The out-of-core algorithms must be designed from the start. It is easily observed in the timings for various plots, that I/O plays a significant part in the overall execution time. This leads to an important conclusion, retro-fitting an existing code may not be the best choice. The right-looking algorithm selected for the LU factorization is a recursive algorithm and performs well when the entire dataset is in memory. At each stage of the loop the entire trailing submatrix is read into memory panel by panel. This gives a polynomial number of I/O reads and writes. If the left-looking algorithm was selected for the main loop, the number of I/O operations involved will be linear on the number of columns. This is due to the data access

  15. An automated protocol for performance benchmarking a widefield fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Halter, Michael; Bier, Elianna; DeRose, Paul C; Cooksey, Gregory A; Choquette, Steven J; Plant, Anne L; Elliott, John T

    2014-11-01

    Widefield fluorescence microscopy is a highly used tool for visually assessing biological samples and for quantifying cell responses. Despite its widespread use in high content analysis and other imaging applications, few published methods exist for evaluating and benchmarking the analytical performance of a microscope. Easy-to-use benchmarking methods would facilitate the use of fluorescence imaging as a quantitative analytical tool in research applications, and would aid the determination of instrumental method validation for commercial product development applications. We describe and evaluate an automated method to characterize a fluorescence imaging system's performance by benchmarking the detection threshold, saturation, and linear dynamic range to a reference material. The benchmarking procedure is demonstrated using two different materials as the reference material, uranyl-ion-doped glass and Schott 475 GG filter glass. Both are suitable candidate reference materials that are homogeneously fluorescent and highly photostable, and the Schott 475 GG filter glass is currently commercially available. In addition to benchmarking the analytical performance, we also demonstrate that the reference materials provide for accurate day to day intensity calibration. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  16. Preliminary Benchmarking and MCNP Simulation Results for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to create Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) input stacks for benchmarked measurements sufficient for future perturbation studies and analysis. The approach was to utilize historical experimental measurements to recreate the empirical spectral results in MCNP, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results demonstrate that perturbation analysis of benchmarked MCNP spectra can be used to obtain a better understanding of field measurement results which may be of national interest. If one or more spectral radiation measurements are made in the field and deemed of national interest, the potential source distribution, naturally occurring radioactive material shielding, and interstitial materials can only be estimated in many circumstances. The effects from these factors on the resultant spectral radiation measurements can be very confusing. If benchmarks exist which are sufficiently similar to the suspected configuration, these benchmarks can then be compared to the suspect measurements. Having these benchmarks with validated MCNP input stacks can substantially improve the predictive capability of experts supporting these efforts.

  17. Developing a benchmark for emotional analysis of music

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Soleymani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Music emotion recognition (MER) field rapidly expanded in the last decade. Many new methods and new audio features are developed to improve the performance of MER algorithms. However, it is very difficult to compare the performance of the new methods because of the data representation diversity and scarcity of publicly available data. In this paper, we address these problems by creating a data set and a benchmark for MER. The data set that we release, a MediaEval Database for Emotional Analysis in Music (DEAM), is the largest available data set of dynamic annotations (valence and arousal annotations for 1,802 songs and song excerpts licensed under Creative Commons with 2Hz time resolution). Using DEAM, we organized the ‘Emotion in Music’ task at MediaEval Multimedia Evaluation Campaign from 2013 to 2015. The benchmark attracted, in total, 21 active teams to participate in the challenge. We analyze the results of the benchmark: the winning algorithms and feature-sets. We also describe the design of the benchmark, the evaluation procedures and the data cleaning and transformations that we suggest. The results from the benchmark suggest that the recurrent neural network based approaches combined with large feature-sets work best for dynamic MER. PMID:28282400

  18. Towards benchmarking an in-stream water quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorman, D. B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of model evaluation is presented which utilises a comparison with a benchmark model. The proposed benchmarking concept is one that can be applied to many hydrological models but, in this instance, is implemented in the context of an in-stream water quality model. The benchmark model is defined in such a way that it is easily implemented within the framework of the test model, i.e. the approach relies on two applications of the same model code rather than the application of two separate model codes. This is illustrated using two case studies from the UK, the Rivers Aire and Ouse, with the objective of simulating a water quality classification, general quality assessment (GQA), which is based on dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Comparisons between the benchmark and test models are made based on GQA, as well as a step-wise assessment against the components required in its derivation. The benchmarking process yields a great deal of important information about the performance of the test model and raises issues about a priori definition of the assessment criteria.

  19. Water quality criteria/toxicological benchmarks for nitroaromatic munitions compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Talmage, S.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Hovatter, P.S.; Daniel, F.B.

    1995-12-31

    There is a need to develop screening level and cleanup criteria for nitroaromatic compounds at US Army Superfund sites. Using available methodologies, Water Quality Criteria (WQC) for aquatic organisms and toxicological benchmarks for terrestrial plants and wildlife were developed for eight nitroaromatic munitions compounds and/or their degradation products: 2,4,6-trinitroluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 3,5-dinitroaniline, 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene, RDX, HMX, and tetryl. Depending on available data, acute and chronic WQC for aquatic species were developed based on US EPA Tier 1 or Tier 2 guidelines. Criteria for sediment-associated organisms were derived based on Equilibrium Partitioning. In the absence of criteria or guidance for effects on terrestrial wildlife, plants and soil processes, ecotoxicological benchmarks, i.e., NOAELs and LOECs for effects on these organisms were identified. Benchmarks for terrestrial wildlife species were derived from experimental data identifying toxicological endpoints for wildlife or laboratory species. NOAELs were based on endpoints of population growth and survival following oral exposures. These values were used as the basis for calculation of NOAELs or screening benchmarks for food and water intake for seven selected mammalian wildlife species: the short-tailed shrew, white footed mouse, meadow vole, cottontail rabbit, mink, red fox, and whitetail deer. Equivalent NOAELs were calculated by scaling the test data on the basis of differences in body weight. Benchmarks for terrestrial plants and soil invertebrates and heterotrophic processes were based on LOECs.

  20. Developing a benchmark for emotional analysis of music.

    PubMed

    Aljanaki, Anna; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Soleymani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Music emotion recognition (MER) field rapidly expanded in the last decade. Many new methods and new audio features are developed to improve the performance of MER algorithms. However, it is very difficult to compare the performance of the new methods because of the data representation diversity and scarcity of publicly available data. In this paper, we address these problems by creating a data set and a benchmark for MER. The data set that we release, a MediaEval Database for Emotional Analysis in Music (DEAM), is the largest available data set of dynamic annotations (valence and arousal annotations for 1,802 songs and song excerpts licensed under Creative Commons with 2Hz time resolution). Using DEAM, we organized the 'Emotion in Music' task at MediaEval Multimedia Evaluation Campaign from 2013 to 2015. The benchmark attracted, in total, 21 active teams to participate in the challenge. We analyze the results of the benchmark: the winning algorithms and feature-sets. We also describe the design of the benchmark, the evaluation procedures and the data cleaning and transformations that we suggest. The results from the benchmark suggest that the recurrent neural network based approaches combined with large feature-sets work best for dynamic MER.

  1. Performance Characteristics of the Multi-Zone NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Haoqiang; VanderWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new suite of computational benchmarks that models applications featuring multiple levels of parallelism. Such parallelism is often available in realistic flow computations on systems of grids, but had not previously been captured in bench-marks. The new suite, named NPB Multi-Zone, is extended from the NAS Parallel Benchmarks suite, and involves solving the application benchmarks LU, BT and SP on collections of loosely coupled discretization meshes. The solutions on the meshes are updated independently, but after each time step they exchange boundary value information. This strategy provides relatively easily exploitable coarse-grain parallelism between meshes. Three reference implementations are available: one serial, one hybrid using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and OpenMP, and another hybrid using a shared memory multi-level programming model (SMP+OpenMP). We examine the effectiveness of hybrid parallelization paradigms in these implementations on three different parallel computers. We also use an empirical formula to investigate the performance characteristics of the multi-zone benchmarks.

  2. Benchmarking successional progress in a quantitative food web.

    PubMed

    Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of

  3. Benchmarking Successional Progress in a Quantitative Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Boit, Alice; Gaedke, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Central to ecology and ecosystem management, succession theory aims to mechanistically explain and predict the assembly and development of ecological communities. Yet processes at lower hierarchical levels, e.g. at the species and functional group level, are rarely mechanistically linked to the under-investigated system-level processes which drive changes in ecosystem properties and functioning and are comparable across ecosystems. As a model system for secondary succession, seasonal plankton succession during the growing season is readily observable and largely driven autogenically. We used a long-term dataset from large, deep Lake Constance comprising biomasses, auto- and heterotrophic production, food quality, functional diversity, and mass-balanced food webs of the energy and nutrient flows between functional guilds of plankton and partly fish. Extracting population- and system-level indices from this dataset, we tested current hypotheses about the directionality of successional progress which are rooted in ecosystem theory, the metabolic theory of ecology, quantitative food web theory, thermodynamics, and information theory. Our results indicate that successional progress in Lake Constance is quantifiable, passing through predictable stages. Mean body mass, functional diversity, predator-prey weight ratios, trophic positions, system residence times of carbon and nutrients, and the complexity of the energy flow patterns increased during succession. In contrast, both the mass-specific metabolic activity and the system export decreased, while the succession rate exhibited a bimodal pattern. The weighted connectance introduced here represents a suitable index for assessing the evenness and interconnectedness of energy flows during succession. Diverging from earlier predictions, ascendency and eco-exergy did not increase during succession. Linking aspects of functional diversity to metabolic theory and food web complexity, we reconcile previously disjoint bodies of

  4. Analyzing the BBOB results by means of benchmarking concepts.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, O; Preuss, M; Trautmann, H; Bischl, B; Weihs, C

    2015-01-01

    We present methods to answer two basic questions that arise when benchmarking optimization algorithms. The first one is: which algorithm is the "best" one? and the second one is: which algorithm should I use for my real-world problem? Both are connected and neither is easy to answer. We present a theoretical framework for designing and analyzing the raw data of such benchmark experiments. This represents a first step in answering the aforementioned questions. The 2009 and 2010 BBOB benchmark results are analyzed by means of this framework and we derive insight regarding the answers to the two questions. Furthermore, we discuss how to properly aggregate rankings from algorithm evaluations on individual problems into a consensus, its theoretical background and which common pitfalls should be avoided. Finally, we address the grouping of test problems into sets with similar optimizer rankings and investigate whether these are reflected by already proposed test problem characteristics, finding that this is not always the case.

  5. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 20, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.

    2008-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  6. VENUS-F: A fast lead critical core for benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Kochetkov, A.; Wagemans, J.; Vittiglio, G.

    2011-07-01

    The zero-power thermal neutron water-moderated facility VENUS at SCK-CEN has been extensively used for benchmarking in the past. In accordance with GEN-IV design tasks (fast reactor systems and accelerator driven systems), the VENUS facility was modified in 2007-2010 into the fast neutron facility VENUS-F with solid core components. This paper introduces the projects GUINEVERE and FREYA, which are being conducted at the VENUS-F facility, and it presents the measurement results obtained at the first critical core. Throughout the projects other fast lead benchmarks also will be investigated. The measurement results of the different configurations can all be used as fast neutron benchmarks. (authors)

  7. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  8. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated August 15, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.

    2007-09-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  9. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 15, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.

    2007-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a ''moving target''.

  10. Benchmarking an Unstructured-Grid Model for Tsunami Current Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Priest, George; Allan, Jonathan; Stimely, Laura

    2016-12-01

    We present model results derived from a tsunami current benchmarking workshop held by the NTHMP (National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program) in February 2015. Modeling was undertaken using our own 3D unstructured-grid model that has been previously certified by the NTHMP for tsunami inundation. Results for two benchmark tests are described here, including: (1) vortex structure in the wake of a submerged shoal and (2) impact of tsunami waves on Hilo Harbor in the 2011 Tohoku event. The modeled current velocities are compared with available lab and field data. We demonstrate that the model is able to accurately capture the velocity field in the two benchmark tests; in particular, the 3D model gives a much more accurate wake structure than the 2D model for the first test, with the root-mean-square error and mean bias no more than 2 cm s-1 and 8 mm s-1, respectively, for the modeled velocity.

  11. A Discussion on the Design of Graph Database Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-Sal, David; Martinez-Bazan, Norbert; Muntes-Mulero, Victor; Baleta, Pere; Larriba-Pey, Josep Lluis

    Graph Database Management systems (GDBs) are gaining popularity. They are used to analyze huge graph datasets that are naturally appearing in many application areas to model interrelated data. The objective of this paper is to raise a new topic of discussion in the benchmarking community and allow practitioners having a set of basic guidelines for GDB benchmarking. We strongly believe that GDBs will become an important player in the market field of data analysis, and with that, their performance and capabilities will also become important. For this reason, we discuss those aspects that are important from our perspective, i.e. the characteristics of the graphs to be included in the benchmark, the characteristics of the queries that are important in graph analysis applications and the evaluation workbench.

  12. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  13. Development of a Benchmark Example for Delamination Fatigue Growth Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The development of a benchmark example for cyclic delamination growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen, which is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the delamination growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes. First, the benchmark result was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading in a finite element model of a commercial code. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during stable delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the analysis. In general, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required

  14. Development of a Benchmark Example for Delamination Fatigue Growth Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The development of a benchmark example for cyclic delamination growth prediction is presented and demonstrated for a commercial code. The example is based on a finite element model of a Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen, which is independent of the analysis software used and allows the assessment of the delamination growth prediction capabilities in commercial finite element codes. First, the benchmark result was created for the specimen. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to grow under cyclic loading in a finite element model of a commercial code. The number of cycles to delamination onset and the number of cycles during stable delamination growth for each growth increment were obtained from the analysis. In general, good agreement between the results obtained from the growth analysis and the benchmark results could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Overall, the results are encouraging but further assessment for mixed-mode delamination is required.

  15. SIMULATE-3K Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip 2 Benchmark Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Belblidia, Lotfi A.; Grandi, Gerardo M.; Joensson, Christian

    2004-10-15

    This paper discusses the model and results for the Peach Bottom 2 Turbine Trip Test 2 using Studsvik Scandpower's transient code SIMULATE-3K. All data pertaining to core, vessel, and scenario were taken from the NEA/OECD BWR benchmark specifications. Nuclear data were generated with Studsvik Scandpower's lattice code CASMO-4 and core analysis code SIMULATE-3. Comparisons to measured data, sensitivity to model options and data, as well as results from more limiting scenarios are presented. SIMULATE-3K captures well the pressure wave propagation, void collapse during the pressurization phase, and resulting power excursion.

  16. Benchmarking the performance of daily temperature homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor; Jolliffe, Ian; Willett, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the creation of realistic synthetic data and its use as a benchmark for comparing the performance of different homogenisation algorithms on daily temperature data. Four different regions in the United States have been selected and three different inhomogeneity scenarios explored for each region. These benchmark datasets are beneficial as, unlike in the real world, the underlying truth is known a priori, thus allowing definite statements to be made about the performance of the algorithms run on them. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability of algorithms to detect changepoints and also their ability to correctly remove inhomogeneities. The focus is on daily data, thus presenting new challenges in comparison to monthly data and pushing the boundaries of previous studies. The aims of this work are to evaluate and compare the performance of various homogenisation algorithms, aiding their improvement and enabling a quantification of the uncertainty remaining in the data even after they have been homogenised. An important outcome is also to evaluate how realistic the created benchmarks are. It is essential that any weaknesses in the benchmarks are taken into account when judging algorithm performance against them. This information in turn will help to improve future versions of the benchmarks. I intend to present a summary of this work including the method of benchmark creation, details of the algorithms run and some preliminary results. This work forms a three year PhD and feeds into the larger project of the International Surface Temperature Initiative which is working on a global scale and with monthly instead of daily data.

  17. Advanced Benchmarking for Complex Building Types: Laboratories as an Exemplar

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul A.; Clear, Robert; Kircher, Kevin; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho; Hoyt, Tyler

    2010-08-01

    Complex buildings such as laboratories, data centers and cleanrooms present particular challenges for energy benchmarking because it is difficult to normalize special requirements such as health and safety in laboratories and reliability (i.e., system redundancy to maintain uptime) in data centers which significantly impact energy use. For example, air change requirements vary widely based on the type of work being performed in each laboratory space. We present methods and tools for energy benchmarking in laboratories, as an exemplar of a complex building type. First, we address whole building energy metrics and normalization parameters. We present empirical methods based on simple data filtering as well as multivariate regression analysis on the Labs21 database. The regression analysis showed lab type, lab-area ratio and occupancy hours to be significant variables. Yet the dataset did not allow analysis of factors such as plug loads and air change rates, both of which are critical to lab energy use. The simulation-based method uses an EnergyPlus model to generate a benchmark energy intensity normalized for a wider range of parameters. We suggest that both these methods have complementary strengths and limitations. Second, we present"action-oriented" benchmarking, which extends whole-building benchmarking by utilizing system-level features and metrics such as airflow W/cfm to quickly identify a list of potential efficiency actions which can then be used as the basis for a more detailed audit. While action-oriented benchmarking is not an"audit in a box" and is not intended to provide the same degree of accuracy afforded by an energy audit, we demonstrate how it can be used to focus and prioritize audit activity and track performance at the system level. We conclude with key principles that are more broadly applicable to other complex building types.

  18. NAFEMS Finite Element Benchmarks for MDG Code Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, R; Ferencz, R M

    2004-02-24

    NAFEMS was originally founded at the United Kingdom's National Engineering Laboratory as the National Agency for Finite Element Methods and Standards. It was subsequently privatized as the not-for-profit organization NAFEMS, Ltd., but retains its mission ''To promote the safe and reliable use of finite element and related technology''. That mission has been pursued in part by sponsoring a series of studies that published benchmarked deemed suitable to assess the basic accuracy of engineering simulation tools. The early studies focused on FEA for linear solid and structural mechanics and then extended to nonlinear solid mechanics, eventually including contact. These benchmarks are complemented by educational materials concerning analysis technologies and approaches. More recently NAFEMS is expanding to consider thermal-fluid problems. Further information is available at www.nafems.org. Essentially all major commercial firms selling FEA for solid mechanics are members of NAFEMS and it seemed clear that Methods Development Group should leverage from this information resource, too. In 2002, W Program ASCI funding purchased a three-year membership in NAFEMS. In the summer of 2003 the first author hosted a summer graduate student to begin modeling some of the benchmark problems. We concentrated on NIKE3D, as the benchmarks are most typically problems most naturally run with implicit FEA. Also, this was viewed as a natural path to generate verification problems that could be subsequently incorporated into the Diablo code's test suite. This report documents and archives our initial efforts. The intent is that this will be a ''living document'' that can be expanded as further benchmarks are generated, run, interpreted and documented. To this end each benchmark, or related grouping, is localized in its own section with its own pagination. Authorship (test engineers) will be listed section by section.

  19. Revised benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners for forensic fingerprint detection: challenges and results for chromatic white light scanners (CWL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiltz, Stefan; Leich, Marcus; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Ulrich, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Mobile contact-less fingerprint scanners can be very important tools for the forensic investigation of crime scenes. To be admissible in court, data and the collection process must adhere to rules w.r.t. technology and procedures of acquisition, processing and the conclusions drawn from that evidence. Currently, no overall accepted benchmarking methodology is used to support some of the rules regarding the localisation, acquisition and pre-processing using contact-less fingerprint scanners. Benchmarking is seen essential to rate those devices according to their usefulness for investigating crime scenes. Our main contribution is a revised version of our extensible framework for methodological benchmarking of contact-less fingerprint scanners using a collection of extensible categories and items. The suggested main categories describing a contact-less fingerprint scanner are properties of forensic country-specific legal requirements, technical properties, application-related aspects, input sensory technology, pre-processing algorithm, tested object and materials. Using those it is possible to benchmark fingerprint scanners and describe the setup and the resulting data. Additionally, benchmarking profiles for different usage scenarios are defined. First results for all suggested benchmarking properties, which will be presented in detail in the final paper, were gained using an industrial device (FRT MicroProf200) and conducting 18 tests on 10 different materials.

  20. Toward Automated Benchmarking of Atomistic Force Fields: Neat Liquid Densities and Static Dielectric Constants from the ThermoML Data Archive.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Kyle A; Behr, Julie M; Rustenburg, Ariën S; Bayly, Christopher I; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Chodera, John D

    2015-10-08

    Atomistic molecular simulations are a powerful way to make quantitative predictions, but the accuracy of these predictions depends entirely on the quality of the force field employed. Although experimental measurements of fundamental physical properties offer a straightforward approach for evaluating force field quality, the bulk of this information has been tied up in formats that are not machine-readable. Compiling benchmark data sets of physical properties from non-machine-readable sources requires substantial human effort and is prone to the accumulation of human errors, hindering the development of reproducible benchmarks of force-field accuracy. Here, we examine the feasibility of benchmarking atomistic force fields against the NIST ThermoML data archive of physicochemical measurements, which aggregates thousands of experimental measurements in a portable, machine-readable, self-annotating IUPAC-standard format. As a proof of concept, we present a detailed benchmark of the generalized Amber small-molecule force field (GAFF) using the AM1-BCC charge model against experimental measurements (specifically, bulk liquid densities and static dielectric constants at ambient pressure) automatically extracted from the archive and discuss the extent of data available for use in larger scale (or continuously performed) benchmarks. The results of even this limited initial benchmark highlight a general problem with fixed-charge force fields in the representation low-dielectric environments, such as those seen in binding cavities or biological membranes.

  1. Benchmark of Different Electromagnetic Codes for the High Frequency Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang, Frank Marhauser, Guangfeng Cheng, Chuandong Zhou

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we present benchmarking results for highclass 3D electromagnetic (EM) codes in designing RF cavities today. These codes include Omega3P [1], VORPAL [2], CST Microwave Studio [3], Ansoft HFSS [4], and ANSYS [5]. Two spherical cavities are selected as the benchmark models. We have compared not only the accuracy of resonant frequencies, but also that of surface EM fields, which are critical for superconducting RF cavities. By removing degenerated modes, we calculate all the resonant modes up to 10 GHz with similar mesh densities, so that the geometry approximation and field interpolation error related to the wavelength can be observed.

  2. Quantum benchmark via an uncertainty product of canonical variables.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Ryo; Azuma, Koji

    2015-04-10

    We present an uncertainty-relation-type quantum benchmark for continuous-variable (CV) quantum channels that works with an input ensemble of Gaussian-distributed coherent states and homodyne measurements. It determines an optimal trade-off relation between canonical quadrature noises that is unbeatable by entanglement breaking channels and refines the notion of two quantum duties introduced in the original papers of CV quantum teleportation. This benchmark can verify the quantum-domain performance for all one-mode Gaussian channels. We also address the case of stochastic channels and the effect of asymmetric gains.

  3. JACOB: a dynamic database for computational chemistry benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jack; Waller, Mark P

    2012-12-21

    JACOB (just a collection of benchmarks) is a database that contains four diverse benchmark studies, which in-turn included 72 data sets, with a total of 122,356 individual results. The database is constructed upon a dynamic web framework that allows users to retrieve data from the database via predefined categories. Additional flexibility is made available via user-defined text-based queries. Requested sets of results are then automatically presented as bar graphs, with parameters of the graphs being controllable via the URL. JACOB is currently available at www.wallerlab.org/jacob.

  4. Validation of NESTLE against static reactor benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    The NESTLE advanced modal code was developed at North Carolina State University with support from Los Alamos National Laboratory and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It recently has been benchmarked successfully against measured data from pressurized water reactors (PWRs). However, NESTLE`s geometric capabilities are very flexible, and it can be applied to a variety of other types of reactors. This study presents comparisons of NESTLE results with those from other codes for static benchmark problems for PWRs, boiling water reactors (BWRs), high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) and CANDU heavy- water reactors (HWRs).

  5. Taking the Battle Upstream: Towards a Benchmarking Role for NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    10 “Lakes Guides, Bench Marks, Cumbria, Frameset.” 11 Seymour , A History of the Ordnance Survey; Hewitt, Map of a Nation. 12 Venkatramaiah...Ikiz, “Benchmarking Best Manufacturing Practices;” Sommerville and Robertson , “A Scorecard Approach to Benchmarking for Total Quality Construction...2005): 117–132. Rose, Richard. “Ten Steps in Learning Lessons from Abroad.” Working Paper, n.d. http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/1763. Seymour , W. A

  6. Quantum Benchmark via an Uncertainty Product of Canonical Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Ryo; Azuma, Koji

    2015-04-01

    We present an uncertainty-relation-type quantum benchmark for continuous-variable (CV) quantum channels that works with an input ensemble of Gaussian-distributed coherent states and homodyne measurements. It determines an optimal trade-off relation between canonical quadrature noises that is unbeatable by entanglement breaking channels and refines the notion of two quantum duties introduced in the original papers of CV quantum teleportation. This benchmark can verify the quantum-domain performance for all one-mode Gaussian channels. We also address the case of stochastic channels and the effect of asymmetric gains.

  7. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-06-10

    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (τ) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  8. Uncertainties in Monte Carlo-based absorbed dose calculations for an experimental benchmark.

    PubMed

    Renner, F; Wulff, J; Kapsch, R-P; Zink, K

    2015-10-07

    There is a need to verify the accuracy of general purpose Monte Carlo codes like EGSnrc, which are commonly employed for investigations of dosimetric problems in radiation therapy. A number of experimental benchmarks have been published to compare calculated values of absorbed dose to experimentally determined values. However, there is a lack of absolute benchmarks, i.e. benchmarks without involved normalization which may cause some quantities to be cancelled. Therefore, at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt a benchmark experiment was performed, which aimed at the absolute verification of radiation transport calculations for dosimetry in radiation therapy. A thimble-type ionization chamber in a solid phantom was irradiated by high-energy bremsstrahlung and the mean absorbed dose in the sensitive volume was measured per incident electron of the target. The characteristics of the accelerator and experimental setup were precisely determined and the results of a corresponding Monte Carlo simulation with EGSnrc are presented within this study. For a meaningful comparison, an analysis of the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is necessary. In this study uncertainties with regard to the simulation geometry, the radiation source, transport options of the Monte Carlo code and specific interaction cross sections are investigated, applying the general methodology of the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement. Besides studying the general influence of changes in transport options of the EGSnrc code, uncertainties are analyzed by estimating the sensitivity coefficients of various input quantities in a first step. Secondly, standard uncertainties are assigned to each quantity which are known from the experiment, e.g. uncertainties for geometric dimensions. Data for more fundamental quantities such as photon cross sections and the I-value of electron stopping powers are taken from literature. The significant uncertainty contributions are identified as

  9. Benchmark 1 - Nonlinear strain path forming limit of a reverse draw: Part C: Benchmark analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin

    2013-12-01

    This document summarizes the Benchmark 1 results and presents all submitted FEA results from 9 participants and experimental results in 104 figures, including load-displacement curves, strain path evolutions over four specified blank positions, and deformed under different forming settings: three sheet materials, three blank geometries (width), and two shim heights that alter the strain paths and the two stage strain ratio with major strain path changes. The fourth specified point corresponds to the location of localized necking. The FEA models and software/hardware used by the participants are provided. The rich data presented from both simulation and experimental measurement provide valuable information on the current interest in material plasticity/formability and their prediction under continuous non-linear strain path that exist in this reverse draw process. At the request of the author, and Proceedings Editor, a corrected and updated version of this paper was published on January 2, 2014. The Corrigendum attached to the updated article PDF contains a list of the changes made to the original published version.

  10. Impact of benchmark data set topology on the validation of virtual screening methods: exploration and quantification by spatial statistics.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, Sebastian G; Baumann, Knut

    2008-04-01

    A common finding of many reports evaluating ligand-based virtual screening methods is that validation results vary considerably with changing benchmark data sets. It is widely assumed that these data set specific effects are caused by the redundancy, self-similarity, and cluster structure inherent to those data sets. These phenomena manifest themselves in the data sets' representation in descriptor space, which is termed the data set topology. A methodology for the characterization of data set topology based on spatial statistics is introduced. The method is nonparametric and can deal with arbitrary distributions of descriptor values. With this methodology it is possible to associate differences in virtual screening performance on different data sets with differences in data set topology. Moreover, the better virtual screening performance of certain descriptors can be explained by their ability of representing the benchmark data sets by a more favorable topology. Finally it is shown, that the composition of some benchmark data sets causes topologies that lead to overoptimistic validation results even in very "simple" descriptor spaces. Spatial statistics analysis as proposed here facilitates the detection of such biased data sets and may provide a tool for the future design of unbiased benchmark data sets.

  11. ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI results for UO-2 lattice benchmark problems using MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    Calculations for the ANS UO{sub 2} lattice benchmark have been performed with the MCNP Monte Carlo code and its ENDF/B-V and EnDF/B-VI continuous-energy libraries. Similar calculations were performed previously for the experiments upon which these benchmarks are based, using continuous-energy libraries derived from EnDF/B-V and from Release 2 of EnDF/B-VI (ENDF/B-VI.2). This study extends those calculations to the infinite-lattice configurations given in the benchmark specifications and also includes results from Release 3 of EnDF/B-VI (ENDF/B-VI.3) for both the core and infinite-lattice configurations. For this set of benchmarks, the only significant difference between the ENDF/B-VI.2 and EnDF/B-VI.3 libraries is the cross-section behavior of {sup 235}U. EnDF/B-VI.3 contains revised cross sections for {sup 235}U below 900 eV, although those changes principally affect the range below 110 eV. In particular, relative to EnDF/B-VI.2, EnDF/B-VI.3 increases the epithermal capture-to-fission ratio for {sup 235}U and slightly increases its thermal fission cross section.

  12. [Results of the evaluation of German benchmarking networks funded by the Ministry of Health].

    PubMed

    de Cruppé, Werner; Blumenstock, Gunnar; Fischer, Imma; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad; Geraedts, Max

    2011-01-01

    Nine out of ten demonstration projects on clinical benchmarking funded by the German Ministry of Health were evaluated. Project reports and interviews were uniformly analysed using a list of criteria and a scheme to categorize the realized benchmarking approach. At the end of the funding period four benchmarking networks had implemented all benchmarking steps, and six were continued after funding had expired. The improvement of outcome quality cannot yet be assessed. Factors promoting the introduction of benchmarking networks with regard to organisational and process aspects of benchmarking implementation were derived.

  13. Taking Aims: New CASE Study Benchmarks Advancement Investments and Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Advancement professionals have always been thirsty for information that will help them understand how their programs compare with those of their peers. But in recent years the demand for benchmarking data has exploded as budgets have become leaner, leaders have become more business minded, and terms like "performance metrics and return on…

  14. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  15. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  16. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  17. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  18. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  19. Children's Services Statistical Neighbour Benchmarking Tool. Practitioner User Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Foundation for Educational Research, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Statistical neighbour models provide one method for benchmarking progress. For each local authority (LA), these models designate a number of other LAs deemed to have similar characteristics. These designated LAs are known as statistical neighbours. Any LA may compare its performance (as measured by various indicators) against its statistical…

  20. Benchmarking Universities' Efficiency Indicators in the Presence of Internal Heterogeneity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    When benchmarking its performance, a university is usually considered as a single strategic unit. According to the evidence, however, lower levels within an organisation (such as faculties, departments and schools) play a significant role in institutional governance, affecting the overall performance. In this article, an empirical analysis was…