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Sample records for aerated middle ear

  1. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    MedlinePlus

    Ear infection (middle ear) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff An ear infection (acute otitis media) is most often a bacterial or viral infection that affects the middle ear, the air-filled space behind the eardrum that ...

  2. Middle ear infection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  3. Reconstruction of middle ear malformations

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Malformations of the middle ear are classified as minor and major malformations. Minor malformations appear with regular external auditory canal, tympanic membrane and aerated middle ear space. The conducting hearing loss is due to fixation or interruption of the ossicular chain. The treatment is surgical, following the rules of ossiculoplasty and stapes surgery. In major malformations (congenital aural atresia) there is no external auditory canal and a deformed or missing pinna. The mastoid and the middle ear space may be underdevelopped, the ossicular chain is dysplastic. Surgical therapy is possible in patients with good aeration of the temporal bone, existing windows, a near normal positioned facial nerve and a mobile ossicular chain. Plastic and reconstructive surgery of the pinna should proceed the reconstruction of the external auditory canal and middle ear. In cases of good prognosis unilateral aural atresia can be approached already in childhood. In patients with high risk of surgical failure, bone anchored hearing aids are the treatment of choice. Recent reports of implantable hearing devices may be discussed as an alternative treatment for selected patients. PMID:22073077

  4. [Middle ear physiology].

    PubMed

    Ayerbe, I; Négrevergne, M; Ucelay, R; Sanchez Fernandez, J M

    1999-01-01

    The middle ear forms part of the sound transformer mechanism, together with the outer ear and the conducting system of the inner ear. An intermediate sensory organ, sensitive to acoustic vibration, and linked to the inner ear, the middle ear made its appearance during the period of adaptation of marine creatures to a terrestrial habitat; its presence is therefore a phylogenetic requirement. It is classical to ascribe three functions to the middle ear: the transmission of acoustic vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea, impedance matching between the air in the external auditary meatus and the labyrinthine fluids, and protection of the inner ear by means of the acoustic reflex. If the classical mechanical explanation has been able to explain its function, the conceptualization of its physiology in terms of energy allows an even better understanding, as well as providing and explanation for the paradoxes which arise in clinical practice when the classical model is used.

  5. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and Ear ... medio y colocación de tubos de ventilación Why Surgery? Many kids get middle ear infections (known as ...

  6. Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old Middle Ear Infections and Ear Tube Surgery KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections and ... to 18 months or longer. previous continue Tympanostomy Tube Surgery If your child is old enough to ...

  7. Inner ear disturbances related to middle ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sone, Michihiko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inner and middle ear are connected mainly through round and oval windows, and inflammation in the middle ear cavity can spread into the inner ear, which might induce a disturbance. In cases with intractable otitis media, attention should also be paid to symptoms related to the inner ear. In this paper, middle ear inflammation and related inner ear disturbances are reviewed with a focus on representative middle ear diseases (such as acute otitis media, chronic otitis media, otitis media with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, eosinophilic otitis media, cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula, and reflux-related otitis media). Their clinical concerns are then discussed with reference to experimental studies. In these diseases, early diagnosis and adequate treatment are required to manage not only middle ear but also inner ear conditions. PMID:28303055

  8. Adenomatous tumors of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Stanley; Koss, Shira

    2015-04-01

    Adenomatous tumors are an uncommon cause of a middle ear mass. Clinical findings may be nonspecific, leading to difficulties in differentiation from other middle ear tumors. Controversy also exists whether to classify middle ear adenoma and carcinoid as separate neoplasms, or alternatively within a spectrum of the same pathologic entity. Most adenomatous middle ear tumors are indolent in behavior, with a benign histologic appearance and slowly progressive growth. The mainstay of treatment is complete surgical resection, which affords the greatest likelihood of cure.

  9. Factors leading to chronic middle ear disease.

    PubMed

    Canty, A A; Prestwood, U; Dugdale, A E; Lewis, A N

    1975-05-10

    In an Australian Aboriginal community, 65% of all people examined had clinical evidence of pathology in the ear drum or middle ear, but active ear disease was found mainly in children. In most people, both ears showed similar clinical changes. Clinical nutritional status and hygienic factors did not correlate with the presence of ear disease. Some families had significantly more ear disease than did others, suggesting that there is some as yet unidentified familial factor.

  10. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  12. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Middle ear mold. 874.3430 Section 874.3430 Food... DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  13. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... up of invisible waves of energy, causes these vibrations. Every time you hear a sound, the various ... When the eardrum vibrates, the ossicles amplify these vibrations and carry them to the inner ear. The ...

  14. 3D finite element model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing middle ear functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin; Gan, Rong Z

    2016-10-01

    Chinchilla is a commonly used animal model for research of sound transmission through the ear. Experimental measurements of the middle ear transfer function in chinchillas have shown that the middle ear cavity greatly affects the tympanic membrane (TM) and stapes footplate (FP) displacements. However, there is no finite element (FE) model of the chinchilla ear available in the literature to characterize the middle ear functions with the anatomical features of the chinchilla ear. This paper reports a recently completed 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear based on X-ray micro-computed tomography images of a chinchilla bulla. The model consisted of the ear canal, TM, middle ear ossicles and suspensory ligaments, and the middle ear cavity. Two boundary conditions of the middle ear cavity wall were simulated in the model as the rigid structure and the partially flexible surface, and the acoustic-mechanical coupled analysis was conducted with these two conditions to characterize the middle ear function. The model results were compared with experimental measurements reported in the literature including the TM and FP displacements and the middle ear input admittance in chinchilla ear. An application of this model was presented to identify the acoustic role of the middle ear septa-a unique feature of chinchilla middle ear cavity. This study provides the first 3D FE model of the chinchilla ear for characterizing the middle ear functions through the acoustic-mechanical coupled FE analysis.

  15. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat.

  16. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Infecciones del oído medio After the common cold , ear infections are the most frequently diagnosed childhood ... winter season, when lots of people get upper respiratory tract infections or colds. Signs and Symptoms The signs and ...

  17. Passive and active middle ear implants

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Besides eradication of chronic middle ear disease, the reconstruction of the sound conduction apparatus is a major goal of modern ear microsurgery. The material of choice in cases of partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is the autogenous ossicle. In the event of more extensive destruction of the ossicular chain diverse alloplastic materials, e.g. metals, ceramics, plastics or composits are used for total reconstruction. Their specialised role in conducting sound energy within a half-open implant bed sets high demands on the biocompatibility as well as the acoustic-mechanic properties of the prosthesis. Recently, sophisticated titanium middle ear implants allowing individual adaptation to anatomical variations are widely used for this procedure. However, despite modern developments, hearing restoration with passive implants often faces its limitations due to tubal-middle-ear dysfunction. Here, implantable hearing aids, successfully used in cases of sensorineural hearing loss, offer a promising alternative. This article reviews the actual state of affairs of passive and active middle ear implants. PMID:22073102

  18. Middle ear cholesteatoma in 11 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Greci, Valentina; Travetti, Olga; Di Giancamillo, Mauro; Lombardo, Rocco; Giudice, Chiara; Banco, Barbara; Mortellaro, Carlo M.

    2011-01-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence. PMID:22131579

  19. Middle Ear Implantable Hearing Devices: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, David S.; Young, Jadrien A.; Wanna, George B.; Glasscock, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Hearing loss affects approximately 30 million people in the United States. It has been estimated that only approximately 20% of people with hearing loss significant enough to warrant amplification actually seek assistance for amplification. A significant interest in middle ear implants has emerged over the years to facilitate patients who are noncompliant with conventional hearing aides, do not receive significant benefit from conventional aides, or are not candidates for cochlear implants. From the initial studies in the 1930s, the technology has greatly evolved over the years with a wide array of devices and mechanisms employed in the development of implantable middle ear hearing devices. Currently, these devices are generally available in two broad categories: partially or totally implantable using either piezoelectric or electromagnetic systems. The authors present an up-to-date overview of the major implantable middle ear devices. Although the current devices are largely in their infancy, indications for middle ear implants are ever evolving as promising studies show good results. The totally implantable devices provide the user freedom from the social and practical difficulties of using conventional amplification. PMID:19762429

  20. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3430 - Middle ear mold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3430 Middle ear mold. (a) Identification. A middle ear mold is a preformed device that is intended to be implanted to reconstruct the middle...

  2. Standardized measurements of the sound transmission of middle ear implants using a mechanical middle ear model.

    PubMed

    Meister, H; Walger, M; Mickenhagen, A; von Wedel, H; Stennert, E

    1999-01-01

    Several ways to evaluate the sound transmission properties of middle ear implants are now established. Besides computer-based simulations using acoustic and electrical analog circuits or finite element analysis, measurements can be performed with temporal bone preparations. Experiments with these preparations consider various anatomical properties, but a large number of parameters influence the outcome of measurements. To facilitate standardized measurements, a mechanical middle ear model was developed that allows comparison of the transfer function of middle ear implants on defined conditions. The model approximates the impedances of the tympanic membrane and inner ear with the aid of thin, flexible membranes. The implants are fit between the membranes, and displacement at an artificial stapes foot-plate is measured with an optical probe. Fundamental influences on the sound transmission properties of nine different middle ear implants (total ossicular replacement prostheses) were examined. Although the material and shape were different, some of the prostheses revealed very similar transfer functions. The mass of the implant showed the largest influence on sound conduction. With a higher mass, the frequency area above approximately 1 kHz was found to be significantly deteriorated. The lightest implant used was 4 mg and showed the best overall results. These findings show that middle ear prostheses should be as light as possible for optimum high-frequency transmission.

  3. Endoscopic anatomy of the pediatric middle ear.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.

  4. Acoustics of the human middle-ear air space.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Cara E; Voss, Susan E

    2005-08-01

    The impedance of the middle-ear air space was measured on three human cadaver ears with complete mastoid air-cell systems. Below 500 Hz, the impedance is approximately compliance-like, and at higher frequencies (500-6000 Hz) the impedance magnitude has several (five to nine) extrema. Mechanisms for these extrema are identified and described through circuit models of the middle-ear air space. The measurements demonstrate that the middle-ear air space impedance can affect the middle-ear impedance at the tympanic membrane by as much as 10 dB at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. Thus, variations in the middle-ear air space impedance that result from variations in anatomy of the middle-ear air space can contribute to inter-ear variations in both impedance measurements and otoacoustic emissions, when measured at the tympanic membrane.

  5. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Minovi, Amir; Dazert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids. PMID:25587371

  6. Local anesthesia for middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Caner, Gül; Olgun, Levent; Gültekin, Gürol; Aydar, Levent

    2005-08-01

    The adequacy of anesthesia and comfort during surgery was assessed for 100 consecutive patients undergoing middle ear surgery using local anesthesia, both by the patients themselves and by the surgeon. The possibility of inducing an iatrogenic facial weakness was also evaluated. Both the surgeon and the majority of patients were pleased with the quality of anesthesia and little adverse effects occurred as a consequence of local anesthesia itself.

  7. Scaling of the mammalian middle ear.

    PubMed

    Nummela, S

    1995-05-01

    This study considers the general question how animal size limits the size and information receiving capacity of sense organs. To clarify this in the case of the mammalian middle ear, I studied 63 mammalian species, ranging from a small bat to the Indian elephant. I determined the skull mass and the masses of the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes (M, I and S), and measured the tympanic membrane area, A1. The ossicular mass (in mg) is generally negatively allometric to skull mass (in g), the regression equation for the whole material (excluding true seals) being y = 1.373 x(0.513). However, for very small mammals the allometry approaches isometry. Within a group of large mammals no distinct allometry can be discerned. The true seals (Phocidae) are exceptional by having massive ossicles. The size relations within the middle ear are generally rather constant. However, the I/M relation is slightly positively allometric, y = 0.554 x(1.162). Two particularly isometric relations were found; the S/(M + I) relation for the ossicles characterized by the regression equation y = 0.054 x(0.993), and the relation between a two-dimensional measure of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane ares, (M + I)2/3 /A1. As in isometric ears the sound energy collected by the tympanic membrane is linearly related to its area, the latter isometry suggests that, regardless of animal size, a given ossicular cross-sectional area is exposed to a similar sound-induced stress. Possible morphological middle ear adaptations to particular acoustic environments are discussed.

  8. The development of the mammalian outer and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Anthwal, Neal; Thompson, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    The mammalian ear is a complex structure divided into three main parts: the outer; middle; and inner ear. These parts are formed from all three germ layers and neural crest cells, which have to integrate successfully in order to form a fully functioning organ of hearing. Any defect in development of the outer and middle ear leads to conductive hearing loss, while defects in the inner ear can lead to sensorineural hearing loss. This review focuses on the development of the parts of the ear involved with sound transduction into the inner ear, and the parts largely ignored in the world of hearing research: the outer and middle ear. The published data on the embryonic origin, signalling, genetic control, development and timing of the mammalian middle and outer ear are reviewed here along with new data showing the Eustachian tube cartilage is of dual embryonic origin. The embryonic origin of some of these structures has only recently been uncovered (Science, 339, 2013, 1453; Development, 140, 2013, 4386), while the molecular mechanisms controlling the growth, structure and integration of many outer and middle ear components are hardly known. The genetic analysis of outer and middle ear development is rather limited, with a small number of genes often affecting either more than one part of the ear or having only very small effects on development. This review therefore highlights the necessity for further research into the development of outer and middle ear structures, which will be important for the understanding and treatment of conductive hearing loss.

  9. Neuroendocrine Adenoma of the Middle Ear: A Rare Histopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McGinness, Sam; Coleman, Hedley; Varikatt, Winny; da Cruz, Melville

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours occur throughout the body but are rare in the head and neck region and particularly rare in the middle ear. Clinical findings are often nonspecific and therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. Furthermore, the nomenclature of neuroendocrine tumours of the middle ear is historically controversial. Herein a case is presented of a middle ear adenoma in a 33-year-old patient who presented with otalgia, hearing loss, and facial nerve palsy. A brief discussion is included regarding the histopathological features of middle ear adenomas and seeks to clarify the correct nomenclature for these tumours. PMID:27429819

  10. LDV measurement of bird ear vibrations to determine inner ear impedance and middle ear power flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muyshondt, Pieter G. G.; Pires, Felipe; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures in birds and mammals is affected by the fluids in the inner ear (IE) that are present behind the oval window. In this study, the aim was to gather knowledge of the acoustic impedance of the IE in the ostrich, to be able to determine the effect on vibrations and power flow in the single-ossicle bird middle ear for future studies. To determine the IE impedance, vibrations of the ossicle were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the acoustic regime, vibrations were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer and electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle. The impedance of the inner ear could be determined by means of a simple RLC model in series, which resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20.1012 Pa/m3, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652.106 Pa s2/m3, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57.109 Pa s/m. The measured impedance is found to be considerably smaller than what is found for the human IE.

  11. CT of adenomas of the middle ear and mastoid cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Van Thong Ho; Rao, V.J.; Mikaelian, D.O.

    1996-03-01

    A case of mixed type adenoma of the middle ear and mastoid is presented in which CT showed complete opacification of the middle ear and mastoid air cells with bulging of the tympanic membrane but without ossicular or bony destruction. 7 refs., 1 figs.

  12. Prolonged Radiant Exposure of the Middle Ear during Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Shah, Parth V; Kozin, Elliott D; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dedmon, Matthew M; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Cohen, Michael S; Lee, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides a high-resolution, wide-field view of the middle ear compared with the conventional operating microscope, reducing the need for a postauricular incision or mastoidectomy. Our group has shown in cadaveric human temporal bone studies that radiant energy from the endoscope tip can quickly elevate temperatures of the tympanic cavity. Elevated temperatures of the middle ear are associated with acute auditory brainstem response shifts in animal models. In EES, proposed methods to decrease middle ear temperature include frequent removal of the endoscope and the use of suction to rapidly dissipate heat; however, the routine application of such cooling techniques remains unknown. Herein, we aim to quantify the duration that the tympanic cavity is typically exposed to the endoscope during routine endoscopic middle ear surgery. We find that the tympanic cavity is exposed to the endoscope without a cooling mechanism for a prolonged period of time.

  13. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M.; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P.; Brown, Steve D. M.; Bingle, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air–liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. PMID:27660200

  14. Combined Effect of Fluid and Pressure on Middle Ear Function

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chenkai; Wood, Mark W.; Gan, Rong Z.

    2008-01-01

    In our previous studies, the effects of effusion and pressure on sound transmission were investigated separately. The aim of this study is to investigate the combined effect of fluid and pressure on middle ear function. An otitis media with effusion model was created by injecting saline solution and air pressure simultaneously into the middle ear of human temporal bones. Tympanic membrane displacement in response to 90 dB SPL sound input was measured by a laser vibrometer and the compliance of the middle ear was measured by a tympanometer. The movement of the tympanic membrane at the umbo was reduced up to 17 dB by the combination of fluid and pressure in the middle ear over the auditory frequency range. The fluid and pressure effects on the umbo movement in the fluid-pressure combination are not additive. The combined effect of fluid and pressure on the umbo movement is different compared with that of only fluid or pressure change in the middle ear. Negative pressure in fluid-pressure combination had more effect on middle ear function than positive pressure. Tympanometry can detect the middle ear pressure of the fluid-pressure combination. This study provides quantitative information for analysis of the combined effect of fluid and pressure on tympanic membrane movement. PMID:18162348

  15. Antifibrotic effect of dexamethasone/alginate-coated silicone sheet in the abraded middle ear mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chul Ho; Ahn, Seung Hyun; Kim, Geun Hyung

    2016-12-01

    Silicone sheet is a material which is commonly used in middle ear surgery to prevent the formation of adhesions between the tympanic membrane and the medial bony wall of the middle ear cavity. However, silicone sheet can induce a tight and hard fibrous capsule in the region of the stapes, and this is particularly common in cases of eustachian tube dysfunction. As a result of the fibrous encapsulation around the silicone sheet, postoperative aeration of the stapes can be interrupted causing poor hearing gain. In this study, we performed an in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antifibrotic effects of a dexamethasone and alginate (Dx/alginate) coating on silicone sheet. The Dx/alginate-coated silicone sheets were fabricated using a plasma-treatment and coating method. The Dx/alginate-coated silicone sheets effectively limited in vitro fibroblast attachment and proliferation due to the controlled release of Dx, which can be modified by manipulation of the alginate coating. For the in-vivo evaluation, guinea pigs (albino, male, weighing 250g) were divided into two groups, with the control group (n=5) implanted with silicone sheet and the test group (n=5) receiving Dx/alginate-coated silicone sheet. Animals were sacrificed 3 weeks after implantation, and histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining techniques. Dx/alginate-coated silicone sheets showed marked inhibition of fibrosis in both the in vitro and in vivo studies. Silicone sheet that incorporates a Dx/alginate coating can release Dx and inhibit fibrosis in the middle ear. This material could be utilized in middle ear surgery as a means of preserving proper aeration and hearing gain following ossiculoplasty.

  16. Middle ear mucosal regeneration with three-dimensionally tissue-engineered autologous middle ear cell sheets in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Yuichiro; Murakami, Daisuke; Yamato, Masayuki; Hama, Takanori; Yamamoto, Kazuhisa; Kojima, Hiromi; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Okano, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    The likelihood of recurrent retraction and adhesion of newly formed tympanic membrane is high when middle ear mucosa is extensively lost during cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media surgery. If rapid postoperative regeneration of the mucosa on the exposed bone surface can be achieved, prevention of recurrent eardrum adhesion and cholesteatoma formation, for which there has been no definitive treatment, can be expected. Suture-less transplantation of tissue-engineered mucosal cell sheets was examined immediately after the operation of otitis media surgery in order to quickly regenerate middle ear mucosa lost during surgery in a rabbit model. Transplantable middle ear mucosal cell sheets with a three-dimensional tissue architecture very similar to native middle ear mucosa were fabricated from middle ear mucosal tissue fragments obtained in an autologous manner from middle ear bulla on temperature-responsive culture surfaces. Immediately after the mucosa was resected from middle ear bone bulla inner cavity, mucosal cell sheets were grafted at the resected site. Both bone hyperplasia and granulation tissue formation were inhibited and early mucosal regeneration was observed in the cell sheet-grafted group, compared with the control group in which only mucosal removal was carried out and the bone surface exposed. This result indicates that tissue engineered mucosal cell sheets would be useful to minimize complications after the surgical operation on otitis media and future clinical application is expected.

  17. Experimental evidence against middle ear oxygen absorption.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, R A; Stuart, D R; Geick, M R; Girgis, S J; McGee, T J

    1985-04-01

    The present theory of eustachian tube (ET) function and middle ear (ME) ventilation posits that oxygen absorbed by the ME mucosa causes negative ME pressure which is relieved by periodic opening of the ET during swallowing and yawning. After developing a method to cannulate the ET of mongrel dogs we connected the cannulas hermetically to manometers. This system excluded ET function and tested the oxygen absorption capacity of the ME. When we controlled respiration and maintained blood gas PO2 and PCO2 at normal levels, we were unable to find any manometric evidence of negative pressure of gas absorption in the dog ME. Lowering the PCO2 and raising the PO2 of the blood by hyperventilation caused negative ME pressure which could be measured manometrically. We confirmed these findings with the tympanometer. Raising the PCO2 and lowering the PO2 by hypoventilation caused positive pressure in the ME. There is no evidence in these experiments that O2 absorption occurs or causes negative ME pressure in the dog. To the contrary there is evidence that elevated blood levels of the more diffusible CO2 cause an increase in the ME pressure and lowered CO2 level causes a negative ME pressure.

  18. Impedance matching, optimum velocity, and ideal middle ears.

    PubMed

    Peake, W T; Rosowski, J J

    1991-05-01

    One way to assess an ear's performance as a receiver of acoustic power is to consider impedance matching at the tympanic membrane. Assumptions about some of the impedances involved have lead to the idea of an optimum velocity magnitude (per unit pressure), which has been used as a test of middle-ear performance. We show that this approach is not a realistic way to assess effectiveness of power absorption at the tympanic membrane. More generally, we suggest that, if the performance of the combined external-and-middle ear in collecting acoustic power and delivering it to the inner ear is considered, the external- and middle-ear power-transfer efficiencies, as well as impedance matching, are involved in relating performance to an ideal.

  19. Major evolutionary transitions and innovations: the tympanic middle ear

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    One of the most amazing transitions and innovations during the evolution of mammals was the formation of a novel jaw joint and the incorporation of the original jaw joint into the middle ear to create the unique mammalian three bone/ossicle ear. In this review, we look at the key steps that led to this change and other unusual features of the middle ear and how developmental biology has been providing an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This starts with an overview of the tympanic (air-filled) middle ear, and how the ear drum (tympanic membrane) and the cavity itself form during development in amniotes. This is followed by an investigation of how the ear is connected to the pharynx and the relationship of the ear to the bony bulla in which it sits. Finally, the novel mammalian jaw joint and versatile dentary bone will be discussed with respect to evolution of the mammalian middle ear. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity’. PMID:27994124

  20. Tympanostomy Tubes: A Rational Clinical Treatment for Middle Ear Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Peter S.; Brown, Orval

    1990-01-01

    The use of tympanostomy tubes to treat middle ear disease including otitis media is discussed with sections on the eustachian tube; acute otitis media; persistent effusion; changes in the tympanic membrane; special populations; and complications. (DB)

  1. Middle Ear Surgery in Only Hearing Ears and Postoperative Hearing Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Myung Hoon; Kang, Byung Chul; Park, Hong Ju

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate surgical interventions and hearing rehabilitation in patients with chronic middle ear disease of only hearing ears. Subjects and Methods Thirty-one patients with chronic middle ear disease of only hearing ears were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were classified into three groups according to the hearing level: groups A [pure tone audiometry (PTA)<40], B (40≤PTA<70), and C (PTA≥70). We evaluated hearing results and patterns of auditory rehabilitation. Results The main consideration for a surgical procedure was the presence of recurrent otorrhea and structural destruction. The reasons for surgical intervention in only hearing ears were otorrhea caused by chronic otitis media (68%), cholesteatoma (29%), and cholesterol granuloma (3%). The causes of contralateral deaf ears were chronic otitis media (81%) and sensorineural hearing loss (19%). Although there was hearing deterioration in some patients with severe hearing loss (PTA≥70), all patients achieved dry ears after surgery and functional hearing using auditory rehabilitation. Hearing aids were used in most patients with moderate to moderately severe hearing loss and cochlear implants were used for auditory rehabilitation in patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Conclusions Proper evaluation and indications for surgery in only hearing ears are important for successful eradication of inflammation and hearing preservation. Surgical interventions can achieve dry ear and enable further auditory rehabilitations using hearing aids and cochlear implantation. PMID:25279226

  2. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215–225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction–mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world’s smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear. PMID:24003145

  3. Indications and candidacy for active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, F; Todt, I; Wagner, J; Ernst, A

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are two active middle ear implants available commercially: the Vibrant Soundbridge system and the Carina system. A third active middle ear implant, the Esteem, is under clinical evaluation. All devices are indicated for patients with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Because active middle ear implants are directly coupled to middle ear structures, many of the problems that patients with conventional hearing aids report, such as acoustic feedback, occlusion, and irritation of the outer ear canal, are avoided. In addition, AMEI patients perform well in background noise. However, indications for AMEIs are selective and candidates should be carefully evaluated before surgery. Before considering an AMEI, patients should be provided with conventional hearing aids. Only when benefit is insufficient and audiological selection criteria are met is further candidacy evaluation indicated. Since Colletti described coupling the Vibrant Soundbridge directly onto the round window membrane in 2006, the indications for the Vibrant Soundbridge have expanded and the VSB is implanted in patients with conductive and mixed hearing losses. Patients have often undergone middle ear surgery before. Especially mixed hearing loss cases with 30-60 dB HL sensorineural hearing impairment and 30-40 dB HL air-bone gaps may be helped by this new application.

  4. Developmental origin and fate of middle ear structures.

    PubMed

    Sienknecht, Ulrike J

    2013-07-01

    Results from developmental and phylogenetic studies have converged to facilitate insight into two important steps in vertebrate evolution: (1) the ontogenetic origin of articulating elements of the buccal skeleton, i.e., jaws, and (2) the later origins of middle ear impedance-matching systems that convey air-borne sound to the inner ear fluids. Middle ear ossicles and other skeletal elements of the viscerocranium (i.e., gill suspensory arches and jaw bones) share a common origin both phylogenetically and ontogenetically. The intention of this brief overview of middle-ear development is to emphasize the intimate connection between evolution and embryogenesis. Examples of developmental situations are discussed in which cells of different provenance, such as neural crest, mesoderm or endoderm, gather together and reciprocal interactions finally determine cell fate. Effects of targeted mutagenesis on middle ear development are described to illustrate how the alteration of molecularly-controlled morphogenetic programs led to phylogenetic modifications of skeletal development. Ontogenetic plasticity has enabled the diversification of jaw elements as well as middle ear structures during evolution. This article is part of a special issue entitled "MEMRO 2012".

  5. Morphological Variations of Middle Ear Ossicles and its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ritaban; Mazumdar, Ardhendu; Mazumdar, Sibani

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The middle ear ossicles form a semi rigid chain in the middle of the ear for conduction and amplification of sound waves from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. Although, our knowledge of the ear ossicles dates back to the 15th century, and various studies have been carried out on their morphometry, morphology, anomalies, embryology, function and structure throughout the world, information about the morphology of middle ear ossicles is meagre in Indian subjects. Aim To find out the morphological variations of middle ear ossicles of right and left sides. Materials and Methods In the present study, the middle ear ossicles were bilaterally dissected out from the temporal bones obtained from 26 cadaveric heads from the Department of Anatomy under a surgical oto-microscope with micro instruments. Morphological variations were studied under the magnification of the operating microscope. Attempt was also made to evaluate the clinical implications related to such variants and compare the results with those observations made in other parts of India and abroad. Age variation was not considered as the ossicles reach their full size at birth. Results It was observed that the stapes was the most variable and the incus as the most stable ossicle so far as morphological variations are concerned. Malleus presented variations in the free ends of manubrium, lateral process and anterior process. Variation in morphology of stapes did not follow any fixed pattern. Conclusion It is expected that this work may also inspire many others to continue temporal bone dissection with a view to gather more ossicles which might be preserved in ossicular banks by following proper sterilization methods for future use as homografts in ossiculoplasty. These harvested ossicles may be used to replace eroded middle ear ossicles as an alternative to manufactured prosthesis. PMID:28273957

  6. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-04-20

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: -0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links.

  7. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-01-01

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: –0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  8. Do Swiftlets have an ear for echolocation? The functional morphology of Swiftlets' middle ears.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Henri A; Gea, Stefan; Maas, Steve; Bout, Ron G; Dirckx, Joris J J; Decraemer, Willem F; Povel, G David E

    2007-03-01

    The Oilbird and many Swiftlet species are unique among birds for their ability to echolocate. Echolocaters may benefit from improved hearing sensitivity. Therefore, morphological adaptations to echolocation might be present in echolocating birds' middle ears. We studied the functional morphology of the tympano-ossicular chain of seven specimens of four echolocating Swiftlet species and one specimen each of five non-echolocating species. Three dimensional (3D) reconstructions were made from micro-Computer-Tomographic (muCT) scans. The reconstructions were used in functional morphological analyses and model calculations. A two dimensional (2D) rigid rod model with fixed rotational axes was developed to study footplate output-amplitudes and to describe how changes in the arrangement of the tympano-ossicular chain affect its function. A 3D finite element model was used to predict ossicular-chain movement and to investigate the justification of the 2D approach. No morphological adaptations towards echolocation were found in the middle-ear lever system or in the mass impedance of the middle ear. A wide range of middle-ear configurations result in maximum output-amplitudes and all investigated species are congruent with these predicted best configurations. Echolocation is unlikely to depend on adaptations in the middle ear tympano-ossicular chain.

  9. Restoration of middle-ear input in fluid-filled middle ears by controlled introduction of air or a novel air-filled implant.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Chien, Wade W; Rosowski, John J

    2015-10-01

    The effect of small amounts of air on sound-induced umbo velocity in an otherwise saline-filled middle ear (ME) was investigated to examine the efficacy of a novel balloon-like air-filled ME implant suitable for patients with chronically non-aerated MEs. In this study, air bubbles or air-filled implants were introduced into saline-filled human cadaveric MEs. Umbo velocity, a convenient measure of ME response, served as an indicator of hearing sensitivity. Filling the ME with saline reduced umbo velocity by 25-30 dB at low frequencies and more at high frequencies, consistent with earlier work (Ravicz et al., Hear. Res. 195: 103-130 (2004)). Small amounts of air (∼30 μl) in the otherwise saline-filled ME increased umbo velocity substantially, to levels only 10-15 dB lower than in the dry ME, in a frequency- and location-dependent manner: air in contact with the tympanic membrane (TM) increased umbo velocity at all frequencies, while air located away from the TM increased umbo velocity only below about 500 Hz. The air-filled implant also affected umbo velocity in a manner similar to an air bubble of equivalent compliance. Inserting additional implants into the ME had the same effect as increasing air volume. These results suggest these middle-ear implants would significantly reduce conductive hearing loss in patients with chronically fluid-filled MEs.

  10. Zwislocki's model of the middle ear re-visited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnell, Robert H.; Fields, Taylor N.

    2015-12-01

    Zwislocki's circuit model of the middle ear [11] has been used, in original or modified form, in subsequent studies modeling the ear [4, 6]. The model includes two eardrum modes of vibration, a shunt for flexible coupling between the incus and stapes, and a single tuned oscillator for ossicular vibration. The contribution of each of these mechanisms was examined by fitting a model of the ear to acoustic input impedance data from healthy human ears. The circuit elements for a non-ossicular eardrum vibration and a flexible coupling between the incus and stapes were found to be detrimental or non-essential for the model-fit-to-data. A single mode of eardrum vibration for sound transmission to the middle ear is consistent with the eardrum acting as an impedance-matching device, with pars-tensa eardrum vibration coupled to the ossicles [1]. A single-tuned oscillator was insufficient to account for the bandwidth of the ear. The frequency response of the ear suggests multiple resonant modes of ossicular vibration.

  11. Vibrant soundbridge middle ear implant in otosclerosis: technique - indication.

    PubMed

    Dumon, Thibaud

    2007-01-01

    With our growing experience with the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant, the question emerged of its indication in mixed hearing loss due to advanced otosclerosis. We describe the VSB implantation technique in primary otosclerosis performed together with a stapedotomy piston procedure. Hearing results under headphone and free-field conditions show that the stapedotomy piston procedure closes the air-bone gap as expected and that the VSB provides comparable gain to that usually recorded for pure sensorineural hearing loss. The gains of the two procedures add up. These results open the field of mixed hearing loss to the VSB middle ear implant.

  12. Independent origins of middle ear bones in monotremes and therians.

    PubMed

    Rich, Thomas H; Hopson, James A; Musser, Anne M; Flannery, Timothy F; Vickers-Rich, Patricia

    2005-02-11

    A dentary of the oldest known monotreme, the Early Cretaceous Teinolophos trusleri, has an internal mandibular trough, which in outgroups to mammals houses accessory jaw bones, and probable contact facets for angular, coronoid, and splenial bones. Certain of these accessory bones were detached from the mandible to become middle ear bones in mammals. Evidence that the angular (homologous with the mammalian ectotympanic) and the articular and prearticular (homologous with the mammalian malleus) bones retained attachment to the lower jaw in a basal monotreme indicates that the definitive mammalian middle ear evolved independently in living monotremes and therians (marsupials and placentals).

  13. Effects of ear-canal pressurization on middle-ear bone- and air-conduction responses

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Kim, Namkeun; Du, Yu; Puria, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    In extremely loud noise environments, it is important to not only protect one’s hearing against noise transmitted through the air-conduction (AC) pathway, but also through the bone-conduction (BC) pathways. Much of the energy transmitted through the BC pathways is concentrated in the mid-frequency range around 1.5–2 kHz, which is likely due to the structural resonance of the middle ear. One potential approach for mitigating this mid-frequency BC noise transmission is to introduce a positive or negative static pressure in the ear canal, which is known to reduce BC as well as AC hearing sensitivity. In the present study, middle-ear ossicular velocities at the umbo and stapes were measured using human cadaver temporal bones in response to both BC and AC excitations, while static air pressures of ±400 mm H2O were applied in the ear canal. For the maximum negative pressure of −400 mm H2O, mean BC stapes-velocity reductions of about 5–8 dB were observed in the frequency range from 0.8 to 2.5 kHz, with a peak reduction of 8.6(± 4.7) dB at 1.6 kHz. Finite-element analysis indicates that the peak BC-response reduction tends to be in the mid-frequency range because the middle-ear BC resonance, which is typically around 1.5–2 kHz, is suppressed by the pressure-induced stiffening of the middle-ear structure. The measured data also show that the BC responses are reduced more for negative static pressures than for positive static pressures. This may be attributable to a difference in the distribution of the stiffening among the middle-ear components depending on the polarity of the static pressure. The characteristics of the BC-response reductions are found to be largely consistent with the available psychoacoustic data, and are therefore indicative of the relative importance of the middle-ear mechanism in BC hearing. PMID:19944139

  14. Evolutionary development of the middle ear in Mesozoic therian mammals.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiang; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Zhang, Xingliao; Yuan, Chong-Xi; Xu, Li

    2009-10-09

    The definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) is defined by the loss of embryonic Meckel's cartilage and disconnection of the middle ear from the mandible in adults. It is a major feature distinguishing living mammals from nonmammalian vertebrates. We report a Cretaceous trechnotherian mammal with an ossified Meckel's cartilage in the adult, showing that homoplastic evolution of the DMME occurred in derived therian mammals, besides the known cases of eutriconodonts. The mandible with ossified Meckel's cartilage appears to be paedomorphic. Reabsorption of embryonic Meckel's cartilage to disconnect the ear ossicles from the mandible is patterned by a network of genes and signaling pathways. This fossil suggests that developmental heterochrony and gene patterning are major mechanisms in homplastic evolution of the DMME.

  15. Early Middle Ear Effusion and Language at Age Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale L.; McCormick, David P.; Baldwin, Constance D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation of middle ear effusion (MEE) in the first 3 years of life to language outcomes at age seven. It was hypothesized, on the basis of a literature review, that (1) a low, but positive relation between early MEE and language measures in general will be observed at age seven, and (2) major effects will be demonstrated…

  16. The endoscopic study of human middle ear mucociliary transport.

    PubMed

    Ilomäki, Jaana H; Karhuketo, T; Vasama, J P; Kääriäinen, J; Rautiainen, M

    2016-07-01

    The mucociliary clearance (MCC) is an important defence mechanism of the middle ear. The mucociliary transport (MCT) is a part of MCC. We measured the duration of MCT and visualised its routes in middle ears of 31 patients (mean age 45 years; range 7-61 years; SD 11.6) with intact tympanic membrane, with ventilated middle ears and without a history of prolonged otitis media. The transition time of indigo carmine dye from the promontory mucosa to the middle ear orifice of the Eustachian tube (ET) was observed with a rigid 30°, 1.7-mm-diameter tympanoscope. The dye took an average of 7 min (range 4.5-15 min; SD 3.4; median 4.5) to reach the ET orifice in 25 (81 %) patients. Three main ciliary pathways were detected: (1) below and parallel to the tensor tympani muscle; (2) downwards, anterior to the round window, and then ascending to the ET; and (3) straight across the promontory.

  17. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N; Linn, Kathleen A; Dickinson, Ryan M; Carr, Anthony P

    2008-09-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  18. Middle ear adenoma. A tumor displaying mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wassef, M; Kanavaros, P; Polivka, M; Nemeth, J; Monteil, J P; Frachet, B; Tran Ba Huy, P

    1989-10-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a distinctive, rare entity that appears to be derived from the lining epithelium of the middle ear mucosa. We report four cases of MEA displaying the typical histologic growth pattern. Two distinct tumor cell immunophenotypes were identified in all cases; the first type exhibited positivity with anti-epithelial membrane antigen and anti-keratin antibodies, and the second type showed immunoreactivity with anti-keratin, anti-vimentin, and anti-neuron-specific enolase antibodies. Ultrastructural studies revealed bidirectional mucinous and neuroendocrine differentiation, demonstrated by the presence of two distinct cell types containing apically located mucous granules and basally concentrated neuroendocrine granules, respectively. The presence of neuroendocrine differentiation was supported by the immunohistochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the tumor cells in one case and neuron-specific enolase in three cases. These findings suggest that the potential for mixed mucinous/neuroendocrine differentiation described in other endodermally derived tumors also exists in middle ear mucosa. We also believe that the rare lesions diagnosed as primary carcinoid tumors of the middle ear might in fact be MEA with predominant or only neuroendocrine differentiation. The clinical course of our four cases and our review of the pertinent literature confirm the benign nature of MEA and indicate that these tumors should be treated by complete local excision without additional therapy.

  19. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened eardrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John; Von Unge, Magnus; Dirckx, Joris

    2012-06-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, exposing the ossicles requires the removal of the eardrum, with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this we devised a new set up in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the eardrum to an acoustic signal, we then remove the eardrum and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (the part of the first auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the eardrum). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a set-up has uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of non-linearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis, or in chronic otitis media. We describe our set up in which the vibrometer unit is attached to a surgical microscope, offering accurate positioning of the laser beam. We discuss the viability of our method and its future potential by presenting some measurements on artificially fixated ears.

  20. Using the shortwave infrared to image middle ear pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Tulio A.; Bruns, Oliver T.; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2016-01-01

    Visualizing structures deep inside opaque biological tissues is one of the central challenges in biomedical imaging. Optical imaging with visible light provides high resolution and sensitivity; however, scattering and absorption of light by tissue limits the imaging depth to superficial features. Imaging with shortwave infrared light (SWIR, 1–2 μm) shares many advantages of visible imaging, but light scattering in tissue is reduced, providing sufficient optical penetration depth to noninvasively interrogate subsurface tissue features. However, the clinical potential of this approach has been largely unexplored because suitable detectors, until recently, have been either unavailable or cost prohibitive. Here, taking advantage of newly available detector technology, we demonstrate the potential of SWIR light to improve diagnostics through the development of a medical otoscope for determining middle ear pathologies. We show that SWIR otoscopy has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy. We show that in healthy adult human ears, deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows better visualization of middle ear structures through the tympanic membrane, including the ossicular chain, promontory, round window niche, and chorda tympani. In addition, we investigate the potential for detection of middle ear fluid, which has significant implications for diagnosing otitis media, the overdiagnosis of which is a primary factor in increased antibiotic resistance. Middle ear fluid shows strong light absorption between 1,400 and 1,550 nm, enabling straightforward fluid detection in a model using the SWIR otoscope. Moreover, our device is easily translatable to the clinic, as the ergonomics, visual output, and operation are similar to a conventional otoscope. PMID:27551085

  1. Anti-confocal assessment of middle ear inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, David S.; Crowe, John A.; Birchall, John P.; Somekh, Michael G.; See, Chung W.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the diagnostic prediction of recurrence of otitis media with effusion after surgery, an anti-confocal system combined with spectroscopic measurements is proposed to reject unwanted signals from the eardrum and assess the blood content. The anti-confocal system was experimentally evaluated on both optical middle ear phantom and human skin. Results showed effective rejection of signals from the eardrum using a central stop replacing the confocal pinhole, while still detecting signals from the middle ear mucosa. The system is sensitive to changes in blood content, but scattering and absorption characteristics of the eardrum can distort the measurement. Confocal detection of eardrum properties was shown to be a promising approach to correct measurements. PMID:28101414

  2. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  3. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops.

  4. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: high-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Rosowski, John J

    2012-10-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of Y(TM,) the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. Y(TM) appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of Y(TM) decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ~0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz.

  5. Middle ear function and cochlear input impedance in chinchilla

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Michaël C. C.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of middle ear-conducted sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV and stapes velocity VS have been performed in only a few individuals from a few mammalian species. In this paper, simultaneous measurements of PV and VS in six chinchillas are reported, enabling computation of the middle ear pressure gain GME (ratio of PV to the sound pressure in the ear canal PTM), the stapes velocity transfer function SVTF (ratio of the product of VS and area of the stapes footplate AFP to PTM), and, for the first time, the cochlear input impedance ZC (ratio of PV to the product of VS and AFP) in individuals. |GME| ranged from 25 to 35 dB over 125 Hz–8 kHz; the average group delay between 200 Hz and 10 kHz was about 52 μs. SVTF was comparable to that of previous studies. ZC was resistive from the lowest frequencies up to at least 10 kHz, with a magnitude on the order of 1011 acoustic ohms. PV, VS, and the acoustic power entering the cochlea were good predictors of the shape of the audiogram at frequencies between 125 Hz and 2 kHz. PMID:20329840

  6. The aging middle ear: Wideband energy reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2003-04-01

    Several anatomical studies have documented aging effects in the human middle ear. However, efforts to study the effect of aging using both low-frequency and multifrequency tympanometry to 2000 Hz have been inconclusive. This study examined energy reflectance at ambient pressure from 250 to 10,080 Hz in 40 young (M=22 years) and 34 elderly adults (M=72 years). All subjects had normal 226 Hz tympanometry and audiometric air-bone gaps of 10 dB or less. Reflectance measurements were obtained in a sound-treated booth using a digitally-generated wideband chirp as the probe stimulus delivered by a receiver in an ER-10C microphone. Each reflectance measurement consisted of a time-waveform average of the microphone response to 8 chirps. Three such one-third-octave reflectance responses were averaged to obtain an estimate of middle ear reflectance for one ear of each subject. The average reflectance for the elderly subjects was significantly lower from 794 to 2000 Hz with a maximum difference of 15% at 1260 Hz. A reflectance minimum occurred at 4000 Hz for both groups, but was about 15% lower for the young group. Results will be compared to published adult data using similar systems. [Work supported by the NIDCD Grant No. DC04129.

  7. The prognostic significance of the air volume in the middle ear for the tendency to recurrence of secretory middle ear condition.

    PubMed

    Sederberg-Olsen, J F; Sederberg-Olsen, A E; Jensen, A M

    1983-04-01

    The incidence of recurrence of secretory middle ear conditions (SMEC) in the course of the first 3 months after extrusion of a grommet was evaluated in 172 tubulated patients in relation to a number of background variables in a stepwise logistic regression analysis. The background variables were: treatment period, 3-month period (season) of extrusion, sex, age, air volume in the middle ear, diagnosis (unilateral/bilateral, suppurative/non-suppurative and consequently antibiotics), other treatment apart from a grommet (paracentesis and/or adenoidectomy), and a history of allergy. There was a definite correlation between the incidence of recurrence and the air volume in the middle ear, as determined by physical volume test, after correction for age, recurrences being most common in ears with a small middle ear volume. In addition, there was a relationship, but not as marked, between the incidence of recurrence and age after correction for the middle ear volume, recurrences being less common in older patients. None of the other background variables played a statistically significant role when correction was made for age and middle ear volume. It is recommended to practise an expectant therapeutic strategy in SMEC in order to eliminate cases with spontaneous remission. In the event of recurrence, a more liberal reinsertion of grommets is recommended for patients with small middle ear volumes, while in those with larger volumes a different aetiology should possibly be considered.

  8. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  9. A Mathematical Model for the Middle Ear Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnárka, G.; Miletics, E. M.; Fücsek, M.

    2008-09-01

    The otitis media is one of the mostly existing illness for the children, therefore investigation of the human middle ear ventilation is an actual problem. In earlier investigations both experimental and theoretical approach one can find in ([l]-[3]). Here we give a new mathematical and computer model to simulate this ventilation process. This model able to describe the diffusion and flow processes simultaneously, therefore it gives more precise results than earlier models did. The article contains the mathematical model and some results of the simulation.

  10. Investigation of middle ear anatomy and function with combined video otoscopy-phase sensitive OCT

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jesung; Cheng, Jeffrey T.; Ferguson, Daniel; Maguluri, Gopi; Chang, Ernest W.; Clancy, Caitlin; Lee, Daniel J.; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a novel otoscopy probe for assessing middle ear anatomy and function. Video imaging and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography are combined within the same optical path. A sound stimuli channel is incorporated as well to study middle ear function. Thus, besides visualizing the morphology of the middle ear, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the eardrum and ossicles are retrieved as well. Preliminary testing on cadaveric human temporal bone models has demonstrated the capability of this instrument for retrieving middle ear anatomy with micron scale resolution, as well as the vibration of the tympanic membrane and ossicles with sub-nm resolution. PMID:26977336

  11. Drop weld thermal injuries to the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Keogh, I J; Portmann, D

    2009-01-01

    Drop weld injuries to the tympanic membrane and middle ear caused by hot sparks or molten slag are a rare but significant injury. Steel workers and welders who are regularly exposed to flying sparks and molten metal slag are predisposed. This type of transtympanic thermal injury occurs when the slag literally drops into the external auditory canal and burns through the tympanic membrane. A spectrum of severity of injury occurs which includes chronic tympanic membrane perforation, chronic otorrhoea, facial nerve injury and deafness. Chronic tympanic membrane perforation is the most common sequelae and is perhaps one of the most challenging of all perforations to repair The combination of direct thermal injury and foreign body reaction results in continuing or recurrent suppuration. The foreign body reaction is due to the embedding of metal slag in the promontorial mucosa. We present a case of drop weld injury to the left tympanic membrane, resulting in chronic middle ear inflammation, otorrhoea and tympanic perforation. CAT scan clearly demonstrated a metallic promontorial foreign body with localised bone erosion. We emphasise the importance of removing these foreign bodies and recommend a cartilage reinforced underlay tympanoplasty technique to repair these perforations. Transtympanic thermal trauma is a preventable occupational injury, which is best, avoided by earplugs and increased awareness.

  12. A short-wave infrared otoscope for middle ear disease diagnostics (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Jessica A.; Valdez, Tulio; Bruns, Oliver; Bawendi, Moungi

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media, a range of inflammatory conditions of the middle ear, is the second most common illness diagnosed in children. However, the diagnosis can be challenging, particularly in pediatric patients. Otitis media is commonly over-diagnosed and over-treated and has been identified as one of the primary factors in increased antibiotic resistance. We describe the development of a short-wave infrared (SWIR) otoscope for objective middle ear effusion diagnosis. The SWIR otoscope can unambiguously detect the presence of middle ear fluid based on its strong light absorption in the SWIR. This absorption causes a stark, visual contrast between the presence and absence of fluid behind the tympanic membrane. Additionally, when there is no middle ear fluid, the deeper tissue penetration of SWIR light allows the SWIR otoscope to better visualize middle ear anatomy through the tympanic membrane than is possible with visible light. We demonstrate that in healthy, adult human ears, SWIR otoscopy can image a range of middle ear anatomy, including landmarks of the entire ossicular chain, the promontory, the round window niche, and the chorda tympani. We suggest that SWIR otoscopy can provide valuable diagnostic information complementary to that provided by visible pneumotoscopy in the diagnosis of middle ear effusions, otitis media, and other maladies of the middle ear.

  13. Influence of middle ear mucosal condition on post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan Il; Hong, Hye Ran; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the association between the middle ear mucosal condition and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcome was investigated in patients with chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma. One hundred and forty-three patients with chronic otitis media were collected in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at Asan Medical Center between January, 2009 and December, 2011. In the course of tympanoplasty, the status of the middle ear mucosa was divided into normal or abnormal by one surgeon. Pure tone audiometry was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, and post-tympanoplasty tympanogram was also conducted to estimate the condition of middle ear cavity. Of the 143 patients, there were 73 patients with normal middle ear mucosa and 70 patients with abnormal middle ear mucosa around Eustachian tube opening. The mean ABG of subjects with normal middle ear mucosa was 20.1 dB preoperatively, and 9.7 dB postoperatively (p < 0.001). Preoperative mean ABG was 22.4 dB and postoperative mean ABG was 16.4 dB in abnormal middle ear mucosa group (p = 0.137). Postoperative ABGs for 500 and 1000 Hz (7.1, 7.7 dB) in normal middle ear mucosa patients were significantly lower than those (17.2, 19.4 dB) in abnormal middle ear mucosa patients (p < 0.001). There was statistically significant correlation between middle ear mucosa status and post-tympanoplasty audiologic outcomes. The better condition of middle ear ventilation, the better postoperative hearing thresholds revealed after tympanoplasty.

  14. Finite-Element Modelling of the Acoustic Input Admittance of the Newborn Ear Canal and Middle Ear.

    PubMed

    Motallebzadeh, Hamid; Maftoon, Nima; Pitaro, Jacob; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J

    2017-02-01

    Admittance measurement is a promising tool for evaluating the status of the middle ear in newborns. However, the newborn ear is anatomically very different from the adult one, and the acoustic input admittance is different than in adults. To aid in understanding the differences, a finite-element model of the newborn ear canal and middle ear was developed and its behaviour was studied for frequencies up to 2000 Hz. Material properties were taken from previous measurements and estimates. The simulation results were within the range of clinical admittance measurements made in newborns. Sensitivity analyses of the material properties show that in the canal model, the maximum admittance and the frequency at which that maximum admittance occurs are affected mainly by the stiffness parameter; in the middle-ear model, the damping is as important as the stiffness in influencing the maximum admittance magnitude but its effect on the corresponding frequency is negligible. Scaling up the geometries increases the admittance magnitude and shifts the resonances to lower frequencies. The results suggest that admittance measurements can provide more information about the condition of the middle ear when made at multiple frequencies around its resonance.

  15. Microendoscopy of the eustachian tube and the middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, Juergen U. G.; Linnarz, Marietta; Gundlach, Peter; Scherer, Hans H.; Lutze-Koffroth, C.; Loerke, S.; Voege, Karl H.; Tschepe, Johannes; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1992-08-01

    Progressive miniaturization of flexible fiberoptic instruments has made it possible to perform atraumatic endoscopy of the Eustachian tube and tympanic cavity with an intact ear drum. By means of a special set of carrier- and balloon-catheters which are partly actively steerable, flexible microendoscopes with outside diameters of 290 - 700 micrometers are inserted through the nasal cavity into the nasopharyngeal opening of the Eustachian tube and carefully advanced into the middle ear compartment under permanent direct visual control. Second generation microendoscopes with outside diameters of 750 to 1000 micrometers are equipped with a one- direction tip-steering mechanism which allows deflection up to 90 degrees. In addition to it, the use of two special types of four-function scopes (outside diameter: 1.6 mm and 1.8 mm) fitted with a one-lumen working channel are presented. This new technique of `Transnasal Tubo-Tympanoscopy' (TTT) only needs local anesthesia, normally is performed on an outpatient basis, and is indicated for the diagnosis of any disturbances of the sound conducting apparatus (ear drum and ossicular chain) like chronic otitis media and oto-sclerosis and of those sensorineural hearing disorders on which -- until today -- only the traditional surgical tympanoscopy could provide morphological information on the pathogenesis of the hearing loss, e.g., on assumed round window ruptures. By this minimal invasive and minimal traumatizing method pathological alterations of the ossicular chain as well as obstructions in the cartilaginous and the osseous part of the Eustachian tube can be directly visualized.

  16. Ultrastructure observation of middle ear mucosa with laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mengkui; Yang, Shulan; Fang, Yaoyun; Sun, Jianhe

    1998-08-01

    In order to study the effects of He-Ne laser on the mucosa of middle ear mucosa from 9 patients with chronic otitis media, all of who had slight damp eardrum, were irradiated by low power He-Ne laser ten minutes per day for ten days. Specimen was taken before and after irradiation and observed under scanning electron microscope. It was found that the surface structure of the mucosa was more integral, the arrangement of the epithelial cell was closer together and microvilli arose among the noncilliated cells after irradiation. The inflammatory cell disappeared arid the morphologic structure appeared normal. These data provided the therapeutic evidence for the lower power He-Ne laser irradiation on patients with chronic purulent otitis midia.

  17. Floating-Harbor syndrome associated with middle ear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Jan-Jaap; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Desprechins, Brigitte; Casselman, Jan; Gordts, Frans

    2010-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare syndrome of unknown etiology, which was first described in 1973. A triad of main features characterizes Floating-Harbor syndrome: short stature, characteristic face, and an expressive speech delay. We present a patient in whom the hearing thresholds improved insufficiently after placement of grommets. High-resolution CT scan of the temporal bone showed a prominent soft-tissue thickening suspected of causing fixation of the malleus, and fusion of the malleus head with the body of the incus. To our knowledge this is the first reported abnormal middle ear anatomy in a patient with Floating-Harbor syndrome. A conservative treatment with hearing aids was preferred as an initial treatment in favor of a surgical exploration.

  18. MEMS capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone.

    PubMed

    Young, Darrin J; Zurcher, Mark A; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff A; Ko, Wen H

    2012-12-01

    The design, implementation, and characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone are presented in this paper. The microphone is intended for middle ear hearing aids as well as future fully implantable cochlear prosthesis. Human temporal bones acoustic response characterization results are used to derive the accelerometer design requirements. The prototype accelerometer is fabricated in a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MEMS process. The sensor occupies a sensing area of 1 mm × 1 mm with a chip area of 2 mm × 2.4 mm and is interfaced with a custom-designed low-noise electronic IC chip over a flexible substrate. The packaged sensor unit occupies an area of 2.5 mm × 6.2 mm with a weight of 25 mg. The sensor unit attached to umbo can detect a sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB at 500 Hz, 35 dB at 2 kHz, and 57 dB at 8 kHz. An improved sound detection limit of 34-dB SPL at 150 Hz and 24-dB SPL at 500 Hz can be expected by employing start-of-the-art MEMS fabrication technology, which results in an articulation index of approximately 0.76. Further micro/nanofabrication technology advancement is needed to enhance the microphone sensitivity for improved understanding of normal conversational speech.

  19. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. II: Inferring function from structure.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Anatomists and zoologists who study middle ear morphology are often interested to know what the structure of an ear can reveal about the auditory acuity and hearing range of the animal in question. This paper represents an introduction to middle ear function targetted towards biological scientists with little experience in the field of auditory acoustics. Simple models of impedance matching are first described, based on the familiar concepts of the area and lever ratios of the middle ear. However, using the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus as a test case, it is shown that the predictions made by such 'ideal transformer' models are generally not consistent with measurements derived from recent experimental studies. Electrical analogue models represent a better way to understand some of the complex, frequency-dependent responses of the middle ear: these have been used to model the effects of middle ear subcavities, and the possible function of the auditory ossicles as a transmission line. The concepts behind such models are explained here, again aimed at those with little background knowledge. Functional inferences based on middle ear anatomy are more likely to be valid at low frequencies. Acoustic impedance at low frequencies is dominated by compliance; expanded middle ear cavities, found in small desert mammals including gerbils, jerboas and the sengi Macroscelides, are expected to improve low-frequency sound transmission, as long as the ossicular system is not too stiff.

  20. Transmastoid approach to repair meningoencephalic herniation in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sergi, B; Passali, G C; Picciotti, P M; De Corso, E; Paludetti, G

    2013-04-01

    Meningoencephalic herniation (MEH) in the middle ear and mastoid is a rare pathological entity with possible life-threatening complications. We treated 24 patients with a trans-mastoid approach, and the bony defect was closed by heterologous materials positioned in a multilayer fashion. The cause of the bony defect were chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, iatrogenic, spontaneous and post-traumatic. The major presenting symptoms were meningitis, headache, conductive hearing loss, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak), neurologic deficit and pneumoencephalus, and stenosis of a canal wall down cavity. During follow-up, no patient developed complications due to surgery or related to the pathology, and imaging showed a stable occlusion of the bony defect. Different surgical treatments have been proposed to repair MEH, and the choice is based on the localization and size of the bony defect, preoperative auditory function and the presence of a coexisting pathology. We propose the use of collagenous membranes and bone substitutes for reconstruction of the floor of the middle fossa.

  1. Magnetically driven middle ear ossicles for optical measurement of vibrations in an ear with opened tympanic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; von Unge, M.; Dirckx, J.

    2013-12-01

    Vibrations of the middle ear ossicles are easily measured by means of laser vibrometry. However, laser vibrometry requires free visual access to the object under investigation, and acquiring free visual access to the ossicles through the ear canal requires the removal of the tympanic membrane (TM), with the result that the ossicles can no longer be stimulated acoustically. To overcome this, we devised a new setup in which the ossicles can be driven magnetically. After measuring the response of the TM to an acoustic signal, we then remove it and attach a small magnet to the exposed manubrium (a part of the most lateral auditory ossicle, the malleus, which is normally attached to the TM). An electromagnetic excitation coil is then used to drive the magnet, and the output to the coil adjusted until the vibration of the manubrium, as measured by the vibrometer, matches that measured in response to the acoustic signal. Such a setup may have uses in research on middle ear mechanics, such as the measurement of nonlinearities in their response, as well as applications in the diagnosis of middle ear conditions such as the fixation of the ossicles by otosclerosis or in chronic otitis media. We describe our setup and discuss the viability of our method and its future clinical potential by presenting some measurements on an artificially fixated ear.

  2. Human middle-ear model with compound eardrum and airway branching in mastoid air cells

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustical/mechanical model of normal adult human middle-ear function is described for forward and reverse transmission. The eardrum model included one component bound along the manubrium and another bound by the tympanic cleft. Eardrum components were coupled by a time-delayed impedance. The acoustics of the middle-ear cleft was represented by an acoustical transmission-line model for the tympanic cavity, aditus, antrum, and mastoid air cell system with variable amounts of excess viscothermal loss. Model parameters were fitted to published measurements of energy reflectance (0.25–13 kHz), equivalent input impedance at the eardrum (0.25–11 kHz), temporal-bone pressure in scala vestibuli and scala tympani (0.1–11 kHz), and reverse middle-ear impedance (0.25–8 kHz). Inner-ear fluid motion included cochlear and physiological third-window pathways. The two-component eardrum with time delay helped fit intracochlear pressure responses. A multi-modal representation of the eardrum and high-frequency modeling of the middle-ear cleft helped fit ear-canal responses. Input reactance at the eardrum was small at high frequencies due to multiple modal resonances. The model predicted the middle-ear efficiency between ear canal and cochlea, and the cochlear pressures at threshold. PMID:25994701

  3. Measurements of human middle ear forward and reverse acoustics: Implications for otoacoustic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puria, Sunil

    2003-05-01

    Middle and inner ears from human cadaver temporal bones were stimulated in the forward direction by an ear-canal sound source, and in the reverse direction by an inner-ear sound source. For each stimulus type, three variables were measured: (a) Pec-ear-canal pressure with a probe-tube microphone within 3 mm of the eardrum, (b) Vst-stapes velocity with a laser interferometer, and (c) Pv-vestibule pressure with a hydrophone. From these variables, the forward middle-ear pressure gain (M1), the cochlear input impedance (Zc), the reverse middle-ear pressure gain (M2), and the reverse middle-ear impedance (M3) are directly obtained for the first time from the same preparation. These measurements can be used to fully characterize the middle ear as a two-port system. Presently, the effect of the middle ear on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) is quantified by calculating the roundtrip middle-ear pressure gain GmeRT as the product of M1 and M2. In the 2-6.8 kHz region, |GmeRT| decreases with a slope of -22 dB/oct, while OAEs (both click evoked and distortion products) tend to be independent of frequency; this suggests a steep slope in vestibule pressure from 2 kHz to at least 4 kHz for click evoked OAEs and to at least 6.8 kHz for distortion product OAEs. Contrary to common assumptions, measurements indicate that the emission generator mechanism is frequency dependent. Measurements are also used to estimate the reflectance of basally traveling waves at the stapes, and apically generated nonlinear reflections within the vestibule.

  4. Microtomography of the human middle and inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Uwe; Beckmann, Felix; Zahnert, Thomas; Bonse, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and x-ray microtomography based on absorption contrast (performed at HASYLAB at DESY/Hamburg and BAM/Berlin) have been used for imaging of temporal bones and various internal components in situ at spatial resolution down to 7 micrometers with potential enhancement into the submicron range. Due to the volume imaging approach, several hidden structures (e.g., intra-ossicular channels) were revealed. Using several 3D-image processing techniques all data have been segmented into objects (e.g., bony ossicles, ligaments, fluids, air spaces) and subsequently transformed into vectorized data models. Because they are based on the original voxel resolution their content of vector primitives (e.g., polygons) is huge compared to recent models. Therefore they became polygon-reduced to fit into current computation limitations. So far individual data models of the entire hearing apparatus from tympanic membrane to cochlea out of intact specimen, including separate models of ossicles, ligaments and other components have been obtained, provided, in interchangeable data formats (e.g. vector-based: IGES, STL, VRML) and introduced into FEA for modeling of acousto-mechanic transfer characteristics of the middle ear. Their pseudo and real 3D- visualizations (rendering, autosteroscopic display, enlarged solid models) allow easy understanding of the anatomy and pathology of the human hearing organ and may support patient and student education in the field of otology and audiology.

  5. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  6. The effect of ear canal pressure on pure-tone thresholds and middle-ear reflectance and conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Hazelbaker, Julie; Kelly, J. Kip; Graves, Amanda

    2002-05-01

    The effect of ear canal pressure on pure-tone thresholds and wideband reflectance and conductance was examined in ten human participants. Pure-tone thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz were measured in random order using a 2AFC procedure at ambient pressure, and at ear canal pressures of positive and negative 200 daPa. These results were compared to wideband changes in reflectance and conductance using the same probe. Reflectance changes with pressure were in good agreement with recent data on reflectance tympanometry [R. H. Margolis, G. L. Saly, and D. H. Keefe, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 265-280 (1999)]. Both one-third-octave conductance measures and pure-tone thresholds were found to decrease by around 10 dB at 500 Hz and 1000 Hz compared to a 2- to 4-dB decrease at 2000 and 4000 Hz. These results are consistent with the change in middle-ear sound transmission with ear-canal pressure changes reported in a recent temporal-bone study in Norwegian cattle [M. Kringlebotn, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1442-1450 (2000)]. The results of this study suggest that the change in middle-ear conductance may provide an objective measure of conductive hearing loss for the conditions in this experiment. [Work supported by NIH, RO3 DC04129.

  7. [Myxomatous remnants in the human middle ear. Histologic studies of their regression and microtopography].

    PubMed

    Rauchfuss, A

    1985-08-01

    Remnants of embryonic mesenchyma in the human middle ear are visible until the end of the first year of life. They occur in the lateral part of the epitympanon as well as in the region of the cochlear fenestra. However, as a result of an incomplete pneumatisation of the middle ear, they undergo regressive changes via differentiation to precollageneous tissue to form, finally, the tunica propria of the mucoperiosteal layer of the middle ear. Microtopography of these remnants is due to genetic factors but also depends on the function of the Eustachian tube. Alterations of the impedance of the tympanic membrane and the ossicular chain are possible because of the location of these remnants. The importance of obstructions of the Eustachian tube for the persistence of the remnants is discussed, as well as the part that they play in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma of the middle ear.

  8. Theoretic analysis of middle ear gas composition under conditions of nonphysiologic ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ostfeld, E J; Silberberg, A

    1992-05-01

    As gas flows in and out of the nasopharynx, the pressure in that region fluctuates. It drops below or rises above atmospheric pressure, which is itself not constant but is subject to changes in altitude and weather. Such pressure changes in the nasopharynx produce a pumping of gas into and out of the middle ear. The net amount of middle ear gas transferred from or to the nasopharynx will, component for component, in steady state exactly equal the amount of middle ear gas transferred to or from the microcirculation by means of diffusional absorption by (or release from) the mucosa. In the case of a permanently patulous eustachian tube, a single parameter, characteristic of the rate of ventilation through the open eustachian tube, is found to determine the gas composition in the middle ear, whereas in the case of a middle ear ventilated by tympanostomy, two rate-of-ventilation parameters, one for gas flow through the ventilation tube and one for flow through a periodically open eustachian tube, determine the steady state gas composition. A high rate of ventilation favors absorption of oxygen and venting of carbon dioxide from the middle ear in both cases.

  9. History of studies on mammalian middle ear evolution: a comparative morphological and developmental biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Masaki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2010-09-15

    The mammalian middle ear represents one of the most fundamental morphological features that define this class of vertebrates. Its skeletal pattern differs conspicuously from those of other amniotes and has attracted the attention of comparative zoologists for about 200 years. To reconcile this morphological inconsistency, early comparative morphologists suggested that the mammalian middle ear was derived from elements of the jaw joint of nonmammalian amniotes. Fossils of mammalian ancestors also implied a transition in skeletal morphology that resulted in the mammalian state. During the latter half of the 20th century, developmental mechanisms controlling the formation of the jaw skeleton became the subject of studies in developmental biology and molecular genetics. Mammalian middle ear evolution can now be interpreted as a series of changes in the developmental program of the pharyngeal arches. In this review, we summarize the history of middle ear research, highlight some of the remaining problems, and suggest possible future directions. We propose that to understand mammalian middle ear evolution, it is essential to identify the critical developmental events underlying the particular mammalian anatomy and to describe the evolutionary sequence of changes in developmental and molecular terms. We also discuss the degree of consistency between the developmental explanation of the mammalian middle ear based on molecular biology and morphological changes in the fossil record.

  10. Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumolabyrinth plus pneumocephalus as complications of middle ear implant and cochlear implant surgery.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Brian J; Watts, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective case review at a tertiary academic medical center for the complications of pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus and subcutaneous emphysema after surgery for middle ear and cochlear implants. Charts of 76 cochlear implant and 2 middle ear implant patients from January 2001 through June 2009 were reviewed. We identified 1 cochlear implant recipient with pneumolabyrinth and pneumocephalus, and 1 middle ear implant recipient with subcutaneous emphysema. Surgical exploration was performed for the pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus; the subcutaneous emphysema was managed conservatively. The patient with the cochlear implant, who had had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed, experienced pneumolabyrinth with pneumocephalus 6 years after uneventful surgery. Middle ear exploration revealed no residual fibrous tissue seal at the cochleostomy. The middle ear and cochleostomy were obliterated with muscle, fat, and fibrin glue. The ventriculoperitoneal shunt was deactivated, with clinical and radiographic resolution. On postoperative day 5, the patient who had undergone the middle ear implant reported crepitance over the mastoid and implant device site after repeated Valsalva maneuvers. Computed tomography showed air surrounding the internal processor. A mastoid pressure dressing was applied and the subcutaneous emphysema resolved. These 2 cases support the importance of recognizing the clinical presentation of pneumolabyrinth with associated pneumocephalus, as well as subcutaneous emphysema. Securing the internal processor, adequately sealing the cochleostomy, and providing preoperative counseling regarding Valsalva maneuvers and the potential risk of cochlear implantation in the presence of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt may prevent adverse sequelae.

  11. Multi-color reflectance imaging of middle ear pathology in vivo.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Tulio A; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Pandey, Rishikesh; Longo, Kaitlyn; Grindle, Christopher; Peterson, Donald; Barman, Ishan

    2015-05-01

    Otoscopic examination using white-light illumination has remained virtually unchanged for well over a century. However, the limited contrast of white-light otoscopy constrains the ability to make accurate assessment of middle ear pathology and is subject to significant observer variability. Here, we employ a modified otoscope with multi-color imaging capabilities for superior characterization of the middle ear constituents in vivo and for enhanced diagnosis of acute otitis media and cholesteatoma. In this pilot study, five patients undergoing surgery for tympanostomy tube placement and congenital cholesteatoma excision were imaged using the custom-designed multi-color video-rate reflectance imaging system. We show that the multi-color imaging approach offers an increase in image contrast, thereby enabling clear visualization of the middle ear constituents, especially of the tympanic membrane vascularity. Differential absorption at the multiple wavelengths provides a measure of biochemical and morphological information, and the rapid acquisition and analysis of these images aids in objective evaluation of the middle ear pathology. Our pilot study shows the potential of using label-free narrow-band reflectance imaging to differentiate middle ear pathological conditions from normal middle ear. This technique can aid in obtaining objective and reproducible diagnoses as well as provide assistance in guiding excisional procedures.

  12. Cilia distribution and polarity in the epithelial lining of the mouse middle ear cavity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenwei; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette; Li, Jian-dong; Chi, Fanglu; Todd, N. Wendell; Lin, Xi; Ren, Dongdong; Chen, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The middle ear conducts sound to the cochlea for hearing. Otitis media (OM) is the most common illness in childhood. Moreover, chronic OM with effusion (COME) is the leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Clinically, COME is highly associated with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, implicating significant contributions of cilia dysfunction to COME. The understanding of middle ear cilia properties that are critical to OM susceptibility, however, is limited. Here, we confirmed the presence of a ciliated region near the Eustachian tube orifice at the ventral region of the middle ear cavity, consisting mostly of a lumen layer of multi-ciliated and a layer of Keratin-5-positive basal cells. We also found that the motile cilia are polarized coordinately and display a planar cell polarity. Surprisingly, we also found a region of multi-ciliated cells that line the posterior dorsal pole of the middle ear cavity which was previously thought to contain only non-ciliated cells. Our study provided a more complete understanding of cilia distribution and revealed for the first time coordinated polarity of cilia in the epithelium of the mammalian middle ear, thus illustrating novel structural features that are likely critical for middle ear functions and related to OM susceptibility. PMID:28358397

  13. Loudness changes resulting from an electrically induced middle-ear reflex.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to determine the changes in loudness brought about by electro-cutaneous elicitation of the middle-ear reflex. Subjects were required to judge the relative loudness of the second of three consecutive 30-msec bursts of tone, the second tone being accompanied by an electrical shock to the external auditory meatus, capable of eliciting a contraction of the middle-ear muscles. The difference between these judgments and those of the control condition (shock on the arm) was taken to represent a measure of the attenuation provided by contraction of the middle-ear muscles. Test tones were 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 Hz at levels of 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 dB. The results indicate that the middle-ear reflex decreases the middle-ear's transmission mainly for low-frequency sounds. The results fail to lend support to the Loeb-Riopelle hypothesis that the middle-ear reflex acts as a limiter, rather than a linear attenuator.

  14. Soft palate hypoplasia and concurrent middle ear pathology in six dogs.

    PubMed

    White, R N; Hawkins, H L; Alemi, V P; Warner, C

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes six consecutive cases of bilateral hypoplasia/malformation of the soft palate in dogs in which associated middle ear disease was investigated and the palatine defects were surgical repaired. Radiographic abnormalities of the tympanic bullae were seen in both ears of all six dogs (12 of 12). Negative tympanocentesis findings were recorded in 11 of 12 ears. A purulent otitis media was confirmed in one ear of one dog, and loss of hearing was also demonstrated in this ear on brainstem auditory evoked response hearing assessment. There was no evidence of hearing loss on brainstem auditory evoked response in any of the remaining ears. Surgical repair of the soft palate defect was undertaken in all six dogs. Long-term assessment of the clinical outcome was considered excellent in five dogs and reasonable in one dog (mean 18 months, range seven to 27 months). It would appear that surgical intervention for the treatment of bilateral palatine malformation/hypoplasia may be associated with a better prognosis than reported previously. The lack of middle ear effusion and associated hearing impairment suggests that the underlying aetiology of middle ear pathology in dogs suffering from congenital palatine defects may be different from that observed in human beings. The true nature of the radiographic bullae changes seen in dogs with soft palate defects remains unclear.

  15. Of mice, moles and guinea pigs: functional morphology of the middle ear in living mammals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    The middle ear apparatus varies considerably among living mammals. Body size, phylogeny and acoustic environment all play roles in shaping ear structure and function, but experimental studies aimed ultimately at improving our understanding of human hearing can sometimes overlook these important species differences. This review focuses on three groups of mammals, bringing together anatomical, zoological and physiological information in order to highlight unusual features of their middle ears and attempt to interpret their function. "Microtype" ears, found in species such as mice and bats, are associated with high-frequency hearing. The orbicular apophysis, the focus of some recent developmental studies on mouse ears, is characteristic of microtype mallei but is not found in humans or other "freely mobile" species. The apophysis increases ossicular inertia about the anatomical axis of rotation: its adaptive purpose in a high-frequency ear is still not clear. Subterranean mammals have convergently evolved a "freely mobile" ossicular morphology which appears to favour lower-frequency sound transmission. More unusual features found in some of these animals include acoustically coupled middle ear cavities, the loss of middle ear muscles and hypertrophied ossicles which are believed to subserve a form of inertial bone conduction. Middle ears of the rodent group Ctenohystrica (which includes guinea pigs and chinchillas, important models in hearing research) show some striking characteristics which together comprise a unique type of auditory apparatus requiring a classification of its own, referred to here as the "Ctenohystrica type". These characteristics include a distinctive malleus morphology, fusion of the malleus and incus, reduction or loss of the stapedius muscle, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and, in chinchillas, enormously expanded middle ear cavities. These characteristics may be functionally linked and associated with the excellent low

  16. Cavernous Hemangioma of the External Canal, Tympanic Membrane, and Middle Ear Cleft: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Odat, Haitham; Al-Qudah, Mohannad; Al-Qudah, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Cavernous hemangioma involving the external canal, tympanic membrane, and middle ear cavity is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who had progressive right sided decreased hearing, pulsatile tinnitus, and aural fullness of 7 months duration. Microscopic examination, imaging studies, surgical treatment, and histological evaluation are reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cavernous hemangioma with simultaneous involvement of the external ear, tympanic membrane, middle ear, and attic reported in English literature.

  17. Malformations of the middle and inner ear on CT imaging in 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loos, Elke; Verhaert, Nicolas; Willaert, Annelore; Devriendt, Koenraad; Swillen, Ann; Hermans, Robert; Op de Beeck, Katya; Hens, Greet

    2016-11-01

    The 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most frequent microdeletion syndrome in humans, presents with a large variety of abnormalities. A common abnormality is hearing impairment. The exact pathophysiological explanation of the observed hearing loss remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the middle and inner ear malformations as seen on computer tomographic imaging in patients with 22q11DS. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 11 22q11DS patients who had undergone a CT of the temporal bone in the past. Of the 22 examined ears, two showed an abnormal malleus and incus, 10 presented with a dense stapes superstructure, and three ears had an abnormal orientation of the stapes. With regard to the inner ear, 12 ears showed an incomplete partition type II with a normal vestibular aqueduct. In four ears the vestibule and lateral semicircular canal were composed of a single cavity, in 14 ears the vestibule was too wide, and three ears had a broadened lateral semicircular canal. These findings suggest that malformations of the stapes, cochlea, vestibule, and lateral semicircular canal are frequent in 22q11DS. To our knowledge, the current study involves the largest case series describing middle and inner ear malformations in 22q11DS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Gerbil middle-ear sound transmission from 100 Hz to 60 kHz1

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Cooper, Nigel P.; Rosowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Middle-ear sound transmission was evaluated as the middle-ear transfer admittance HMY (the ratio of stapes velocity to ear-canal sound pressure near the umbo) in gerbils during closed-field sound stimulation at frequencies from 0.1 to 60 kHz, a range that spans the gerbil’s audiometric range. Similar measurements were performed in two laboratories. The HMY magnitude (a) increased with frequency below 1 kHz, (b) remained approximately constant with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, and (c) decreased substantially from 35 to 50 kHz. The HMY phase increased linearly with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, consistent with a 20–29 μs delay, and flattened at higher frequencies. Measurements from different directions showed that stapes motion is predominantly pistonlike except in a narrow frequency band around 10 kHz. Cochlear input impedance was estimated from HMY and previously-measured cochlear sound pressure. Results do not support the idea that the middle ear is a lossless matched transmission line. Results support the ideas that (1) middle-ear transmission is consistent with a mechanical transmission line or multiresonant network between 5 and 35 kHz and decreases at higher frequencies, (2) stapes motion is pistonlike over most of the gerbil auditory range, and (3) middle-ear transmission properties are a determinant of the audiogram. PMID:18646983

  19. Gerbil middle-ear sound transmission from 100 Hz to 60 kHz.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Cooper, Nigel P; Rosowski, John J

    2008-07-01

    Middle-ear sound transmission was evaluated as the middle-ear transfer admittance H(MY) (the ratio of stapes velocity to ear-canal sound pressure near the umbo) in gerbils during closed-field sound stimulation at frequencies from 0.1 to 60 kHz, a range that spans the gerbil's audiometric range. Similar measurements were performed in two laboratories. The H(MY) magnitude (a) increased with frequency below 1 kHz, (b) remained approximately constant with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, and (c) decreased substantially from 35 to 50 kHz. The H(MY) phase increased linearly with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, consistent with a 20-29 micros delay, and flattened at higher frequencies. Measurements from different directions showed that stapes motion is predominantly pistonlike except in a narrow frequency band around 10 kHz. Cochlear input impedance was estimated from H(MY) and previously-measured cochlear sound pressure. Results do not support the idea that the middle ear is a lossless matched transmission line. Results support the ideas that (1) middle-ear transmission is consistent with a mechanical transmission line or multiresonant network between 5 and 35 kHz and decreases at higher frequencies, (2) stapes motion is pistonlike over most of the gerbil auditory range, and (3) middle-ear transmission properties are a determinant of the audiogram.

  20. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw: adaptations and novel structures

    PubMed Central

    Anthwal, Neal; Joshi, Leena; Tucker, Abigail S

    2013-01-01

    Having three ossicles in the middle ear is one of the defining features of mammals. All reptiles and birds have only one middle ear ossicle, the stapes or columella. How these two additional ossicles came to reside and function in the middle ear of mammals has been studied for the last 200 years and represents one of the classic example of how structures can change during evolution to function in new and novel ways. From fossil data, comparative anatomy and developmental biology it is now clear that the two new bones in the mammalian middle ear, the malleus and incus, are homologous to the quadrate and articular, which form the articulation for the upper and lower jaws in non-mammalian jawed vertebrates. The incorporation of the primary jaw joint into the mammalian middle ear was only possible due to the evolution of a new way to articulate the upper and lower jaws, with the formation of the dentary-squamosal joint, or TMJ in humans. The evolution of the three-ossicle ear in mammals is thus intricately connected with the evolution of a novel jaw joint, the two structures evolving together to create the distinctive mammalian skull. PMID:22686855

  1. Ototoxicity of different concentrations povidone-iodine solution applied to the middle ear cavity of rats.

    PubMed

    Ozkiriş, Mahmut; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Saydam, Levent

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the ototoxic effects of different concentrations of povidone-iodine solutions applied to the middle ear cavity of rats using distortion product otoacoustic emissions. 24 healthy 3-3.5-month-old adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. The group A (n = 8 ears) received 5 % povidone-iodine solution to the right ear, the group B (n = 8 ears) received 7.5 % povidone-iodine solution to the right ear and the group C (n = 8 ears) received 10 % povidone-iodine solution to the right ear. All animals received saline solution to the left ear as a control (n = 24 ears). The animals were tested before, 1 and 10 days after solutions administration to the middle ear. The resulting distortion product otoacoustic emissions were evaluated at 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 kHz. Statistically significant reductions in DP-gram amplitudes were noted at high frequencies (7, 8, 10, 12 kHz) in the group A at day 1 but this effect return at day 10. In group B and group C statistically significant differences were recorded for low and high frequencies (1.5, 2, 7, 8, 10, 12 kHz) according to the control group at day 1 and 10. 7.5 and 10 % povidone-iodine showed a significant ototoxic effect on day 1 and 10. But this toxic effect could not be elicited in 5 % povidone-iodine group on day 10. The present study revealed that commercially available high concentration povidone-iodine solution may cause significant ototoxic effects when applied topically through a perforated ear drum in rats. Based on results of this experiment, high concentration povidone-iodine solutions should not be used for preoperative surgical site cleansing for otologic surgery.

  2. What middle ear parameters tell about impedance matching and high frequency hearing.

    PubMed

    Hemilä, S; Nummela, S; Reuter, T

    1995-05-01

    Acoustic energy enters the mammalian cochlea aided by an anatomical impedance matching performed by the middle ear. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the functional consequences of changes in scale of the middle ear when going from the smallest mammals to the largest. Our anatomical measurements in mammals of different sizes ranging from bats to elephants indicate that middle ear proportions are largely isometric. Thus the calculated transformer ratio is basically independent of animal size, a typical value lying between 30 and 80. Similarly, the calculated specific acoustic input impedance of the inner ear is independent of animal size, the average value being about 140 kPa s/m. We show that if the high frequency hearing limit of isometric ears is limited by ossicle inertia, it should be inversely proportional to the cubic root of the ossicular mass. This prediction is in reasonable agreement with published audiogram data. We then present a three-parameter model of the middle ear where some obvious deviations from perfect isometry are taken into account. The high frequency hearing limits of different species generally agree well with the predictions of this simple model. However, the hearing limits of small rodents clearly deviate from the model calculation. We interpret this observation as indicating that the hearing limit towards very high frequencies may be set by cochlear transduction mechanisms. Further we discuss the exceptional high frequency hearing of the cat and the amphibious hearing of seals.

  3. Multiwavelength Fluorescence Otoscope for Video-Rate Chemical Imaging of Middle Ear Pathology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A common motif in otolaryngology is the lack of certainty regarding diagnosis for middle ear conditions, resulting in many patients being overtreated under the worst-case assumption. Although pneumatic otoscopy and adjunctive tests offer additional information, white light otoscopy has been the main tool for diagnosis of external auditory canal and middle ear pathologies for over a century. In middle ear pathologies, the inability to avail high-resolution structural and/or molecular imaging is particularly glaring, leading to a complicated and erratic decision analysis. Here, we propose a novel multiwavelength fluorescence-based video-rate imaging strategy that combines readily available optical elements and software components to create a novel otoscopic device. This modified otoscope enables low-cost, detailed and objective diagnosis of common middle ear pathological conditions. Using the detection of congenital cholesteatoma as a specific example, we demonstrate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging to differentiate this proliferative lesion from uninvolved middle ear tissue based on the characteristic autofluorescence signals. Availability of real-time, wide-field chemical information should enable more complete removal of cholesteatoma, allowing for better hearing preservation and substantially reducing the well-documented risks, costs and psychological effects of repeated surgical procedures. PMID:25226556

  4. Prevalence of clinical and subclinical middle ear disease in cats undergoing computed tomographic scans of the head.

    PubMed

    Shanaman, Miriam; Seiler, Gabriela; Holt, David E

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred and ten cats that had CT imaging of the head between January 2000 and December 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. Data that were recorded included signalment, presenting complaint, clinical signs, presence of upper respiratory tract disease, and CT findings. One hundred and one cats had evidence of middle ear disease on CT. Thirty-four of the 101 cats (34%) did not have a primary complaint of ear-related disease, clinical signs or physical findings consistent with ear disease, suggesting that the middle ear disease was subclinical. Twenty-seven of the 34 cats (79%) had concurrent nasal disease. Middle ear lesions were chronic in appearance. With the exception of tympanic bulla lysis, CT findings were similar in cats presenting with primary aural disease versus cats with presumptive subclinical middle ear disease. The majority of the cats did not return for treatment of the identified middle ear abnormalities. Subclinical middle ear disease is relatively frequent in cats undergoing CT imaging of the head. Few cats required subsequent treatment for ear disease although follow up was limited. Identification of subclinical middle ear abnormalities on CT should prompt acquisition of a detailed patient history and bilateral otoscopic examination.

  5. The architecture of the middle ear in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes Javanicus).

    PubMed

    Kamali, Y; Gholami, S; Ahrari-Khafi, M S; Rasouli, B; Shayegh, H

    2015-01-01

    The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) is native to the Middle East, Iran and much of southern Asia. For this study the middle ears of a total of 6 adult small Indian mongooses, both fresh and museum samples were explored by using of dissection and plain radiography. On the one hand, at least in some species of the mongoose vocalisations and hearings play a critical role in coordinating behaviours. On the other hand, the ear region has provided useful character relevant for mammalian phylogeny. So, the aim of the present study is a brief discussion of the various anatomic particularities of the middle ear based on a combination of existing data and the results of the authors' study in the small Indian mongoose.

  6. Visualization of anatomy in normal and pathologic middle ears by cone beam CT.

    PubMed

    Güldner, Christian; Diogo, Isabell; Bernd, Eva; Dräger, Stephanie; Mandapathil, Magis; Teymoortash, Afshin; Negm, Hesham; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, syn. digital volume tomography = DVT) was introduced into ENT imaging more than 10 years ago. The main focus was on imaging of the paranasal sinuses and traumatology of the mid face. In recent years, it has also been used in imaging of chronic ear diseases (especially in visualizing middle and inner ear implants), but an exact description of the advantages and limitations of visualizing precise anatomy in a relevant number of patients is still missing. The data sets of CBCT imaging of the middle and inner ear of 204 patients were analyzed regarding the visualization of 18 different anatomic structures. A three-step scale (excellent visible, partial visible, not visible) was taken. All analyses were performed by two surgeons experienced in otology and imaging. The indications for imaging were chronic middle ear disease or conductive hearing loss. Previously operated patients were excluded to rule out possible confounders. In dependence of a radiological pathology/opacity of the middle ear, two groups (with and without pathology) were built. Regarding the possibility of excellent visualization, significant differences were only found for small bony structures: incu-stapedial joint (25.8 vs. 63.5 %), long process of incus (42.7 vs. 88.8 %), head of stapes (27.0 vs. 62.6 %), anterior crus of stapes (16.9 vs. 40.9 %) and posterior crus of stapes (19.1 vs. 42.6 %). The other structures (semicircular canals, skull base at mastoid and middle ear, jugular bulb, sinus sigmoideus, facial nerve) could be visualized well in both groups with rates around 85-100 %. Even CBCT shows little limitations in visualization of the small structures of the middle and inner ear. Big bony structures can be visualized in normal as well as in pathologic ears. Overall, due to pathology of middle ear, an additional limitation of evaluation of the ossicular chain exists. In future, studies should focus on comparative evaluation of different diseases

  7. A prediction of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle-ear transfer functiona)

    PubMed Central

    Tubelli, Andrew A.; Zosuls, Aleks; Ketten, Darlene R.; Yamato, Maya; Mountain, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of baleen whale (Cetacea Mysticeti) audiograms impedes the assessment of the impacts of anthropogenic noise on these animals. Estimates of audiograms, which are difficult to obtain behaviorally or electrophysiologically for baleen whales, can be made by simulating the audiogram as a series of components representing the outer, middle, and inner ear (Rosowski, 1991; Ruggero and Temchin, 2002). The middle-ear portion of the system can be represented by the middle-ear transfer function (METF), a measure of the transmission of acoustic energy from the external ear to the cochlea. An anatomically accurate finite element model of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) middle ear was developed to predict the METF for a mysticete species. The elastic moduli of the auditory ossicles were measured by using nanoindentation. Other mechanical properties were estimated from experimental stiffness measurements or from published values. The METF predicted a best frequency range between approximately 30 Hz and 7.5 kHz or between 100 Hz and 25 kHz depending on stimulation location. Parametric analysis found that the most sensitive parameters are the elastic moduli of the glove finger and joints and the Rayleigh damping stiffness coefficient β. The predicted hearing range matches well with the vocalization range. PMID:23145610

  8. Biocompatibility of silver containing silica films on Bioverit® II middle ear prostheses in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Duda, Franziska; Bradel, Susanne; Bleich, André; Abendroth, Philipp; Heemeier, Tanja; Ehlert, Nina; Behrens, Peter; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Brandes, Gudrun; Prenzler, Nils K

    2015-07-01

    For several centuries silver is known for its antibacterial effects. The middle ear is an interesting new scope for silver application since chronic inflammations combined with bacterial infection cause complete destruction of the fragile ossicle chain and tympanic membrane. The resulting conductive deafness requires tympanoplasty for reconstruction. Strategies to prevent bacterial growth on middle ear prostheses are highly recommended. In this study, rabbits were implanted with Bioverit® II middle ear prostheses functionalized with silver containing dense and nanoporous silica films which were compared with pure silica coatings as well as silver sulfadiazine cream applied on nanoporous silica coating. The health status of animals was continuously monitored; blood was examined before and after implantation. After 21 days, the middle ears were inspected; implants and mucosal samples were processed for electron microscopy. Autopsies were performed and systemic spreading of silver was chemically analyzed exemplarily in liver and kidneys. For verification of direct cytotoxicity, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured on similar silver containing silica coatings on glass up to 3 days. In vitro a reduced viability of fibroblasts adhering directly on the samples was detected compared to cells growing on the surrounding plastic of the same culture dish. In transmission electron microscopy, phagocytosed silver silica fragments, silver sulfadiazine cream as well as silver nanoparticles were noticed inside endosomes. In vivo, clinical and post mortem examinations were inconspicuous. Chemical analyses showed no increased silver content compared to controls. Mucosal coverages on almost all prostheses were found. But reduction of granulation tissue was only obvious around silver-coated implants. Single necroses and apoptosis in the mucosa were correlated by intracellular accumulation of metallic silver. For confirming supportive healing effects of middle ear implants, silver ion

  9. Control of Middle Ear Inflammatory and Ion Homeostasis Genes by Transtympanic Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Jessyka G.; Kempton, J. Beth; Hausman, Frances; MacArthur, Carol J.; Trune, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Transtympanic steroid treatment will induce changes in ion homeostasis and inflammatory gene expression to decrease middle ear inflammation due to bacterial inoculation. Background Otitis media is common, but treatment options are limited to systemic antibiotic therapy or surgical intervention. Systemic glucocorticoid treatment of mice decreases inflammation and improves fluid clearance. However, transtympanic delivery of glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoid has not been explored to determine if direct steroid application is beneficial. Methods Balb/c mice received transtympanic inoculation of heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae (H flu), followed by transtympanic treatment with either prednisolone or aldosterone. Mice given PBS instead of steroid and untreated mice were used as controls. Four hours after steroid treatment, middle ears were harvested for mRNA extraction and 24 hours after inoculation middle ears were harvested and examined for measures of inflammation. Results H flu inoculation caused the increased expression of nearly all inflammatory cytokine genes and induced changes in expression of several genes related to cellular junctions and transport channels. Both steroids generally reversed the expression of inflammatory genes and caused ion and water regulatory genes to return to normal or near normal levels. Histologic evaluation of middle ears showed improved fluid and inflammatory cell clearance. Conclusion Improvement in middle ear inflammation was noted with both the glucocorticoid prednisolone and the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. This was due to reversal of inflammation-induced changes in middle ear cytokine genes, as well as those involved in ion and water homeostasis. Because glucocorticoids bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor, but not the reverse, it is concluded that much of the reduction of fluid and other inflammation measures was due to these steroids impact on ion and water transport channels. Further research is necessary

  10. Ear Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... ear, where they make your eardrum vibrate. The vibrations are transmitted through three tiny bones, called ossicles, in your middle ear. The vibrations travel to your inner ear, a snail-shaped ...

  11. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... gross and useful. continue The Middle Ear: Good Vibrations After sound waves enter the outer ear, they ... take those sound waves and turn them into vibrations that are delivered to the inner ear. To ...

  12. Ear barotrauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear popping - barotrauma; Pressure-related ear pain; Eustachian tube dysfunction - barotrauma ... air pressure outside of the body. The Eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear and ...

  13. Neuroglial Choristoma of the Middle Ear with Massive Tympanosclerosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yong Kyung; An, Yong-Hwi; Hong, Young Ok

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglialchoristoma is a rare cerebral heterotopia typically involving extracranial midline structures of the head and neck, including the nose, nasopharynx and oral cavity. It rarely involves non-midline structures, such as the middle ear, mastoid and orbit. We report the case of a 63-year-old woman with right-sided hearing loss and aural fullness who was diagnosed with neuroglialchoristoma of the middle ear and mastoid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on neuroglialchoristomawith massive tympanosclerosis. The presence of combination supported the inhalation theory of neuroglialchoristoma, given that tympanosclerosis is typically caused by Eustachian tube dysfunction. PMID:27942605

  14. Middle ear muscle contractions and their relation to pulse and echo evoked potentials in the bat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, O. W., Jr.; Henson, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is made of pulse and echo orientation cries of the Mustache Bat. That bat's cries are characterized by a long, 60 to 30 msec, pure tone component and brief beginning and terminal FM sweeps. In addition to obvious echo overlap and middle ear muscle contractions, the following are examined: (1) characteristics of pulse- and echo-evoked potential under various conditions, (2) evidence of changes in hearing sensitivity during and after pulse emission, and (3) the role of the middle ear muscles in bringing about these changes.

  15. Design, kinematic optimization, and evaluation of a teleoperated system for middle ear microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Miroir, Mathieu; Nguyen, Yann; Szewczyk, Jérôme; Sterkers, Olivier; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Middle ear surgery involves the smallest and the most fragile bones of the human body. Since microsurgical gestures and a submillimetric precision are required in these procedures, the outcome can be potentially improved by robotic assistance. Today, there is no commercially available device in this field. Here, we describe a method to design a teleoperated assistance robotic system dedicated to the middle ear surgery. Determination of design specifications, the kinematic structure, and its optimization are detailed. The robot-surgeon interface and the command modes are provided. Finally, the system is evaluated by realistic tasks in experimental dedicated settings and in human temporal bone specimens.

  16. The ototoxic effect of intratympanic terbinafine applied in the middle ear of rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Otomycosis is defined as an infection of the external ear canal with fungal agents. The treatment of the disease is cleansing and drying of the external ear canal, identification and treatment of any predisposing factors and application of topical antifungal agents. Terbinafine is used as an antifungal agent to treat otomycosis. We proposed to investigate the probable ototoxic effect of terbinafine solution on auditory brain stem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) when applied intratympanically in the middle ear of rats. Methods The experiment was performed on 30 female Wistar albino rats. Thirty animals were divided into three groups of 10 animals each. 1% terbinafine solution was administered to the first group (group T). The second group (group G) was administered 40 mg/ml gentamicin solution (ototoxic control). The third group (group S) was administered saline solution (negative control). Baseline DPOAE measurements and ABR testing from the left ears were obtained from the animals in all groups under general anesthesia. Ear solutions were applied in the middle ear intratympanically with a dental needle. Treatment was initiated after baseline measurements and repeated once every two days for fifteen days. Results Pre and post-treatment DPOAE responses for all tested frequencies of group T and Group S showed no statistically significant difference. However, the group G demonstrated a significant change in ABR thresholds and DPOAE responses. Conclusions Terbinafine solution is a broad spectrum antifungal agent effective in the treatment of otomycosis. The present study demonstrated that its direct administration in the middle ear of rats does not affect inner ear function as measured by ABR and DPOAE responses. PMID:23663536

  17. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  18. Silicone impression material foreign body in the middle ear: Two case reports and literature review.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Okamura, Koji; Yano, Takuya; Moteki, Hideaki; Kitoh, Ryosuke; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shin-ichi

    2015-10-01

    We report two cases of impression material foreign body in the middle ear. The first case had been affected with chronic otitis media. The silicone flowed into the middle ear through a tympanic membrane perforation during the process of making an ear mold. About 4 years and 8 months after, the patient had severe vertigo and deafness. We found bone erosion of the prominence of the lateral semicircular canal and diagnosed labyrinthitis caused by silicone impression material. In the second case silicone flowed into the canal wall down mastoid cavity. Both cases required surgery to remove the foreign body. The clinical courses in such cases are variable and timing of surgery is sometimes difficult. In addition to reporting these two cases, we present here a review of the literature regarding impression material foreign bodies.

  19. Middle ear symptoms while flying. Ways to prevent a severe outcome.

    PubMed

    Brown, T P

    1994-08-01

    In an era when air travel is commonplace, middle ear block is not unusual. Educating patients about the simple techniques they can perform at the first signs of a problem may save a business trip or vacation from becoming a trip to the emergency department and a train ride home. The most important preventive measure is to avoid flying when symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection are present. When this is not possible, passengers should yawn, swallow, or chew to relieve pressure in the middle ear. Use of the Valsalva maneuver and decongestants or antihistamines may be helpful. Serve or unremitting ear block may require the use of the Politzer bag or a myringotomy.

  20. Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery. An ENT surgically inserts tubes inside your child’s middle ear. The tubes relieve the pressure and allow ... the risks of surgically inserting tubes inside my child's middle ear? What are the risks of not?Should ...

  1. Panel 2: Anatomy (Eustachian Tube, Middle Ear, and Mastoid-Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis).

    PubMed

    Alper, Cuneyt M; Luntz, Michal; Takahashi, Haruo; Ghadiali, Samir N; Swarts, J Douglas; Teixeira, Miriam S; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Yehudai, Noam; Kania, Romain; Poe, Dennis S

    2017-04-01

    Objective In this report, we review the recent literature (ie, past 4 years) to identify advances in our understanding of the middle ear-mastoid-eustachian tube system. We use this review to determine whether the short-term goals elaborated in the last report were achieved, and we propose updated goals to guide future otitis media research. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Medline. Review Methods The panel topic was subdivided, and each contributor performed a literature search within the given time frame. The keywords searched included middle ear, eustachian tube, and mastoid for their intersection with anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and pathology. Preliminary reports from each panel member were consolidated and discussed when the panel met on June 11, 2015. At that meeting, the progress was evaluated and new short-term goals proposed. Conclusions Progress was made on 13 of the 20 short-term goals proposed in 2011. Significant advances were made in the characterization of middle ear gas exchange pathways, modeling eustachian tube function, and preliminary testing of treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction. Implications for Practice In the future, imaging technologies should be developed to noninvasively assess middle ear/eustachian tube structure and physiology with respect to their role in otitis media pathogenesis. The new data derived from these structure/function experiments should be integrated into computational models that can then be used to develop specific hypotheses concerning otitis media pathogenesis and persistence. Finally, rigorous studies on medical or surgical treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction should be undertaken.

  2. How body size affects middle-ear structure and function and auditory sensitivity in gekkonoid lizards.

    PubMed

    Werner, Y L; Montgomery, L G; Safford, S D; Igic, P G; Saunders, J C

    1998-02-01

    Gekkonoid lizards increase in body size throughout life, and the present study investigates whether changes in auditory function accompany these increases. Middle-ear structures in four groups of animals, adults and juveniles of two gekkonoid species (Eublepharis macularius and Oedura marmorata), were examined. Tympanic membrane velocity and phase were also measured in all four groups. An indication of peripheral auditory function was obtained for each group by measuring compound action potentials (CAPs) from the round window membrane. The middle-ear contribution to CAP thresholds was obtained by comparing threshold levels of the CAP response with and without an intact middle-ear system. The results from these studies indicated that significant changes occurred in middle-ear structure, tympanic membrane velocity and CAP threshold between the younger and older animals. In addition, the adults of both species exhibited better auditory function when the acoustic stimulus was delivered to the tympanic membrane than when it was delivered to the columella footplate. The findings show clearly that increased body size (or age) is accompanied by functional changes in the auditory periphery.

  3. Acoustical transmission-line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cells

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustical transmission line model of the middle-ear cavities and mastoid air cell system (MACS) was constructed for the adult human middle ear with normal function. The air-filled cavities comprised the tympanic cavity, aditus, antrum, and MACS. A binary symmetrical airway branching model of the MACS was constructed using an optimization procedure to match the average total volume and surface area of human temporal bones. The acoustical input impedance of the MACS was calculated using a recursive procedure, and used to predict the input impedance of the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The model also calculated the ratio of the acoustical pressure in the antrum to the pressure in the middle-ear cavities at the location of the tympanic membrane. The predicted responses were sensitive to the magnitude of the viscothermal losses within the MACS. These predicted input impedance and pressure ratio functions explained the presence of multiple resonances reported in published data, which were not explained by existing MACS models. PMID:25920840

  4. Experimental measurement of tympanic membrane response for finite element model validation of a human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Tae-Soo; Baek, Moo-Jin; Lee, Dooho

    2013-01-01

    The middle ear consists of a tympanic membrane, ligaments, tendons, and three ossicles. An important function of the tympanic membrane is to deliver exterior sound stimulus to the ossicles and inner ear. In this study, the responses of the tympanic membrane in a human ear were measured and compared with those of a finite element model of the middle ear. A laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was used to measure the dynamic responses of the tympanic membrane, which had the measurement point on the cone of light of the tympanic membrane. The measured subjects were five Korean male adults and a cadaver. The tympanic membranes were stimulated using pure-tone sine waves at 18 center frequencies of one-third octave band over a frequency range of 200 Hz ~10 kHz with 60 and 80 dB sound pressure levels. The measured responses were converted into the umbo displacement transfer function (UDTF) with a linearity assumption. The measured UDTFs were compared with the calculated UDTFs using a finite element model for the Korean human middle ear. The finite element model of the middle ear consists of three ossicles, a tympanic membrane, ligaments, and tendons. In the finite element model, the umbo displacements were calculated under a unit sound pressure on the tympanic membrane. The UDTF of the finite element model exhibited good agreement with that of the experimental one in low frequency range, whereas in higher frequency band, the two response functions deviated from each other, which demonstrates that the finite element model should be updated with more accurate material properties and/or a frequency dependent material model.

  5. Fetal development of the elastic-fiber-mediated enthesis in the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Shunichi; Katori, Yukio; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shinichi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Kawase, Tetsuaki

    2013-10-01

    In the human middle ear, the annular ligament of the incudostapedial joint and the insertions of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles contain abundant elastic fibers; i.e., the elastic-fiber-mediated entheses. Hyaluronan also coexists with the elastic fibers. In the present study using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated the distribution of elastin not only in the incudostapedial joint but also in the other two joints of the middle ear in adults and fetuses. In adults, the expression of elastin did not extend out of the annular ligament composed of mature elastic fibers but clearly overlapped with it. Electron microscopic observations of the annular ligament demonstrated a few microfibrils along the elastic fibers. Thus, in contrast to the vocal cord, the middle ear entheses seemed not to contain elaunin and oxytalan fibers. In mid-term fetuses (at approximately 15-16 weeks of gestation) before opening of the external acoustic meatus, the incudostapedial joint showed abundant elastic fibers, but the incudomalleolar and stapediovestibular joints did not. At this stage, hyaluronan was not colocalized, but distributed diffusely in loose mesenchymal tissues surrounding the ear ossicles. Therefore, fetal development of elastin and elastic fibers in the middle ear entheses is unlikely to require acoustic oscillation. In late-stage fetuses (25-30 weeks), whose ear ossicles were almost the same size as those in adults, we observed bundling and branching of elastic fibers. However, hyaluronan expression was not as strong as in adults. Colocalization between elastic fibers and hyaluronan appeared to be a result of postnatal maturation of the entheses.

  6. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D. M.; Cheeseman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (104-105 colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria. PMID:26611891

  7. A new model for non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae middle ear infection in the Junbo mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Hood, Derek; Moxon, Richard; Purnell, Tom; Richter, Caroline; Williams, Debbie; Azar, Ali; Crompton, Michael; Wells, Sara; Fray, Martin; Brown, Steve D M; Cheeseman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media, inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common bacterial infection in children and, as a consequence, is the most common reason for antimicrobial prescription to this age group. There is currently no effective vaccine for the principal pathogen involved, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). The most frequently used and widely accepted experimental animal model of middle ear infection is in chinchillas, but mice and gerbils have also been used. We have established a robust model of middle ear infection by NTHi in the Junbo mouse, a mutant mouse line that spontaneously develops chronic middle ear inflammation in specific pathogen-free conditions. The heterozygote Junbo mouse (Jbo/+) bears a mutation in a gene (Evi1, also known as Mecom) that plays a role in host innate immune regulation; pre-existing middle ear inflammation promotes NTHi middle ear infection. A single intranasal inoculation with NTHi produces high rates (up to 90%) of middle ear infection and bacterial titres (10(4)-10(5) colony-forming units/µl) in bulla fluids. Bacteria are cleared from the majority of middle ears between day 21 and 35 post-inoculation but remain in approximately 20% of middle ears at least up to day 56 post-infection. The expression of Toll-like receptor-dependent response cytokine genes is elevated in the middle ear of the Jbo/+ mouse following NTHi infection. The translational potential of the Junbo model for studying antimicrobial intervention regimens was shown using a 3 day course of azithromycin to clear NTHi infection, and its potential use in vaccine development studies was shown by demonstrating protection in mice immunized with killed homologous, but not heterologous, NTHi bacteria.

  8. Effects of middle ear application of Cipro HC Otic Suspension in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel M; James, Adrian L; Thorp, Marc A; Mount, Richard J; Harrison, Robert V

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether ciprofloxacin-containing otic drops (Cipro HC Otic Suspension; 0.2% ciprofloxacin, 0.1% hydrocortisone; Alcon, Ontario, Canada) are cochleotoxic in the chinchilla animal model. Five chinchillas in total underwent these studies. Pretreatment distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured in each ear, followed by a random injection of Cipro to one ear and normal saline to the other. Injections consisted of 0.2 mL into the middle ear cavity (bulla) for 5 consecutive days. Post-treatment DPOAEs and auditory brainstem responses were measured at 1 month, and cochlear hair cell integrity was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All animals had normal pretreatment DPOAEs. One month after Cipro instillation, DPOAE levels decreased in three of the animals. No significant change was seen in the ears treated with saline. On SEM examination, the integrity of the stereocilia of the inner and outer hair cells demonstrated no histologic evidence of significant cochlear damage. The finding of reduced DPOAEs suggests a mild local middle ear inflammation caused by the ciprofloxacin or some other component or property of Cipro.

  9. Specialization for underwater hearing by the tympanic middle ear of the turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans

    PubMed Central

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Brandt, Christian; Willis, Katie L.; Christensen, Christian Bech; Ketten, Darlene; Edds-Walton, Peggy; Fay, Richard R.; Madsen, Peter T.; Carr, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Turtles, like other amphibious animals, face a trade-off between terrestrial and aquatic hearing. We used laser vibrometry and auditory brainstem responses to measure their sensitivity to vibration stimuli and to airborne versus underwater sound. Turtles are most sensitive to sound underwater, and their sensitivity depends on the large middle ear, which has a compliant tympanic disc attached to the columella. Behind the disc, the middle ear is a large air-filled cavity with a volume of approximately 0.5 ml and a resonance frequency of approximately 500 Hz underwater. Laser vibrometry measurements underwater showed peak vibrations at 500–600 Hz with a maximum of 300 µm s−1 Pa−1, approximately 100 times more than the surrounding water. In air, the auditory brainstem response audiogram showed a best sensitivity to sound of 300–500 Hz. Audiograms before and after removing the skin covering reveal that the cartilaginous tympanic disc shows unchanged sensitivity, indicating that the tympanic disc, and not the overlying skin, is the key sound receiver. If air and water thresholds are compared in terms of sound intensity, thresholds in water are approximately 20–30 dB lower than in air. Therefore, this tympanic ear is specialized for underwater hearing, most probably because sound-induced pulsations of the air in the middle ear cavity drive the tympanic disc. PMID:22438494

  10. Middle ear adenoma is an amphicrine tumor: why call it adenoma?

    PubMed

    Ketabchi, S; Massi, D; Franchi, A; Vannucchi, P; Santucci, M

    2001-01-01

    Middle ear adenoma (MEA) is a rare tumor postulated to take origin from the lining epithelium of the middle ear cavity. The authors report on a case of MEA arising in a 53-year old woman suffering from a sensation of fullness in her left ear, otalgia, and light left-sided hearing loss. Histopathologically, the lesion was composed of cuboidal and polygonal cells displaying a trabecular, tubulo-glandular, and solid pattern of growth. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells diffusely stained with anti-vimentin antibodies and were focally positive for chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, lysozyme, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3. The majority of tumor cells showed weak and diffuse staining with both anti-PP and anti-ACTH antibodies and intense positivity with anti-glucagon and anti Leu-7 antibodies. Ultrastructural investigation revealed both mucinous-glandular and neuroendocrine differentiation. The authors suggest that the appropriate terminology would be adeno-carcinoid or amphicrine tumor of the middle ear rather than "adenoma," a term that does not reflect its dual nature.

  11. Measurements of Middle Ear Pressure Gain and Cochlear Input Impedance in the Chinchilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slama, Michael C. C.; Ravicz, Michael E.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Dong, Wei; Rosowski, John J.

    2009-02-01

    Measurements of middle ear conducted sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV have been performed in only a few species. Simultaneous measurements of sound-induced stapes velocity Vs are even more rare. We report simultaneous measurements of VS and PV in chinchillas. The VS measurements are performed using single-beam laser-Doppler vibrometry; PV is measured with fiber-optic pressure sensors like those described by Olson [1]. PV and VS have been measured in six animals, and the middle ear pressure gain (ratio of PV to the sound pressure in the ear canal) and the cochlear input impedance (ratio of PV to the product of VS and area of the footplate) computed. Our measurements of middle ear pressure gain are similar to published data in the chinchilla at stimulus frequencies of 500 Hz to 3 kHz, but are different at other frequencies. Our measurements of cochlear input impedance differ somewhat from previous estimates in the chinchilla and show a resistive input impedance up to at least 10 kHz.

  12. Modification of DPOAE Fine Structure Stemming from Changes in Outer and Middle Ear Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Glenis R.; Henin, Simon; Thompson, Suzanne

    2011-11-01

    High resolution DPOAE fine structure was evaluated when the output impedance of the cochlea was modified by: (1) Changes in outer ear volume, due to accumulation of cerumen, which does not modify input impedance. (2) Manipulation of middle ear pressure and scarring of the tympanic membrane (which modify both input and output impedance). At high primary levels a wider and deeper DPOAE structure combined with (and sometimes dominated) DPOAE level fine structure. The group delay was also modified, sometimes giving rise to negative group delay. The data can be modeled by assuming that the increased impedance at the oval widow produces reflections back into the cochlea which can be re-reflected.

  13. Middle ear dynamics in response to seismic stimuli in the Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica).

    PubMed

    Willi, U B; Bronner, G N; Narins, P M

    2006-01-01

    The hypertrophied malleus in the middle ear of some golden moles has been assumed to be an adaptation for sensing substrate vibrations by inertial bone conduction, but this has never been conclusively demonstrated. The Cape golden mole (Chrysochloris asiatica) exhibits this anatomical specialization, and the dynamic properties of its middle ear response to vibrations were the subjects of this study. Detailed three-dimensional middle ear anatomy was obtained by x-ray microcomputed tomography (muCT) at a resolution of 12 microm. The ossicular chain exhibits large malleus mass, selective reduction of stiffness and displacement of the center of mass from the suspension points, all favoring low-frequency tuning of the middle ear response. Orientation of the stapes relative to the ossicular chain and the structure of the stapes footplate enable transmission of substrate vibrations arriving from multiple directions to the inner ear. With the long axes of the mallei aligned parallel to the surface, the animal's head was stimulated by a vibration exciter in the vertical and lateral directions over a frequency range from 10 to 600 Hz. The ossicular chain was shown to respond to both vertical and lateral vibrations. Resonant frequencies were found between 71 and 200 Hz and did not differ significantly between the two stimulation directions. Below resonance, the ossicular chain moves in phase with the skull. Near resonance and above, the malleus moves at a significantly larger mean amplitude (5.8+/-2.8 dB) in response to lateral vs vertical stimuli and is 180 degrees out of phase with the skull in both cases. A concise summary of the propagation characteristics of both seismic body (P-waves) and surface (R-waves) is provided. Potential mechanisms by which the animal might exploit the differential response of the ossicular chain to vertical and lateral excitation are discussed in relation to the properties of surface seismic waves.

  14. Wideband detection of middle ear muscle activation using swept-tone distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Henin, Simon; Long, Glenis R; Thompson, Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    The measurement of efferent-induced suppression of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) using contralateral acoustic stimulation (CAS) is complicated by potential contamination by the middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR), particularly at moderate to high CAS levels. When logarithmically sweeping primaries are used to measure distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the level and phase of the primaries at the entrance of the ear canal may be monitored simultaneously along with the OAEs elicited by the swept-tones. A method of detecting MEMR activation using swept-tones is presented in which the differences in the primaries in the ear canal with and without CAS are examined, permitting evaluation of MEMR effects over a broad frequency range. A range of CAS levels above and below expected contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds permitted evaluation of conditions with and without MEMR activation.

  15. Bone conduction responses of middle ear structures in Thiel embalmed heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Andreas; Stieger, Christof; Caversaccio, Marco; Kompis, Martin; Guignard, Jérémie

    2015-12-01

    Thiel-embalmed human whole-head specimens offer a promising alternative model for bone conduction (BC) studies of middle ear structures. In this work we present the Thiel model's linearity and stability over time as well as its possible use in the study of a fixed ossicle chain. Using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), the motion of the retroauricular skull, the promontory, the stapes footplate and the round window (RW) were measured. A bone-anchored hearing aid stimulated the ears with step sinus tones logarithmically spread between 0.1 and 10 kHz. Linearity of the model was verified using input levels in steps of 10 dBV. The stability of the Thiel model over time was examined with measurements repeated after hours and weeks. The influence of a cement-fixed stapes was assessed. The middle ear elements measured responded linearly in amplitude for the applied input levels (100, 32.6, and 10 mV). The variability of measurements for both short- (2 h) and long-term (4-16 weeks) repetitions in the same ear was lower than the interindividual difference. The fixation of the stapes induced a lowered RW displacement for frequencies near 750 Hz (-4 dB) and an increased displacement for frequencies above 1 kHz (max. +3.7 dB at 4 kHz). LDV assessment of BC-induced middle ear motion in Thiel heads can be performed with stable results. The vibratory RW response is affected by the fixation of the stapes, indicating a measurable effect of ossicle chain inertia on BC response in Thiel embalmed heads.

  16. Middle ear problems in Aboriginal school children cause developmental and educational concerns.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Judith A

    An epidemiological study was carried out in the year 2000 and sought to measure the occurrences of middle ear disease and hearing loss within school aged (4 years to 12 years) Aboriginal children. A number of the local schools and preschools in Coraki and Lismore with a high percentage of Aboriginal students were selected in an effort to identify service gaps regarding essential hearing screenings and assessments. A total of 185 (370 ears) Aboriginal children aged 4 years to 12 years were examined from four schools and three preschools. This examination included otoscopy, tympanometry and audiometry. Data were collected as each child was tested and this was then entered into a computer database on returning to the work place. Results indicated that 61.08% of these children had middle ear problems of some type. Unilateral hearing loss of 30 dB or greater was found in 10.80% of children, bilateral hearing loss of 30 dB and greater was found in 22.16%, and perforation of tympanic membranes in 3.24%. Suggestions are made in relation to the need for ongoing training of Aboriginal Community Audiometrists to provide community, school and preschool screening programs together with health related promotional activities to minimise the occurrences of ear infections.

  17. Spatial Motion in Natural and Reconstructed Middle Ears and the Impact on Sound Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiber, Albrecht; Heckeler, Christoph; Lauxmann, Michael; Maier, Hannes; Saffarini, Mohammed

    2011-11-01

    During sound transmission the elements of the middle ear carry out frequency dependent motions in all three spatial directions. Particularly the stapes exhibits a piston and rocking motion and recent studies show that rocking also has an impact on hearing. Here the spatial motions of natural and reconstructed ears are considered on the basis of experiments and numerical simulations based on Multibody System (MBS) approach and Finite Element Method (FEM). In case of a passive reconstruction with a PORP the stapes carries out pronounced rocking motions as well as the piston driven by the natural incus in classical stapedotomy. In the active, electromagnetic middle ear implant Phonak Ingenia, a piston prosthesis is driven by the actuator. Due to anatomical restrictions, the axes of the actuator and the prosthesis are not in line and thus a rocking motion of the prosthesis occurs. Compared to passive reconstructions and the natural ear, this rocking is about in the same range of magnitude. In particular, the coupling between actuator and prosthesis is important for the hearing sensation. Thus, a standardized coupling configuration between the Phonak Ingenia actuator and the piston prosthesis with predefined coupling stiffness and damping offers optimal sound transfer.

  18. Middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation: relate of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Aline Gomes; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Cabral, Francisco; Pereira, Larissa Vilela; Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira; Alves, Venâncio; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Adenomas with neuroendocrine differentiation are defined as neuroendocrine neoplasms, and they are rarely found in the head and neck. Objective: To describe two cases of a middle ear adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation, with a literature review. Case Report: Patient 1 was a 41-year-old woman who presented with a 3-year history of left aural fullness associated with ipsilateral “hammer beating” tinnitus. Patient 2 was a 41-year-old male who presented with unilateral conductive hearing loss. Conclusion: Adenoma with neuroendocrine differentiation of the middle ear is a rare entity, but it should be considered in patients with tinnitus, aural fullness, and a retrotympanic mass and remembered as a diferential diagnosis of tympanic paraganglioma. PMID:25992031

  19. Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Chen, Fei; Li, Jin-Nan; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are very rare. Here we describe a 37-year-old man with multiple recurrent carcinoid tumor of the right middle ear. The CT demonstrated the recurrent mass that filled the tympanum and mastoid with osteolytic invasion, and the tumor was removed by surgery. The pathological findings showed the tumor cells, without necrosis and mitotic activity, had round, oval, or slightly irregular nuclei and finely-dispersed chromatin, arranged in cords, nests, and glandular structures. They were strongly positive for synaptophysin and CD56, but were negative for S-100 and chromogranin A. Ki-67 proliferation activity was low (<2%). With a review of the literature, the clinical, pathological characteristics and treatment modalities of this rare tumor are discussed.

  20. A Finite-Element Model for Evaluation of Middle Ear Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    function. The computer model will be used for implant design. Keywords- Ossicular chain, finite element modeling, middle ear I. INTRODUCTION Defects...sound pressure level (SPL) was uniformly applied across the surface of the eardrum. The cochlear load was not modeled. III. RESULTS A. Displacement...ligamental attachments and the cochlear load. Eardrum displacement is found to be higher than stapes displacement, as expected. The simulated stapes

  1. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence associated with external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenny R; Parnes, Lorne S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) in a 38-year-old man who presented with congenital hearing loss without vestibular symptoms. This case is unusual due to the association of SSCD with multiple congenital anomalies of the external, middle, and inner ears, but without any other craniofacial or systemic developmental anomalies. Findings of multiple malformations of temporal bone structures in this case lend support to the theory that SSCD may have an underlying developmental or congenital etiology.

  2. Ossicular resonance modes of the human middle ear for bone and air conduction

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kenji; Du, Yu; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Puria, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The mean resonance frequency of the human middle ear under air conduction (AC) excitation is known to be around 0.8–1.2 kHz. However, studies suggest that the mean resonance frequency under bone conduction (BC) excitation is at a higher frequency around 1.5–2 kHz. To identify the cause for this difference, middle-ear responses to both AC and BC excitations were measured at the umbo and lateral process of the malleus using five human cadaver temporal bones. The resonance modes identified from these measurements, along with finite element analysis results, indicate the presence of two ossicular modes below 2 kHz. The dominant mode under AC excitation is the first mode, which typically occurs around 1.2 kHz and is characterized by a “hinging” ossicular motion, whereas the dominant mode under BC excitation is the second mode, which typically occurs around 1.7 kHz and is characterized by a “pivoting” ossicular motion. The results indicate that this second mode is responsible for the translational component in the malleus handle motion. The finding is also consistent with the hypothesis that a middle-ear structural resonance is responsible for the prominent peak seen at 1.5–2 kHz in BC limit data. PMID:19206873

  3. Laser Doppler velocimetry for measurement of nonlinearity in the vibrations of the middle ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, John; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-05-01

    At audible Frequencies and at sound pressure below 96 dB SPL the mammalian middle ear is known to behave as an almost entirely linear system. However, as we go to higher sound pressure levels, smaller nonlinear distortions begin to appear, and increase with increasing pressure level. Some modern hearing aids seek to remedy hearing impairment by amplifying sounds to sound pressure levels as high as 130 or 140 dB SPL. Thus at these levels the small nonlinear distortions can become significant, and understanding their behaviour could help us to improve the design of these hearing aids. In order to measure the tiny vibration amplitudes of the middle ear, and to detect the even smaller nonlinear distortions, a very sensitive measurement and analysis method is needed. The tiny vibration amplitudes of the middle ear can easily be measured with laser vibrometry. Thanks to the highly linear response of LDV, the technique is also able to measure small nonlinearities. To detect the nonlinear distortions we developed a sophisticated measurement and analysis method based on the use of multisine excitation signals. These signals are specially designed to measure nonlinear systems. We will describe our set up and our stimulation and analysis method in detail, we will then go on to present some results of measurements at different points along the ossicular chain.

  4. [Ionomer cement as bone substitute in the middle ear of the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Geyer, G

    1997-04-01

    Ionomer-based cements are obtained by the reaction of an aluminum-fluoro-silicate glass with a polyalcenoic acid. During setting and hardening the cement bonds closely with adjacent hard tissue. The previous implantation of this material in the baboon tibia has held great promise as a possible use in bone replacement. In the present study the cement was tested concerning its biocompatibility and biostability in the middle ears of 64 rabbits. Viscid cement paste was inserted into the epitympanic space of each animal. A preformed cement strut was then placed to serve as a columella between the eardrum and stapes footplate. During a subsequent interval of 28 days up to 2 years middle ear specimens were evaluated under a surgical microscope, following which histologic sections were studied under light microscopic conditions. Findings demonstrated that after insertion of freshly mixed cement a firm adhesion to bone developed that proved to be biocompatible and biostable over time. After 28 days the preformed and fully hardened implants were overgrown by a delicate mucosa normally present in the middle ear. No evidence for any rejection of the implants could be found. The experience available to date indicates that ionomer cement is biocompatible and biostable, easy to handle and workable without splintering. With appropriate use it represents a useful implant material in surgery of the head and neck.

  5. Miniature, minimally invasive, tunable endoscope for investigation of the middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Michal E.; Shrestha, Sebina; Park, Jesung; Applegate, Brian E.; Oghalai, John S.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a miniature, tunable, minimally invasive endoscope for diagnosis of the auditory system. The probe is designed to sharply image anatomical details of the middle ear without the need for physically adjusting the position of the distal end of the endoscope. This is achieved through the addition of an electrowetted, tunable, electronically-controlled lens to the optical train. Morphological imaging is enabled by scanning light emanating from an optical coherence tomography system. System performance was demonstrated by imaging part of the ossicular chain and wall of the middle ear cavity of a normal mouse. During the experiment, we electronically moved the plane of best focus from the incudo-stapedial joint to the stapedial artery. Repositioning the object plane allowed us to image anatomical details of the middle ear beyond the depth of field of a static optical system. We also demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge, that an optical system with an electrowetted, tunable lens may be successfully employed to measure sound-induced vibrations within the auditory system by measuring the vibratory amplitude of the tympanic membrane in a normal mouse in response to pure tone stimuli. PMID:26114043

  6. Asian Sand Dust Enhances the Inflammatory Response and Mucin Gene Expression in the Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jiwon; Go, Yoon Young; Park, Moo Kyun; Chae, Sung-Won; Lee, Seon-Heui; Song, Jae-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Asia sand dust (ASD) is known to cause various human diseases including respiratory infection. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ASD on inflammatory response in human middle ear epithelial cells (HMEECs) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. Cell viability was assessed using the cell counting kit-8 assay. The mRNA levels of various genes including COX-2, TNF-a, MUC 5AC, MUC 5B, TP53, BAX, BCL-2, NOX4, and SOD1 were analyzed using semiquantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction. COX-2 protein levels were determined by western blot analysis. Sprague Dawley rats were used for in vivo investigations of inflammatory reactions in the middle ear epithelium as a result of ASD injection. Results. We observed dose-dependent decrease in HMEEC viability. ASD exposure significantly increased COX-2, TNF-a, MUC5AC, and MUC5B mRNA expression. Also, ASD affected the mRNA levels of apoptosis- and oxidative stress-related genes. Western blot analysis revealed a dose-dependent increase in COX-2 production. Animal studies also demonstrated an ASD-induced inflammatory response in the middle ear epithelium. Conclusion. Environmental ASD exposure can result in the development of otitis media. PMID:27095518

  7. [The intraoperative monitoring of the gas pressure in the middle ear].

    PubMed

    Petrov, S M; Chernushevich, I I; Azizov, G R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to elucidate the patterns and mechanisms underlying the changes of gas pressure in the middle ear during the operation of stapedoplasty with a view to the application of the data obtained for objective recording of the stapedial reflex at the time of surgical intervention. Ten subjects with the unaffected hearing function were recruited for the study. Tympanometry was carried out at one-minute intervals starting from the onset of feeding nitrogen monooxide till the completion of septoplasty. It was shown that the surgical intervention under inhalation anesthesia is associated with periodic rises and drops in the gas pressure in the middle ear within a range from 500 dPA to 88 dPA with a period from 5.7 to 22 minutes. It is argued that these changes can be attributed to the periodic opening of the Eustachian tube when the gas pressure reaches a certain level due to continuous diffusion of nitrogen monooxide into the middle ear (the "preventive" release of pressure) followed by the passive closure of the auditory tube. The authors propose based on the results of the study recommendations on the performance of stapedial reflexometry during the surgical intervention with the use of impedancometry.

  8. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media.

  9. The ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions applied into the middle ear of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Oztürkcan, Sedat; Dündar, Riza; Katilmis, Hüseyin; Ilknur, Ali Ekber; Aktaş, Sinem; Haciömeroğlu, Senem

    2009-05-01

    This study analyzed the ototoxic effects of boric acid solutions. Boric acid solutions have been used as otologic preparations for many years. Boric acid is commonly found in solutions prepared with alcohol or distilled water but can also be found in a powder form. These preparations are used for both their antiseptic and acidic qualities in external and middle ear infections. We investigated the ototoxic effect of boric acid solutions on guinea pigs. We are unaware of any similar, previously published study of this subject in English. The study was conducted on 28 young albino guinea pigs. Prior to application of the boric acid solution under general anesthesia, an Auditory Brainstem Response (ABRs) test was applied to the right ear of the guinea pigs. Following the test, a perforation was created on the tympanic membrane of the right ear of each guinea pig and small gelfoam pieces were inserted into the perforated area. Test solutions were administered to the middle ear for 10 days by means of a transcanal route. Fifteen days after inserting the gelfoams in all of the guinea pigs, we anasthesized the guinea pigs and removed the gelfoams from the perforated region of the ear and then performed an ABRs on each guinea pig. The ABRs were within the normal range before the applications. After the application, no significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds in neither the saline group nor the group administered boric acid and distilled water solution; however, significant changes were detected in the ABRs thresholds of the Gentamicine and boric acid and alcohol solution groups. We believe that a 4% boric acid solution prepared with distilled water can be a more reliable preparation than a 4% boric acid solution prepared with alcohol.

  10. Attenuated TLRs in middle ear mucosa contributes to susceptibility of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Si, Yu; Zhang, Zhi Gang; Chen, Sui Jun; Zheng, Yi Qing; Chen, Yu Bin; Liu, Yi; Jiang, Huaili; Feng, Lian Qiang; Huang, Xi

    2014-08-01

    The variability in the recovery of otitis media (OM) is not well understood. Recent data have shown a critical role for toll-like receptors (TLRs) in inflammatory responses to bacteria. It remains unclear whether TLRs-mediated mucosal immunity plays a role in the OM recovery. The etiology, pathological profile, expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9 and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in human middle-ear mucosae sampled from three subject groups: non-OM group, chronic otitis-media (COM) group, and chronic suppurative otitis-media (CSOM) group. Of the 72 ears, 86.11% CSOM patients were positive for bacteria. The cellular makeup of the middle ear mucosa differs among the three groups. Mucosae from the CSOM group presented chronic inflammation or suppurative inflammation in the rudimentary stroma, mainly with infiltration of monocytes and macrophages. The mRNA and protein levels of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5 exhibited no difference between the non-OM and COM groups but were significantly lower in the CSOM group. Conversely, there was no significant difference in the TLR9 level among the three groups. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-6 were up-regulated in the CSOM group. This study provides evidence that the variability in clinical otitis media recovery might be associated with the variability in the expression of mucosal TLRs. Reduced TLR levels in the middle-ear mucosa might cause weak host response to bacteria, persistent inflammation and susceptibility to CSOM.

  11. External and middle ear sound pressure distribution and acoustic coupling to the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Bergevin, Christopher; Olson, Elizabeth S

    2014-03-01

    Sound energy is conveyed to the inner ear by the diaphanous, cone-shaped tympanic membrane (TM). The TM moves in a complex manner and transmits sound signals to the inner ear with high fidelity, pressure gain, and a short delay. Miniaturized sensors allowing high spatial resolution in small spaces and sensitivity to high frequencies were used to explore how pressure drives the TM. Salient findings are: (1) A substantial pressure drop exists across the TM, and varies in frequency from ∼10 to 30 dB. It thus appears reasonable to approximate the drive to the TM as being defined solely by the pressure in the ear canal (EC) close to the TM. (2) Within the middle ear cavity (MEC), spatial variations in sound pressure could vary by more than 20 dB, and the MEC pressure at certain locations/frequencies was as large as in the EC. (3) Spatial variations in pressure along the TM surface on the EC-side were typically less than 5 dB up to 50 kHz. Larger surface variations were observed on the MEC-side.

  12. Indications and outcome of subtotal petrosectomy for active middle ear implants.

    PubMed

    Verhaert, Nicolas; Mojallal, Hamidreza; Schwab, Burkard

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the outcome and possible complications of subtotal petrosectomy (SP) for Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) device surgery in a tertiary referral center. A secondary objective was the evaluation of hearing results in a subgroup of subjects who received the VSB device. Between 2009 and early 2011, 22 adult subjects with chronic otitis media (COM) underwent a SP, blind sac closure of the external auditory canal and abdominal fat obliteration to facilitate the application of an active middle ear implant (AMEI) in a staged procedure. Indications consisted of mixed hearing loss after previous tympanomastoplasty and failure of hearing rehabilitation with a hearing aid or bone conduction device in COM. Pre- and postoperative pure-tone audiograms were analyzed in respect to deterioration of inner ear function, unaided and aided (hearing aid, bone-anchored hearing aid and VSB) speech audiograms were compared to verify improvements in communications skills and functional gains. Incidence and type of complications were reviewed. No significant change was observed regarding mean bone conduction thresholds after the first stage procedure. Some minor wound healing problems were noted. Speech perception using the VSB (n = 16) showed a mean aided speech discrimination at 65-dB SPL of 75 % [standard deviation (SD) 28.7], at 80-dB SPL of 90 % (SD 25.1). Our results suggest that for selected patients with open mastoid cavities and chronic middle ear disease, SP with abdominal fat obliteration is an effective and safe technique to facilitate safe AMEI placement.

  13. Evaluation of implantable actuators by means of a middle ear simulation model.

    PubMed

    Bornitz, Matthias; Hardtke, Hans-Jürgen; Zahnert, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The extension of indication of implantable hearing aids to cases of conductive hearing loss pushed the development of these devices. There is now a great variety of devices available with different actuator concepts and different attachment points to the middle ear or inner ear fluid. But there is little comparative data available about the devices to provide an insight into advantages and disadvantages of different types of actuators and attachment points at the ossicular chain. This paper investigates two principle (idealized) types of actuators in respect of attachments points at the ossicular chain and direction of excitation. Other parts of implantable hearing aids like microphone, amplifier and signal processing electronics were not incorporated into this study. Investigations were performed by means of a mathematical simulation model of the middle ear (finite element model). Actuator performance and theoretical gain were calculated by harmonic analysis in the frequency range of 100-6000 Hz and were compared for the different situations. The stapes head proofed to be an ideal attachment point for actuators of both types as this position is very insensitive to changes in the direction of excitation. The implantable actuators showed higher ratio of equivalent sound pressure to radiated sound pressure compared to an open hearing aid transducer and should therefore allow for more functional gain.

  14. FGF23 Deficiency Leads to Mixed Hearing Loss and Middle Ear Malformation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lysaght, Andrew C.; Yuan, Quan; Fan, Yi; Kalwani, Neil; Caruso, Paul; Cunnane, MaryBeth; Lanske, Beate; Stanković, Konstantina M.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating hormone important in phosphate homeostasis. Abnormal serum levels of FGF23 result in systemic pathologies in humans and mice, including renal phosphate wasting diseases and hyperphosphatemia. We sought to uncover the role FGF23 plays in the auditory system due to shared molecular mechanisms and genetic pathways between ear and kidney development, the critical roles multiple FGFs play in auditory development and the known hearing phenotype in mice deficient in klotho (KL), a critical co-factor for FGF23 signaling. Using functional assessments of hearing, we demonstrate that Fgf mice are profoundly deaf. Fgf mice have moderate hearing loss above 20 kHz, consistent with mixed conductive and sensorineural pathology of both middle and inner ear origin. Histology and high-voltage X-ray computed tomography of Fgf mice demonstrate dysplastic bulla and ossicles; Fgf mice have near-normal morphology. The cochleae of mutant mice appear nearly normal on gross and microscopic inspection. In wild type mice, FGF23 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the cochlea. Measurements from Fgf mice do not match the auditory phenotype of Kl−/− mice, suggesting that loss of FGF23 activity impacts the auditory system via mechanisms at least partially independent of KL. Given the extensive middle ear malformations and the overlap of initiation of FGF23 activity and Eustachian tube development, this work suggests a possible role for FGF23 in otitis media. PMID:25243481

  15. Development of a surgical instrument for measuring forces applied to the ossicles of the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, Michael; Bergin, Mike; Wylie, Grant; Ross, Peter; Dove, Richard; Bird, Phil

    2012-12-01

    Surgery of the middle ear is a delicate process that requires the surgeon to manipulate the ossicles, the smallest bones in the body. Excessive force applied to the ossicles can easily be transmitted through to the inner ear which may cause a permanent sensorineural hearing loss. An instrument was required to measure the forces applied to cadaveric temporal bone ossicles with the vision of measuring forces in vivo at a later stage. A feasibility study was conducted to investigate a method of measuring force and torque applied to the ossicles of the middle ear. Information from research papers was gathered to determine the expected amplitudes. The study looked at commercially available transducers as well as constructing an instrument using individual axis transducers coupled together. A prototype surgical instrument was constructed using the ATI industrial automation Nano17 six axis transducer. The Nano17 allows for the measurement of force and torque in the X, Y and Z axis to a resolution of 1/320 N. The use of the Nano17 enabled rapid development of the surgical instrument. It meets the requirements for its use on cadaveric models and has the potential to be a useful data collection tool in vivo.

  16. Cochlear implantation in chronic otitis media and previous middle ear surgery: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, V; Pasanisi, E; Bacciu, A; Bacciu, S; Zini, C

    2014-08-01

    Cochlear implantation in the setting of chronic otitis media or previous middle ear surgery poses several problems for the surgeon: possible spread of infection to the cochlea and the subarachnoid spaces with consequent meningitis, risk of electrode array extrusion and possible recurrence of the original disease. Several surgical strategies have been proposed to overcome these problems. In the present study, clinical and functional results of cochlear implantation in 26 patients with chronic otitis media (8 cases) or previous middle ear surgery (18 cases) in the ear most suitable for implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 8 patients with chronic otitis media, in 7 cases a subtotal petrosectomy associated with external auditory canal closure and mastoid and Eustachian tube obliteration was performed, while in the remaining patient cochlear implantation was done 6 months after a myringoplasty. The only complication observed was a reperforation of the tympanic membrane in this latter patient. Among the 18 patients with previous middle ear surgery, 2 had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy and were implanted utilising the previous surgical approach. In the remaining 16 patients who had a radical cavity, an open technique was maintained in 3 cases; a cavity revision associated to external auditory canal closure, Eustachian tube and mastoid obliteration was performed in 12 patients, while in one case a middle cranial fossa approach was utilised. Two of the 3 patients in whom an open technique was maintained have experienced electrode array extrusion. The only complication observed in the remaining patients was the breakdown of the external auditory canal closure in one case. No problems were noted in patients who had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy as well as in the subject implanted via the middle cranial fossa approach. All patients achieved and maintained good hearing performance over time. Subtotal petrosectomy associated

  17. [The active middle ear implant for the rehabilitation of sensorineural, mixed and conductive hearing losses].

    PubMed

    Sprinzl, G M; Wolf-Magele, A; Schnabl, J; Koci, V

    2011-09-01

    Active middle ear implants, such as the Vibrant Soundbridge, are used as an important part in the rehabilitation of sensorineural, conductive hearing, or mixed hearing loss. The attachment of the Vibrant Soundbridge at the round window and the usage of the Vibroplasty couplers strongly expanded the application of the Vibrant Soundbridge.The Vibrant Soundbridge is developed for patients who have an intolerance to hearing aids and a moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The VSB also provides an optimal solution for patients with failed middle ear reconstructions or patients with atresia. To capture the improvement with the VSB Implant with different hearing losses a literature analysis was conducted. The functional gain was analyzed for 107 patients with conductive hearing loss and for 214 patients with sensorineural hearing loss out of 14 studies.Patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss resulted in a functional gain from 30 to 58 dB with the VSB. Patients with a pure sensorineural hearing loss showed a functional gain of 23-30 dB. The VSB bone conduction threshold shift was analyzed for all studies conducted in the years between 2000 and 2009. In 11 of the 16 studies there was no significant (p=0.05) change found. In 5 studies, the pre- to post-surgical bone conduction threshold shift was less than 10 dB. None of these studies measured a threshold shift of more than 10 dB.The flexible attachment at either the long process of the incus with sensorineural hearing loss, with an conductive hearing loss at the round window or the use of Vibroplasty couplers at the oval window, head of the stapes or round window makes the VSB an extremely versatile instrument. If patients can't wear conventional hearing aids, had failed middle ear reconstructions or atresia the VSB presents, due to the significant hearing improvement in any type of hearing loss, an ideal solution.

  18. Determination of the glycosylation-pattern of the middle ear mucosa in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Engleder, Elisabeth; Demmerer, Elisabeth; Wang, Xueyan; Honeder, Clemens; Zhu, Chengjing; Studenik, Christian; Wirth, Michael; Arnoldner, Christoph; Gabor, Franz

    2015-01-01

    In the present study the glycosylation pattern of the middle ear mucosa (MEM) of guinea pigs, an approved model for middle ear research, was characterized with the purpose to identify bioadhesive ligands which might prolong the contact time of drug delivery systems with the middle ear mucosa (MEM). To assess the utility of five fluorescein labeled plant lectins with different carbohydrate specificities as bioadhesive ligands, viable MEM specimens were incubated at 4 °C and the lectin binding capacities were calculated from the MEM-associated relative fluorescence intensities. Among all lectins under investigation, fluorescein-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) emerged as the highest bioadhesive lectin. In general, the accessibility of carbohydrate moieties of the MEM followed the order: sialic acid and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (WGA) >> mannose and galactosamine (Lensculinaris agglutinin) > N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (Solanumtuberosum agglutinin) > fucose (Ulexeuropaeus isoagglutinin I) >> terminal mannose α-(1,3)-mannose (Galanthusnivalis agglutinin). Competitive inhibition studies with the corresponding carbohydrate revealed that F-WGA-binding was inhibited up to 90% confirming specificity of the F-WGA–MEM interaction. The cilia of the MEM were identified as F-WGA binding sites by fluorescence imaging as well as a z-stack of overlays of transmission, F-WGA- and nuclei-stained images of the MEM. Additionally, co-localisation experiments revealed that F-WGA bound to acidic mucopolysaccharides of the MEM. All in all, lectin-mediated bioadhesion to the MEM is proposed as a new concept for drug delivery to prolong the residence time of the drug in the tympanic cavity especially for successful therapy for difficult-to-treat diseases such as otitis media. PMID:25724132

  19. Phase 3 Trials of Thermosensitive Ciprofloxacin Gel for Middle Ear Effusion in Children with Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Albert H.; White, David R.; Moss, Jonathan R.; Bear, Moraye; LeBel, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy, safety, and microbiology of a thermosensitive otic suspension of ciprofloxacin (OTO-201) in children with bilateral middle ear effusion undergoing tympanostomy tube placement. Study Design Two randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled phase 3 trials. Patients were randomized to intratympanic OTO-201 or sham. Setting Children with bilateral middle ear effusion undergoing tympanostomy tube placement. Subjects/Methods Studies evaluated 532 patients (6 months to 17 years old) in a combined analysis of efficacy (treatment failure: presence of otorrhea, otic or systemic antibiotic use, lost to follow-up, missed visits), safety (audiometry, otoscopy, tympanometry), and microbiology. Results There was a lower cumulative proportion of treatment failures in patients receiving OTO-201 vs tympanostomy tubes alone (1) on days 4, 8, 15, and 29; (2) on day 15, primary end point (23.0% vs 45.1%; age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.341; P < .001; reduction in relative risk, 49%); and (3) on day 15, blinded-assessor otorrhea treatment failure (7.0% vs 19.4%; age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.303; P < .001; reduction in relative risk, 64%). Per-protocol and subgroup analyses (baseline demographics, pathogen type, culture status, effusion type, microbiologic response) supported these findings. There were no drug-related serious adverse events; the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events in both groups were pyrexia, postoperative pain, nasopharyngitis, cough, and upper respiratory tract infection. OTO-201 administration had no evidence of increased tube occlusion and no negative effect on audiometry, tympanometry, or otoscopy. Conclusions Combined analysis of 2 phase 3 trials demonstrated a lower cumulative proportion of treatment failures through day 15 compared with TT alone when OTO-201 was administered intratympanically for otitis media with bilateral middle ear effusion at time of tympanostomy tube placement. PMID:27188702

  20. Determination of the glycosylation-pattern of the middle ear mucosa in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Engleder, Elisabeth; Demmerer, Elisabeth; Wang, Xueyan; Honeder, Clemens; Zhu, Chengjing; Studenik, Christian; Wirth, Michael; Arnoldner, Christoph; Gabor, Franz

    2015-04-30

    In the present study the glycosylation pattern of the middle ear mucosa (MEM) of guinea pigs, an approved model for middle ear research, was characterized with the purpose to identify bioadhesive ligands which might prolong the contact time of drug delivery systems with the middle ear mucosa (MEM). To assess the utility of five fluorescein labeled plant lectins with different carbohydrate specificities as bioadhesive ligands, viable MEM specimens were incubated at 4°C and the lectin binding capacities were calculated from the MEM-associated relative fluorescence intensities. Among all lectins under investigation, fluorescein-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) emerged as the highest bioadhesive lectin. In general, the accessibility of carbohydrate moieties of the MEM followed the order: sialic acid and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (WGA)>mannose and galactosamine (Lensculinaris agglutinin)>N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (Solanumtuberosum agglutinin)>fucose (Ulexeuropaeus isoagglutinin I)>terminal mannose α-(1,3)-mannose (Galanthusnivalis agglutinin). Competitive inhibition studies with the corresponding carbohydrate revealed that F-WGA-binding was inhibited up to 90% confirming specificity of the F-WGA-MEM interaction. The cilia of the MEM were identified as F-WGA binding sites by fluorescence imaging as well as a z-stack of overlays of transmission, F-WGA- and nuclei-stained images of the MEM. Additionally, co-localisation experiments revealed that F-WGA bound to acidic mucopolysaccharides of the MEM. All in all, lectin-mediated bioadhesion to the MEM is proposed as a new concept for drug delivery to prolong the residence time of the drug in the tympanic cavity especially for successful therapy for difficult-to-treat diseases such as otitis media.

  1. [The Vibrant Soundbridge as an active implant in middle ear surgery].

    PubMed

    Beleites, T; Bornitz, M; Neudert, M; Zahnert, T

    2014-07-01

    Implantable hearing aids are not only gaining importance for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss, but also for treatment of mixed hearing loss. The most frequently used active middle ear implant is the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) system (Fa. MED-EL, Innsbruck, Österrreich). Following widening of the spectrum of indications for the VBS, various new coupling systems have been established. Based on the literature, available petrosal bone investigations and finite element model (FEM) calculations, this article summarizes the current knowledge concerning mechanical excitation by the VSB. Important concomitant aspects related to coupling, transmission and measurement are also discussed.

  2. Role of the middle ear muscle apparatus in mechanisms of speech signal discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroz, B. S.; Bazarov, V. G.; Sachenko, S. V.

    1980-01-01

    A method of impedance reflexometry was used to examine 101 students with hearing impairment in order to clarify the interrelation between speech discrimination and the state of the middle ear muscles. Ability to discriminate speech signals depends to some extent on the functional state of intraaural muscles. Speech discrimination was greatly impaired in the absence of stapedial muscle acoustic reflex, in the presence of low thresholds of stimulation and in very small values of reflex amplitude increase. Discrimination was not impeded in positive AR, high values of relative thresholds and normal increase of reflex amplitude in response to speech signals with augmenting intensity.

  3. Middle ear capillary haemangioma: Review of literature and appraisal of management options.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Ali A; Casselden, Elizabeth; Theaker, Jeffrey; Batty, Vincent; Thomas, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Infantile middle ear capillary haemangiomas (MECH) are a rare entity with only five reported cases in the literature. At present there is no consensus regarding the management of such lesions. Extra-cutaneous haemangiomas have been successfully managed with oral propranolol but not yet reported in MECH. We present a further case and appraise the management options. At present oral propranolol has not been used in the treatment of MECH. The literature suggests that infantile MECH have a higher propensity to spontaneously involute and a greater likelihood of response to propranolol. Surgical excision is the best option in older children and adults.

  4. The Paratympanic Organ: A Barometer and Altimeter in the Middle Ear of Birds?

    PubMed Central

    von Bartheld, Christopher S.; Giannessi, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    A century has passed since the discovery of the paratympanic organ (PTO), a mechanoreceptive sense organ in the middle ear of birds and other tetrapods. This luminal organ contains a sensory epithelium with typical mechanosensory hair cells and may function as a barometer and altimeter. The organ is arguably the most neglected sense organ in living tetrapods. The PTO is believed to be homologous to a lateral line sense organ, the spiracular sense organ of non-teleostean fishes. Our review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the PTO and draws attention to the astounding lack of information about the unique and largely unexplored sensory modality of barometric perception. PMID:21721119

  5. The paratympanic organ: a barometer and altimeter in the middle ear of birds?

    PubMed

    von Bartheld, Christopher S; Giannessi, Francesco

    2011-09-15

    A century has passed since the discovery of the paratympanic organ (PTO), a mechanoreceptive sense organ in the middle ear of birds and other tetrapods. This luminal organ contains a sensory epithelium with typical mechanosensory hair cells and may function as a barometer and altimeter. The organ is arguably the most neglected sense organ in living tetrapods. The PTO is believed to be homologous to a lateral line sense organ, the spiracular sense organ of nonteleostean fishes. Our review summarizes the current state of knowledge of the PTO and draws attention to the astounding lack of information about the unique and largely unexplored sensory modality of barometric perception.

  6. What Is an Ear Infection?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the germs bother your outer ear, it's called swimmer's ear. The middle ear is a small pocket ... What's Hearing Loss? Taking Care of Your Ears Swimmer's Ear Perforated Eardrum What's Earwax? Contact Us Print ...

  7. Eustachian Tube Function in 6-Year-Old Children With and Without a History of Middle-Ear Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Ellen M.; Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Richert, Beverly C.; Teixeira, Miriam S.; Swarts, J. Douglas; Doyle, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that Eustachian tube opening efficiency measured as the fractional gradient equilibrated (FGE) is lower in 6-year-old children with no middle-ear disease but a well-documented history of recurrent acute otitis media when compared to children with a negative disease history (Control). Study Design Cross-sectional study Setting Tertiary-care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Bilateral Eustachian tube function was evaluated in 44 healthy 6-year-old children (19 male, 29 white). None had middle-ear disease at the time of testing, but 23 had a history of recurrent acute otitis media. Twenty-one had no significant past otitis media. Eustachian tube function was measured using a pressure-chamber protocol that established negative middle-ear gauge pressures (referenced to the chamber pressure) and recorded that pressure before and after a swallow. FGE was calculated as the change in middle-ear gauge pressure with swallowing divided by the pre-swallow pressure. Between-group comparisons of the pre-swallow pressures and FGEs were made using a 2-tailed Student’s t test. Results FGE was independent of the pre-swallow middle-ear gauge pressure. For the 39 and 44 evaluable ears in the control and recurrent acute otitis media groups, the mean pre-swallow pressures were −194 (95%CI=−211 to −177) versus −203 (95%CI=−216 to −190) daPa (P>0.40) and FGEs were 0.32 (95%CI=0.21 to 0.43) vs 0.16 (95%CI=0.08 to 0.24) (P=0.016), respectively. Conclusion In children with past recurrent acute otitis media, residual Eustachian tube opening inefficiency is maintained after the child has “outgrown” their middle-ear disease. PMID:26626132

  8. Non-invasive estimation of middle-ear input impedance and efficiencya)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James D.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A method to transform the impedance measured in the ear canal, ZEC, to the plane of the eardrum, ZED, is described. The portion of the canal between the probe and eardrum was modeled as a concatenated series of conical segments, allowing for spatial variations in its cross-sectional area. A model of the middle ear (ME) and cochlea terminated the ear-canal model, which permitted estimation of ME efficiency. Acoustic measurements of ZEC were made at two probe locations in 15 normal-hearing subjects. ZEC was sensitive to measurement location, especially near frequencies of canal resonances and anti-resonances. Transforming ZEC to ZED reduced the influence of the canal, decreasing insertion-depth sensitivity of ZED between 1 and 12 kHz compared to ZEC. Absorbance, A, was less sensitive to probe placement than ZEC, but more sensitive than ZED above 5 kHz. ZED and A were similarly insensitive to probe placement between 1 and 5 kHz. The probe-placement sensitivity of ZED below 1 kHz was not reduced from that of either A or ZEC. ME efficiency had a bandpass shape with greatest efficiency between 1 and 4 kHz. Estimates of ZED and ME efficiency could extend the diagnostic capability of wideband-acoustic immittance measurements. PMID:26328714

  9. Efficacy of nanoporous silica coatings on middle ear prostheses as a delivery system for antibiotics: an animal study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lensing, Rebecca; Bleich, André; Smoczek, Anna; Glage, Silke; Ehlert, Nina; Luessenhop, Tammo; Behrens, Peter; Müller, Peter Paul; Kietzmann, Manfred; Stieve, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous silica layers are able to host molecules and release them over a certain period of time. These local drug delivery systems for antibiotics could be a new approach in the treatment of chronic otitis media. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of nanoporous silica coatings on middle ear prostheses as a delivery system for antibiotics in vivo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inoculated into the middle ear of rabbits to induce an otitis media. The control group received coated Bioverit®II implants without antibiotics. Coated prostheses with loaded ciprofloxacin were implanted into the middle ears of the study group. After 1 week, the rabbits were sacrificed. The clinical examination as well as the microbiological and histological examinations of organs and middle ear irrigation revealed clear differences between the two groups. P. aeruginosa was detected in every middle ear of the control group and was almost completely eliminated in the study group. Organ examinations revealed the presence of P. aeruginosa in the control group and a prevention of a bacterial spread in the study group. The nanoporous silica layer as antibiotic delivery system showed convincing efficacy in induced pseudomonal otitis media in the rabbit.

  10. Prophylactic antiemetic effects of Midazolam, Ondansetron, and their combination after middle ear surgery

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand, Azim; Safavi, Mohammadreza; Chegeni, Mansoureh; Hirmanpour, Anahita; Nazem, Masoud; Sarizdi, Seyyad Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of midazolam-ondansetron combination in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after middle ear surgery and its comparison with using midazolam or ondansetron alone. Methods: One hundred and forty patients were enrolled in four groups to receive midazolam 0.75 mg/kg in group M, ondansetron 4 mg in group O, midazolam 0.75 mg/kg and ondansetron 4 mg in group MO, and saline 0.90% in group S intravenously just before anesthesia. Assessment of nausea, vomiting, rescue antiemetic, and side effects of study drugs such as headache and dizziness was carried out postoperatively for 24 h. Findings: The incidence of PONV was significantly smaller in group MO than group M and group O, while there was no significant difference between group M and group O during the first 24 h postoperatively. Requirement to the additional antiemetic was significantly more in group S (71.4%) compared to other groups, while in group MO (11.4%) was lower than group M (31.4%) and group O (34.3%). Conclusion: Our study showed that prophylactic administration of midazolam 0.75 mg/kg combined with ondansetron 4 mg was more effective than using midazolam or ondansetron alone in prevention of PONV after middle ear surgery. PMID:26985431

  11. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE MIDDLE EAR APPARATUS OF THE AQUATIC FROG, XENOPUS LAEVIS

    PubMed Central

    Mason, MJ; Wang, M; Narins, PM

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of anatomical and vibrometric studies of the middle ear of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. The cartilaginous tympanic disk of Xenopus shows pronounced sexual dimorphism, that of male frogs being much larger than that of females, relative to body size. The stapes footplate, however, is not enlarged in males. The cucullaris muscle was found to insert on the stapes in frogs of both sexes. Using laser interferometry to examine the response of middle ear structures to airborne sound, the stapes footplate was found to vibrate close to 180° out-of-phase with the tympanic disk across a range of frequencies, this resembling the relationship between tympanic membrane and footplate movement previously described in ranid frogs. By contrast, whereas there is a pronounced difference in vibration velocity between tympanic membrane and footplate in ranids, the footplate vibration velocity in Xenopus was found to be similar to that of the tympanic disk. This may be interpreted as an adaptation to improve the detection of sound underwater. PMID:20953303

  12. Development of wide-band middle ear transmission in the Mongolian gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overstreet, Edward H.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2002-01-01

    Stapes vibrations were measured in deeply anesthetized adult and neonatal (ages: 14 to 20 days) Mongolian gerbils. In adult gerbils, the velocity magnitude of stapes responses to tones was approximately constant over the entire frequency range of measurements, 1 to 40 kHz. Response phases referred to pressure near the tympanic membrane varied approximately linearly as a function of increasing stimulus frequency, with a slope corresponding to a group delay of 30 μs. In neonatal gerbils, the sensitivity of stapes responses to tones was lower than in adults, especially at mid-frequencies (e.g., by about 15 dB at 10-20 kHz in gerbils aged 14 days). The input impedance of the adult gerbil cochlea, calculated from stapes vibrations and published measurements of pressure in scala vestibuli near the oval window [E. Olson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3445-3463 (1998)], is principally dissipative at frequencies lower than 10 kHz. Conclusions: (a) middle-ear vibrations in adult gerbils do not limit the input to the cochlea up to at least 40 kHz, i.e., within 0.5 oct of the high-frequency cutoff of the behavioral audiogram; and (b) the results in both adult and neonatal gerbils are inconsistent with the hypothesis that mass reactance controls high-frequency ossicular vibrations and support the idea that the middle ear functions as a transmission line.

  13. Detection of ototoxicity from drugs applied topically to the middle ear space.

    PubMed

    Brummett, R E; Harris, R F; Lindgren, J A

    1976-08-01

    This paper summarizes data obtained from two separate studies done in our laboratory. Both studies were done to investigate the possibility that drugs commonly applied to the middle ear space could be the cause of sensori-neural hearing loss. The two drugs that were felt to be the most likely candidates for the studies were neomycin and polymyxin B. In the neomycin study, the various drug concentrations were administered three times a day for four weeks. In the polymyxin B study, the administration was three times a day for two weeks. Cochlear function was evaluated electrophysiologically and by examination of surface preparations of the organ Corti. The data show that both neomycin and polymyxin B can, in concentrations similar to those found in commercially available otic drops, induce cochlear damage when they are applied to the middle ear space of guinea pigs. The degree of damage produced is related. In the case of neomycin, it was shown that the effect worsens as the duration of the dosage administration is extended...

  14. Middle Ear Myoclonus: Two Informative Cases and a Systematic Discussion of Myogenic Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Ellenstein, Aviva; Yusuf, Nadia; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The term middle ear myoclonus (MEM) has been invoked to explain symptoms of tinnitus presumably caused by the dysfunctional movement of either of the two muscles that insert in the middle ear: tensor tympani and stapedius. MEM has been characterized through heterogeneous case reports in the otolaryngology literature, where clinical presentation is variable, phenomenology is scarcely described, the pathogenic muscle is usually not specified, natural history is unknown, and the presumptive definitive treatment, tensor tympani or stapedius tendon lysis, is inconsistently effective. It is not surprising that no unique acoustogenic mechanism or pathophysiologic process has been identified to explain MEM, one of several descriptive diagnoses associated with the complicated disorders of myogenic tinnitus. Methods Here, we explore MEM from the neurologist’s perspective. Following the detailed descriptions of two informative cases from our clinic, we systematically evaluate the different mechanisms and movement disorder phenomena that could lead to a diagnosis of MEM. Results From a functional neuroanatomic perspective, we explain how tensor tympani MEM is best explained as a form of peritubal myogenic tinnitus, similar to the related disorder of essential palatal tremor. From a pathogenic perspective, we discuss how MEM symptomatology may reflect different mechanical and neurologic processes. We emphasize the diagnostic imperative to recognize when myogenic tinnitus is consistent with a psychogenic origin. Discussion Both individual patient care and further elucidation of MEM will rely on more detailed clinical characterization as well as multidisciplinary input from neurology, otolaryngology, and dentistry. PMID:23610741

  15. Dosimetric analysis of the use of CBCT in diagnostic radiology: sinus and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Dierckx, D; Saldarriaga Vargas, C; Rogge, F; Lichtherte, S; Struelens, L

    2015-01-01

    The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in diagnostic radiology departments is increasing. Several discussions arise whether with the CBCT application, some multi-slice CT (MSCT) examinations can be replaced by it. High hopes are set regarding the dosimetric aspects of CBCT: are patient doses in between those of conventional X-rays and MSCT? In this study, effective dose and organ doses were evaluated for two non-dental CBCT examinations: sinus and middle ear. A comparison with the dose obtained with a MSCT protocol was performed. Moreover, the sinus examination was also compared with the dose obtained by projection radiography (RX). Effective doses were estimated from thermoluminescent detector dose measurements in an anthropomorphic phantom and were compared against Monte Carlo simulations. Results show that the effective dose for the sinus examination is more than three times higher with MSCT than with CBCT and about five times lower with RX compared with CBCT, whereas for the middle ear examination, the effective dose obtained with MSCT is almost six times higher than that of CBCT. Finally, a sensitivity study on the size and position of the CBCT field of view showed the influence of these two factors on the dose received by the patient.

  16. Bone Conduction Hearing: Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model of the Human Middle and Inner Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkeun; Homma, Kenji; Puria, Sunil; Steele, Charles R.

    2011-11-01

    A finite-element (FE) simulation model of a human auditory periphery was developed to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of bone conduction (BC) hearing. Three dimensional geometry of middle ear and cochlea including semi-circular canal was obtained by μCT images. The simulation effectively focused on the middle ear and then the cochlea fluid-inertial BC component. The FE model was first tuned and validated against various frequency responses available from the literature. The characteristics of various cochlear response quantities such as the basilar membrane (BM) displacement, window volume velocities, and cochlear fluid pressure were examined for both BC and air conduction (AC) excitations. Especially, the decomposition analysis was applied to window volume velocities and cochlear fluid pressures to separate them into anti-symmetric and symmetric components. The preliminary result shows that the BM vibration is driven by the part of the fluid pressure that is anti-symmetric (i.e. differential slow wave) with respect to the BM, which is generated by the anti-symmetric window volume velocity.

  17. A micropower miniature piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert; Luo, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Hou, Wensheng; Wang, Lijun; Brown, Stuart I; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small actuator using a miniature piezoelectric stack and a flextensional mechanical amplification structure for an implantable middle ear hearing device (IMEHD). A finite-element method was used in the actuator design. Actuator vibration displacement was measured using a laser vibrometer. Preliminary evaluation of the actuator for an IMEHD was conducted using a temporal bone model. Initial results from one temporal bone study indicated that the actuator was small enough to be implanted within the middle ear cavity, and sufficient stapes displacement can be generated for patients with mild to moderate hearing losses, especially at higher frequency range, by the actuator suspended onto the stapes. There was an insignificant mass-loading effect on normal sound transmission (<3 dB) when the actuator was attached to the stapes and switched off. Improved vibration performance is predicted by more firm attachment. The actuator power consumption and its generated equivalent sound pressure level are also discussed. In conclusion, the actuator has advantages of small size, lightweight, and micropower consumption for potential use as IMHEDs.

  18. Staging and classification criteria for middle ear cholesteatoma proposed by the Japan Otological Society.

    PubMed

    Tono, Tetsuya; Sakagami, Masafumi; Kojima, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Matsuda, Keiji; Komori, Manabu; Hato, Naohito; Morita, Yuka; Hashimoto, Sho

    2017-04-01

    In order to provide a basis for meaningful exchange of information among those treating cholesteatoma, the Committee on Nomenclature of the Japan Otological Society (JOS) was appointed in 2004 to create a cholesteatoma staging system as simple as possible to use in clinical practice in Japan. Following the announcement of preliminary criteria for the staging of pars flaccida (attic) cholesteatoma in 2008, we proposed the 2010 JOS staging system for two major types of retraction pocket cholesteatoma, pars flaccida and pars tensa cholesteatoma. Since then, the JOS staging system has been widely used in clinical studies of cholesteatoma in Japan, allowing standardization in reporting of surgical outcomes based on the respective stages of cholesteatoma. We have recently expanded the range of cholesteatoma by adding cholesteatoma secondary to a tensa perforation and congenital cholesteatoma as the 2015 JOS staging system for middle ear cholesteatoma. Although further revisions may be required for universal acceptance of these criteria, we hope our staging system will open the way for international consensus on staging and classification of middle ear cholesteatoma in the near future.

  19. Stapes Vibration in the Chinchilla Middle Ear: Relation to Behavioral and Auditory-Nerve Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Robles, Luis; Temchin, Andrei N; Fan, Yun-Hui; Ruggero, Mario A

    2015-08-01

    The vibratory responses to tones of the stapes and incus were measured in the middle ears of deeply anesthetized chinchillas using a wide-band acoustic-stimulus system and a laser velocimeter coupled to a microscope. With the laser beam at an angle of about 40 ° relative to the axis of stapes piston-like motion, the sensitivity-vs.-frequency curves of vibrations at the head of the stapes and the incus lenticular process were very similar to each other but larger, in the range 15-30 kHz, than the vibrations of the incus just peripheral to the pedicle. With the laser beam aligned with the axis of piston-like stapes motion, vibrations of the incus just peripheral to its pedicle were very similar to the vibrations of the lenticular process or the stapes head measured at the 40 ° angle. Thus, the pedicle prevents transmission to the stapes of components of incus vibration not aligned with the axis of stapes piston-like motion. The mean magnitude curve of stapes velocities is fairly flat over a wide frequency range, with a mean value of about 0.19 mm(.)(s Pa(-1)), has a high-frequency cutoff of 25 kHz (measured at -3 dB re the mean value), and decreases with a slope of about -60 dB/octave at higher frequencies. According to our measurements, the chinchilla middle ear transmits acoustic signals into the cochlea at frequencies exceeding both the bandwidth of responses of auditory-nerve fibers and the upper cutoff of hearing. The phase lags of stapes velocity relative to ear-canal pressure increase approximately linearly, with slopes equivalent to pure delays of about 57-76 μs.

  20. Wideband energy reflectance measurements: effects of negative middle ear pressure and application of a pressure compensation procedure.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Mark D; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2013-07-01

    The wideband energy reflectance (ER) technique has become popular as a tool for evaluating middle ear function. Negative middle ear pressure (MEP) is a prevalent form of middle ear dysfunction, which may impact application of ER measurements in differential diagnosis. A negative MEP may be countervailed by application of an equivalent negative ear canal pressure. The present study examined ER in the same ears under normal and experimentally induced negative MEP conditions. Thirty-five subjects produced at least one negative MEP each (-40 to -225 daPa). Negative MEP significantly altered ER in a frequency-specific manner that varied with MEP magnitude. ER increased for low- to mid-frequencies with the largest change (~0.20 to 0.40) occurring between 1 and 1.5 kHz. ER decreased for frequencies above 3 kHz with the largest change (~-0.10 to -0.25) observed between 4.5 and 5.5 kHz. Magnitude of changes increased as MEP became more negative, as did the frequencies at which maximum changes occurred, and the frequency at which enhancement transitioned to reduction. Ear canal pressure compensation restored ER to near baseline values. This suggests that the compensation procedure adequately mitigates the effects of negative MEP on ER. Theoretical issues and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Effects of oral intake of cetirizine HCl and desloratadine molecules on the middle ear mucosa: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim

    2014-04-01

    We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule.

  2. Effect of middle-ear pathology on high-frequency ear-canal reflectance measurements in the frequency and time domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Neely, Stephen T.; Rosowski, John J.; Nakajima, Hideko H.

    2015-12-01

    Wideband immittance and reflectance have not been well described at frequencies above 6-8 kHz, and past analyses of these measurements have focused on the responses to stimulus frequencies below 3-4 kHz, while ignoring high-frequency or time-domain information. This work uses a novel approach to measure reflectance that utilizes high-frequency signals and analyzes reflectance in both the frequency and the time domains. Experiments were performed with fresh normal human temporal bones before and after simulating various middle-ear pathologies. In addition to experimental data, novel model analyses were used to obtain fitted parameter values of middle-ear elements that vary systematically due to simulations and thus may have diagnostic implications. Our results show that high-frequency measurements improve temporal resolution of reflectance measurements, and this data combined with novel modeling techniques provides separation of three major conductive pathologies.

  3. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  4. Middle and inner ear malformations in two siblings exposed to valproic acid during pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Van Houtte, Evelyne; Casselman, Jan; Janssens, Sandra; De Kegel, Alexandra; Maes, Leen; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a known teratogenic drug. Exposure to VPA during the pregnancy can lead to a distinct facial appearance, a cluster of major and minor anomalies and developmental delay. In this case report, two siblings with fetal valproate syndrome and a mild conductive hearing loss were investigated. Radiologic evaluation showed middle and inner ear malformations in both children. Audiologic, vestibular and motor examination was performed. This is the first case report to describe middle and inner ear malformations in children exposed to VPA.

  5. COMPARISON BETWEEN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE EAR IN NONBRACHYCEPHALIC AND BRACHYCEPHALIC DOGS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE AIRWAY SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Salgüero, Raquel; Herrtage, Michael; Holmes, Mark; Mannion, Paddy; Ladlow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence of subclinical middle ear lesions in dogs that undergo computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging of the head has been reported up to 41%. A predisposition in brachycephalics has been suggested, however evidence-based studies are lacking. Aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study were to compare CT characteristics of the middle ear in groups of nonbrachycephalic and brachycephalic dogs that underwent CT of the head for conditions unrelated to ear disease, and test associations between thickness of the soft palate and presence of subclinical middle ear lesions. One observer recorded CT findings for each dog without knowledge of group status. A total of 65 dogs met inclusion criteria (25 brachycephalic, 40 nonbrachycephalic). Brachycephalic dogs had a significantly thicker bulla wall (P = 2.38 × 10(-26)) and smaller luminal volume (P = 5.74 × 10(-20)), when compared to nonbrachycephalic dogs. Soft palate thickness was significantly greater in the brachycephalic group (P = 2.76 × 10(-9)). Nine of 25 brachycephalic dogs had material in the lumen of the tympanic cavity, compared to zero of 45 of nonbrachycephalics. Within the brachycephalic group, a significant difference in mean soft palate thickness was identified for dogs with material in the middle ear (12.2 mm) vs. air-filled bullae (9 mm; P = 0.016). Findings from the current study supported previous theories that brachycephalic dogs have a greater prevalence of subclinical middle ear effusion and smaller bulla luminal size than nonbrachycephalic dogs. Authors recommend that the bulla lumen volume formula previously developed for mesaticephalic dogs, (-0.612 + 0.757 [lnBW]) be adjusted to 1/3(-0.612 + 0.757 [lnBW]) for brachycephalic breeds.

  6. Effects of age and size in the ears of gekkotan lizards: auditory sensitivity, its determinants, and new insights into tetrapod middle-ear function.

    PubMed

    Werner, Yehudah L; Montgomery, Lynda G; Seifan, Merav; Saunders, James C

    2008-08-01

    Do related, differently sized species differ in size-related structural or functional traits merely because they mature at different points of a uniform allometric ontogenetic growth curve, or do they evolutionarily diverge? We tested ears of gekkotan lizards through experiments distinguishing the two. Auditory sensitivity was assessed by compound action potential (CAP) thresholds in eight species. The best thresholds characterizing species ranged 22-72 dB sound pressure level at 0.5-1.0 kHz. Direct acoustic stimulation of the columella footplate elevated thresholds by 25-50 dB. Intraspecific CAP sensitivity was primarily affected by body length in Eublepharis macularius, but by tympanic-membrane velocity in Oedura marmorata. The chief factor determining middle-ear function (difference in CAP sensitivity before and after middle-ear ablation) was body length in both species. A secondary factor was the middle-ear hydraulic lever ratio in E. macularius, but the mechanical lever in O. marmorata. When intra- and interspecific data were compared, the relation of CAP thresholds to body size in E. macularius resembled the interspecific regression. The intraspecific regression of auditory sensitivity over tympanic membrane velocity in O. marmorata differed from that calculated interspecifically. Hence, the evolutionary contribution to size effects on CAP sensitivity exceeds the ontogenetic contribution. Putatively, body length affects CAP sensitivity through absolute sizes of tympanic membrane and columella footplate. These newly discovered effects join those of the hydraulic lever and (interspecifically) hair-cell number to improve the hearing of larger species that vocally communicate across wider spaces, apparently throughout the Tetrapoda.

  7. Orpheus 0 G or ear In microgravity to establish symptoms concomitant of inner and middle ear and osteoporosis in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomatis, Alfred; Talbi, Louisa; Vervoort, Jozef; Fromenteau, Joel; De Voigt, Martin; Van Deun, Jozef

    2005-08-01

    The goal of the proposed work is to collect data on the responses of the vestibular system to long-term conditions of weightlessness and to evaluate the benefits of a program of Electronic Ear(1) designed to act preventively to lessen symptoms due to weightlessness and to readapt the vestibular system after return to normal gravity.Data in the form of listening tests and brain maps tests(2) and observations(3) will be collected during pre- and post-flight simulation.We have to identify if the preservation process of astronauts against weightlessness effects is located in the ear. The long- term objective of the study is to create a blueprint of an Electronic Ear to be used on board should the outcome be positive.

  8. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura).

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Martín O; Womack, Molly C; Barrionuevo, J Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M; Coloma, Luis A; Hoke, Kim L; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-09-28

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures.

  9. The complex evolutionary history of the tympanic middle ear in frogs and toads (Anura)

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Martín O.; Womack, Molly C.; Barrionuevo, J. Sebastián; Blotto, Boris L.; Baldo, Diego; Targino, Mariane; Ospina-Sarria, Jhon Jairo; Guayasamin, Juan M.; Coloma, Luis A.; Hoke, Kim L.; Grant, Taran; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Most anurans possess a tympanic middle ear (TME) that transmits sound waves to the inner ear; however, numerous species lack some or all TME components. To understand the evolution of these structures, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their occurrence across anurans and performed ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analysis indicates that the TME was completely lost at least 38 independent times in Anura. The inferred evolutionary history of the TME is exceptionally complex in true toads (Bufonidae), where it was lost in the most recent common ancestor, preceding a radiation of >150 earless species. Following that initial loss, independent regains of some or all TME structures were inferred within two minor clades and in a radiation of >400 species. The reappearance of the TME in the latter clade was followed by at least 10 losses of the entire TME. The many losses and gains of the TME in anurans is unparalleled among tetrapods. Our results show that anurans, and especially bufonid toads, are an excellent model to study the behavioural correlates of earlessness, extratympanic sound pathways, and the genetic and developmental mechanisms that underlie the morphogenesis of TME structures. PMID:27677839

  10. [Endoscopic laser surgery in combined nasopharyngeal and middle ear pathology in children with conductive hypoacusis].

    PubMed

    Kotov, R V; Polunin, M M; Garashchenko, T I; Rakhmanova, I V

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic laser surgery on lymphoid structures of the nasopharynx near the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube was made with Lazon-10P laser in 67 children aged 3 to 14 years with documented exudative otitis media (EOM). All the children had conductive hypoacusis. Children who had tympanogram of type B and in whom otoscopy detected exudate behind the tympanic membrane were subjected to one-stage laser tympanostomy in the anteroinferior quadrant of the tympanic membrane followed by transtympanic drug introduction into the tympanic cavity. Tympanostoma closed spontaneously 3 weeks later. Normal hearing recovered in all the children. Diagnostic endoscopy of the nasopharynx can reveal causes underlying dysfunction of the auditory tube. The results demonstrate high efficacy of the methods allowing elimination of mechanical occlusion of the auditory tube in the region of its pharyngeal opening with one-stage intervention on the middle ear.

  11. Discerning the differential molecular pathology of proliferative middle ear lesions using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rishikesh; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Kang, Jeon Woong; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Valdez, Tulio Alberto; Barman, Ishan

    2015-08-20

    Despite its widespread prevalence, middle ear pathology, especially the development of proliferative lesions, remains largely unexplored and poorly understood. Diagnostic evaluation is still predicated upon a high index of clinical suspicion on otoscopic examination of gross morphologic features. We report the first technique that has the potential to non-invasively identify two key lesions, namely cholesteatoma and myringosclerosis, by providing real-time information of differentially expressed molecules. In addition to revealing signatures consistent with the known pathobiology of these lesions, our observations provide the first evidence of the presence of carbonate- and silicate-substitutions in the calcium phosphate plaques found in myringosclerosis. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy to not only provide new understanding of the etiology of these conditions by defining objective molecular markers but also aid in margin assessment to improve surgical outcome.

  12. Discerning the differential molecular pathology of proliferative middle ear lesions using Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rishikesh; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Kang, Jeon Woong; Spegazzini, Nicolas; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Valdez, Tulio Alberto; Barman, Ishan

    2015-01-01

    Despite its widespread prevalence, middle ear pathology, especially the development of proliferative lesions, remains largely unexplored and poorly understood. Diagnostic evaluation is still predicated upon a high index of clinical suspicion on otoscopic examination of gross morphologic features. We report the first technique that has the potential to non-invasively identify two key lesions, namely cholesteatoma and myringosclerosis, by providing real-time information of differentially expressed molecules. In addition to revealing signatures consistent with the known pathobiology of these lesions, our observations provide the first evidence of the presence of carbonate- and silicate-substitutions in the calcium phosphate plaques found in myringosclerosis. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy to not only provide new understanding of the etiology of these conditions by defining objective molecular markers but also aid in margin assessment to improve surgical outcome. PMID:26289566

  13. Feedback characteristics between implantable microphone and transducer in middle ear cavity.

    PubMed

    Arman Woo, S H; Woo, Seong Tak; Song, Byung Seop; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of implantable hearing aids, implementation and acoustic sensing strategy of the implantable microphone becomes an important issue; among the many types of implantable microphone, placing the microphone in middle ear cavity (MEC) has advantages including simple operation and insensitive to skin touching or chewing motion. In this paper, an implantable microphone was implemented and researched feedback characteristic when both the implantable microphone and the transducer were placed in the MEC. Analytical and finite element analysis were conducted to design the microphone to have a natural frequency of 7 kHz and showed good characteristics of SNR and sensitivity. For the feedback test, simple analytical and finite element analysis were calculated and compared with in vitro experiments (n = 4). From the experiments, the open-loop gain and feedback factor were measured and the minimum gain margin measured as 14.3 dB.

  14. A new developmental mechanism for the separation of the mammalian middle ear ossicles from the jaw

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Daniel J.; Anthwal, Neal; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Maier, Jennifer A.; Sadier, Alexa

    2017-01-01

    Multiple mammalian lineages independently evolved a definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) through breakdown of Meckel's cartilage (MC). However, the cellular and molecular drivers of this evolutionary transition remain unknown for most mammal groups. Here, we identify such drivers in the living marsupial opossum Monodelphis domestica, whose MC transformation during development anatomically mirrors the evolutionary transformation observed in fossils. Specifically, we link increases in cellular apoptosis and TGF-BR2 signalling to MC breakdown in opossums. We demonstrate that a simple change in TGF-β signalling is sufficient to inhibit MC breakdown during opossum development, indicating that changes in TGF-β signalling might be key during mammalian evolution. Furthermore, the apoptosis that we observe during opossum MC breakdown does not seemingly occur in mouse, consistent with homoplastic DMME evolution in the marsupial and placental lineages. PMID:28179517

  15. Comparative anatomy of the middle ear ossicles of extant hominids--Introducing a geometric morphometric protocol.

    PubMed

    Stoessel, Alexander; Gunz, Philipp; David, Romain; Spoor, Fred

    2016-02-01

    The presence of three interconnected auditory ossicles in the middle ear is a defining characteristic of mammals, and aspects of ossicle morphology are related to hearing sensitivity. However, analysis and comparison of ossicles are complicated by their minute size and complex three-dimensional shapes. Here we introduce a geometric morphometric measurement protocol for 3D shape analysis based on landmarks and semilandmarks obtained from μCT images and apply it to ossicles of extant hominids (great apes and humans). We show that the protocol is reliable and reproducible over a range of voxel resolutions, and captures even subtle shape differences. Using this approach it is possible to distinguish the hominid taxa by mean shapes of their malleus and incus (p < 0.01). The stapes appears less diagnostic, although this may in part be related to the small sample size available. Using ancestral state estimation, we show that, within hominids, Homo sapiens is derived with respect to its malleus (short manubrium, long corpus, head anterior-posterior flattened, articular facet shape), incus (wide intercrural curvature, long incudal processes, articular facet shape) and stapes (high stapes with kidney-shaped footplate). H. sapiens also shows a number of plesiomorphic shape traits whereas Gorilla and Pan possess a number of autapomorphic characteristics. The Pongo ossicles appear to be close to the plesiomorphic hominid condition. The malleus shows little difference in size among hominids, and allometry is thus of little importance. In contrast, the incus and stapes are more variable in size, and their shape is more strongly related to size differences. Although the form-function relationships in the middle ear are not fully understood, some aspects of ossicle morphology suggest that interspecific differences in hearing capacities are present among hominids. Finally, the results of this study provide a comparative framework for morphometric studies analyzing ossicles of

  16. Middle ear adenomas stain for two cell populations and lack myoepithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lott Limbach, Abberly A; Hoschar, Aaron P; Thompson, Lester D R; Stelow, Edward B; Chute, Deborah J

    2012-09-01

    Middle ear adenomas (MEAs) are benign neoplasms along a spectrum with neuroendocrine neoplasms (carcinoid tumors). Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for myoepithelial markers has not been reported in these tumors. The archives of the Cleveland Clinic, University of Virginia and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology were retrospectively searched for tumors arising within the middle ear with material available for IHC staining. Twelve cases of MEAs, four cases of jugulotympanic paragangliomas (JPGs), 10 cases of ceruminous adenomas (CAs) and four cases of ceruminous adenocarcinomas (CACs) were obtained. IHC staining was performed for smooth muscle actin (SMA), p63, S-100 protein, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6), and cytokeratin 7 (CK7). The MEAs were positive for: CK7 (92 %, luminal), CK5/6 (92 %, abluminal), p63 (83 %, abluminal), and negative for SMA and S-100 protein. The JPGs were negative for CK7, CK5/6, p63 and SMA; S-100 protein highlighted sustentacular cells. The CAs were positive for: CK7 (100 %, luminal), CK5/6 (100 %, abluminal), S-100 protein (80 %, abluminal), p63 (100 %, abluminal), and SMA (90 %, abluminal). CACs demonstrated two patterns, (1) adenoid cystic carcinoma-type: positive for CK7 (100 %, luminal), CK5/6, S-100 protein, p63, and SMA (all 100 %, abluminal); and (2) conventional-type: CK7 (50 % luminal), and no CK5/6, SMA, S-100 protein, or p63 expression. The IHC profile of MEAs suggests that these tumors harbor at least two cell populations, including luminal and basal cells. However, unlike ceruminous adenomas, MEAs lack true myoepithelial differentiation given the absence of S-100 protein and SMA staining in all cases.

  17. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chinh C.; Massa, Helen M.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. Methods A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. Results This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Conclusions Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the

  18. Recovery of a unique bacterial organism in human middle ear fluid and its possible role in chronic otitis media.

    PubMed

    Faden, H; Dryja, D

    1989-11-01

    The middle ear fluids of 10 children with persistent otitis media with effusion (OME) were found to contain an unclassified, slow-growing, gram-positive organism. Large gram-positive cocci, often present as diplococci or tetrads, were readily seen in each effusion. Culture of the fluid on a blood agar plate required 2 to 5 days of incubation at 37 degrees C and yielded a slow-growing coccus in pure culture in 70% of cases and in mixed culture in 30% of cases. The organism in question was unique and could be distinguished from aerococci, gemellas, enterococci, and micrococci. It grew in 6.5% saline and on bile esculin agar. It did not grow at 45 degrees C or anaerobically. It was uniformly catalase and hippurate positive. It gave negative reactions with tellurite, tetrazolium, and pyruvate and did not utilize any of the carbohydrates tested. Reactions to bile esculin were variable. The episodes of OME associated with the bacterium in question were asymptomatic, had been present from 1 to 8 months, and occurred in children who had previously experienced OME. The middle ear fluids were typically serous or seromucinous and contained inflammatory cells. The data suggest that the gram-positive coccus is a newly described middle ear pathogen and may be responsible, in part, for persistent middle ear effusion. The characteristically slow growth of the organism in vitro could hinder recovery of the organism from clinical specimens and may therefore have prevented its earlier recognition.

  19. Treatment of Middle Ear Ventilation Disorders: Sheep as Animal Model for Stenting the Human Eustachian Tube – A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Felicitas; Burghard, Alice; Salcher, Rolf; Scheper, Verena; Leibold, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Paasche, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders. PMID:25419714

  20. Extratympanic observation of middle ear structure using a refractive index matching material (glycerol) and an infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Soo-Keun; Chon, Kyong-Myong; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Il-Woo; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution computed tomography has been used mainly in the diagnosis of middle ear disease, such as high-jugular bulb, congenital cholesteatoma, and ossicular disruption. However, certain diagnoses are confirmed through exploratory tympanotomy. There are few noninvasive methods available to observe the middle ear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glycerol as a refractive index matching material and an infrared (IR) camera system for extratympanic observation. 30% glycerol was used as a refractive index matching material in five fresh cadavers. Each material was divided into four subgroups; GN (glycerol no) group, GO (glycerol out) group, GI (glycerol in) group, and GB (glycerol both) group. A printed letter and middle ear structures on the inside tympanic membrane were observed using a visible and IR ray camera system. In the GB group, there were marked a transilluminated letter or an ossicle on the inside tympanic membrane. In particular, a footplate of stapes was even transilluminated using the IR camera system in the GB group. This method can be useful in the diagnosis of diseases of the middle ear if it is clinically applied through further studies.

  1. Treatment of middle ear ventilation disorders: sheep as animal model for stenting the human Eustachian tube--a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Felicitas; Burghard, Alice; Salcher, Rolf; Scheper, Verena; Leibold, Wolfgang; Lenarz, Thomas; Paasche, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders.

  2. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  3. Effect of middle ear effusion on the brain-stem auditory evoked response of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.

    PubMed

    Harcourt-Brown, Thomas R; Parker, John E; Granger, Nicolas; Jeffery, Nick D

    2011-06-01

    Brain-stem auditory evoked responses (BAER) were assessed in 23 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels with and without middle ear effusion at sound intensities ranging from 10 to 100 dB nHL. Significant differences were found between the median BAER threshold for ears where effusions were present (60 dB nHL), compared to those without (30 dB nHL) (P=0.001). The slopes of latency-intensity functions from both groups did not differ, but the y-axis intercept when the x value was zero was greater in dogs with effusions (P=0.009), consistent with conductive hearing loss. Analysis of latency-intensity functions suggested the degree of hearing loss due to middle ear effusion was 21 dB (95% confidence between 10 and 33 dB). Waves I-V inter-wave latency at 90 dB nHL was not significantly different between the two groups. These findings demonstrate that middle ear effusion is associated with a conductive hearing loss of 10-33 dB in affected dogs despite the fact that all animals studied were considered to have normal hearing by their owners.

  4. The Middle Ear Muscle Reflex in the Diagnosis of Cochlear Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Michelle D.; Hancock, Kenneth E.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear neuropathy, i.e. the loss of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without loss of hair cells, may cause hearing deficits without affecting threshold sensitivity, particularly if the subset of ANFs with high thresholds and low spontaneous rates (SRs) is preferentially lost, as appears to be the case in both aging and noise-damaged cochleas. Because low-SR fibers may also be important drivers of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) and middle-ear muscle reflex (MEMR), these reflexes might be sensitive metrics of cochlear neuropathy. To test this hypothesis, we measured reflex strength and reflex threshold in mice with noise-induced neuropathy, as documented by confocal analysis of immunostained cochlear whole-mounts. To assay the MOCR, we measured contra-noise modulation of ipsilateral distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) before and after the administration of curare to block the MEMR or curare + strychnine to also block the MOCR. The modulation of DPOAEs was 1) dominated by the MEMR in anesthetized mice, with a smaller contribution from the MOCR, and 2) significantly attenuated in neuropathic mice, but only when the MEMR was intact. We then measured MEMR growth functions by monitoring contra-noise induced changes in the wideband reflectance of chirps presented to the ipsilateral ear. We found 1) that the changes in wideband reflectance were mediated by the MEMR alone, and 2) that MEMR threshold was elevated and its maximum amplitude was attenuated in neuropathic mice. These data suggest that the MEMR may be valuable in the early detection of cochlear neuropathy. PMID:26657094

  5. The middle ear muscle reflex in the diagnosis of cochlear neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Valero, Michelle D; Hancock, Kenneth E; Liberman, M Charles

    2016-02-01

    Cochlear neuropathy, i.e. the loss of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without loss of hair cells, may cause hearing deficits without affecting threshold sensitivity, particularly if the subset of ANFs with high thresholds and low spontaneous rates (SRs) is preferentially lost, as appears to be the case in both aging and noise-damaged cochleas. Because low-SR fibers may also be important drivers of the medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR) and middle-ear muscle reflex (MEMR), these reflexes might be sensitive metrics of cochlear neuropathy. To test this hypothesis, we measured reflex strength and reflex threshold in mice with noise-induced neuropathy, as documented by confocal analysis of immunostained cochlear whole-mounts. To assay the MOCR, we measured contra-noise modulation of ipsilateral distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) before and after the administration of curare to block the MEMR or curare + strychnine to also block the MOCR. The modulation of DPOAEs was 1) dominated by the MEMR in anesthetized mice, with a smaller contribution from the MOCR, and 2) significantly attenuated in neuropathic mice, but only when the MEMR was intact. We then measured MEMR growth functions by monitoring contra-noise induced changes in the wideband reflectance of chirps presented to the ipsilateral ear. We found 1) that the changes in wideband reflectance were mediated by the MEMR alone, and 2) that MEMR threshold was elevated and its maximum amplitude was attenuated in neuropathic mice. These data suggest that the MEMR may be valuable in the early detection of cochlear neuropathy.

  6. The conductive hearing loss due to an experimentally induced middle ear effusion alters the interaural level and time difference cues to sound location.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Jennifer L; Chevallier, Keely M; Koka, Kanthaiah; Lupo, J Eric; Tollin, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a pathologic condition of the middle ear that leads to a mild to moderate conductive hearing loss as a result of fluid in the middle ear. Recurring OME in children during the first few years of life has been shown to be associated with poor detection and recognition of sounds in noisy environments, hypothesized to result due to altered sound localization cues. To explore this hypothesis, we simulated a middle ear effusion by filling the middle ear space of chinchillas with different viscosities and volumes of silicone oil to simulate varying degrees of OME. While the effects of middle ear effusions on the interaural level difference (ILD) cue to location are known, little is known about whether and how middle ear effusions affect interaural time differences (ITDs). Cochlear microphonic amplitudes and phases were measured in response to sounds delivered from several locations in azimuth before and after filling the middle ear with fluid. Significant attenuations (20-40 dB) of sound were observed when the middle ear was filled with at least 1.0 ml of fluid with a viscosity of 3.5 Poise (P) or greater. As expected, ILDs were altered by ~30 dB. Additionally, ITDs were shifted by ~600 μs for low frequency stimuli (<4 kHz) due to a delay in the transmission of sound to the inner ear. The data show that in an experimental model of OME, ILDs and ITDs are shifted in the spatial direction of the ear without the experimental effusion.

  7. Finite-Element Modelling of the Response of the Gerbil Middle Ear to Sound.

    PubMed

    Maftoon, Nima; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J; Decraemer, Willem F

    2015-10-01

    We present a finite-element model of the gerbil middle ear that, using a set of baseline parameters based primarily on a priori estimates from the literature, generates responses that are comparable with responses we measured in vivo using multi-point vibrometry and with those measured by other groups. We investigated the similarity of numerous features (umbo, pars-flaccida and pars-tensa displacement magnitudes, the resonance frequency and break-up frequency, etc.) in the experimental responses with corresponding ones in the model responses, as opposed to simply computing frequency-by-frequency differences between experimental and model responses. The umbo response of the model is within the range of variability seen in the experimental data in terms of the low-frequency (i.e., well below the middle-ear resonance) magnitude and phase, the main resonance frequency and magnitude, and the roll-off slope and irregularities in the response above the resonance frequency, but is somewhat high for frequencies above the resonance frequency. At low frequencies, the ossicular axis of rotation of the model appears to correspond to the anatomical axis but the behaviour is more complex at high frequencies (i.e., above the pars-tensa break-up). The behaviour of the pars tensa in the model is similar to what is observed experimentally in terms of magnitudes, phases, the break-up frequency of the spatial vibration pattern, and the bandwidths of the high-frequency response features. A sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters that have the strongest effects on the model results are the Young's modulus, thickness and density of the pars tensa; the Young's modulus of the stapedial annular ligament; and the Young's modulus and density of the malleus. Displacements of the tympanic membrane and manubrium and the low-frequency displacement of the stapes did not show large changes when the material properties of the incus, stapes, incudomallear joint, incudostapedial joint, and

  8. A method for three-dimensional displacement and deformation measurement applied to the statically loaded middle ear ossicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decraemer, Willem F.; Gea, Stefan L.; Maas, Steve A.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2008-06-01

    The middle ear ossicles transmit sound from eardrum to inner ear under largely varying ambient pressure conditions. To protect the structures within the cochlea from excessive footplate incursions the configuration of the ossicles changes with pressure. Sequences of micro CT-scans were acquired from gerbil temporal bones under static ear canal pressures ranging from -450 to +450 daPa. These image stacks were used to track the 3D motion and deformations of the ossicles as a function of pressure using hyperelastic warping. Using the scans for zero pressure, accurate finite-element reference models were generated for each of the ossicles. With the difference between these template images and the target image data recorded in a deformed configuration as a driving force, the warping algorithm displaced and deformed the finite-element models of the ossicles in order to align the deformed template with the target data. Position changes of the ossicles within the middle ear cavity and deformation of the ossicles and the tympanic membrane were all measured in a same preparation. For each static pressure load a finite-element ossicular chain model is obtained in the run and can be used for further analysis under acoustic stimulation.

  9. Outcome of Vibrant Soundbridge Middle Ear Implant in Cantonese-Speaking Mixed Hearing Loss Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Wong, Terence Ka Cheong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the aided benefits, speech recognition in quiet and in noise, change in hearing and subjective report of satisfaction on mixed hearing loss adults implanted with Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) middle ear implant. Methods Eight Cantonese speaking adult patients with mixed hearing loss were enrolled in a single-subject, repeated measures prospective study design. Audiometric testing, including air and bone conduction and word recognition under sound-field were conducted before surgery. Device activation was arranged 8 weeks after operation. Audiometric testing was taken to evaluate the change in hearing. Patients were asked to wear the device and come back for fine tuning as needed. Outcome measurements were undertaken at 3 and 6 months after device activation. The outcome measures included sound-field thresholds, Cantonese Hearing in Noise Test (CHINT), Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) and International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA). Results The application of the VSB improved the aided thresholds and improved speech intelligibility in quiet and noise without significant changes in hearing thresholds. Conclusion VSB is considered as a safe, effective and reliable auditory rehabilitation option for Cantonese speaking adults with mixed hearing loss. PMID:22701155

  10. Discovery of a Biological Mechanism of Active Transport through the Tympanic Membrane to the Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Kurabi, Arwa; Pak, Kwang K.; Bernhardt, Marlen; Baird, Andrew; Ryan, Allen F.

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric disease for which systemic antibiotics are often prescribed. While local treatment would avoid the systemic treatment side-effects, the tympanic membrane (TM) represents an impenetrable barrier unless surgically breached. We hypothesized that the TM might harbor innate biological mechanisms that could mediate trans-TM transport. We used two M13-bacteriophage display biopanning strategies to search for mediators of trans-TM transport. First, aliquots of linear phage library displaying 1010th 12mer peptides were applied on the TM of rats with active bacterial OM. The middle ear (ME) contents were then harvested, amplified and the preparation re-applied for additional rounds. Second, the same naïve library was sequentially screened for phage exhibiting TM binding, internalization and then transit. Results revealed a novel set of peptides that transit across the TM to the ME in a time and temperature dependent manner. The peptides with highest transport capacities shared sequence similarities. Historically, the TM was viewed as an impermeable barrier. However, our studies reveal that it is possible to translocate peptide-linked small particles across the TM. This is the first comprehensive biopanning for the isolation of TM transiting peptidic ligands. The identified mechanism offers a new drug delivery platform into the ME. PMID:26946957

  11. Femtosecond laser microstructuring of titanium surfaces for middle ear ossicular replacement prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilgner, Justus; Biedron, Slavomir; Fadeeva, Elena; Chichkov, Boris; Westhofen, Martin

    2009-02-01

    Introduction: While a variety of materials has been evaluated for replacement of human middle ear ossicles following inflammation, titanium and its alloys have shown excellent sound transmission properties and biocompatibility. However, cartilage thickness at the tympanic membrane interface deteriorates over time, while fibrous tissue formation may dislodge the titanium prosthesis. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of microstructures on titanium surfaces in contact with adjacent biological tissue. Materials and Methods: Titanium samples of 5mm diameter and 0,25mm thickness were structured by means of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser operating at 970nm. The structures applied were lines of parabolic shape (cross-sectional) of 5µm (parallel), 5µm (cross-hatch) and 10µm width (parallel). The inter-groove distance between two maxima was exactly twice the line width. Results: Lines smaller than 5µm were not feasible due to the natural irregularity of the basic material with pits and level changes of up to 2µm. The process showed little debris and constant microstructure shape over the whole structured area (2x2mm). The resulting debris was examined for toxic by-products on human fibrobcytes and chondrocytes. Discussion: The results show that microstructures can be applied on titanium surfaces for human implantation with reproducible and constant shapes. Further studies will focus on cell culture which has suggested a relative selectivity for chondrocyte compared to fibrocyte growth in earlier studies with selected microstructures.

  12. External unit for a semi-implantable middle ear hearing device.

    PubMed

    Garverick, S L; Kane, M; Ko, W H; Maniglia, A J

    1997-06-01

    A miniaturized, low-power external unit has been developed for the clinical trials of a semi-implantable middle ear electromagnetic hearing device (SIMEHD) which uses radio-frequency telemetry to couple sound signals to the internal unit. The external unit is based on a commercial hearing aid which provides proven audio amplification and compression. Its receiver is replaced by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) which: 1) adjusts the direct-current bias of the audio input according to its peak value; 2) converts the audio signal to a one-bit digital form using sigma-delta modulation; 3) modulates the sigma-delta output with a radio-frequency (RF) oscillator; and 4) drives the external RF coil and tuning capacitor using a field-effect transistor operated in class D. The external unit functions as expected and has been used to operate bench-top tests to the SIMEHD. Measured current consumption is 1.65-2.15 mA, which projects to a battery lifetime of about 15 days. Bandwidth is 6 kHz and harmonic distortion is about 2%.

  13. A study of sound transmission in an abstract middle ear using physical and finite element models

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Herrera, Antonio; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    The classical picture of middle ear (ME) transmission has the tympanic membrane (TM) as a piston and the ME cavity as a vacuum. In reality, the TM moves in a complex multiphasic pattern and substantial pressure is radiated into the ME cavity by the motion of the TM. This study explores ME transmission with a simple model, using a tube terminated with a plastic membrane. Membrane motion was measured with a laser interferometer and pressure on both sides of the membrane with micro-sensors that could be positioned close to the membrane without disturbance. A finite element model of the system explored the experimental results. Both experimental and theoretical results show resonances that are in some cases primarily acoustical or mechanical and sometimes produced by coupled acousto-mechanics. The largest membrane motions were a result of the membrane's mechanical resonances. At these resonant frequencies, sound transmission through the system was larger with the membrane in place than it was when the membrane was absent. PMID:26627771

  14. [Novel possibilities for the rehabilitation of patients presenting with congenital external and middle ear malformations].

    PubMed

    Mileshina, N A; Osipenkov, S S; Bakhshinian, V V; Tavartkiladze, G A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the advantages of cochlear Baha BIA 400 abutments in the intraoperative and early postoperative periods. A total of 10 implantations of the systems with the use of hydroxyapatite bone cement were performed in 9 patients of different age. Stability of the implants and intensity of skin reactions were evaluated. The data obtained indicate that the use of cochlear Baha BIA 400 abutments significantly simplifies and shortens the surgical stage of rehabilitation producing a good cosmetic result. The use of the Osstell instrument made it possible to estimate stability of the implants intraoperatively and evaluate the effectiveness of osteointegration during the follow-up period. Analysis of the results of the study provided a basis on which to improve the quality and shorten duration of the rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with congenital external and middle ear malformations. Moreover, the data obtained can be used to develop practical recommendations for the further work in this area.

  15. Changes in Tinnitus After Middle Ear Implant Surgery: Comparisons With the Cochlear Implant

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Young Joon; Kim, Hyun Ji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tinnitus is a very common symptom in patients with hearing loss. Several studies have confirmed that hearing restoration using hearing aids or cochlear implants (CIs) has a suppressive effect on tinnitus in users. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of other hearing restoration devices, specifically the middle ear implant (MEI), on changes in tinnitus severity. Design: From 2012 to October 2014, 11 adults with tinnitus and hearing loss underwent MEI surgery. Pure-tone audiometry, tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), and visual analog scale scores for loudness, awareness, and annoyance and psychosocial instruments were measured before, immediately after, and 6 months after surgery. Changes in hearing thresholds and THI scores were analyzed and compared with those of 16 CI recipients. Results: In both MEI and CI groups, significant improvements in tinnitus were found after the surgery. The THI scores improved in 91% of patients in the MEI group and in 56% of those in the CI group. Visual analog scale scores and psychosocial scale scores also decreased after surgery, but there were no statistical differences between the groups. Conclusions: The results indicate that the MEI may be as beneficial as the CI in relieving tinnitus in subjects with unilateral tinnitus accompanying hearing loss. Furthermore, this improvement may manifest as hearing restoration or habituation rather than a direct electrical nerve stimulation, which was previously considered as the main mechanism underlying tinnitus suppression by auditory implants. PMID:26107004

  16. Ultrasound characterization of the mastoid for detecting middle ear effusion: A preliminary clinical validation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Kuo; Fang, Jui; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound detection of middle ear effusion (MEE) is an emerging technique in otolaryngology. This study proposed using ultrasound characterization of the mastoid to noninvasively measure MEE-induced mastoid effusion (ME) as a new strategy for determining the presence of MEE. In total, 53 patients were enrolled (Group I: normal, n = 20; Group II: proven MEE through both otoscopy and tympanometry, n = 15; Group III: patients with MEE having effusions observed during grommet surgery, n = 18). A 2.25-MHz delay-line transducer was used to measure backscattered signals from the mastoid. The Nakagami parameter was estimated using the acquired signals to model the echo amplitude distribution for quantifying changes in the acoustic structures of mastoid air cells. The median Nakagami parameter and interquartile range were 0.35 (0.34–0.37) for Group I, 0.39 (0.37–0.41) for Group II, and 0.43 (0.39–0.51) for Group III. The echo amplitude distribution observed for patients with MEE was closer to Rayleigh distribution than that without MEE. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis further revealed that the area under the ROC was 0.88, sensitivity was 72.73%, specificity was 95%, and accuracy was 81.13%. The proposed method has considerable potential for noninvasive and comfortable evaluation of MEE. PMID:27277543

  17. Ultrasound characterization of the mastoid for detecting middle ear effusion: A preliminary clinical validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chin-Kuo; Fang, Jui; Wan, Yung-Liang; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound detection of middle ear effusion (MEE) is an emerging technique in otolaryngology. This study proposed using ultrasound characterization of the mastoid to noninvasively measure MEE-induced mastoid effusion (ME) as a new strategy for determining the presence of MEE. In total, 53 patients were enrolled (Group I: normal, n = 20 Group II: proven MEE through both otoscopy and tympanometry, n = 15 Group III: patients with MEE having effusions observed during grommet surgery, n = 18). A 2.25-MHz delay-line transducer was used to measure backscattered signals from the mastoid. The Nakagami parameter was estimated using the acquired signals to model the echo amplitude distribution for quantifying changes in the acoustic structures of mastoid air cells. The median Nakagami parameter and interquartile range were 0.35 (0.34–0.37) for Group I, 0.39 (0.37–0.41) for Group II, and 0.43 (0.39–0.51) for Group III. The echo amplitude distribution observed for patients with MEE was closer to Rayleigh distribution than that without MEE. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis further revealed that the area under the ROC was 0.88, sensitivity was 72.73%, specificity was 95%, and accuracy was 81.13%. The proposed method has considerable potential for noninvasive and comfortable evaluation of MEE.

  18. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    PubMed Central

    Bianchin, Giovanni; Tribi, Lorenzo; Reverzani, Aronne; Formigoni, Patrizia; Polizzi, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration was not optimal. The decision made was to position Vibrant Soundbridge, a middle ear implant, with an original surgical application due to hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity. Intubation procedure was complicated due to child craniofacial deformities. Postoperative hearing rehabilitation involved a multidisciplinary team, showing improved social skills and language development. PMID:26491591

  19. Mammalian development does not recapitulate suspected key transformations in the evolutionary detachment of the mammalian middle ear.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E; Wroe, Stephen W; Selwood, Lynne; Hinds, Lyn A; Leigh, Chris; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Weisbecker, Vera

    2016-01-13

    The ectotympanic, malleus and incus of the developing mammalian middle ear (ME) are initially attached to the dentary via Meckel's cartilage, betraying their origins from the primary jaw joint of land vertebrates. This recapitulation has prompted mostly unquantified suggestions that several suspected--but similarly unquantified--key evolutionary transformations leading to the mammalian ME are recapitulated in development, through negative allometry and posterior/medial displacement of ME bones relative to the jaw joint. Here we show, using µCT reconstructions, that neither allometric nor topological change is quantifiable in the pre-detachment ME development of six marsupials and two monotremes. Also, differential ME positioning in the two monotreme species is not recapitulated. This challenges the developmental prerequisites of widely cited evolutionary scenarios of definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) evolution, highlighting the requirement for further fossil evidence to test these hypotheses. Possible association between rear molar eruption, full ME ossification and ME detachment in marsupials suggests functional divergence between dentary and ME as a trigger for developmental, and possibly also evolutionary, ME detachment. The stable positioning of the dentary and ME supports suggestions that a 'partial mammalian middle ear' as found in many mammaliaforms--probably with a cartilaginous Meckel's cartilage--represents the only developmentally plausible evolutionary DMME precursor.

  20. Layered double hydroxides as efficient drug delivery system of ciprofloxacin in the middle ear: an animal study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Daniela; Badar, Muhammad; Bleich, André; Smoczek, Anna; Glage, Silke; Kieke, Marc; Behrens, Peter; Müller, Peter Paul; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Stieve, Martin; Prenzler, Nils Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Chronic otitis media is a common disease often accompanied by recurrent bacterial infections. These may lead to the destruction of the middle ear bones such that prostheses have to be implanted to restore sound transmission. Surface coatings with layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are evaluated here as a possibility for drug delivery systems with convenient advantages such as low cytotoxicity and easy synthesis. Male New Zealand White rabbits were implanted with Bioverit(®) II middle ear prostheses coated with the LDH Mg(4)Al(2)(OH)(12)(SO(4))(2)·6H(2)O impregnated with ciprofloxacin. 12 (group 1) were directly infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and another 12 (group 2) 1 week after the implantation. Clinical outcome, blood counts, histological analyses and microbiological examination showed an excellent antimicrobial activity for group 1, whereas this effect was attenuated in animals where infection was performed 1 week after implantation. This is the first study to demonstrate an efficient drug delivery system with an LDH coating on prostheses in the middle ear.

  1. Enhanced oval window and blocked round window passages for middle-inner ear transportation of gadolinium in guinea pigs with a perforated round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate the communication between the middle and inner ear, and the fluid dynamics of the inner ear with the perilymphatic fistula (PLF) of the round window membrane (RWM). The PLF of the RWM was created in nine guinea pigs. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid bismethylamide (Gd-DTPA-BMA) was delivered into the middle ear and followed in the inner ear using a 4.7 Tesla MRI. Pressure was delivered to the external ear canal of PLF ear in an attempt to enhance the inner ear uptake of Gd-DTPA-BMA. The immediate loading of Gd-DTPA-BMA in the scala tympani of the basal turn was ablated by the outflow of perilymph through the leaking RWM while the oval window passage for Gd-DTPA-BMA was enhanced. There was more Gd-DTPA-BMA distribution in the scala tympani than in the scala vestibuli in the second turn of the PLF cochlea (within 20 min). Signal in the vestibulum and scala vestibuli of the basal turn and rest part of PLF cochlea was greater than that of the control cochlea with intact RWM within 30 min. Pressure applied to the external ear canal tended to enhance the loading of Gd-DTPA-BMA in the perilymphatic scalae of the PLF cochlea. The enhanced oval window passage of Gd-DTPA-BMA was proven by the distorted distribution in the inner ear with PLF. The radial communication of cochlear perilymph was supported by the Gd-DTPA-BMA gradient among the perilymphatic scalae. Applying positive pressure to the external ear canal caused backflow of perilymph into the cochlea which has a potential of transmitting microbes from the middle ear into the inner ear.

  2. Simultaneous measurement of noise-activated middle-ear muscle reflex and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Shawn S; Keefe, Douglas H

    2006-06-01

    Otoacoustic emissions serve as a noninvasive probe of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) elicited by a low-level probe tone may be the optimal type of emission for studying MOC effects because at low levels, the probe itself does not elicit the MOC reflex [Guinan et al. (2003) J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 4:521]. Based on anatomical considerations, the MOC reflex activated by ipsilateral acoustic stimulation (mediated by the crossed olivocochlear bundle) is predicted to be stronger than the reflex to contralateral stimulation. Broadband noise is an effective activator of the MOC reflex; however, it is also an effective activator of the middle-ear muscle (MEM) reflex, which can make results difficult to interpret. The MEM reflex may be activated at lower levels than measured clinically, and most previous human studies have not explicitly included measurements to rule out MEM reflex contamination. The current study addressed these issues using a higher-frequency SFOAE probe tone to test for cochlear changes mediated by the MOC reflex, while simultaneously monitoring the MEM reflex using a low-frequency probe tone. Broadband notched noise was presented ipsilaterally at various levels to elicit probe-tone shifts. Measurements are reported for 15 normal-hearing subjects. With the higher-frequency probe near 1.5 kHz, only 20% of subjects showed shifts consistent with an MOC reflex in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. With the higher-frequency probe near 3.5 kHz, up to 40% of subjects showed shifts in the absence of an MEM-induced shift. However, these responses had longer time courses than expected for MOC-induced shifts, and may have been dominated by other cochlear processes, rather than MOC reflex. These results suggest caution in the interpretation of effects observed using ipsilaterally presented acoustic activators intended to excite the MOC reflex.

  3. Ontogeny of the Middle-Ear Air-Sinus System in Alligator mississippiensis (Archosauria: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Dufeau, David L; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    volume, but instead support the hypothesis that these changes may be a function of the acoustic properties of the middle ear.

  4. Ontogeny of the Middle-Ear Air-Sinus System in Alligator mississippiensis (Archosauria: Crocodylia)

    PubMed Central

    Dufeau, David L.; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    volume, but instead support the hypothesis that these changes may be a function of the acoustic properties of the middle ear. PMID:26398659

  5. Mice Haploinsufficient for Ets1 and Fli1 Display Middle Ear Abnormalities and Model Aspects of Jacobsen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carpinelli, Marina R; Kruse, Elizabeth A; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Debrincat, Marlyse A; Ogier, Jacqueline M; Bories, Jean-Christophe; Kile, Benjamin T; Burt, Rachel A

    2015-07-01

    E26 transformation-specific 1 (ETS1) and friend leukemia integration 1 (FLI1) are members of the ETS family of transcription factors, of which there are 28 in humans. Both genes are hemizygous in Jacobsen syndrome, an 11q contiguous gene deletion disorder involving thrombocytopenia, facial dysmorphism, growth and mental retardation, malformation of the heart and other organs, and hearing impairment associated with recurrent ear infections. To determine whether any of these defects are because of hemizygosity for ETS1 and FLI1, we characterized the phenotype of mice heterozygous for mutant alleles of Ets1 and Fli1. Fli1(+/-) mice displayed mild thrombocytopenia, as did Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) animals. Fli1(+/-) and Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) mice also displayed craniofacial abnormalities, including a small middle ear cavity, short nasal bone, and malformed interface between the nasal bone process and cartilaginous nasal septum. They exhibited hearing impairment, otitis media, fusions of ossicles to the middle ear wall, and deformed stapes. Hearing impairment was more penetrant and stapes malformations were more severe in Ets1(+/-)Fli1(+/-) mice than in Fli1(+/-) mice, indicating partial functional redundancy of these transcription factors during auditory development. Our findings indicate that the short nose, otitis media, and hearing impairment in Jacobsen syndrome are likely because of hemizygosity for ETS1 and FLI1.

  6. Dissection of the Auditory Bulla in Postnatal Mice: Isolation of the Middle Ear Bones and Histological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Ayako; Kuroda, Yukiko; Kanzaki, Sho; Matsuo, Koichi

    2017-01-04

    In most mammals, auditory ossicles in the middle ear, including the malleus, incus and stapes, are the smallest bones. In mice, a bony structure called the auditory bulla houses the ossicles, whereas the auditory capsule encloses the inner ear, namely the cochlea and semicircular canals. Murine ossicles are essential for hearing and thus of great interest to researchers in the field of otolaryngology, but their metabolism, development, and evolution are highly relevant to other fields. Altered bone metabolism can affect hearing function in adult mice, and various gene-deficient mice show changes in morphogenesis of auditory ossicles in utero. Although murine auditory ossicles are tiny, their manipulation is feasible if one understands their anatomical orientation and 3D structure. Here, we describe how to dissect the auditory bulla and capsule of postnatal mice and then isolate individual ossicles by removing part of the bulla. We also discuss how to embed the bulla and capsule in different orientations to generate paraffin or frozen sections suitable for preparation of longitudinal, horizontal, or frontal sections of the malleus. Finally, we enumerate anatomical differences between mouse and human auditory ossicles. These methods would be useful in analyzing pathological, developmental and evolutionary aspects of auditory ossicles and the middle ear in mice.

  7. [Active electronic hearing implants for middle and inner ear hearing loss--a new era in ear surgery. III: prospects for inner ear hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Zenner, H P; Leysieffer, H

    1997-10-01

    The perspectives for active hearing implants lie in the treatment of patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The majority of patients with SNHL suffer from a cochlea amplifier (CA) failure which is discernible by a positive recruitment and loss of otoacoustic emissions (OAE). Therefore, the electronic implant is expected to partially replace functions of the CA. Thus, the implant is thought to function as a CAI (cochlea amplifier implant). An approved implant for routine use is not yet available. Clinical studies have thus far only used the high energy consuming (HEC), narrow-band, electromagnetic floating-mass transducer, as well as the Maniglia-HEC implant. The high energie consuming, yet broadband Canadian Fredrickson implant is soon to be used in humans. Of the piezoelectrical implants, a German CAI (Tübingen implant) at present consisting of a piezoelectrical transducer and a microphone has thus far been acutely implanted in first patient. It is a low energy consuming (LEC), broad-band implantable system for patients with sensorineural hearing loss. Routine surgical treatment of patients with sensorineural hearing loss with a CAI will only be achieved if complete implants (with transducer, microphones, batteries, and control unit) are made available. They combine distinct acoustic superiority with invisibility (end of stigmatization), an open ear canal, and hopefully, the end of feedback whistling. Among the implants mentioned, the German CAI is the only LEC implant. Its energy requirements are so low that with today's technologie implantable batteries (e.g., in pacemakers), the additional implantation of an energy carrier seems feasible. Since the implantable microphone is already available in the German system, the only essential part missing for a totally implantable CAI is the implantable control unit.

  8. Mammalian development does not recapitulate suspected key transformations in the evolutionary detachment of the mammalian middle ear

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Wroe, Stephen W.; Selwood, Lynne; Hinds, Lyn A.; Leigh, Chris; Koyabu, Daisuke; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Weisbecker, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The ectotympanic, malleus and incus of the developing mammalian middle ear (ME) are initially attached to the dentary via Meckel's cartilage, betraying their origins from the primary jaw joint of land vertebrates. This recapitulation has prompted mostly unquantified suggestions that several suspected—but similarly unquantified—key evolutionary transformations leading to the mammalian ME are recapitulated in development, through negative allometry and posterior/medial displacement of ME bones relative to the jaw joint. Here we show, using µCT reconstructions, that neither allometric nor topological change is quantifiable in the pre-detachment ME development of six marsupials and two monotremes. Also, differential ME positioning in the two monotreme species is not recapitulated. This challenges the developmental prerequisites of widely cited evolutionary scenarios of definitive mammalian middle ear (DMME) evolution, highlighting the requirement for further fossil evidence to test these hypotheses. Possible association between rear molar eruption, full ME ossification and ME detachment in marsupials suggests functional divergence between dentary and ME as a trigger for developmental, and possibly also evolutionary, ME detachment. The stable positioning of the dentary and ME supports suggestions that a ‘partial mammalian middle ear’ as found in many mammaliaforms—probably with a cartilaginous Meckel's cartilage—represents the only developmentally plausible evolutionary DMME precursor. PMID:26763693

  9. Transmucosal gas-loss rates in middle ears initially filled with O2 or CO2.

    PubMed

    Kania, Romain E; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Ars, Bernard; Tran Ba Huy, Patrice; Herman, Philippe; Ar, Amos

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the role of different gases in clearance of gas in the middle ear cavity (ME) by its mucosal blood flow. A rat model was used to measure gas volume changes in the ME cavity at constant pressure without ventilation. We disturbed the normal gas composition of the ME by filling it with O2 or CO2, measured the consequent changes in gas volume over time and compared these results with previously obtained ones for air and N2. The first 5 min of the primary transient phase (phase I) for O2 or CO2 was characterized by a volume loss decrease of -0.49 ± 0.34 μL and -46.28 ± 8.49 μL, respectively, with volume loss increase for air and N2 differing greatly, at +0.17 ± 0.17 and +2.31 ± 0.81, respectively. The CO2 value of -46.28 μL showed that a volume of gas equivalent to that of the ME cleft volume was eliminated within the first 5 min. In the second phase (phase II), all gases showed a linear decrease in volume, which presumably represents a steady-state gas loss rate. However, the gas loss rate of -0.307 ± 0.170 μL min(-1) for O2-filled MEs was significantly higher than the mean of -0.124 μL min(-1) for all other gases. We used a previously established mathematical model to calculate the effective ME mucosal blood flow rate under steady-state (phase II) conditions. The blood flow results for O2-filled MEs differed greatly from those of the other gases (89.0 ± 49.28 vs. 26.5 μL min(-1), on average), which suggest that the model used to calculate blood flow should be modified if used with O2-filled MEs. Further work should involve a comparison of our method with different methods to verify ME blood flow rate.

  10. Radiation-Induced Middle Ear and Mastoid Opacification in Skull Base Tumors Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Gary V.; Ahmed, Salmaan; Allen, Pamela; Gidley, Paul W.; Woo, Shiao Y.; DeMonte, Franco; Chang, Eric L.; Mahajan, Anita

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the incidence of middle ear (ME) pathology in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) for skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 61 patients treated with RT between 2003 and 2008 for skull base tumors was conducted. Clinical outcomes and demographics were reviewed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed on the eustachian canal (EC), ME, mastoid air cells, vestibular apparatus, cochlea, internal auditory canal, lateral and posterior nasopharynx, and temporal lobes to relate doses to symptoms and radiographic change. Otomastoid opacification was rated 0 (none), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate), and 3 (severe) by a neuroradiologist blinded to clinical outcomes and doses. Results: The median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy (range, 14-74 Gy). The ME mean dose was 14 Gy and 34 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3 opacification, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean mastoid dose was 10 Gy and 26 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean EC dose was 17 Gy and 32 Gy for Grade 0-1 and 2-3, respectively (p = 0.0001). Otomastoid opacification resolved in 17 of 40 patients (42.5%), at a mean of 17 months after RT (range, 2-45 months). Otomastoid opacification persisted in 23 of 40 patients (57.5%), with a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 2-55 months). Multivariate analysis showed that mastoid dose >30 Gy (odds ratio = 28.0, p < 0.001) and posterior nasopharynx dose of >30 Gy (odds ratio = 4.9, p = 0.009) were associated with Grade 2-3 effusions, whereas other factors including dose to EC and ME were not significant. Conclusions: A mean RT dose >30 Gy to the mastoid air cells or posterior nasopharynx is associated with increased risk of moderate to severe otomastoid opacification, which persisted in more than half of patients at 2-year follow-up.

  11. Middle ear bones of a mid-gestation ruminant foetus extracted from x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costeur, Loic; Mennecart, Bastien; Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg

    2016-10-01

    The timing of ossification of middle ear ossicles has been extensively studied in humans. This is an exception since it is vastly unknown in the +5000 extant species of placentals. As a preliminary approach, a cow foetus (around 115 days of gestation) was visualized using X-ray microtomography (μCT) and the ossicles including stapes, incus, and malleus could be extracted from the data set. All three bones have already undergone substantial ossification, which allow comparison to adult middle ear bones. Their ossification at this stage parallels ossification in humans at a comparable stage of gestation. While full ossification is not yet achieved almost all the morphological characters of the ossicles are observed. Bone tissue is still very porous, the stapes does not have the characteristic plate-like footplate, the lenticular process of the incus is missing and the manubrium of the malleus is very thin and not yet complete. Despite all this, the ossicles are articulate with each other and perfectly with the bony labyrinth. The stapes footplate is positioned on the oval window but is smaller than the latter while it should perfectly fit to transmit sound vibrations to the cochlea. All ossicles, especially the stapes, have not yet reached adult size, while the bony labyrinth already has. This is the first detailed description of a set of middle ear bones in a placental at mid-gestation based on high-resolution μCT. Similarities in ossification timing with humans encourage more work to be done on foetuses to understand if a general rule for placental mammals exists.

  12. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the back of the ...

  13. Ear Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis Tumors of the ... Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis NOTE: This is ...

  14. A Fully-Implantable Cochlear Implant SoC with Piezoelectric Middle-Ear Sensor and Arbitrary Waveform Neural Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yip, Marcus; Jin, Rui; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Stankovic, Konstantina M; Chandrakasan, Anantha P

    2015-01-01

    A system-on-chip for an invisible, fully-implantable cochlear implant is presented. Implantable acoustic sensing is achieved by interfacing the SoC to a piezoelectric sensor that detects the sound-induced motion of the middle ear. Measurements from human cadaveric ears demonstrate that the sensor can detect sounds between 40 and 90 dB SPL over the speech bandwidth. A highly-reconfigurable digital sound processor enables system power scalability by reconfiguring the number of channels, and provides programmable features to enable a patient-specific fit. A mixed-signal arbitrary waveform neural stimulator enables energy-optimal stimulation pulses to be delivered to the auditory nerve. The energy-optimal waveform is validated with in-vivo measurements from four human subjects which show a 15% to 35% energy saving over the conventional rectangular waveform. Prototyped in a 0.18 μm high-voltage CMOS technology, the SoC in 8-channel mode consumes 572 μW of power including stimulation. The SoC integrates implantable acoustic sensing, sound processing, and neural stimulation on one chip to minimize the implant size, and proof-of-concept is demonstrated with measurements from a human cadaver ear.

  15. A Fully-Implantable Cochlear Implant SoC with Piezoelectric Middle-Ear Sensor and Arbitrary Waveform Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Marcus; Jin, Rui; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi; Stankovic, Konstantina M.; Chandrakasan, Anantha P.

    2015-01-01

    A system-on-chip for an invisible, fully-implantable cochlear implant is presented. Implantable acoustic sensing is achieved by interfacing the SoC to a piezoelectric sensor that detects the sound-induced motion of the middle ear. Measurements from human cadaveric ears demonstrate that the sensor can detect sounds between 40 and 90 dB SPL over the speech bandwidth. A highly-reconfigurable digital sound processor enables system power scalability by reconfiguring the number of channels, and provides programmable features to enable a patient-specific fit. A mixed-signal arbitrary waveform neural stimulator enables energy-optimal stimulation pulses to be delivered to the auditory nerve. The energy-optimal waveform is validated with in-vivo measurements from four human subjects which show a 15% to 35% energy saving over the conventional rectangular waveform. Prototyped in a 0.18 μm high-voltage CMOS technology, the SoC in 8-channel mode consumes 572 μW of power including stimulation. The SoC integrates implantable acoustic sensing, sound processing, and neural stimulation on one chip to minimize the implant size, and proof-of-concept is demonstrated with measurements from a human cadaver ear. PMID:26251552

  16. Passive flooding of paranasal sinuses and middle ears as a method of equalisation in extreme breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino; Musimu, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Breath-hold diving is both a recreational activity, performed by thousands of enthusiasts in Europe, and a high-performance competitive sport. Several 'disciplines' exist, of which the 'no-limits' category is the most spectacular: using a specially designed heavy 'sled,' divers descend to extreme depths on a cable, and then reascend using an inflatable balloon, on a single breath. The current world record for un-assisted descent stands at more than 200 m of depth. Equalising air pressure in the paranasal sinuses and middle-ear cavities is a necessity during descent to avoid barotraumas. However, this requires active insufflations of precious air, which is thus unavailable in the pulmonary system. The authors describe a diver who, by training, is capable of allowing passive flooding of the sinuses and middle ear with (sea) water during descent, by suppressing protective (parasympathetic) reflexes during this process. Using this technique, he performed a series of extreme-depth breath-hold dives in June 2005, descending to 209 m of sea water on one breath of air.

  17. Closure of the middle ear with special reference to the development of the tegmen tympani of the temporal bone

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, José Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Verdugo-López, Samuel; Abe, Shin-ichi; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2011-01-01

    Closure of the middle ear is believed to be closely related to the evolutionary development of the mammalian jaw. However, few comprehensive descriptions are available on fetal development. We examined paraffin-embedded specimens of 20 mid-term human fetuses at 8–25 weeks of ovulation age (crown-rump length or CRL, 38–220 mm). After 9 weeks, the tympanic bone and the squamous part of the temporal bone, each of which was cranial or caudal to Meckel's cartilage, grew to close the lateral part of the tympanosquamosal fissure. At the same time, the cartilaginous tegmen tympani appeared independently of the petrous part of the temporal bone and resulted in the petrosquamosal fissure. Subsequently, the medial part of the tympanosquamosal fissure was closed by the descent of a cartilaginous inferior process of the tegmen tympani. When Meckel's cartilage changed into the sphenomandibular ligament and the anterior ligament of the malleus, the inferior process of the tegmen tympani interposed between the tympanic bone and the squamous part of the temporal bone, forming the petrotympanic fissure for the chorda tympani nerve and the discomalleolar ligament. Therefore, we hypothesize that, in accordance with the regression of Meckel's cartilage, the rapidly growing temporomandibular joint provided mechanical stress that accelerated the growth and descent of the inferior process of the tegmen tympani via the discomalleolar ligament. The usual diagram showing bony fissures around the tegmen tympani may overestimate the role of the tympanic bone in the fetal middle-ear closure. PMID:21477146

  18. [Investigation of viral nucleic acids in middle-ear effusion specimens from children with acute otitis media].

    PubMed

    Abu Sitteh, Muhammed H; Sener, Kenan; Yapar, Mehmet; Kiliç, Abdullah; Güney, Cakir; Kubar, Ayhan

    2008-07-01

    Acute otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the major causes of antibiotic use, indication for operation and hearing loss in children. In two third of the cases the etiologic agents are bacteria. Nonetheless, increasing numbers of reports have implicated viruses as etiologic agents that may have some effect on prognosis of OME. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of nucleic acids of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) type A and B, influenza type A virus, adenovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and enteroviruses in the middle ear effusion specimens from children with otitis media by TaqMan real-time PCR. As a result, 18 of 30 (60%) OME samples were found positive in terms of viral nucleic acids by real-time PCR. RSV-A was detected in nine samples (30%), CMV in 3 (10%) samples and HSV-1 in 1 (3.3%) sample. In five of the samples two viruses were detected in the same sample (three were positive for adenovirus and RSV-A, and two were positive for CMV and RSV-A). Our data have supported the importance of viruses as etiologic agents of OME. Additionally, it was thought that TaqMan real-time PCR may be used as a reliable and rapid method for the detection of viruses in the middle ear effusion samples.

  19. External auditory canal and middle ear relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with arsenic trioxide: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lafayette, Thereza Christina Sampaio; Coser, Virginia Maria; Brûlé, Alice Odette; Coser, Pedro Luis; Pereira, Waldir Veiga

    2010-04-01

    Extramedullary involvement occurs infrequently in acute promyelocytic leukemia and is said to be more common after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. We describe a 9-year-old girl who had an isolated external auditory canal and middle ear relapse after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. A patient with cytogenetically and molecularly confirmed acute promyelocytic leukemia developed isolated extramedullary relapse in the auditory canal and middle ear 4 years and 9 months after initial diagnosis, while in hematologic and molecular remission, successfully treated with arsenic trioxide alone.

  20. Middle and inner ear malformations in mutation-proven branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome: case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melissa T; Blaser, Susan; Papsin, Blake; Meschino, Wendy; Reardon, Willie; Klatt, Regan; Babul-Hirji, Riyana; Milunsky, Jeff; Chitayat, David

    2012-08-01

    Hearing impairment is common in individuals with branchio-oculo-facial (BOF) syndrome. The majority of described individuals have conductive hearing impairment due to malformed ossicles and/or external canal stenosis or atresia, although a sensorineural component to the hearing impairment in BOF syndrome is increasingly being reported. Sophisticated computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone has revealed middle and inner ear malformations in three previous reports. We present middle and inner ear abnormalities in three additional individuals with mutation-proven BOF syndrome. We suggest that temporal bone CT imaging be included in the medical workup of a child with BOF syndrome, in order to guide management.

  1. Vibrant SoundBridge application to middle ear windows versus conventional hearing aids: a comparative study based on international outcome inventory for hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Atas, Ahmet; Tutar, Hakan; Gunduz, Bulent; Bayazıt, Yıldırım A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the outcomes of satisfaction of the patients who used hearing aids preceding the vibrant sound bridge (VSB) application on middle ear windows (14 oval window and 5 round window). Nineteen adult patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss were included in the study. All patients used behind the ear hearing aids on the site which was selected for VSB application. The patients used hearing aids for at least 3 months before the VSB operation. The floating mass transducer (FMT) was placed on one of the middle ear windows (oval or round) in VSB operation. The patients were evaluated with International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) preoperatively after at least 3 months trial of conventional hearing aid and postoperatively after 3 months use of VSB. No perioperative problem was encountered. The total score of IOI-HA was significantly higher with VSB compared with conventional hearing aids (p < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found between the daily use, residual activity limitations, satisfaction, impact on others, quality of life between middle ear implant and hearing aid (p > 0.05). The IOI-HA scores were significantly higher with the middle ear implant than the conventional hearing aid regarding benefit and residual participation restrictions (p < 0.05). Although the scores for quality of life assessment was similar between VSB and hearing aid use, there was a superiority of VSB in terms of benefit and residual participation restrictions as well as overall IOI-HA scores as the FMT was placed on one of the middle ear windows.

  2. Diagnostic Bedside Vestibuloocular Reflex Evaluation in the Setting of a False Negative Fistula Test in Cholesteatoma of the Middle Ear

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Ligia; Carmona, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Background. False negative fistula testing in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media is a dilemma when proceeding to surgery. It is imperative to rule out a dead labyrinth or a mass effect secondary to the cholesteatoma in an otherwise normally functioning inner ear. We present a case series of three patients in whom a bedside vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evaluation using a head impulse test was used successfully for further evaluation prior to surgery. Results. In all three cases with a false negative fistula test we were able to further evaluate at the bedside and were not only able to register the abnormal VOR but also localize its deterioration to a particular semicircular canal eroded by the fistula. Conclusion. Vestibuloocular reflex evaluation is mandatory in patients with suspected labyrinthine fistula due to cholesteatoma of the middle ear before proceeding to surgery. We demonstrate successful use of a bedside head impulse test for further evaluation prior to surgery in patients with false negative fistula test. PMID:28386500

  3. The effect of flying and low humidity on the admittance of the tympanic membrane and middle ear system.

    PubMed

    Morse, Robert Peter

    2013-10-01

    Many passengers experience discomfort during flight because of the effect of low humidity on the skin, eyes, throat, and nose. In this physiological study, we have investigated whether flight and low humidity also affect the tympanic membrane. From previous studies, a decrease in admittance of the tympanic membrane through drying might be expected to affect the buffering capacity of the middle ear and to disrupt automatic pressure regulation. This investigation involved an observational study onboard an aircraft combined with experiments in an environmental chamber, where the humidity could be controlled but could not be made to be as low as during flight. For the flight study, there was a linear relationship between the peak compensated static admittance of the tympanic membrane and relative humidity with a constant of proportionality of 0.00315 mmho/% relative humidity. The low humidity at cruise altitude (minimum 22.7 %) was associated with a mean decrease in admittance of about 20 % compared with measures in the airport. From the chamber study, we further found that a mean decrease in relative humidity of 23.4 % led to a significant decrease in mean admittance by 0.11 mmho [F(1,8) = 18.95, P = 0.002], a decrease of 9.4 %. The order of magnitude for the effect of humidity was similar for the flight and environmental chamber studies. We conclude that admittance changes during flight were likely to have been caused by the low humidity in the aircraft cabin and that these changes may affect the automatic pressure regulation of the middle ear during descent.

  4. Iodine potassium iodide improves the contrast-to-noise ratio of micro-computed tomography images of the human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Rohani, S A; Ghomashchi, S; Umoh, J; Holdsworth, D W; Agrawal, S K; Ladak, H M

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution imaging of middle-ear geometry is necessary for finite-element modeling. Although micro-computed tomography (microCT) is widely used because of its ability to image bony structures of the middle ear, it is difficult to visualize soft tissues - including the tympanic membrane and the suspensory ligaments/tendons - because of lack of contrast. The objective of this research is to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of iodine potassium iodide (IKI) solution as a contrast agent. Six human temporal bones were used in this experiment, which were obtained in right-left pairs, from three cadaveric heads. All bones were fixed using formaldehyde. Three bones (one from each pair) were stained in IKI solution for 2 days, whereas the other three were not stained. Samples were scanned using a microCT system at a resolution of 20 μm. Eight soft tissues in the middle ear were segmented: anterior mallear ligament, incudomallear joint, lateral mallear ligament, posterior incudal ligament, stapedial annular ligament, stapedius muscle, tympanic membrane and tensor tympani muscle. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) of each soft tissue were calculated for each temporal bone. Combined CNRs of the soft tissues in unstained samples were 6.1 ± 3.0, whereas they were 8.1 ± 2.7 in stained samples. Results from Welch's t-test indicate significant difference between the two groups at a 95% confidence interval. Results for paired t-tests for each of the individual soft tissues also indicated significant improvement of contrast in all tissues after staining. Relatively large soft tissues in the middle ear such as the tympanic membrane and the tensor tympani muscle were impacted by staining more than smaller tissues such as the stapedial annular ligament. The increase in contrast with IKI solution confirms its potential application in automatic segmentation of the middle-ear soft tissues.

  5. Effects of draining cochlear fluids on stapes displacement in human middle-ear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, Richard M.; Abel, Eric W.; Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert P.

    2001-12-01

    Displacement-frequency characteristics of the stapes footplate were measured in five human temporal bones before and after draining the vestibule. Measurements were made in the 0.125-8 kHz range at 80 dB input sound pressure level, using a laser Doppler vibrometer. A circuit model was also used to predict stapes displacement. The temporal bone studies show a slight decrease in stapes footplate displacement at low frequency, and little change above 1 kHz. The displacement change is not as great as that found by other investigators or predicted by the model. There is little difference in stapes motion in temporal bones when the inner ear is intact or drained.

  6. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding to non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae is not altered when ascending from the nasopharynx to the middle ears in children with otitis media.

    PubMed

    Langereis, Jeroen D; van Dongen, Thijs M A; Stol, Kim; Venekamp, Roderick P; Schilder, Anne G M; Hermans, Peter W M

    2013-12-01

    We have previously found that non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) collected from the middle ear of children with otitis media (OM) exhibit increased levels of complement resistance compared to NTHi collected from the nasopharynx. However, it is unknown whether bacteria develop complement resistance in the middle ear, or whether resistance is present when residing in the nasopharynx. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the levels of complement resistance of isolates collected from the middle ear were similar to those of isolates from the nasopharynx with an identical MLST type. We included 62 children with recurrent acute OM, chronic OM with effusion or acute tympanostomy tube otorrhea. NTHi was simultaneously isolated from the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid. MLST, resistance to complement-mediated killing, IgG binding, IgM binding and phosphorylcholine expression was determined. In 41 children, NTHi isolated from the middle ear and nasopharynx showed to have an identical MLST type. Isolates collected from the middle ear showed a highly similar level of complement resistance and IgM binding with isolates collected from the nasopharynx, whereas this was not the case for IgG binding and phosphorylcholine incorporation into lipooligosaccharide. Resistance to complement-mediated killing and IgM binding of NTHi isolates with an identical MLST type collected from the middle ear and nasopharynx of children with OM was highly similar.

  7. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Pierced Ears KidsHealth > For Kids > Pierced Ears A A A ... cool, but infected ears do not! Getting Your Ears Pierced It's important to get your ears pierced ...

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Middle Ear Inflammation Disrupts the cochlear Intra-Strial Fluid–Blood Barrier through Down-Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Hou, Zhiqiang; Cai, Jing; Dong, Mingmin; Shi, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Middle ear infection (or inflammation) is the most common pathological condition that causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear, disrupting cochlear homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide, a product of bacteriolysis, activates macrophages and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that lipopolysaccharides cause functional and structural changes in the inner ear similar to that of inflammation. However, it is specifically not known how lipopolysaccharides affect the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis (intra-strial fluid–blood barrier), nor what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we used a cell culture-based in vitro model and animal-based in vivo model, combined with immunohistochemistry and a vascular leakage assay, to investigate lipopolysaccharide effects on the integrity of the mouse intra-strial fluid–blood barrier. Our results show lipopolysaccharide-induced local infection significantly affects intra-strial fluid–blood barrier component cells. Pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes are particularly affected, and the morphological and functional changes in these cells are accompanied by substantial changes in barrier integrity. Significant vascular leakage is found in the lipopolysaccharide treated-animals. Consistent with the findings from the in vivo animal model, the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer to FITC-albumin was significantly higher in the lipopolysaccharide-treated monolayer than in an untreated endothelial cell monolayer. Further study has shown the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation to have a major effect on the expression of tight junctions in the blood barrier. Lipopolysaccharide was also shown to cause high frequency hearing loss, corroborated by previous reports from other laboratories. Our findings show lipopolysaccharide-evoked middle ear infection disrupts inner ear fluid balance, and its particular effects on the intra-strial fluid

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-induced middle ear inflammation disrupts the cochlear intra-strial fluid-blood barrier through down-regulation of tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Hou, Zhiqiang; Cai, Jing; Dong, Mingmin; Shi, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Middle ear infection (or inflammation) is the most common pathological condition that causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear, disrupting cochlear homeostasis. Lipopolysaccharide, a product of bacteriolysis, activates macrophages and causes release of inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that lipopolysaccharides cause functional and structural changes in the inner ear similar to that of inflammation. However, it is specifically not known how lipopolysaccharides affect the blood-labyrinth barrier in the stria vascularis (intra-strial fluid-blood barrier), nor what the underlying mechanisms are. In this study, we used a cell culture-based in vitro model and animal-based in vivo model, combined with immunohistochemistry and a vascular leakage assay, to investigate lipopolysaccharide effects on the integrity of the mouse intra-strial fluid-blood barrier. Our results show lipopolysaccharide-induced local infection significantly affects intra-strial fluid-blood barrier component cells. Pericytes and perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes are particularly affected, and the morphological and functional changes in these cells are accompanied by substantial changes in barrier integrity. Significant vascular leakage is found in the lipopolysaccharide treated-animals. Consistent with the findings from the in vivo animal model, the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer to FITC-albumin was significantly higher in the lipopolysaccharide-treated monolayer than in an untreated endothelial cell monolayer. Further study has shown the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation to have a major effect on the expression of tight junctions in the blood barrier. Lipopolysaccharide was also shown to cause high frequency hearing loss, corroborated by previous reports from other laboratories. Our findings show lipopolysaccharide-evoked middle ear infection disrupts inner ear fluid balance, and its particular effects on the intra-strial fluid-blood barrier

  10. Intraoperative radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment in locally advanced stage tumours involving the middle ear: a hypothesis-generating retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cristalli, G; Mercante, G; Marucci, L; Soriani, A; Telera, S; Spriano, G

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety, effectiveness and functional outcomes of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in locally advanced stage tumours involving the middle ear. Data on 13 consecutive patients treated for malignant tumor of external auditory canal involving the middle ear were retrospectively reviewed. Median follow-up was 33 months (range 6-133). Five (38%) patients were stage III and 8 (62%) were Stage IV according to the University of Pittsburgh staging system. Lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) was performed in all cases. LTBR was associated with parotidectomy in 5 (38%) cases, and with neck dissection and parotidectomy in 6 (46%) cases. No patients had gross residual tumour. Surgical treatment was followed by IORT (12 Gy) and IMRT (50 Gy). Adjuvant chemotherapy was used in 4 (30%) cases. Preoperative and postoperative audiometric tests were performed to assess hearing loss. 5-year local-control (LC), 5-year distant-metastasis (DM), 5-year disease-free-survival (DFS) and 5-year overall-survival (OS) were calculated with Kaplan-Meyer method. Significant changes in bone conduction were reported after treatment. Partial flap necrosis was the only early complication observed in three (23%) cases, while meningeal fistula was seen in one (7.6%) case as a late complication. The 5-year LC-rate was 68%. The 5-year DM-rate was 90%. The 5-year DFS-rate was 61%. The 5-year OS-rate was 69%. IORT followed by IMRT for the treatment of advanced external auditory canal and middle ear tumours seems to be safe. No intraoperative death was reported. IORT may reduce the postoperative irradiation of remnant tissue obtaining the same full dose on the tumour bed. No complications of the residual external ear were observed. Detriment of neurosensory hearing may be expected. Future studies are required to confirm the benefit of this procedure in the ear.

  11. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Kyun; Lee, Haa-Yung; Pan, Huiqi; Takeshita, Tamotsu; Park, Raekil; Cha, Kiweon; Andalibi, Ali; Lim, David J

    2006-01-01

    Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization) in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM). Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway. PMID:16433908

  12. Evaluation of the Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Immunoregulatory Interleukin-10 in the Middle Ear in Chronic Otitis Media With Effusion in Children With and Without Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Stankiewicz-Szymczak, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the course of chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) has been documented. However, there are fewer studies on the action of anti-inflammatory cytokines in the middle ear. We sought determine whether there is an association between COME and anti-inflammatory cytokines and whether there are any differences in the cytokine profile in COME children with and without atopy. Methods Eighty-four children were divided into 3 groups: 32 nonatopic children with COME (group NA), 31 atopic children with COME (group A), and 21 children without COME and without atopy (control group C). Specimens from the middle ear were collected and evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and immunoregulatory IL-10. Results Significantly higher IL-10 concentrations were found in both nonatopic and atopic children with COME compared to controls. No significant differences in IL-1Ra levels were found between atopic and nonatopic children with COME and the control group. Conclusion We found no differences in the levels of IL-1Ra in atopic and nonatopic children with COME compared to controls. However, we found elevated IL-10 levels in the middle ear effusions from children with COME, with or without atopy. These elevated immunoregulatory cytokine levels suggest a role for new immunomodulatory treatments to prevent disease progression in COME, regardless of atopy. PMID:27090281

  13. Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (107 CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Untreated mice served as controls. MEEs were used for bacterial counts and to measure the concentrations of cytokines. MEM were collected for histological evaluation and flow cytometric analysis. Inflammation of the MEM was prolonged throughout this study, and the incidence of NTHi culture-positive MEE was 38% at 2 months after inoculation. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-β), tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor β were increased in the middle ear for up to 2 months after inoculation. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg accumulated in the middle ear, and the percentage of Treg in the MEM increased for up to 2 months after inoculation. Treg depletion induced a 99.9% reduction of bacterial counts in MEEs and also significantly reduced the ratio of NTHi culture-positive MEE. The levels of these cytokines were also reduced in MEEs. In summary, we developed a murine model of COM, and our findings indicate that Treg confer infectious tolerance to NTHi in the middle ear. PMID:26553466

  14. Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: Treatment Outcomes, Marginal Misses, and Perspective on Target Delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wan-Yu; Kuo, Sung-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Szu-Huai; Tsai, Chiao-Ling; Chia-Hsien Cheng, Jason; Hong, Ruey-Long; Chen, Ya-Fang; Hsu, Chuan-Jen; Lin, Kai-Nan; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Lou, Pei-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Chong, Fok-Ching; Wang, Chun-Wei

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To report outcomes of the rare disease of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the external auditory canal (EAC) and middle ear treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Failure patterns related to spatial dose distribution were also analyzed to provide insight into target delineation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of the records of 11 consecutive patients with SCC of the EAC and middle ear who were treated with curative surgery and postoperative IMRT at one institution between January 2007 and February 2010. The prescribed IMRT dose was 60 to 66 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction. Three patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and 1 patient received concurrent oral tegafur/uracil. The median follow-up time was 19 months (range, 6-33 months). Results: Four patients had locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year locoregional control rate of 70.7%. Among them, 1 patient had persistent disease after treatment, and 3 had marginal recurrence. Distant metastasis occurred in 1 patient after extensive locoregional recurrence, yielding an estimated 2-year distant control rate of 85.7%. The estimated 2-year overall survival was 67.5%. The three cases of marginal recurrence were near the preauricular space and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, adjacent to the apex of the ear canal and glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint, and in the postauricular subcutaneous area and ipsilateral parotid nodes, respectively. Conclusions: Marginal misses should be recognized to improve target delineation. When treating SCC of the EAC and middle ear, care should be taken to cover the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint and periauricular soft tissue. Elective ipsilateral parotid irradiation should be considered. The treatment planning procedure should also be refined to balance subcutaneous soft-tissue dosimetry and toxicity.

  15. Perfusion and diffusion limitations in middle ear gas exchange: the exchange of CO2 as a test case.

    PubMed

    Marcusohn, Yael; Ar, Amos; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2010-06-14

    A long standing debate on perfusion/diffusion limitations in the context of middle ear (ME) gas exchange was revisited using data obtained from previous iso-pressure gas-exchange measurements in different mammals. We tried to determine whether the exchange of CO(2) in the ME is limited by perfusion or by diffusion by comparing the mass specific cardiac output (msQ) and the mass specific initial CO(2) flow rate into air-washed MEs (msV(i) CO(2)) of rabbits and rats. Based on previously published allometry at rest, the msQ was 0.154 mL/(min g) in rabbits (mean body weight: 2800 g) and 0.259 mL/(min g) in rats (mean body weight: 179.1 g); msV(i) CO(2) (Delta t=0) was 0.109+/-0.047 microL/(h g) in rabbits (n=16) and 0.170+/-0.094 microL/(h g) in rats (n=9). Similar ratios were found when an allometric comparison was made between the ratio of msV(i) CO(2) (Delta t=0) (approximately 0.64), and the ratio of msQs (approximately 0.59) in rabbits and rats. If the active mucosal surface areas of MEs of rabbits and rats are directly proportional to their masses as are the masses of their hearts and if their msQs are proportional to the rates of blood flows in the ME mucosa, these results support the assumption that the exchange of CO(2) in the ME of mammals is mainly perfusion (and not diffusion) dependent.

  16. Realistic 3D computer model of the gerbil middle ear, featuring accurate morphology of bone and soft tissue structures.

    PubMed

    Buytaert, Jan A N; Salih, Wasil H M; Dierick, Manual; Jacobs, Patric; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve realism in middle ear (ME) finite-element modeling (FEM), comprehensive and precise morphological data are needed. To date, micro-scale X-ray computed tomography (μCT) recordings have been used as geometric input data for FEM models of the ME ossicles. Previously, attempts were made to obtain these data on ME soft tissue structures as well. However, due to low X-ray absorption of soft tissue, quality of these images is limited. Another popular approach is using histological sections as data for 3D models, delivering high in-plane resolution for the sections, but the technique is destructive in nature and registration of the sections is difficult. We combine data from high-resolution μCT recordings with data from high-resolution orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical-sectioning microscopy (OPFOS), both obtained on the same gerbil specimen. State-of-the-art μCT delivers high-resolution data on the 3D shape of ossicles and other ME bony structures, while the OPFOS setup generates data of unprecedented quality both on bone and soft tissue ME structures. Each of these techniques is tomographic and non-destructive and delivers sets of automatically aligned virtual sections. The datasets coming from different techniques need to be registered with respect to each other. By combining both datasets, we obtain a complete high-resolution morphological model of all functional components in the gerbil ME. The resulting 3D model can be readily imported in FEM software and is made freely available to the research community. In this paper, we discuss the methods used, present the resulting merged model, and discuss the morphological properties of the soft tissue structures, such as muscles and ligaments.

  17. Primary investigations on the potential of a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for middle ear surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Karl; Wurm, Holger; Hausladen, Florian

    2016-02-01

    Flashlamp pumped Er:YAG lasers are successfully used clinically for both precise soft and hard tissue ablation. Since several years a novel diode pumped Er:YAG laser system (Pantec Engineering AG) is available, with mean laser power up to 40 W and pulse repetition rate up to 1 kHz. The aim of the study was to investigate the suitability of the laser system specifically for stapedotomy. Firstly an experimental setup was realized with a beam focusing unit and a computer controlled translation stage to move the samples (slices of porcine bone) with a defined velocity while irradiation with various laser parameters. A microphone was positioned in a defined distance to the ablation point and the resulting acoustic signal of the ablation process was recorded. For comparison, measurements were also performed with a flash lamp pumped Er:YAG laser system. After irradiation the resulting ablation quality and efficacy were determined using light microscopy. Using a high speed camera and "Töpler-Schlierentechnik" the cavitation bubble in water after perforation of a bone slice was investigated. The results show efficient bone ablation using the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system. Also a decrease of the sound level and of the cavitation bubble volume was observed with decreasing pulse duration. Higher repetition rates lead to a slightly increase of thermal side effects but have no influence on the ablation efficiency. In conclusion, these first experiments demonstrate the high potential of the diode pumped Er:YAG laser system for use in middle ear surgery.

  18. Cartilage graft or fascia in tympanoplasty in patients with low middle ear risk index (anatomical and audological results).

    PubMed

    Callioglu, Elif Ersoy; Ceylan, B Tijen; Kuran, Gokhan; Demirci, Sule; Tulaci, Kamil Gokce; Caylan, Refik

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare anatomic and audiological results of cartilage graft with temporal fascia graft in type 1 tympanoplasty patients with low middle ear risk index (MERI). In this retrospective study, 63 patients that underwent type 1 tympanoplasty with chondroperichondrial island graft between July 2009 and November 2010 were compared with 45 patients in whom temporal muscle fascia was used. Patients in both groups had low MERI values varying between 1 and 3. Five and nine patients underwent masteidectomy in cartilage and fascia group, respectively. Mean duration of follow-up was 11.9 ± 3.7 (5-17) months. Mean value was calculated at pre-operative and post-operative hearing threshold 0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz, and air bone gap (ABG) gain was compared in both cartilage and fascia groups. when pre-operative and post-operative ABG gain were compared, significant decrease was seen in ABG levels (p < 0.001). However, no significant difference was seen in ABG gain values (p = 0.608), which was 10.1 ± 7.00 dB in cartilage group and 10.8 ± 5.38 dB in fascia group. In both groups, age, sex, and the addition of mastoidectomy procedure had no significant effect on ABG gain and success. Cartilage is a graft material that may be preferred without concern about the effects on hearing results, especially, in patients with low MERI values. The addition of mastoidectomy had no impact on the outcome of operation and audiological results. However, further studies with larger case series may be carried out to further clarify the issue.

  19. Influence of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on Acute Otitis Media with Severe Middle Ear Inflammation: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Hirotoshi; Tsumura, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Masaru; Noda, Masuhiro; Chikuie, Daisuke; Noda, Chieko; Yamashita, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishii, Hidemasa; Tashiro, Toru; Iwata, Kazuhiro; Kono, Takashi; Tsumura, Kaoru; Sumiya, Takahiro; Takeno, Sachio; Hirakawa, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for acute otitis media in children recommend classifying acute otitis media by age, manifestations and local findings, and also recommend myringotomy for moderate-grade cases with severe local findings, severe-grade cases, and treatment-resistant cases. The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was released in Japan in February 2010. In Hiroshima City, public funding allowing free inoculation with this vaccine was initiated from January 2011, and the number of vaccinated individuals has since increased dramatically. This study investigated changes in the number of myringotomies performed to treat acute otitis media during the 5-year period from January 2008 to December 2012 at two hospitals and five clinics in the Asa Area of Hiroshima City, Japan. A total of 3,165 myringotomies for acute otitis media were performed. The rate of procedures per child-year performed in <5-year-old children decreased by 29.1% in 2011 and by 25.2% in 2012 compared to the mean rate performed in the 3 years prior to the introduction of public funding. A total of 895 myringotomies were performed for 1-year-old infants. The rate of myringotomies per child-year performed for acute otitis media in 1-year-old infants decreased significantly in the 2 years after the introduction of public funding for heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine compared to all years before introduction (p<0.000001). Our results suggest a benefit of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for acute otitis media in reducing the financial burden of myringotomy. In addition, this vaccine may help prevent acute otitis media with severe middle ear inflammation in 1-year-old infants.

  20. Drug delivery to the ear.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E; Daniel, M; Al-Zahid, S; Shakesheff, K M; Bayston, R; Birchall, J P

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to the ear is used to treat conditions of the middle and inner ear such as acute and chronic otitis media, Ménière's disease, sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus. Drugs used include antibiotics, antifungals, steroids, local anesthetics and neuroprotective agents. A literature review was conducted searching Medline (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), the Cochrane Library and Ovid (1966-2012), using search terms 'drug delivery', 'middle ear', 'inner ear' and 'transtympanic'. There are numerous methods of drug delivery to the middle ear, which can be categorized as topical, systemic (intravenous), transtympanic and via the Eustachian tube. Localized treatments to the ear have the advantages of targeted drug delivery allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. The ideal scenario would be a carrier system that could cross the intact tympanic membrane loaded with drugs or biochemical agents for the treatment of middle and inner ear conditions.

  1. Swimmer's Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Swimmer's Ear KidsHealth > For Kids > Swimmer's Ear Print A ... continue How Do I Know if I Have Swimmer's Ear? Swimmer's ear may start with some itching, ...

  2. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media interested ... throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through the ...

  3. Middle Ear Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions include, but are not limited to, anatomic abnormalities such as cleft palate, genetic conditions such as Down syndrome, immune system disorders, and cochlear implants. Also excluded are children with a clinical ...

  4. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  5. Selective adherence of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) to mucus or epithelial cells in the chinchilla eustachian tube and middle ear.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, N; Bakaletz, L O

    1996-11-01

    Frozen sections of chinchilla Eustachian tube (ET) and middle ear mucosa were incubated with either FITC-labeled non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) or Bordetella pertussis. The number of bacteria adherent to "roof" vs "floor" regions was compared for each of three anatomic portions of the ET and for middle ear epithelium noting whether bacteria adhered to mucus or to epithelial cells. NTHi strains adhered significantly greater to mucus in the ET lumen whereas B. pertussis preferentially adhered to epithelial cells lining the ET (P < or = 0.05). A non-fimbriated isogenic mutant of NTHi adhered significantly less to mucus than the parental isolate at all sites of the ET floor (P < or = 0.05). Isolated fimbrin protein adhered to ET mucus and blocked adherence of whole organisms. Treatment with the mucolytic agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in significantly reduced adherence of NTHi to mucus (P < or = 0.001) and eliminated the ability to detect binding of isolated fimbrin protein. N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment did not affect adherence of either B. pertussis or NTHi to epithelial cells. These data indicated that NTHi may mediate ascension of the ET from the nasopharynx primarily via adherence to and growth in mucus overlying the floor region of the tubal lumen. The OMP P5-homologous fimbriae were shown to contribute to this binding.

  6. An immunohistochemical study of the middle ear muscles of some carnivores and primates, with special reference to the IIM and slow-tonic fibre types.

    PubMed Central

    Mascarello, F; Veggetti, A; Cerpenè, E; Rowlerson, A

    1983-01-01

    The middle ear muscles of several species of carnivores (cat, dog, fox, ferret and stone-marten) and some New World monkeys (Callithrix, Saimiri) and Old World monkeys (Cercopithecus, Macaca) were examined. The fibre type compositions of these muscles were determined by a combination of the standard histochemical myofibrillar ATPase method, and immunohistochemical techniques using myosintype-specific antisera. Immunohistochemically slow-tonic fibres were found in the stapedius muscles of only two carnivores, the ferret and stone-marten. In all the carnivores and the New World monkeys, tensor tympani muscle contained IIM, slow-tonic and slow-twitch fibres, but in the Old World monkeys it resembled stapedius muscle, and contained only Type I (slow-twitch) and IIA fibres. Thus, because all the species examined had IIM fibres in the jaw-closer muscles, this means that the common embryological origin of tensor tympani muscle and the jaw-closers does not necessarily result in tensor tympani muscle containing this fibre type even though IIM fibres occur only in first branchial arch muscles. This fact, together with other species differences in the fibre type composition of these muscles, shows that there is no typical composition of middle ear muscles in general, and suggests that the differences are related to very different functional requirements. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6415024

  7. Differences in innate immune response gene regulation in the middle ear of children who are otitis prone and in those not otitis prone

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Janet; Pichichero, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Acute otitis media (AOM) causes an inflammatory response in the middle ear. We assessed differences in innate immune responses involved in bacterial defense at onset of AOM in children who were stringently defined as otitis prone (sOP) and children not otitis prone (NOP). Study Design: Innate immune genes analysis from middle ear fluid (MEF) samples of children. Methods: Genes of toll-like receptors (TLR), nod-like and retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, downstream effectors important for inflammation and apoptosis, including cytokines and chemokines, were studied from MEF samples by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction array. Protein levels of differentially regulated genes were measured by Luminex. Results: Gene expression in MEF among children who were sOP was significantly different in upregulation of interleukin 8, secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3, and in downregulation of interferon regulatory factor 7 and its related signaling molecules interferon alpha, Toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 compared with children who were NOP. Differences in innate gene regulation were similar when AOM was caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. Conclusion: Innate-immune response genes are differentially regulated in children who were sOP compared with children with NOP. PMID:28124644

  8. Ear emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ear injury, avoid nose blowing and getting water in the injured ear. Treat ear infections right ... FDR Medical Services/Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  9. Long-range, wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography with GPU accelerated digital lock-in Doppler vibrography for real-time, in vivo middle ear diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, Dan; Farrell, Joshua; Brown, Jeremy; Bance, Manohar; Adamson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present the design, implementation and validation of a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for real-time imaging of the human middle ear in live patients. Our system consists of a highly phase-stable Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg-reflector laser along with a real-time processing engine implemented on a graphics processing unit. We use the system to demonstrate, for the first time in live subjects, real-time Doppler measurements of middle ear vibration in response to sound, video rate 2D B-mode imaging of the middle ear and 3D volumetric B-mode imaging. All measurements were performed non-invasively through the intact tympanic membrane demonstrating that the technology is readily translatable to the clinic. PMID:27896001

  10. USING AERATION FOR CORROSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeration is a useful drinking water treatment process. Aeration has been used to remove hydrogen sulfide, methane, radon, iron, manganese, and volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from drinking water. Aeration is also effective in removing carbon dioxide which directly impacts ...

  11. Three Methods for Estimating the Middle-Ear Muscle Reflex (MEMR) Using Otoacoustic Emission (OAE) Measurement Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    threshold. Examples from three experiments show a variety of test outcomes, including simultaneous MEMR and MOCR measurements. In summary, the benefits to...In a separate, informal exercise , colleagues at MIT investigated potential sources of variability in their ears (both of which showed repeatedly...determinable. In summary, the benefits to these methods are that the MEMR test is sensitive, can be derived from the MOCR test, and can be made relatively

  12. Numerical analysis of ossicular chain lesion of human ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingxi; Li, Sheng; Sun, Xiuzhen

    2009-04-01

    Lesion of ossicular chain is a common ear disease impairing the sense of hearing. A comprehensive numerical model of human ear can provide better understanding of sound transmission. In this study, we propose a three-dimensional finite element model of human ear that incorporates the canal, tympanic membrane, ossicular bones, middle ear suspensory ligaments/muscles, middle ear cavity and inner ear fluid. Numerical analysis is conducted and employed to predict the effects of middle ear cavity, malleus handle defect, hypoplasia of the long process of incus, and stapedial crus defect on sound transmission. The present finite element model is shown to be reasonable in predicting the ossicular mechanics of human ear.

  13. Ear Pieces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  14. Ear trauma.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  15. Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography using an Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector swept laser in the mouse middle ear.

    PubMed

    Park, Jesung; Carbajal, Esteban F; Chen, Xi; Oghalai, John S; Applegate, Brian E

    2014-11-01

    Phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhOCT) offers exquisite sensitivity to mechanical vibration in biological tissues. There is growing interest in using PhOCT for imaging the nanometer scale vibrations of the ear in animal models of hearing disorders. Swept-source-based systems offer fast acquisition speeds, suppression of common mode noise via balanced detection, and good signal roll-off. However, achieving high phase stability is difficult due to nonlinear laser sweeps and trigger jitter in a typical swept laser source. Here, we report on the initial application of a Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) swept laser as the source for a fiber-based PhOCT system. The VT-DBR swept laser is electronically tuned and precisely controls sweeps without mechanical movement, resulting in highly linear sweeps with high wavelength stability and repeatability. We experimentally measured a phase sensitivity of 0.4 pm standard deviation, within a factor of less than 2 of the computed shot-noise limit. We further demonstrated the system by making ex vivo measurements of the vibrations of the mouse middle ear structures.

  16. Gel chromatographic characterization of proteins in mucous and serous middle ear effusions of patients with otitis media in comparison to serum proteins.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Rie; Higo, Ryuzaburo; Sugita, Koichi; Iwamori, Masao

    2008-03-01

    Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an inflammatory disease of the middle ear cavity that is associated with middle ear effusions (MEEs), which are frequently mucous and serous for pediatric and adult patients exhibiting low and high responsiveness to medical treatment, respectively. To assess the pathological outcomes in mucous and serous MEEs, their protein compositions were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting in comparison with those in the same patients' sera. A mucin, which is immunochemically identical with nasal mucin, was a characteristic consituent of mucous MEEs (n = 25), being present at the concentration of 59.4 mg/ml and comprising about 60% of the total proteins, but it was not detected in serous MEEs (n = 30) or sera. Serum proteins with molecular weights of less than 260 kDa were detected in serous and mucous MEEs, in which albumin was the major protein. Albumin, IgM and alpha1-acid glycoprotein, and lysozyme, IgA and IgG in MEEs were present at lower and higher concentrations than in sera, respectively. The ratios of IgA, IgG, IgM and alpha1-acid glycoprotein to albumin in mucous MEEs were 4-, 3-, 1.4- and 1.0-times higher than those in the respective pediatric sera, and those in serous MEEs were 1.7-, 1.7-, 0.6- and 0.3-times higher than those in adult sera. Also, the concentrations of lysozyme in mucous and serous MEEs were 19 and 3 microg/ml, but those in pediatric and adult sera were negligible. These results indicate that the contents of these proteins, in comparison to albumin, might be useful criteria for assessing the inflammation level in MEEs.

  17. The contralateral ear in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Sady Selaimen; Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Rosito, Letícia Petersen Schmidt

    2016-07-01

    Middle ear cholesteatoma has been extensively studied. Theories of cholesteatoma pathogenesis involving previous tympanic membrane retraction are the most widely accepted, but the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma remains unstudied. This study aimed to investigate the contralateral ear in patients with cholesteatoma, and to determine whether the characteristics of it differ according to patient age and cholesteatoma growth patterns. This study was cross sectional. We evaluated 356 patients with middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear, and no history of surgery, between August 2000 and March 2013. Otoendoscopy was conducted on both the affected and the contralateral ear. They were classified as normal, tympanic membrane perforation, moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction and cholesteatoma. The mean age of the patients was 32.77 years, and 53.1 % of the cohort were female. Only 34.8 % of the contralateral ears were normal. The most common abnormality was moderate to severe tympanic membrane retraction (41.6 %). Cholesteatoma was identified in 16 %. Children exhibited a greater frequency of tympanic membrane retractions, whereas adults exhibited a greater frequency of cholesteatoma. All of the contralateral ears in the anterior epitympanic group were normal, but otherwise there were no differences in the contralateral ear when we compared the cholesteatoma growth patterns. We conclude that patients diagnosed with acquired cholesteatoma of one ear are significantly more likely to exhibit abnormalities of the contralateral ear.

  18. Ectodysplasin signalling deficiency in mouse models of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia leads to middle ear and nasal pathology

    PubMed Central

    Azar, Ali; Piccinelli, Chiara; Brown, Helen; Headon, Denis; Cheeseman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) results from mutation of the EDA, EDAR or EDARADD genes and is characterized by reduced or absent eccrine sweat glands, hair follicles and teeth, and defective formation of salivary, mammary and craniofacial glands. Mouse models with HED also carry Eda, Edar or Edaradd mutations and have defects that map to the same structures. Patients with HED have ear, nose and throat disease, but this has not been investigated in mice bearing comparable genetic mutations. We report that otitis media, rhinitis and nasopharyngitis occur at high frequency in Eda and Edar mutant mice and explore the pathogenic mechanisms related to glandular function, microbial and immune parameters in these lines. Nasopharynx auditory tube glands fail to develop in HED mutant mice and the functional implications include loss of lysozyme secretion, reduced mucociliary clearance and overgrowth of nasal commensal bacteria accompanied by neutrophil exudation. Heavy nasopharynx foreign body load and loss of gland protection alters the auditory tube gating function and the auditory tubes can become pathologically dilated. Accumulation of large foreign body particles in the bulla stimulates granuloma formation. Analysis of immune cell populations and myeloid cell function shows no evidence of overt immune deficiency in HED mutant mice. Our findings using HED mutant mice as a model for the human condition support the idea that ear and nose pathology in HED patients arises as a result of nasal and nasopharyngeal gland deficits, reduced mucociliary clearance and impaired auditory tube gating function underlies the pathological sequelae in the bulla. PMID:27378689

  19. Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protect your hearing by wearing earplugs at loud music concerts and around noisy machinery, like in wood ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? ...

  20. Ear tag

    MedlinePlus

    ... the opening of the ear are common in newborn infants. In most cases, these are normal. However, they ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Common Infant and Newborn Problems Ear Disorders Skin Conditions Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  1. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  2. Ear problems in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Che; Liu, Chia-Yu; Shiao, An-Suey; Wang, Tyrone

    2005-08-01

    Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear), otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  3. Ear wax

    MedlinePlus

    ... wax plug. Tip your head to allow the water to drain. You may need to repeat irrigation several times. To avoid damaging your ear or causing an infection: Never irrigate the ear if the eardrum may have a hole in it. Do not irrigate the ear with ...

  4. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? A A A Have you ever seen ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...

  5. Cauliflower Ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cauliflower Ear? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cauliflower Ear? Print A A A Have you ever ... looks bumpy and lumpy? The person might have cauliflower ear. That sure is a funny name. Let's ...

  6. Effects of aeration position on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Sen; Wu, Qing; Yan, Lijian

    2015-12-01

    Given that few studies investigated the effects of aeration position (AP) on the performance of aerated constructed wetlands, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AP on organics, nitrogen and phosphorus removal in lab-scale combined oxidation pond-constructed wetland (OP-CW) systems. Results showed that middle aeration allowed the CW to possess more uniform oxygen distribution and to achieve greater removals of COD and NH3-N, while the CW under bottom aeration and surface aeration demonstrated more distinct stratification of oxygen distribution and surface aeration brought about better TN removal capacity for the OP-CW system. However, no significant influence of artificial aeration or AP on TP removal was observed. Overall, AP could significantly affect the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen by influencing the oxygen diffusion paths in aerated CWs, thereby influencing the removal of pollutants, especially organics and nitrogen, which offers a reference for the design of aerated CWs.

  7. Listening to the Ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher Alan

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  8. Listening to the ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  9. Phylogenetic relatedness and diversity of non-typable Haemophilus influenzae in the nasopharynx and middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Chang, Arthur; Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R.

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of non-typable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) strains prospectively isolated from healthy children and children with acute otitis media (AOM) were analysed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 165 NTHi isolates were collected over a 3.5 year time frame during 2006 through 2009. The strains were tested for β-lactamase production; 28.5 % were positive. Seventy different NTHi sequence types (STs) were identified of which 29 (41.4 %) were novel. NTHi strains did not show any phylogenetic grouping or clustering among asymptomatic colonizing strains or strains that caused AOM, or based on β-lactamase enzyme production. Evaluation of triplets and other siblings over time demonstrated relatively frequent genetic exchanges in NTHi isolates in vivo in a short time frame and subsequent transfer among children in a family. Comparison of the MLST STs isolated at different time points showed that in ~85 % of the nasopharynx (NP) colonizations, NTHi strains cleared from the host within 3 months, that sequential colonization in the same child involved different strains in all cases except one, and that NP and middle ear isolates were identical STs in 84 % of cases. In this first study of its type to our knowledge, we could not identify predominant MLST types among strains colonizing the NP versus those causing AOM or expressing a β-lactamase enzyme conferring penicillin resistance in children. PMID:21799196

  10. An Application of Outer Membrane Protein P6-Specific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae in Middle Ear Fluids and Nasopharyngeal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Hotomi, Muneki; Togawa, Akihisa; Kono, Masamitsu; Sugita, Gen; Sugita, Rinya; Fujimaki, Yutaka; Kamide, Yosuke; Uchizono, Akihiro; Kanesada, Keiko; Sawada, Shoichi; Okitsu, Naohiro; Masuda, Hisayo; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tanaka, Yumi; Yamanaka, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific to outer membrane protein P6 (P6-ELISA) was applied for detecting Haemophilus influenzae in middle ear fluids (MEFs) from acute otitis media (AOM) patients and in nasopharyngeal secretions (NPSs) from acute rhinosinusitis patients. P6-ELISA had a sensitivity of 83.3% for MEFs and 71.5% for NPSs and a specificity of 85.6% for MEFs and 92.5% for NPSs, respectively. Real-time PCR exhibited significant differences in the number of ompP1 gene copies among samples determined by P6-ELISA to be positive and negative for H. influenzae. However, because the P6-ELISA test has the reactivity in Haemophilus species include two commensals H. haemolyticus and H. parainfluenzae, it is thus a weak method in order to detect only NTHi correctly. Consequently, diagnosis using the P6-ELISA should be based on an overall evaluation, including the results of other related examinations and clinical symptoms to prevent misleading conclusions in clinical setting. PMID:24015192

  11. Comparison of transcription of the Haemophilus influenzae iron/heme modulon genes in vitro and in vivo in the chinchilla middle ear

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Haemophilus influenzae is a significant cause of childhood otitis media, and also has an absolute growth requirement for heme. Recent microarray studies using three H. influenzae isolates were used to propose a putative core of genes responsive to iron and heme levels. Included in the core modulon were thirty seven genes that are preferentially expressed under iron/heme limitation, most of which are directly involved with iron and or heme acquisition. In this report, the core iron/heme modulon was further refined following microarray analysis of two additional nontypeable H. influenzae isolates from patients with otitis media. The transcriptional status of the genes comprising the refined iron/heme core modulon was then assessed in vivo, in a chinchilla model of otitis media. These in vivo experiments were performed to address the hypothesis that iron and heme regulated genes are both highly expressed in vivo and important, during clinical infection. Results Microarray analysis of two additional H. influenzae strains resulted in the definition of a core of iron/heme responsive genes. This core consisted of 35 genes maximally expressed under heme restriction and a further 20 genes maximally expressed in heme replete conditions. In vivo studies were performed with two nontypeable H. influenzae strains, 86-028NP and HI1722. The majority of operons identified as members of the core modulon by microarray were also actively upregulated in the chinchilla ear during otitis media. In 86-028NP, 70% of the operons were significantly upregulated while in HI1722 100% of the operons were upregulated in samples recovered from the chinchilla middle ear. Conclusion This study elucidates a conserved core of H. influenzae genes the transcription of which is altered by the availability of iron and heme in the growth environment, and further assesses transcription of these genes in vivo. Elucidation of this modulon allows for identification of genes with unrecognized roles

  12. Ear Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... YesNoDo you have thick pus-filled or bloody drainage from the ear canal that started after a ... bone behind the ear, or from an ENLARGED LYMPH NODE.Self CareURGENTSEE YOUR DOCTOR RIGHT AWAY.Start ...

  13. Monitored anaesthesia care - Comparison of nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine versus nalbuphine/propofol for middle ear surgeries: A double-blind randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Nallam, Srinivasa Rao; Chiruvella, Sunil; Reddy, Anjineswar

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Middle ear surgeries (MESs) are usually performed under sedation with local anaesthesia and can be well tolerated by the patient with minimal discomfort. In the present study, we compare the effect of nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine combination with nalbuphine/propofol on sedation and analgesia in monitored anaesthesia care. Methods: One hundred adult patients undergoing MESs under monitored anaesthesia care (MAC) were randomly allocated into two groups. All patients in both groups received injection nalbuphine 50 μg/kg intravenously (IV). Group D received a bolus dose of injection dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg IV over 10 min followed by an infusion started at 0.4 μg/kg/h IV. Group P received a bolus dose of injection propofol 0.75 mg/kg followed by an infusion started at 0.025 mg/kg/min IV. Sedation was titrated to Ramsay Sedation Score (RSS) of 3. Patient's mean arterial pressure, heart rate, saturation peripheral pulse and need for intraoperative rescue sedation/analgesia were recorded and compared. The data analysis was carried out with Z test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean RSS was significantly more in Group D (4.24 ± 1.54) as compared to Group P (2.58 ± 0.95). Overall VAS score was also significantly less in Group D (3.5 ± 1.7) than in Group P (5.4 ± 1.8). In total, 16 patients (32%) in Group D had hypotension whereas 7 patients (14%) only in Group P had hypotension. Conclusion: Nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine combination is superior to nalbuphine/propofol in producing sedation and decreasing VAS in patients undergoing MESs under MAC. Better surgeon and patient satisfaction were observed with nalbuphine/dexmedetomidine. Haemodynamics need to be closely monitored. PMID:28216706

  14. Treatment and Prognosis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal and Middle Ear: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Review of 87 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko . E-mail: kogawa@med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Hatano, Kazuo; Uno, Takashi; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Itami, Jun; Kojya, Shizuo; Nakashima, Torahiko; Shinhama, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Takashi; Toita, Takafumi; Sakai, Mitsuhiro; Kodaira, Takeshi; Suzuki, Mikio; Ito, Hisao; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: To examine the relative roles of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in the management of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the external auditory canal and middle ear. Methods and Materials: The records of 87 patients with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma who were treated between 1984 and 2005 were reviewed. Fifty-three patients (61%) were treated with surgery and radiotherapy (S + RT group) and the remaining 34 patients with radiotherapy alone (RT group). Chemotherapy was administered in 34 patients (39%). Results: The 5-year actuarial overall and disease-free survival (DFS) rates for all patients were 55% and 54%, respectively. On univariate analysis, T stage (Stell's classification), treatment modality, and Karnofsky performance status had significant impact on DFS. On multivariate analysis, T stage and treatment modality were significant prognostic factors. Chemotherapy did not influence DFS. The 5-year DFS rate in T1, T2, and T3 patients was 83%, 45%, and 0 in the RT group (p < 0.0001) and 75%, 75%, and 46% in the S + RT group (p = 0.13), respectively. The 5-year DFS rate in patients with negative surgical margins, those with positive margins, and those with macroscopic residual disease was 83%, 55%, and 38%, respectively (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Radical radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for early-stage (T1) diseases, whereas surgery (negative surgical margins if possible) with radiotherapy is recommended as the standard care for advanced (T2-3) disease. Further clarification on the role of chemotherapy is necessary.

  15. Conchopexy suture to prevent middle turbinate lateralisation and septal haematoma after endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, R K; Kaushik, V; de Carpentier, J

    2005-06-01

    Endoscopic ethmoidectomy is now one of the commonest surgical procedures performed by ear, nose and throat surgeons. Access to the ethmoid air cells is via the middle meatus following medialisation of the middle turbinate and uncinectomy. The most satisfactory postoperative results are achieved by maintaining patency of the middle meatus. This allows delivery of topical medication and sinus aeration. Spontaneous lateralisation of the middle turbinate during the healing period, with or without synechiae, can compromise the surgical benefit. This paper describes a conchopexy suture placed at completion of ethmoidectomy. A carefully placed yet simple suture technique will maintain a widely patent middle meatus during the phase of post-operative healing. A slight modification allows quilting of mucoperichondrial flaps after septal surgery.

  16. Modeling of sound transmission from ear canal to cochlea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Rong Z; Reeves, Brian P; Wang, Xuelin

    2007-12-01

    A 3-D finite element (FE) model of the human ear consisting of the external ear canal, middle ear, and cochlea is reported in this paper. The acoustic-structure-fluid coupled FE analysis was conducted on the model which included the air in the ear canal and middle ear cavity, the fluid in the cochlea, and the middle ear and cochlea structures (i.e., bones and soft tissues). The middle ear transfer function such as the movements of tympanic membrane, stapes footplate, and round window, the sound pressure gain across the middle ear, and the cochlear input impedance in response to sound stimulus applied in the ear canal were derived and compared with the published experimental measurements in human temporal bones. The frequency sensitivity of the basilar membrane motion and intracochlear pressure induced by sound pressure in the ear canal was predicted along the length of the basilar membrane from the basal turn to the apex. The satisfactory agreements between the model and experimental data in the literature indicate that the middle ear function was well simulated by the model and the simplified cochlea was able to correlate sound stimulus in the ear canal with vibration of the basilar membrane and pressure variation of the cochlear fluid. This study is the first step toward the development of a comprehensive FE model of the entire human ear for acoustic-mechanical analysis.

  17. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Although there is no proven medical link between middle ear infections and pediatric obesity there may be a behavioral association between the two conditions. Some studies have found that when a child is rubbing or massaging the infected ear the ...

  18. Swimmer's ear

    MedlinePlus

    ... or a respiratory infection such as a cold. Swimming in unclean water can lead to swimmer's ear. ... very well after it has gotten wet. Avoid swimming in polluted water. Use earplugs when swimming. Try ...

  19. Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... you run the risk of getting infected ears. Metal Matters Your first earrings should have gold posts ( ... infection and swelling. Later, you may find some metals cause an allergic reaction. You're probably wondering ...

  20. Outcomes in Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.

  1. High-Resolution Measurements of Middle Ear Gas Volume Changes in the Rabbit Enables Estimation of its Mucosal CO2 Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Dirckx, Joris J.J.; Ar, Amos

    2006-01-01

    Transmucosal CO2 exchange in the middle ear (ME) of the New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was studied using an accurate novel detecting and recording system for measuring gas volume changes at constant pressure, based on a principle that was previously used by Kania et al. (Acta Otolaryngol 124:408–410, 2004). After the ME cavity was washed with ambient air, the initial diffusion rate of CO2 (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$${\\mathop V\\limits^ \\bullet }_{{\\text{i}}} {\\text{CO}}_{2} $$\\end{document}) from the blood perfusing the ME mucosa was calculated from gas volume change measurements. In nine cases, the \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$${\\mathop V\\limits^ \\bullet }_{{\\text{i}}} {\\text{CO}}_{2} $$\\end{document} calculated after normalization due to shifts in baseline was 314 ± 112 μL·h−1 (mean ± SD). In two cases where normalization was not needed, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$${\\mathop V\\limits^ \\bullet }_{{\\text{i}}} {\\text{CO}}_{2} $$\\end{document} was 409 μL·h−1 (276 and 543 μL·h−1). Normalization of \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$${\\mathop V\\limits^ \\bullet }_{{\\text{i}}} {\\text

  2. [Comparison of culture and polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis in cerebrospinal fluids and middle ear effusions].

    PubMed

    Jbara, Ibrahim; Baysallar, Mehmet; Kiliç, Abdullah; Yetişer, Sertaç; Unay, Bülent; Açikel, Cengizhan; Yapar, Mehmet; Doğanci, Levent

    2007-10-01

    Although the availability of effective antimicrobial therapy, both otitis media with effusion (OME) and acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) are still important infections for children, leading serious health problems. The most frequently isolated bacteria from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of ABM patients are Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and middle ear effusion (MEE) samples of OME patients are H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, respectively. Since they are fastidious bacteria, various problems may arise in the rapid diagnosis in both ABM and OME settings. In this study, the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been searched for the detection of bacterial DNA in CSF and MEE specimens and evaluated in comparison to conventional culture method accepted as the "gold standard". A total of 75 samples (53 CSF, 22 MEE) collected from meningitis and OME suspected children were included in the study. With the conventional culture method, one S. pneumoniae strain was isolated from a CSF sample, and one H. influenzae (non-type b) and two M. catarrhalis strains were isolated from three of MEE samples (total isolation rate: %5.3; 4/75). Standard PCR protocol was applied for the detection of H. influenzae, while multiplex PCR protocol was used for M. catarrhalis and S. pneumoniae, since H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae amplification products were of similar size. PCR revealed genomic DNA sequences of S. pneumoniae from five of the CSF samples, while three H. influenzae, three M. catarrhalis and two S. pneumoniae+M. catarrhalis were detected from MEE samples (total detection rate: %17.3; 13/75). Sensitivity and specificity rates of PCR method were found as 100% and 92.3% for CSF samples, and 100% and 73.7% for MEE samples, respectively, with a total sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 87.3%, positive predictive value of 30.8%, and negative predictive value of 100%. As a result it was concluded

  3. Comparison of Serotype Prevalence of Pneumococci Isolated from Middle Ear, Lower Respiratory Tract and Invasive Disease Prior to Vaccination in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsson, Gunnsteinn; Erlendsdóttir, Helga; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Kristinsson, Karl G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Information on pneumococcal serotype distribution before vaccination is a prerequisite for evaluation of vaccine effect. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of pneumococcal serotypes isolated from middle ear (ME), lower respiratory tract (LRT) and from invasive disease (IPD) in Iceland prior to implementation of ten-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV-10) into the infant vaccination program (April 2011). Methods and findings All isolates cultured 2007–2011 from ME, LRT and IPD identified as pneumococci were serotyped and tested for susceptibility at the Clinical Microbiology Department, Landspitali University Hospital that serves approximately 85% of the Icelandic population. Pneumococcal isolates were 1711 and 1616 (94.4%) were available for serotyping and included. Isolates belonging to PHiD-CV10 serotypes (VTs) were 1052 (65.1%). Isolates from ME were 879 (54.4%), with 639 (72.7%) from 0–1 year old patients and 651 of VTs (74%). Isolates from LRT were 564 (34.9%), with 292 (51.8%) from ≥65 years old patients, and 300 (53.2%) of VTs. IPD isolates were 173 (10.7%), although more evenly distributed according to age than isolates from the other sites most were from adults and the youngest age group,101 (58.4%) isolates were of VTs. The most common serotype was 19F, 583 (36.1%). Its prevalence was highest in ME, 400 (45.5%), 172 (30.5%) in LRT and 11 isolates (6.4%), in IPD. Penicillin non-susceptible isolates were 651 (40.3%), mainly belonging to VTs, 611 (93.9%), including 535 (82.2%) of 19F. Conclusions Multiresistant isolates of serotype 19F were highly prevalent, especially from ME of young children but also from LRT of adults. Serotype 14 was the most common serotype in IPD. The rate of VTs was high and almost all PNSP were of VTs. There was great difference in vaccine coverage between sampling sites, also reflecting difference in vaccine coverage by age groups. PMID:28125588

  4. Comparison of the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard endotracheal tube and a cylindrical endotracheal tube after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunkyung; Park, Yongmin; Jeon, Younghoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Positional change affects the cuff pressure of an endotracheal tube (ETT) in treacheally intubated patients. We compared the cuff pressure of a TaperGuard ETT and a cylindrical ETT after lateral rotation of head during middle ear surgery. Methods: Fifty-two patients aged 18–70 years underwent a tympanomastoidectomy under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to receive endotracheal intubation with cylindrical (group C, n = 26) or TaperGuard ETTs (group T, n = 26). After endotracheal intubation, the ETT cuff pressure was set at 22 cmH2O in the neutral position of head. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure was measured again and readjusted to 22 cmH2O. In addition, the change of distance from the carina to the tip of the ETT was measured before and after the positional change. The incidence of cough, sore throat, and hoarseness was assessed at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery. Results: There was no difference in demographic data between groups. After lateral rotation of head, the cuff pressure significantly increased in group T (11.9 ± 2.3 cmH2O) compared with group C (6.0 ± 1.9 cmH2O) (P < 0.001). The incidence of a cuff pressure >30 cmH2O was higher in group T (96.2%) than in group C (30.8%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the degree of displacement of an ETT was greater in group T (11.0 ± 1.7 mm) than in group C (7.2 ± 2.6 mm) (P < 0.001). The overall incidences of postoperative sore throat, hoarseness, and cough at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours after surgery were comparable between two groups. Conclusion: The cuff pressure was higher in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT after positional change of head from neutral to lateral rotation. In addition, after a positional change, the extent of displacement of ETT was greater in the TaperGuard ETT than in the cylindrical ETT. PMID:28272230

  5. High detection rates of nucleic acids of a wide range of respiratory viruses in the nasopharynx and the middle ear of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Chidlow, Glenys R; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S; Corscadden, Karli J; Mowe, Eva N; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Harnett, Gerald B; Richmond, Peter C

    2011-11-01

    Both bacteria and viruses play a role in the development of acute otitis media, however, the importance of specific viruses is unclear. In this study molecular methods were used to determine the presence of nucleic acids of human rhinoviruses (HRV; types A, B, and C), respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV; types A and B), bocavirus (HBoV), adenovirus, enterovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43), influenza viruses (types A, B, and C), parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, 3, 4A, and 4B), human metapneumovirus, and polyomaviruses (KI and WU) in the nasopharynx of children between 6 and 36 months of age either with (n = 180) or without (n = 66) a history of recurrent acute otitis media and in 238 middle ear effusion samples collected from 143 children with recurrent acute otitis media. The co-detection of these viruses with Streptococcus pneumoniae, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis was analyzed. HRV (58.3% vs. 42.4%), HBoV (52.2% vs. 19.7%), polyomaviruses (36.1% vs. 15.2%), parainfluenza viruses (29.4% vs. 9.1%), adenovirus (25.0% vs. 6.1%), and RSV (27.8% vs. 9.1%) were detected significantly more often in the nasopharynx of children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media compared to healthy children. HRV was predominant in the middle ear and detected in middle ear effusion of 46% of children. Since respiratory viruses were detected frequently in the nasopharynx of both children with and without a history of recurrent acute otitis media, the etiological role of specific viruses in recurrent acute otitis media remains uncertain, however, anti-viral therapies may be beneficial in future treatment and prevention strategies for acute otitis media.

  6. Lawson Aerator applications on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland drills, brush hogs, Dixie harrows, tandem discs and other equipment have played an important role in treating degraded rangeland environments. The Lawson Aerator is one of the newer implements to enter the scene for rangeland improvements. The Lawson Aerator was designed as a pasture renov...

  7. Development and Integration of the Ear.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Tucker, Abigail S

    2015-01-01

    The perception of our environment via sensory organs plays a crucial role in survival and evolution. Hearing, one of our most developed senses, depends on the proper function of the auditory system and plays a key role in social communication, integration, and learning ability. The ear is a composite structure, comprised of the external, middle, and inner ear. During development, the ear is formed from the integration of a number of tissues of different embryonic origin, which initiate in distinct areas of the embryo at different time points. Functional connections between the components of the hearing apparatus have to be established and maintained during development and adulthood to allow proper sound submission from the outer to the middle and inner ear. This highly organized and intimate connectivity depends on intricate spatiotemporal signaling between the various tissues that give rise to the structures of the ear. Any alterations in this chain of events can lead to the loss of integration, which can subsequently lead to conductive hearing loss, in case of outer and middle ear defects or sensorineural hearing loss, if inner ear structures are defective. This chapter aims to review the current knowledge concerning the development of the three ear compartments as well as mechanisms and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the coordination and integration process of the ear.

  8. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  9. Aeration equipment for small depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluše, Jan; Pochylý, František

    2015-05-01

    Deficit of air in water causes complications with cyanobacteria mainly in the summer months. Cyanobacteria is a bacteria that produces poison called cyanotoxin. When the concentration of cyanobacteria increases, the phenomena "algal bloom" appears, which is very toxic and may kill all the organisms. This article describes new equipment for aeration of water in dams, ponds and reservoirs with small depth. This equipment is mobile and it is able to work without any human factor because its control is provided by a GPS module. The main part of this equipment consists of a floating pump which pumps water from the surface. Another important part of this equipment is an aerator where water and air are blended. Final aeration process runs in the nozzles which provide movement of all this equipment and aeration of the water. Simulations of the flow are solved by multiphase flow with diffusion in open source program called OpenFOAM. Results will be verified by an experiment.

  10. A comprehensive model of human ear for analysis of implantable hearing devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangming; Gan, Rong Z

    2011-10-01

    A finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was constructed from histological sections of human temporal bone. Multiphysics analysis of the acoustics, structure, and fluid coupling in the ear was conducted in the model. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to the middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our laboratory. The FE model was first validated using the experimental data obtained in human cadaver ears, and then used to investigate the efficiency of the forward and reverse mechanical driving with middle ear implant, and the passive vibration of basilar membrane (BM) with cochlear implant placed in the cochlear scala tympani. The middle ear transfer function and the cochlear function of the BM vibration were derived from the model. This comprehensive ear model provides a novel computational tool to visualize and compute the implantable hearing devices and surgical procedures.

  11. Microstructural investigations on aerated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, N.; Ramamurthy, K.

    2000-03-01

    Aerated concrete is characterized by the presence of large voids deliberately included in its matrix to reduce the density. This study reports the investigations conducted on the structure of cement-based autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) and non-AAC with sand or fly ash as the filler. The reasons for changes in compressive strength and drying shrinkage are explained with reference to the changes in the microstructure. Compositional analysis was carried out using XRD. It was observed that fly ash responds poorly to autoclaving. The process of pore refinement in fly ash mixes is discussed with reference to the formation of Hadley grains as well as fly ash hydration. The paste-void interface in aerated concrete investigated in relation to the paste-aggregate interface in normal concrete revealed the existence of an interfacial transition zone.

  12. [Effect of intermittent artificial aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal in subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetlands].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xian-qiang; Li, Jin-zhong; Li, Xue-Ju; Liu, Xue-gong; Huang, Sui-liang

    2008-04-01

    Shale and T. latifolia were used as subsurface vertical-flow constructed wetland substrate and vegetation for eutrophic Jin River water treatment, and investigate the effect of intermittent aeration on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this study, hydraulic loading rate was equal to 800 mm/d, and ratio of air and water was 5:1. During the entire running period, maximal monthly mean ammonia-nitrogen (NH4+ -N), total nitrogen (TN), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal rates were observed in August 2006. In contrast to the non-aerated wetland, aeration enhanced ammonia-nitrogen, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus removal: 10.1%, 4.7%, 10.2% and 8.8% for aeration in the middle, and 25.1%, 10.0%, 7.7% and 7.4% for aeration at the bottom of the substrate, respectively. However, aeration failed to improve the nitrate-nitrogen removal. During the whole experimental period, monthly mean NO3(-) -N removal rates were much lower for aerated constructed wetlands (regarding aeration in the middle and at the bottom) than those for non-aerated system. After finishing the experiment, aboveground plant biomass (stems and leaves) of T. latifolia was harvested, and its weight and nutrient content (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were measured. Analysis of aboveground plant biomass indicated that intermittent aeration restrained the increase in biomass but stimulated assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus into stems and leaves. Additional total nitrogen removal of 11.6 g x m(-2) and 12.6 g x m(-2) by aboveground T. latifolia biomass for intermittent artificial aeration in the middle and at the bottom of the wetland substrate, respectively, was observed.

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing Combined with Specific PCR Assays To Determine the Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Profiles of Middle Ear Fluid Collected from Children with Acute Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Kramna, Lenka; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Rautiainen, Markus; Aittoniemi, Janne; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki; Cinek, Ondrej

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to analyze the bacteriome of acute otitis media with a novel modification of next-generation sequencing techniques. Outpatient children with acute otitis media were enrolled in the study, and middle ear fluids were collected during 90 episodes from 79 subjects aged 5 to 42 months (median age, 19 months). The bacteriome profiles of middle ear fluid samples were determined by a nested-PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene (V4 region), followed by mass sequencing. The profiling results were compared to the results of specific PCR assays targeting selected prevalent pathogens. Bacteriome profiling using nested amplification of low-volume samples was aided by a bioinformatic subtraction of signal contaminants from the recombinant polymerase, achieving a sensitivity slightly lower than that of specific PCR detection. Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in 28 (31%) samples, Haemophilus influenzae in 24 (27%), Moraxella catarrhalis in 18 (20%), Staphylococcus spp. in 21 (23%), Turicella otitidis in 5 (5.6%), Alloiococcus otitidis in 3 (3.3%), and other bacteria in 14 (16%) using bacteriome profiling. S. pneumoniae was the dominant pathogen in 14 (16%) samples, H. influenzae in 15 (17%), M. catarrhalis in 5 (5.6%), T. otitidis in 2, and Staphylococcus auricularis in 2. Weaker signals of Prevotella melaninogenica, Veillonella dispar, and Veillonella montpellierensis were noted in several samples. Fourteen samples (16%) were not explainable by bacterial pathogens; novel causative agents were not detected. In conclusion, unbiased bacteriome profiling helped in depicting the true mutual quantitative ratios of ear bacteria, but at present, its complicated protocol impedes its routine clinical use. IMPORTANCE Although S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and M. catarrhalis have been long established as the most important pathogens in acute otitis media using culture and specific PCR assays, the knowledge of their mutual quantitative relations

  14. Applying fine bubble aeration to small aeration tanks.

    PubMed

    Duchène, P; Cotteux, E; Capela, S

    2001-01-01

    Because the aeration system in an activated sludge plant typically represents a large part of the total energy requirements, designers and operators need accurate oxygen transfer information to make the aeration system as energy efficient as possible. This paper presents clean water tests performed at 38 wastewater treatment plants. The Specific Aeration Efficiency results (SAE, kgO2/kWh) are reported for: (1) large open channels (volume higher than 1000 m3), (2) small open channels, (3) total floor coverage cylindrical tanks, and (4) cylindrical tanks with a grid arrangement. Some practical guidelines can be drawn, some of them being: (1) high SAE can be achieved at small aeration tanks (< 1000 m3), applying cylindrical tanks with a total floor coverage arrangement of diffusers, volumetric blowers, and moderate air flow rates per diffuser area; (2) the high investment cost of this configuration can be justified with respect to a grid layout characterized by spiral liquid circulation which affects the oxygen transfer; (3) small open channels can meet sufficient SAE values but fail to meet in this range of tank volumes those of total floor coverage cylindrical tanks.

  15. Chronic discharging ear in a child: are we missing something?

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mainak; Ghatak, Soumya; Biswas, Gautam

    2013-08-01

    Chronic discharging ear, mostly due to middle or external ear infection, is one of the leading causes for seeking healthcare among the paediatric population in a developing country. However, a long-standing forgotten middle ear foreign body forms a rare cause for such presentation demanding a high index of suspicion from the clinicians. Most of them are iatrogenic or accidental, and are removed by conventional permeatal approach; need for tympanotomy is rarely documented in the recent literature. We report the first case where a large stone was introduced into the middle ear through a pre-existing tympanic membrane perforation by the child himself, and only the second documentation of removal of a middle ear foreign body by tympanotomy in a child.

  16. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Swimmer's Ear (Otitis Externa) KidsHealth > For Parents > Swimmer's Ear (Otitis ... español Otitis del nadador (otitis externa) About Swimmer's Ear Otitis externa (OE) — commonly known as swimmer's ear — ...

  17. Ear cleaning: the UK and US perspective.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Tim; Cole, Lynette K

    2004-04-01

    Ear cleaning helps maintain the normal otic environment and is important in the treatment of otitis. Over cleaning, however, may trigger otitis through maceration of the epidermal lining. Simple manual cleaning is useful for routine cleansing but doesn't remove tightly adherent debris. Bulb syringes are more vigorous but may damage the ear in inexperienced hands. Devices using mains water pressure or dental machines are also available. Thorough cleaning of the ear canals and middle ear cavity can only be achieved by retrograde flushing using specially adapted catheters, feeding tubes or video otoscopes under anaesthesia. Myringotomy, inspection and cleaning of the middle should be performed if the tympanic membrane appears abnormal. There are a wide variety of cleaning fluids available. Ceruminolytics soften and dissolve cerumen to facilitate cleaning. Surfactants emulsify debris, breaking it up and keeping it in solution. Astringents dry the ear canal surface, preventing maceration. Maintaining a low pH and incorporating antimicrobial agents can inhibit microbial proliferation and glucocorticoids can be used to reduce inflammation. Adverse effects and contraindications following ear cleaning can include maceration, contact reactions, otitis media, ear canal avulsion, vestibular syndrome, Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis and deafness. Care should be exercised in selecting cleaning fluids if the tympanic membranes are ruptured.

  18. Mechanics of the frog ear

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Pim; Mason, Matthew J.; Schoffelen, Richard L. M.; Narins, Peter M.; Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.

    2010-01-01

    The frog inner ear contains three regions that are sensitive to airborne sound and which are functionally distinct. (1) The responses of nerve fibres innervating the low-frequency, rostral part of the amphibian papilla (AP) are complex. Electrical tuning of hair cells presumably contributes to the frequency selectivity of these responses. (2) The caudal part of the AP covers the mid-frequency portion of the frog's auditory range. It shares the ability to generate both evoked and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions with the mammalian cochlea and other vertebrate ears. (3) The basilar papilla functions mainly as a single auditory filter. Its simple anatomy and function provide a model system for testing hypotheses concerning emission generation. Group delays of stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) from the basilar papilla are accounted for by assuming that they result from forward and reverse transmission through the middle ear, a mechanical delay due to tectorial membrane filtering and a rapid forward and reverse propagation through the inner ear fluids, with negligible delay. PMID:20149854

  19. Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

  20. Otoplasty (Cosmetic Ear Surgery)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically done on both ears to optimize symmetry. Otoplasty can be done at any age after ... your ears — including their placement, size, shape and symmetry. The doctor might also take pictures of your ...

  1. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  2. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... needed. Your health care provider will use a cotton swab to collect the sample from inside the ... Using a cotton swab to take a sample of drainage from the outer ear is not painful. However, ear pain may ...

  3. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ears. This is especially true if they use cotton swabs or dangerously sharp small objects, like hair ... all objects out of your ear canals — including cotton swabs — unless your doctor has told you it's ...

  4. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or inserting foreign objects like bobby pins or paper clips into the ear can all increase the ... discharge from the ear to help identify which bacteria or fungi are causing the infection. Over-the- ...

  5. Ear surgery - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100016.htm Ear surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview This image demonstrates normal appearance of the ears in relation to the face. Review Date 10/ ...

  6. Purging dissolved oxygen by nitrogen bubble aeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Tatsuya; Ando, Keita

    2016-11-01

    We apply aeration with nitrogen microbubbles to water in order to see whether oxygen gas originally dissolved in the water at one atmosphere is purged by the aeration. The concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) is detected by a commercial DO meter. To detect the dissolved nitrogen (DN) level, we observe the growth of millimetre-sized bubbles nucleated at glass surfaces in contact with the aerated water and compare it with the Epstein-Plesset theory that accounts for DO/DN diffusions and the presence of the glass surfaces. Comparisons between the experiment and the theory suggest that the DO in the water are effectively purged by the aeration.

  7. Swimmer's Ear (External Otitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be caused by many different types of bacteria or fungi. It usually develops in ears that are exposed to moisture. People who get OE often have been diving or swimming for long periods of time. This can bring infectious bacteria directly into the ear canal. Swimmer's ear occurs ...

  8. Surgical and Technical Modalities for Hearing Restoration in Ear Malformations.

    PubMed

    Dazert, Stefan; Thomas, Jan Peter; Volkenstein, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Malformations of the external and middle ear often go along with an aesthetic and functional handicap. Independent of additional aesthetic procedures, a successful functional hearing restoration leads to a tremendous gain in quality of life for affected patients. The introduction of implantable hearing systems (bone conduction and middle ear devices) offers new therapeutic options in this field. We focus on functional rehabilitation of patients with malformations, either by surgical reconstruction or the use of different implantable hearing devices, depending on the disease itself and the severity of malformation as well as hearing impairment. Patients with an open ear canal and minor malformations are good candidates for surgical hearing restoration of middle ear structures with passive titanium or autologous implants. In cases with complete fibrous or bony atresia of the ear canal, the most promising functional outcome and gain in quality of life can be expected with an active middle ear implant or a bone conduction device combined with a surgical aesthetic rehabilitation in a single or multi-step procedure. Although the surgical procedure for bone conduction devices is straightforward and safe, more sophisticated operations for active middle ear implants (e.g., Vibrant Soundbridge, MED-EL, Innsbruck, Austria) provide an improved speech discrimination in noise and the ability of sound localization compared with bone conduction devices where the stimulation reaches both cochleae.

  9. Acoustic mechanisms that determine the ear-canal sound pressures generated by earphones.

    PubMed

    Voss, S E; Rosowski, J J; Shera, C A; Peake, W T

    2000-03-01

    In clinical measurements of hearing sensitivity, a given earphone is assumed to produce essentially the same sound-pressure level in all ears. However, recent measurements [Voss et al., Ear and Hearing (in press)] show that with some middle-ear pathologies, ear-canal sound pressures can deviate by as much as 35 dB from the normal-ear value; the deviations depend on the earphone, the middle-ear pathology, and frequency. These pressure variations cause errors in the results of hearing tests. Models developed here identify acoustic mechanisms that cause pressure variations in certain pathological conditions. The models combine measurement-based Thévenin equivalents for insert and supra-aural earphones with lumped-element models for both the normal ear and ears with pathologies that alter the ear's impedance (mastoid bowl, tympanostomy tube, tympanic-membrane perforation, and a "high-impedance" ear). Comparison of the earphones' Thévenin impedances to the ear's input impedance with these middle-ear conditions shows that neither class of earphone acts as an ideal pressure source; with some middle-ear pathologies, the ear's input impedance deviates substantially from normal and thereby causes abnormal ear-canal pressure levels. In general, for the three conditions that make the ear's impedance magnitude lower than normal, the model predicts a reduced ear-canal pressure (as much as 35 dB), with a greater pressure reduction with an insert earphone than with a supra-aural earphone. In contrast, the model predicts that ear-canal pressure levels increase only a few dB when the ear has an increased impedance magnitude; the compliance of the air-space between the tympanic membrane and the earphone determines an upper limit on the effect of the middle-ear's impedance increase. Acoustic leaks at the earphone-to-ear connection can also cause uncontrolled pressure variations during hearing tests. From measurements at the supra-aural earphone-to-ear connection, we conclude that it

  10. High performance aerated lagoon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, L.

    1999-08-01

    At a time when less money is available for wastewater treatment facilities and there is increased competition for the local tax dollar, regulatory agencies are enforcing stricter effluent limits on treatment discharges. A solution for both municipalities and industry is to use aerated lagoon systems designed to meet these limits. This monograph, prepared by a recognized expert in the field, provides methods for the rational design of a wide variety of high-performance aerated lagoon systems. Such systems range from those that can be depended upon to meet secondary treatment standards alone to those that, with the inclusion of intermittent sand filters or elements of sequenced biological reactor (SBR) technology, can also provide for nitrification and nutrient removal. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate performance parameters, and an entire chapter is devoted to diagnosing performance failures. Contents include: principles of microbiological processes, control of algae, benthal stabilization, design for CBOD removal, design for nitrification and denitrification in suspended-growth systems, design for nitrification in attached-growth systems, phosphorus removal, diagnosing performance.

  11. High Intensity Pressure Noise Transmission in Human Ear: A Three Dimensional Simulation Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawa, Takumi; Gan, Rong; Leckness, Kegan

    2015-03-01

    High intensity pressure noise generated by explosions and jet engines causes auditory damage and hearing loss of the military service personals, which are the most common disabilities in the veterans. Authors have investigated the high intensity pressure noise transmission from the ear canal to middle ear cavity. A fluid-structure interaction with a viscoelastic model for the tympanic membrane (TM) as well as the ossicular chain has been considered in the study. For the high intensity pressure simulation the geometry of the ear was based on a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human ear reported by Gan et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 2004). The model consists of the ear canal, TM, ossicular chain, and the middle ear cavity. The numerical approach includes two steps: 1) FE based finite-volume method simulation to compute pressure distributions in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity using CFX; and 2) FE modeling of TM and middle ear ossicles in response to high intensity sound using multi-physics analysis in ANSYS. The simulations provide the displacement of the TM/ossicular chain and the pressure fields in the ear canal and the middle ear cavity. These results are compared with human temporal bone experimental data obtained in our group. This work was supported by DOD W81XWH-14-1-0228.

  12. Otosclerosis associated with type B-1 inner ear malformation.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, A; Dispenza, F; Aggarwal, N; Russo, A

    2010-06-01

    Malformations of bony inner ear are rare anomalies occurring in approximately 20% of patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss is usually associated with abnormalities of the external and middle ear. Recent reports of patients with lateral semicircular canal malformations indicate inner ear malformations to be associated with sensorineural or conductive hearing loss. Differential diagnosis of conductive hearing loss should include otosclerosis, isolated ossicular deformities, inner ear anomalies or a combination of these. In this report, a case is described with right vestibule-lateral semicircular canal dysplasia presenting at our centre with bilateral otosclerosis.

  13. Aerated concrete with mineral dispersed reinforcing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdov, G. I.; Ilina, L. V.; Mukhina, I. N.; Rakov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    To guarantee the production of aerated concrete with the lowest average density while ensuring the required strength it is necessary to use a silica component with a surface area of 250-300 m2 / kg. The article presents experimental data on grinding the silica component together with clinker to the optimum dispersion. This allows increasing the strength of non-autoclaved aerated concrete up to 33%. Furthermore, the addition to aerated concrete the mixture of dispersed reinforcing agents (wollastonite, diopside) and electrolytes with multiply charged cations and anions (1% Fe2 (SO4)3; Al2 (SO4)3) provides the growth of aerated concrete strength at 30 - 75%. As a cohesive the clinker, crushed together with silica and mineral supplements should be used. This increases the strength of aerated concrete at 65% in comparing with Portland cement.

  14. Blast-related Ear Injuries among U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    and explore hearing loss and tinnitus outcomes within one year after injury. The Expeditionary Medical Encounter Database was used to identify... tinnitus . The prevalence of ear injuries was 30.7% (1,223 of 3,981). The most common ear injury diagnoses were “inner or middle ear injury involving... tinnitus ” and tympanic membrane (TM) rupture. Hearing pro- tection reduced the odds of ear injury involving tinnitus . Per- sonnel with TM rupture had

  15. Pathology of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Orengo, Ida; Robbins, Kerri; Marsch, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The external ear is exposed to weathering and trauma; it also has sparse vascularity, making it prone to infection and disease. The external location of the cutaneous ear makes it easily visible for diagnosis and accessible for treatment. In this article, the authors focus on diseases of the ear that are most commonly encountered and may be subject to surgical and medical evaluation and/or treatment. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical course, and treatment for each disease entity are discussed. PMID:23115534

  16. Influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristic of landfills that adopt the aerobic-anaerobic landfill method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuanfu; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Komiya, Teppei; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    As far as the optimal design, operation, and field application of the Aerobic-Anaerobic Landfill Method (AALM) are concerned, it is very important to understand how aeration modes (different combinations of aeration depth and air injection rate) affect the biodegradation of organic carbon and the transformation of nitrogen in landfill solid waste. Pilot-scale lysimeter experiments were carried out under different aeration modes to obtain detailed information regarding the influence of aeration modes on leachate characteristics. Results from these lysimeter experiments revealed that aeration at the bottom layer was the most effective for decomposition of organic carbon when compared with aeration at the surface or middle layers. Moreover, the air injection rate led to different nitrogen transformation patterns, unlike the lesser influence it has on organic carbon decomposition. Effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification were observed for the aeration mode with a higher air injection rate (=1.0 L/min). On the other hand, the phenomenon of sequenced nitrification and denitrification could be observed when a low air injection rate (=0.5L/min.) was employed. Finally, it is concluded that, for AALM, air injection with a higher air injection rate at the deepest layer near the leachate collection pipe tends to accelerate the stabilization of landfill waste as defined in terms of the enhancement of denitrification as well as organic carbon decomposition.

  17. Bone allografts in reconstructive middle ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Gersdorff, M; Vilain, J; Maisin, J P; Munting, E; Delloye, C

    1989-01-01

    The authors present their current experience with stored bone grafts, using allografts shaped from the cortices of long bones for reconstructing the tympano-ossicular chain. The materials and the methods are described. The anatomical results have been good in 97% of the cases, while the functional results are as satisfactory as those obtained with bioceramics. In addition to ossiculoplasty, the bone allografts can also be used in otology for reconstructing large bony defects of the temporal bone.

  18. DESIGN INFORMATION ON FINE PORE AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were conducted over several years at municipal wastewater treatment plants employing line pore diffused aeration systems. These studies were designed to produce reliable information on the performance and operational requirements of fine pore devices under process ...

  19. Caring for Pierced Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... close. Regularly wash your ears with soap and water. Carefully do this at least once a day to avoid infection. Twist the earrings a few times daily. This will help keep the pierced holes open. Put rubbing alcohol on your ears. Using ...

  20. Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Avoiding Infection After Ear Piercing Page Content Article Body What is the best way to avoid infection after ear piercing? Ears may be pierced for cosmetic reasons ...

  1. Effectiveness of Ear Splint Therapy for Ear Deformities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present our experience with ear splint therapy for babies with ear deformities, and thereby demonstrate that this therapy is an effective and safe intervention without significant complications. Methods This was a retrospective study of 54 babies (35 boys and 19 girls; 80 ears; age ≤3 months) with ear deformities who had received ear splint therapy at the Center for Torticollis, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University Hospital between December 2014 and February 2016. Before the initiation of ear splint therapy, ear deformities were classified with reference to the standard terminology. We compared the severity of ear deformity before and after ear splint therapy by using the physician's ratings. We also compared the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings on completion of ear splint therapy. Results Among these 54 babies, 41 children (58 ears, 72.5%) completed the ear splint therapy. The mean age at initiation of therapy was 52.91±18.26 days and the treatment duration was 44.27±32.06 days. Satyr ear, forward-facing ear lobe, Darwinian notch, overfolded ear, and cupped ear were the five most common ear deformities. At the completion of therapy, the final physician's ratings of ear deformities were significantly improved compared to the initial ratings (8.28±1.44 vs. 2.51±0.92; p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the physician's ratings and the caregiver's ratings at the completion of ear splint therapy (8.28±1.44 vs. 8.0±1.61; p=0.297). Conclusion We demonstrated that ear splint therapy significantly improved ear deformities in babies, as measured by quantitative rating scales. Ear splint therapy is an effective and safe intervention for babies with ear deformities. PMID:28289646

  2. Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.

    PubMed

    Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2009-06-01

    Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.

  3. Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Middle Ear Fluid Pathogens in Costa Rican Children With Otitis Media Before and After the Introduction of the 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in the National Immunization Program

    PubMed Central

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Mercedes Castrejon, Maria; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010–2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3–59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥2 PCV7 doses or ≥1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9

  4. Round Window Membrane Implantation with an Active Middle Ear Implant: A Study of the Effects on the Performance of Round Window Exposure and Transducer Tip Diameter in Human Cadaveric Temporal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Tringali, Stéphane; Koka, Kanthaiah; Deveze, Arnaud; Holland, N. Julian; Jenkins, Herman A.; Tollin, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the importance of 2 variables, transducer tip diameter and resection of the round window (RW) niche, affecting the optimization of the mechanical stimulation of the RW membrane with an active middle ear implant (AMEI). Materials and Methods: Ten temporal bones were prepared with combined atticotomy and facial recess approach to expose the RW. An AMEI stimulated the RW with 2 ball tip diameters (0.5 and 1.0 mm) before and after the resection of the bony rim of the RW niche. The RW drive performance, assessed by stapes velocities using laser Doppler velocimetry, was analyzed in 3 frequency ranges: low (0.25–1 kHz), medium (1–3 kHz) and high (3–8 kHz). Results Driving the RW produced mean peak stapes velocities (HEV) of 0.305 and 0.255 mm/s/V at 3.03 kHz, respectively, for the 1- and 0.5-mm tips, with the RW niche intact. Niche drilling increased the HEV to 0.73 and 0.832 mm/s/V for the 1- and 0.5-mm tips, respectively. The tip diameter produced no difference in output at low and medium frequencies; however, the 0.5-mm tip was 5 and 6 dB better than the 1-mm tip at high frequencies before and after niche drilling, respectively. Drilling the niche significantly improved the output by 4 dB at high frequencies for the 1-mm tip, and by 6 and 10 dB in the medium- and high-frequency ranges for the 0.5-mm tip. Conclusion The AMEI was able to successfully drive the RW membrane in cadaveric temporal bones using a classical facial recess approach. Stimulation of the RW membrane with an AMEI without drilling the niche is sufficient for successful hearing outputs. However, the resection of the bony rim of the RW niche significantly improved the RW stimulation at medium and higher frequencies. Drilling the niche enhances the exposure of the RW membrane and facilitates positioning the implant tip. PMID:20150727

  5. Simulation of Application Strategies for Local Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Plontke, Stefan K.; Salt, Alec N.

    2006-01-01

    Local, rather than systemic, drug delivery to the inner ear is becoming more widely used to treat inner ear disorders. While many substances are undergoing preclinical and clinical studies, it is equally important to develop appropriate drug delivery systems. Pharmacokinetic studies are technically demanding in animals and almost impossible in humans. Computer simulations have helped establish the basic principles of drug distribution in the inner ear. The distribution of methylprednisolone in the guinea pig cochlea has been simulated for different drug delivery systems based on kinetic parameters established in prior studies. Results were compared for different rates of drug clearance from the middle ear. Absolute and relative drug levels in the perilymph were highly dependent on how long the drug remained in the middle ear. For a brief (30 min) application, the basal to apical drug gradient was higher than for longer delivery times. These findings show that controlling middle ear drug clearance is of critical importance. PMID:17065834

  6. Surgical management of major congenital malformations of the ear.

    PubMed

    Chiossone, E

    1985-05-01

    Surgical management of major congenital malformations of the ear is a difficult and complex procedure. The risk of damaging middle and inner ear structures because of their frequently aberrant location, the failure to keep a patent ear canal over the long term, and the difficulty in achieving a good hearing result all challenge the otologic surgeon. The purpose of this study was to analyze the results obtained with a surgical technique developed to prevent postoperative stenosis or total closure of the newly formed auditory meatus and to achieve at least serviceable hearing in the majority of cases. Emphasis is placed on the selection of surgical cases based on a classification that evaluates, through x-ray tomograms, the anatomic relation of the glenoid fossa of the temporomandibular joint to the middle ear space. Anatomic and functional results are presented. Comments are made in regard to different possibilities of reconstruction of the sound conducting mechanism.

  7. Biopulsing: An in situ aeration remediation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, H.S.; Marshall, T.R.

    1997-12-31

    In situ soil aeration is an accepted technology for remediation of soil and groundwater impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons. This technology was utilized for remediating soil and groundwater at an aerospace components manufacturing facility located in southern California, Soil and groundwater had been impacted at the facility from historical releases of petroleum and halogenated hydrocarbons. Innovations in remediation system design, installation and monitoring strategies are described in this paper. The following tasks were conducted; (1) evaluation of the extent of impacted soil and groundwater; (2) collection of site-specific data necessary to evaluate and implement an appropriate remediation system to address the hydrocarbon-impacted soil; and (3) design, installation and operation of an in situ aeration system for remediation of soil and groundwater. The in situ aeration system operates on the principles of bioventing. Air was injected weekly into the subsurface by a system of wells placed at selected locations in short pulses lasting several hours. Oxygen utilization in the subsurface was monitored using subsurface sensors. Subsurface oxygen utilization rates of up to 1.5 percent resulted in an estimate of mass reduction of 71 pounds of hydrocarbons. The concentration of halogenated hydrocarbons was reduced in groundwater following commencement of aeration was observed in subsequent sampling events. The contribution of vadose zone aeration in reducing the concentrations of halogenated hydrocarbons in groundwater is currently being evaluated.

  8. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing ... But for kids and teens, listening to loud music (at concerts, in the car, through headphones) is ...

  9. Ear infection - chronic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralysis of the face Inflammation around the brain ( epidural abscess ) or in the brain Damage to the part ... pubmed/23818543 . Read More Cholesteatoma Ear infection - acute Epidural abscess Mastoiditis Otitis Review Date 4/21/2015 Updated ...

  10. Ear tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor Review Date 8/5/2015 Updated by: Sumana Jothi ... Otolaryngology, NCHCS VA, SFVA, San Francisco, CA. Internal review and update on 09/01/2016 by David ...

  11. Ear infection - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... more than 6 children) Changes in altitude or climate Cold climate Exposure to smoke Family history of ear infections ... or fewer children. This can reduce your child's chances of getting a cold or other infection, and ...

  12. Optimum management of the discharging ear.

    PubMed

    Ruddy, J; Bickerton, R C

    1992-02-01

    Discharge from the ear can be the result of many disease processes. The ear may discharge blood, pus, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or wax. Keratosis obturans, stenosis of the external meatus and benign tumours of the external meatus all lead to wax build-up, which may cause recurrent attacks of otitis externa. Malignant tumours, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and tumours of ceruminous gland origin may also present with discharge. Tumours should be excluded by submitting all material removed from the external canal for histological examination. Single or multiple abscesses (known as furuncles) may occur in the hair follicles in the skin of the external acoustic meatus (EAM). Compulsive scratching, hearing aids and foreign bodies placed in the ear predispose to otitis externa, which is also often associated with infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and faecal organisms. Management may be with aluminium acetate 14%, topical antibiotic/steroid drops, a gauze wick soaked with icthammol 10% in glycerin or polymyxin B sulphate--neomycin sulphate--hydrocortisone acetate cream placed into the EAM and replaced every 24 to 48 hours, or systemic antibiotics according to severity. Malignant (necrotising) otitis externa causes progressive destruction of the temporal bone, and cranial nerve palsies (usually facial first). Treatment is limited debridement of infected bone, accompanied by intravenous aminoglycosides, and local antibiotic treatment and aural cleanout or oral ciprofloxacin. Middle ear conditions causing discharge include acute otitis media, infected grommets, traumatic perforations and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as tumours of the ear canal skin and middle ear, radiation-induced otitis externa and osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone, tuberculosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, spontaneous or post-traumatic CSF leaks, Wegeners granulomatosis and immune deficiency states. Topical application of aminoglycoside

  13. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... the dropper tip down. Tilt the affected ear up or lie on your side. Pull the ear backward and upward (or if giving ... into the ear canal. Keep your ear tilted up for a few minutes or insert a soft ... from the Michigan Pharmacists Association's Patient Education Program.

  14. A Mini-Atlas of Ear-drum Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886

  15. Soil Aeration deficiencies in urban sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltecke, Katharina; Gaertig, Thorsten

    2010-05-01

    Soil aeration deficiencies in urban sites Katharina Weltecke and Thorsten Gaertig On urban tree sites reduction of soil aeration by compaction or sealing is an important but frequently underestimated factor for tree growth. Up to 50% of the CO2 assimilated during the vegetation period is respired in the root space (Qi et al. 1994). An adequate supply of the soil with oxygen and a proper disposal of the exhaled carbon dioxide are essential for an undisturbed root respiration. If the soil surface is smeared, compacted or sealed, soil aeration is interrupted. Several references show that root activity and fine root growth are controlled by the carbon dioxide concentration in soil air (Qi et al.1994, Burton et al. 1997). Gaertig (2001) found that decreasing topsoil gas permeability leads to reduced fine root density and hence to injury in crown structure of oaks. In forest soils a critical CO2 concentration of more than 0.6 % indicates a bad aeration status (Gaertig 2001). The majority of urban tree sites are compacted or sealed. The reduction of soil aeration may lead to dysfunctions in the root space and consequently to stress during periods of drought, which has its visible affects in crown structure. It is reasonable to assume that disturbances in soil aeration lead to reduced tree vigour and roadworthiness, resulting in high maintenance costs. The assessment of soil aeration in urban sites is difficult. In natural ecosystems the measurement of gas diffusivity and the gas-chromatical analysis of CO2 in soil air are accepted procedures in analyzing the state of aeration (Schack-Kirchner et al. 2001, Gaertig 2001). It has been found that these methods can also be applied for analyzing urban sites. In particular CO2 concentration in the soil atmosphere can be considered as a rapidly assessable, relevant and integrating indicator of the aeration situation of urban soils. This study tested the working hypothesis that soil aeration deficiencies lead to a decrease of fine

  16. Increase in serotype 19A prevalence and amoxicillin non-susceptibility among paediatric Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from middle ear fluid in a passive laboratory-based surveillance in Spain, 1997-2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conjugate vaccines, such as the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7), alter serotype nasopharyngeal carriage, potentially increasing cases of otitis media by non-vaccine serotypes. Methods All paediatric middle ear fluid (MEF) isolates received in the Spanish Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci through a passive, laboratory-based surveillance system from January 1997 to June 2009 were analysed. Data from 1997 to 2000 were pooled as pre-vaccination period. Trends over time were explored by linear regression analysis. Results A total of 2,077 isolates were analysed: 855 belonging to PCV7 serotypes, 466 to serotype 19A, 215 to serotype 3, 89 to serotype 6A and 452 to other serotypes (< 40 isolates each). Over time, there has been a decreasing trend for PCV7 serotypes (R2 = 0.944; p < 0.001, with significant decreasing trends for serotypes 19F, 14, 23F and 9V), and increasing trends for serotype 19A (R2 = 0.901; p < 0.001), serotype 3 (R2 = 0.463; p = 0.030) and other non-PCV7 serotypes (R2 = 0.877; p < 0.001), but not for serotype 6A (R2 = 0.311; p = 0.094). Considering all isolates, amoxicillin non-susceptibility showed an increasing trend (R2 = 0.528; p = 0.017). Regarding serotype 19A, increasing trends in non-susceptibility to penicillin (R2 = 0.726; p = 0.001), amoxicillin (R2 = 0.804; p < 0.001), cefotaxime (R2 = 0.546; p = 0.005) and erythromycin (R2 = 0.546; p = 0.009) were found, with amoxicillin non-susceptibility firstly detected in 2003 (7.4%) and increasing up to 38.0% in 2009. In PCV7 serotypes (which prevalence decreased from 70.7% during 1997-2000 to 10.6% in 2009) amoxicillin non-susceptibility rates showed an increasing trend (R2 = 0.702; p = 0.002). However, overall, amoxicillin non-susceptibility (≈25% in 2008-9) could be mainly attributed to serotype 19A (> 35% isolates) since PCV7 strains represented < 11% of total clinical isolates. Conclusions In contrast to reports on invasive pneumococcal strains, in MEF isolates the reduction in

  17. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ritzkowski, M.; Stegmann, R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different landfill aeration concepts and accordant application areas are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examples of full scale projects are provided for Europe, North-America and Asia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Major project findings are summarised, including prospects and limitations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inconsistencies between laboratory and full scale results have been elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An explanatory approach in connection with the inconsistencies is provided. - Abstract: The creation of sustainable landfills is a fundamental goal in waste management worldwide. In this connection landfill aeration contributes towards an accelerated, controlled and sustainable conversion of conventional anaerobic landfills into a biological stabilized state associated with a minimised emission potential. The technology has been successfully applied to landfills in Europe, North America and Asia, following different strategies depending on the geographical region, the specific legislation and the available financial resources. Furthermore, methodologies for the incorporation of landfill aeration into the carbon trade mechanisms have been developed in recent years. This manuscript gives an overview on existing concepts for landfill aeration; their application ranges and specifications. For all of the described concepts examples from different countries worldwide are provided, including details regarding their potentials and limitations. Some of the most important findings from these aeration projects are summarised and future research needs have been identified. It becomes apparent that there is a great demand for a systematisation of the available results and implications in order to further develop and optimise this very promising technology. The IWWG (International Waste Working Group) Task Group 'Landfill Aeration' contributes towards the achievement of this goal.

  18. Acid mine water aeration and treatment system

    DOEpatents

    Ackman, Terry E.; Place, John M.

    1987-01-01

    An in-line system is provided for treating acid mine drainage which basically comprises the combination of a jet pump (or pumps) and a static mixer. The jet pump entrains air into the acid waste water using a Venturi effect so as to provide aeration of the waste water while further aeration is provided by the helical vanes of the static mixer. A neutralizing agent is injected into the suction chamber of the jet pump and the static mixer is formed by plural sections offset by 90 degrees.

  19. Alternative Ear-Canal Measures Related to Absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Stephen T.; Stenfelt, Stefan; Schairer, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level (SIL), (2) forward-pressure level (FPL), (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance (TDR), and (4) cochlear reflectance (CR). These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wide-band stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. SIL and FPL have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared to sound pressure level (SPL) because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. TDR may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle-ear pathology. CR reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation. PMID:23900185

  20. Package plant of extended aeration membrane bioreactors: a study on aeration intensity and biofouling control.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Ng, S S; Nagaoka, H

    2005-01-01

    Biofouling control is important for effective process of membrane bioreactor (MBR). In this study, phenomena of biofouling for immersed type extended aeration MBR with two different anti-fouling aeration intensities were studied through a laboratory set up. The objectives of this study were (a) to observe biofouling phenomena of MBR that operates under different anti-fouling bubbling intensity, and simultaneously monitors performance of the MBR in organic carbon and nutrients removal; (b) to compare effectiveness of detergent and detergent-enzyme cleaning solutions in recovering biofouled membranes that operated in the extended aeration MBR. For MBR, which operated under continuous anti-fouling aeration, deposition and accumulation of suspended biomass on membrane surface were prohibited. However, flux loss was inescapable that biofilm layer was the main problem. Membrane cleaning was successfully carried out with detergent-enzyme mixture solutions and its effectiveness was compared with result from cleaning with just detergent solution.

  1. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss].

    PubMed

    Hesse, G

    2016-06-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most dominant handicaps in modern societies, which additionally very often is not realized or not admitted. About one quarter of the general population suffers from inner ear hearing loss and is therefore restricted in communicational skills. Demographic factors like increasing age play an important role as well as environmental influences and an increasing sound and noise exposure especially in leisure activities. Thus borders between a "classical" presbyacusis - if it ever existed - and envirionmentally induced hearing loss disappear. Today restrictions in hearing ability develop earlier in age but at the same time they are detected and diagnosed earlier. This paper can eventually enlighten the wide field of inner ear hearing loss only fragmentarily; therefore mainly new research, findings and developments are reviewed. The first part discusses new aspects of diagnostics of inner ear hearing loss and different etiologies.

  2. Effects of Learning Melodies by Ear on Performance Skills and Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musco, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of playing by ear in selected keys on the abilities of musicians (N = 28) to play by ear and sight-read in those keys. Middle school band students in the experimental group learned melodies by ear in one familiar and two unfamiliar keys, and did no music reading in the new keys, while students in the contact-control…

  3. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  4. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy References House JW, Cunningham CD. Otosclerosis. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  5. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work: Healthy Swimming Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... painful. How is swimmer's ear spread at recreational water venues? Swimmer’s ear can occur when water stays ...

  6. Mathematical Model of the Ear’s Response to Weapons Impulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    ends with predictions of basilar membrane motion. The model’s structure parallels the ear’s anatomy and function and fits hearing loss data for...middle ear, and cochlea, and ends with predictions of basilar membrane motion. The model’s structure parallels the ear’s anatomy and function and

  7. Ear Injuries (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or it can be bought separately). Wear ear protection at concerts, especially when sitting near the stage or speakers (they'll still be able to hear with earplugs — it just won't be as deafening), mowing the lawn or using machinery (like in metal or wood shop at school), or playing a loud instrument ( ...

  8. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  9. From Ear to Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  10. Taking Care of Your Ears

    MedlinePlus

    ... it to get better by itself. Tips for Swimmers Sometimes, swimming can lead to a case of swimmer's ear . That's when your outer ear gets infected, ... cause an infection. If you think you have swimmer's ear, your mom or dad needs to call ...

  11. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-03-08

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  12. A 3-D analysis of the protympanum in human temporal bones with chronic ear disease.

    PubMed

    Pauna, Henrique F; Monsanto, Rafael C; Schachern, Patricia; Paparella, Michael M; Cureoglu, Sebahattin

    2017-03-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction is believed to be an important factor to cholesteatoma development and recurrence of disease after surgical treatment. Although many studies have described prognostic factors, evaluation methods, or surgical techniques for Eustachian tube dysfunction, they relied on the soft tissues of its structure; little is known about its bony structure-the protympanum-which connects the Eustachian tube to the tympanic cavity, and can also be affected by several inflammatory conditions, both from the middle ear or from the nasopharynx. We studied temporal bones from patients with cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media (with and without retraction pockets), purulent otitis media, and non-diseased ears, looking for differences between the volume of the protympanum, the diameter of the Eustachian tube isthmus, and the distance between the anterior tympanic annulus and the promontory. Light microscopy and 3-D reconstruction software were used for the measurements. We observed a decrease of volume in the lumen of the four middle ear diseased ears compared to the control group. We observed a significant decrease in the volume of the protympanic space in the cholesteatoma group compared to the chronic otitis media group. We also observed a decrease in the bony space (protympanum space) in cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media with retraction pockets, and purulent otitis media compared to the control group. We found a correlation in middle ear diseases and a decrease in the middle ear space. Our findings may suggest that a smaller bony volume in the protympanic area may trigger middle ear dysventilation problems.

  13. Aeration of groundwater at a superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, P.

    1992-07-01

    One of the promising environmental cleanup activities underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is remediation of groundwater pollution by aeration techniques at the laboratory`s Site 300. The treatment facility extracts groundwater from a shallow aquifer and contaminants are removed by spraying the water into one end of a trailer mounted, polyethylene air-sparging tank. As the water passes through the tank, it is subjected to vigorous aeration from a large blower. By the time the water reaches the other end of the sparging tank, it has been stripped of volatile organic compounds(VOCs). The VOCs are stripped into the air and then collected by passing the air through two in-series, granular, activated-carbon canisters.

  14. CFD model of an aerating hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, D.; Sabourin, M.; Beaulieu, S.; Papillon, B.; Ellis, C.

    2014-03-01

    Improving water quality in the tailrace below hydroelectric dams has become a priority in many river systems. In warm climates, water drawn by the turbine from deep in a reservoir can be deficient in dissolved oxygen (DO), a critical element in maintaining a healthy aquatic ecosystem. Many different solutions have been proposed in order to increase the DO levels in turbine discharge, including: turbine aeration systems (adding air to the water through either the turbine hub, the periphery or through distributed aeration in the runner blades); bubble diffusers in the reservoir or in the tailrace; aerating weirs downstream of the dams; and surface water pumps in the reservoir near the dam. There is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of these solutions by improving the way that oxygen is introduced into the water; better distributions of bubbles will result in better oxygen transfer. In the present study, a two-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics model has been formulated using a commercial code to study the distribution of air downstream of a simple aerating hydrofoil. The two-phase model uses the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Appropriate relations are used to model the interphase forces, including the Grace drag force model, the Favre averaged drag force and the Sato enhanced eddy viscosity. The model is validated using experimental results obtained in the water tunnel at the University of Minnesota's Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory. Results are obtained for water velocities between 5 and 10 m/s, air flow rates between 0.5 and 1.5 sL/min and for angles of attack between 0° and -8°. The results of this study show that the CFD model provides a good qualitative comparison to the experimental results by well predicting the wake location at the different flow rates and angles of attack used.

  15. Supersonic Injection of Aerated Liquid Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhari, Abhijit; Sallam, Khaled

    2016-11-01

    A computational study of the exit flow of an aerated two-dimensional jet from an under-expanded supersonic nozzle is presented. The liquid sheet is operating within the annular flow regime and the study is motivated by the application of supersonic nozzles in air-breathing propulsion systems, e.g. scramjet engines, ramjet engines and afterburners. The simulation was conducted using VOF model and SST k- ω turbulence model. The test conditions included: jet exit of 1 mm and mass flow rate of 1.8 kg/s. The results show that air reaches transonic condition at the injector exit due to the Fanno flow effects in the injector passage. The aerated liquid jet is alternately expanded by Prandtl-Meyer expansion fan and compressed by oblique shock waves due to the difference between the back (chamber) pressure and the flow pressure. The process then repeats itself and shock (Mach) diamonds are formed at downstream of injector exit similar to those typical of exhaust plumes of propulsion system. The present results, however, indicate that the flow field of supersonic aerated liquid jet is different from supersonic gas jets due to the effects of water evaporation from the liquid sheet. The contours of the Mach number, static pressure of both cases are compared to the theory of gas dynamics.

  16. Effects of aeration method and aeration rate on greenhouse gas emissions during composting of pig feces in pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Guoxue; Tang, Qiong; Ma, Xuguang; Wang, Gang; Schuchardt, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover ways to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce energy consumption during the composting process. We assessed the effects of different aeration rates (0, 0.18, 0.36, and 0.54 L/(kg dry matter (dm)·min)) and methods (continuous and intermittent) on GHG emissions. Pig feces and corn stalks were mixed at a ratio of 7:1. The composting process lasted for 10 weeks, and the compost was turned approximately every 2 weeks. Results showed that both aeration rate and method significantly affected GHG emissions. Higher aeration rates increased NH3 and N2O losses, but reduced CH4 emissions. The exception is that the CH4 emission of the passive aeration treatment was lower than that of the low aeration rate treatment. Without forced aeration, the CH4 diffusion rates in the center of the piles were very low and part of the CH4 was oxidized in the surface layer. Intermittent aeration reduced NH3 and CH4 losses, but significantly increased N2O production during the maturing periods. Intermittent aeration increased the nitrification/denitrification alternation and thus enhanced the N2O production. Forced aeration treatments had higher GHG emission rates than the passive aeration treatment. Forced aeration accelerated the maturing process, but could not improve the quality of the end product. Compared with continuous aeration, intermittent aeration could increase the O2 supply efficiency and reduced the total GHG emission by 17.8%, and this reduction increased to 47.4% when composting was ended after 36 days.

  17. Comparison of Ear-Canal Reflectance and Umbo Velocity in Patients with Conductive Hearing Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Nakajima, Hideko H.; Pisano, Dominic V.; Röösli, Christof; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Mafoud, Lorice; Halpin, Christopher F.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2011-11-01

    Patients who present at hearing clinics with a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in the presence of an intact, healthy tympanic membrane create a unique challenge for otologists. While patient counseling, treatment options, and outcome vary with differing middle-ear pathologies, a non-invasive diagnostic that can differentiate between these pathologies does not currently exist. We evaluated the clinical utility and diagnostic accuracy of two non-invasive measures of middle-ear mechanics: ear-canal reflectance (ECR) and umbo velocity (VU).

  18. Ear syringing: minimising the risks.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2008-05-01

    The patient, 61 years of age, saw the general practitioner for a repeat prescription for her blood pressure medication. During the consultation, the patient mentioned that she had some discomfort in her left ear. The GP examined the patient's ears and noted that both external auditory canals were blocked by wax. He recommended that the patient have her ears syringed and arranged for the practice nurse to perform the procedure. The GP did not see the patient again.

  19. [Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].

    PubMed

    Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kopeć, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczyński, M; Karlik, M

    2001-01-01

    The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding.

  20. Structural properties of autoclaved aerated concrete masonry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthys, J.H.; Nelson, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    Autoclaved aerated concrete masonry units are manufactured from portland cement, quartz sand, water, lime, gypsum and a gas forming agent. The units are steam cured under pressure in an autoclave transforming the material into a hard calcium silicate. The autoclaved aerated concrete masonry units are large-size solid rectangular prisms which are laid using thin-bed mortar layers into masonry assemblages. The system and product are not new--patented in 1924 by Swedish architect Johan Eriksson. Over a period of 60 years this product has been used in all areas of residential and industrial construction and in virtually all climates. However, the principal locations of application have been generally outside the US Little information in the US is available on the structural properties of this product. Due to the interest in use of this product in the construction industry and the construction of production plants in the US, the Construction Research Center at the University of Texas at Arlington and Robert L. Nelson & Associates conducted a series of tests to determine some of the basic structural properties of this product. This paper presents the findings of those investigations.

  1. FOULING OF FINE PORE DIFFUSED AERATORS: AN INTER- PLANT COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been increasing interest in fine pore aeration systems, along with concerned about diffuser fouling and the subsequent loss of aeration efficiency. The objective of this study was to assess the relative fouling tendency of fine bubble diffusers t nine activated sludge ...

  2. OXIDATION OF AS(III) BY AERATION AND STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of the effects of aeration and storage on the oxidation of arsenic(III) was undertaken at three utilities in the US to establish the engineering significance of aeration as a potential pre-treatment method for arsenic removal. The results of this study clearly establish t...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6100 - Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. 880.6100... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6100 Ethylene oxide gas aerator cabinet. (a) Identification. An ethyene oxide gas... required to remove residual ethylene oxide (ETO) from wrapped medical devices that have undergone...

  8. Recirculation-aeration: Bibliography for aquaculture. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Perschbacher, P.W.; Powell, R.V.; Freeman, D.W.; Lorio, W.J.; Hanfman, D.T.

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography includes literature citations through 1992 related to water recirculation and aeration in aquaculture. The focus is on filtration, aeration, and circulation techniques in various aquaculture situations.

  9. Benign ear cyst or tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bony tumor of the ear canal Images Ear anatomy References Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P. Benign tumors of the sinonasal tract. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  10. Otoscopic exam of the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intrument which is used to look into the ear canal. The ear speculum (a cone-shaped viewing piece of the otoscope) is slowly inserted into the ear canal while looking into the otoscope. The speculum ...

  11. Wax blockage in the ear (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair follicles and glands that produce a waxy oil called cerumen. Sometimes the glands produce more wax than can be easily excreted out the ear. This extra wax may harden within the ear canal and block the ear.

  12. Acoustic input impedance of the avian inner ear measured in ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    PubMed

    Muyshondt, Pieter G G; Aerts, Peter; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2016-09-01

    In both mammals and birds, the mechanical behavior of the middle ear structures is affected by the mechanical impedance of the inner ear. In this study, the aim was to quantify the acoustic impedance of the avian inner ear in the ostrich, which allows us to determine the effect on columellar vibrations and middle ear power flow in future studies. To determine the inner ear impedance, vibrations of the columella were measured for both the quasi-static and acoustic stimulus frequencies. In the frequency range of 0.3-4 kHz, we used electromagnetic stimulation of the ossicle and a laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the vibration response. At low frequencies, harmonic displacements were imposed on the columella using piezo stimulation and the resulting force response was measured with a force sensor. From these measurement data, the acoustic impedance of the inner ear could be determined. A simple RLC model in series of the impedance measurements resulted in a stiffness reactance of KIE = 0.20·10(12) Pa/m³, an inertial impedance of MIE = 0.652·10(6) Pa s(2)/m³, and a resistance of RIE = 1.57·10(9) Pa s/m. We found that values of the inner ear impedance in the ostrich are one to two orders in magnitude smaller than what is found in mammal ears.

  13. The carbonation of autoclaved aerated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hanecka, K.; Koronthalyova, O.; Matiasovsky, P.

    1997-04-01

    During the long-term investigation of the physical properties of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) in the indoor environment with changing relative humidity and temperature the significant increase of the AAC density was found. It was proved that the increase of the density was a consequence of carbonation process. For the investigated types of the AAC the ultimate increase of density was proportional to initial dry density of the AAC. It was found as well that relative volumes of the micropores (with radius from 3.5 nm to 7,500 nm) of the investigated types of the AAC are proportional to their dry densities. The simulation of the time courses of density increase due to carbonation based on solution of modified diffusion equation was done. In spite of using simplifications (constant value of CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient, neglecting the relative humidity changes), the calculated time courses coincided sufficiently with the measured ones.

  14. Effect of aeration rate on composting of penicillin mycelial dreg.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shihua; Wen, Qinxue; Zheng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Pilot scale experiments with forced aeration were conducted to estimate effects of aeration rates on the performance of composting penicillin mycelial dreg using sewage sludge as inoculation. Three aeration rates of 0.15, 0.50 and 0.90L/(min·kg) organic matter (OM) were examined. The principal physicochemical parameters were monitored during the 32day composting period. Results showed that the higher aeration rate of 0.90L/(min·kg) did not corresponded to a longer thermophilic duration and higher rates of OM degradation; but the lower aeration rate of 0.15L/(min·kg) did induce an accumulation of NH4(+)-N contents due to the inhibition of nitrification. On the other hand, aeration rate has little effect on degradation of penicillin. The results show that the longest phase of thermophilic temperatures≥55°C, the maximum NO3(-)-N content and seed germination, and the minimum C/N ratio were obtained with 0.50L/(min·kg) OM. Therefore, aeration rates of 0.50L/(min·kg) OM can be recommended for composting penicillin mycelial dreg.

  15. Deformity of Ears and Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. C.

    1965-01-01

    Ten children with gross deformity of the external ear were observed. In six the facial bones were underdeveloped on the same side as the deformed ear. In all six there was a congenital abnormality of the kidney or upper urinary tract, usually on the same side as the deformed ear. In addition there were usually other associated congenital defects in each case. In the remaining four children the facial bones appeared normal, and pyelography showed no abnormality of the urinary tract. In these four children there were no other associated defects. These observations emphasize the importance of investigating the urinary tract in children with gross deformity of the external ear, especially where there is an associated underdevelopment of the facial bones. PMID:14317453

  16. Ototoxicity (Ear Poisoning) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the ear responsible for receiving/sending sounds and controlling balance. The degree of damage depends ... have trouble hearing certain things, from high-pitched sounds to talking if there's background noise. Or they ...

  17. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    MedlinePlus

    ... previously covered by swimsuit > Pus-filled blisters around hair follicles Swimmer’s Ear (Otitis externa) > Pain when infected ear ... ear. You can find this product at your drug store. > Avoid putting objects in the ear (for ... levels drop, so testing your pool or hot tub’s disinfectant and pH ...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  1. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  2. 21 CFR 870.2710 - Ear oximeter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear oximeter. 870.2710 Section 870.2710 Food and... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2710 Ear oximeter. (a) Identification. An ear... ear. The amount of reflected or scattered light as indicated by this device is used to measure...

  3. Approaches to Inflight Ear Oximetry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    of arterial oxygen saturation. For centri- fuge experiments the floe,! ett-Packard ear oximeter, Model 47201A, has been successfully used both at...These difficulties are perhaps even more significant with respect to inflight experimental use. The difficulties are: 1. The bloodless ear is not truly...available (9), and a number of papers on both the clini- cal use (10-17) and the experimental use (1, 2, 18) of this equipment have been published since its

  4. INVESTIGATIONS INTO BIOFOULING PHENOMENA IN FINE PORE AERATION DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbiologically-based procedures were used to describe biofouling phenomena on fine pore aeration devices and to determine whether biofilm characteristics could be related to diffuser process performance parameters. Fine pore diffusers were obtained from five municipal wastewa...

  5. Enhancement of Nitrogen Removal in an Intermittent Aeration Membrane Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaojuan; Wisniewski, Christelle; Li, Xudong; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    An intermittent aerated membrane bioreactor was applied in laboratory scale to treat synthetic household wastewater. The system organic load and nitrogen load were 0.34 kgCODṡm-3ṡd-1 and 0.06 kgTNṡm-3ṡd-1, respectively. The hydraulic residence time was equal to 12 h and very long sludge residence times were imposed. Intermittent aeration, with anoxic-aerobic cycle of 30/60 minutes, was employed in the system. The results showed that 100% SS and >90% COD could be removed. The average removal efficiency of NH4-N and TN was 99.7% and 80%, respectively. A linear relationship between the fouling rate and the MLSS, MLVSS concentration was founded. The denitrification seemed to be the rate-limiting step for nitrogen removal. To enhance denitrification, the following strategies could be considered: 1) to select suitable aeration/non-aeration cycle, 2) to control the aeration intensity, 3) to feed the system at the beginning of non-aeration period, 4) to maintain high MLSS concentration.

  6. Thermal inertia properties of autoclaved aerated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Ropelewski, L.; Neufeld, R.D.

    1999-08-01

    Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is a lightweight, porous concrete with advanced thermal properties. AAC is unique among construction materials in combining excellent thermal resistance and thermal inertia. Generally, low-density construction materials do not provide good thermal inertia, while heavier ones commonly have poor thermal resistance. Five different 10.2 cm (4 in.) AAC samples made from US electric utility fly ash as the silica source, along with three 10.2 cm (4 in.) conventional building material specimens, were tested for thermal inertia properties. Three primary issues addressed by these experiments were: (1) to develop and compare AAC thermal inertia to conventional building materials; (2) to document differences in thermal inertia characteristics of the AAC blocks produced by the various utilities; and (3) to determine if a periodic heat flow model using the thermal inertia approach adequately predicts the observed thermal inertia parameters of a material. A theoretical periodic heat flow model in the literature for thermal inertia did an adequate job of predicting the observed thermal inertia parameters for the AAC and conventional construction samples.

  7. Adaptive Model of Wastewater Aeration Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniders, Andris; Laizans, Aigars

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the methodology of oxygen transfer virtual simulation in a wastewater biological treatment process, using the MATLAB/SIMULINK technology. A self-tuning adaptive model of a wastewater aeration tank, as a non-stationary object, with variable time dependent sensitivity and inertia indexes, as the functions of input variable - air pneumatic supply capacity Lg(t) (m3/min), output variable - dissolved oxygen concentration C(t) (g/m3) and oxygen expenditure, as a load - q(t) (g/min), required for wastewater complete purification, is expounded. Virtual models, applying Laplace transforms and SIMULINK blocks library, are composed in order to compare the transient processes of dissolved oxygen concentration in the simplified stationary model with constant sensitivity and inertia coefficients, and in the non-stationary model with variable sensitivity and inertia indexes. The simulation block-diagram for non-stationary model adoption to the variable parameters is developed, using informative links from input variable Lg(t), from variable load q(t) and feedback from output variable C(t) as inputs of calculation modulus, allowing to instantly re-calculate the variable indexes during simulation time. Comparison of the simplified stationary model and the non-stationary model shows that the simulation results of oxygen transfer differ up to 50%.

  8. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  9. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  11. [Research of controlling condition for aeration stabilization pond dealing with sanitary waste of countryside].

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zheng; Yao, Shu-Jun; Xu, Zu-Xin; Chen, Wei-Bing

    2012-10-01

    According to research of some problems, such as the hydraulic detention time that aeration stabilization pond deals with sanitary waste of countryside, dissolved oxygen in pond during the process of aeration, the concentration distribution of sludge and different aeration periods affecting on the treatment efficiency, we can acquire good treatment efficiency and energy consumption of economy. The results indicate that under the aeration stabilization pond of this experiment, 4 d is the best hydraulic detention time with this aeration stabilization pond. Time of the discontinuous running aeration should be greater than 15 min. The concentration distribution of sludge can reach equilibrium at each point of aeration stabilization pond between 2 min and 10 min. The best aeration period of dislodging the pollutant is 0.5 h aeration/1.0 h cut-off.

  12. [Effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on algae growth in freshwater].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Guang; Jin, Xiang-Can; Sun, Ling; Sun, Hong-Wen; Zhu, Lin; Yu, Yang; Dai, Shu-Gui; Zhuang, Yuan-Yi

    2006-01-01

    Aquarium microcosms were used to study the effects of nitrogen source and aeration mode on the growth and species changes of algae in freshwater. Nitrate nitrogen(NO3(-) -N) and ammonia nitrogen(NH4(+) -N) were used as nitrogen sources. For each nitrogen source, four modes of aeration were selected, including control, continuous aeration, aeration during the day, and aeration at night. In the early stage of the experiment, algae in the NH4(+) -N treatment experiment grew well. In the later stage, algae in the NO3(-) -N treatment experiment grew better. For different aeration modes, continuous aeration show varied effects on algae growth in the two nitrogen source treatments. Day-only aeration had little effect on algae growth. Night-only aeration inhibited algae growth considerably. In NH(+) -N treatments, cyanophyta became dominant species easily. In contrast, chlorophyta dominated in NO3(-) -N treatments.

  13. Characterizing the ear canal acoustic impedance and reflectance by pole-zero fitting.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sarah R; Nguyen, Cac T; Allen, Jont B

    2013-07-01

    This study characterizes middle ear complex acoustic reflectance (CAR) and impedance by fitting poles and zeros to real-ear measurements. The goal of this work is to establish a quantitative connection between pole-zero locations and the underlying physical properties of CAR data. Most previous studies have analyzed CAR magnitude; while the magnitude accounts for reflected power, it does not encode latency information. Thus, an analysis that studies the real and imaginary parts of the data together, being more general, should be more powerful. Pole-zero fitting of CAR data is examined using data compiled from various studies, dating back to Voss and Allen (1994). Recent CAR measurements were taken using the Mimosa Acoustics HearID system, which makes complex acoustic impedance and reflectance measurements in the ear canal over a 0.2-6.0 [kHz] frequency range. Pole-zero fits to measurements over this range are achieved with an average RMS relative error of less than 3% with 12 poles. Factoring the reflectance fit into its all-pass and minimum-phase components estimates the effect of the residual ear canal, allowing for comparison of the eardrum impedance and admittance across measurements. It was found that individual CAR magnitude variations for normal middle ears in the 1-4 [kHz] range often give rise to closely-placed pole-zero pairs, and that the locations of the poles and zeros in the s-plane may systematically differ between normal and pathological middle ears. This study establishes a methodology for examining the physical and mathematical properties of CAR using a concise parametric model. Pole-zero modeling accurately parameterizes CAR data, providing a foundation for detection and identification of middle ear pathologies. This article is part of a special issue entitled "MEMRO 2012".

  14. Histopathologic changes of the ear in canine models of mucopolysaccharidosis types I and VII.

    PubMed

    Hordeaux, J; Deniaud, J; Bemelmans, I; Bertrand, L; Moreau, S; Amiaud, J; Wyers, M; Cherel, Y; Colle, M-A

    2011-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) types I and VII are inborn errors of metabolism caused by mutation of enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan catabolism, which leads to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. In children, severe forms of MPS I and VII are characterized by somatic and neurologic manifestations, including a poorly understood hearing loss. The purpose of this study is to describe the age-related histopathologic changes of the ear in spontaneous canine models of MPS I and VII. Pathologic changes in the ear were assessed in MPS I and VII dogs ranging from 1.6 to 9.3 months of age. Paraffin-embedded sections of the whole ear and Epon-embedded semithin sections of the cochlea were examined. The following lesions were blindly scored in the middle and inner ear: inflammation, cells vacuolization, thickening of osseous and membranous structures, perivascular vacuolated macrophages infiltration, and bone resorption. All dogs had lysosomal storage within cells of tympanic membrane, ossicles, tympanic bone and mucosa, cochlear bone, spiral ligament, limbus, and stria vascularis. The MPS I dogs mainly had progressive cochlear lesions. The MPS VII dogs had severe and early middle ear lesions, including chronic otitis media and bone resorption. The MPS I dog only partially recapitulates the pathology seen in humans; specifically, the dog model lacks inflammatory middle ear disease. In contrast, the MPS VII dog has severe inflammatory middle ear disease similar to that reported in the human. In conclusion, the canine MPS VII model appears to be a good model to study MPS VII-related deafness.

  15. Fungal Infections of the Ear in Immunocompromised Host: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Viswanatha, Borlingegowda; Naseeruddin, Khaja

    2011-01-01

    Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear; middle ear and open mastoid cavity.1 Meyer first described the fungal infection of the external ear canal in 1884. External ear canal has an ideal warm humid environment for the proliferation of fungus.2 Although this disease is rarely life threatening, it can presents a challenging and frustrating situation for the otologist and patients due to long term treatment and high rate of recurrence.3 Otomycosis is seen more frequently in immunocompromised patients as compared to immunocompetent persons. Recurrence rate is high in immunocompromised patients and they need longer duration treatment and complications are more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In the recent years; opportunistic fungal infections are gaining greater importance in human medicine as a result of possibly huge number of immunocompromised patients.4 In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be vigorous, to minimize complications such as hearing loss, tympanic membrane perforations and invasive temporal bone infection.5 Fungal cultures are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological investigations play a very important role in confirming the diagnosis and immunity status of the patients. In diabetic patients with otomycosis, along with antifungal therapy, blood sugar levels should be controlled with medical therapy to prevent complications. PMID:21625307

  16. Development of the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Tanya T

    2015-06-01

    The vertebrate inner ear is a sensory organ of exquisite design and sensitivity. It responds to sound, gravity and movement, serving both auditory (hearing) and vestibular (balance) functions. Almost all cell types of the inner ear, including sensory hair cells, sensory neurons, secretory cells and supporting cells, derive from the otic placode, one of the several ectodermal thickenings that arise around the edge of the anterior neural plate in the early embryo. The developmental patterning mechanisms that underlie formation of the inner ear from the otic placode are varied and complex, involving the reiterative use of familiar signalling pathways, together with roles for transcription factors, transmembrane proteins, and extracellular matrix components. In this review, I have selected highlights that illustrate just a few of the many recent discoveries relating to the development of this fascinating organ system.

  17. Tuning in the bullfrog ear.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, E R

    1988-01-01

    When electrical resonances were observed in acoustic sensory cells of lower vertebrates, the hearing research community was presented with the exciting possibility that tuning in the ears of those animals might be explained directly in terms of familiar molecular devices. It is reported here that in the frog sacculus, where electrical resonances have been observed in isolated hair cells, the effects of those resonances are completely obscured in the tuning properties of the sacculus in the intact ear. This observation has important implications not only for students of the ear, but for reductionist biologists in general. All of the dynamic properties of a system of connected, bidirectional processes are consequences of all of those processes at once; in such a system, the properties of an experimentally isolated subsystem may be totally obscured in the operation of the system as a whole. PMID:3258166

  18. Results of ear examination. [in Apollo 17 BIOCORE pocket mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Leon, H. A.; Barrows, W. F.; Suri, K.; Kraft, L. M.; Turnbill, C. E.; Webster, D. B.; Ashley, W. W.; Look, B. C.; Simmonds, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    In the five pocket mice flown on Apollo XVII, no evidence was found that the inner ear had been damaged, though poor fixation precluded detailed study. On the other hand, the middle ear cavity was involved in all the mice, hemorrhage having occurred in response to excursions in pressure within the canister that housed the mice during their flight. The same occurred in flight control mice which had been subjected to pressure excursions of much the same magnitude. A greater degree of exudation into air cells and greater leukotaxis were noted in the flight animals than in the control animals. There was no increase in leukocyte population along the paths of the 23 cosmic-ray particles registered in the subscalp dosimeters that traversed the middle ear cavities of the flight mice. The increased exudation and the greater response by leukocytes in the flight mice may have been causally related to the lesions found in their olfactory mucosa but there were no data in support of this possibility.

  19. Influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting.

    PubMed

    de Guardia, A; Petiot, C; Rogeau, D; Druilhe, C

    2008-01-01

    The paper aimed to study the influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting of wastewater sludge with wood chips. Wastewater sludge was sampled at a pig slaughterhouse 24h before each composting experiment, and mixtures were made at the same mass ratio. Six composting experiments were performed in a lab reactor (300 L) under forced aeration. Aeration flow was constant throughout the experiment and aeration rates applied ranged between 1.69 and 16.63 L/h/kg DM of mixture. Material temperature and oxygen consumption were monitored continuously. Nitrogen losses in leachates as organic and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate, and losses in exhaust gases as ammonia were measured daily. Concentrations of total carbon and nitrogen i.e., organic nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, and nitrite and nitrate were measured in the initial substrates and in the composted materials. The results showed that organic nitrogen, which was released as NH4+/NH3 by ammonification, was closely correlated to the ratio of carbon removed from the material to TC/N(org) of the initial substrates. The increase of aeration was responsible for the increase in ammonia emissions and for the decrease in nitrogen losses through leaching. At high aeration rates, losses of nitrogen in leachates and as ammonia in exhaust gases accounted for 90-99% of the nitrogen removed from the material. At low aeration rates, those accounted for 47-85% of the nitrogen removed from the material. The highest concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen in composts occurred at the lowest aeration rate. Due to the correlation of ammonification with biodegradation and to the measurements of losses in leachates and in exhaust gases, the pool NH4+/NH3 in the composting material was calculated as a function of time. The nitrification rate was found to be proportional to the mean content of NH4+/NH3 in the material, i.e., initial NH4+/NH3 plus NH4+/NH3 released by ammonification minus losses in

  20. Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Voudrias, Evangelos A

    2014-04-01

    The present study is an application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the numerical simulation of landfill aeration systems. Specifically, the CFD algorithms provided by the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent 14.0, combined with an in-house source code developed to modify the main solver, were used. The unsaturated multiphase flow of air and liquid phases and the biochemical processes for aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste were simulated taking into consideration their temporal and spatial evolution, as well as complex effects, such as oxygen mass transfer across phases, unsaturated flow effects (capillary suction and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), temperature variations due to biochemical processes and environmental correction factors for the applied kinetics (Monod and 1st order kinetics). The developed model results were compared with literature experimental data. Also, pilot scale simulations and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Moreover, simulation results of a hypothetical single aeration well were shown, while its zone of influence was estimated using both the pressure and oxygen distribution. Finally, a case study was simulated for a hypothetical landfill aeration system. Both a static (steadily positive or negative relative pressure with time) and a hybrid (following a square wave pattern of positive and negative values of relative pressure with time) scenarios for the aeration wells were examined. The results showed that the present model is capable of simulating landfill aeration and the obtained results were in good agreement with corresponding previous experimental and numerical investigations.

  1. Sludge reduction using aquatic worms under different aeration regimes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lu; Gao, Ding; Wang, Kan; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wan, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Adding aquatic worms to a wastewater treatment system can reduce sludge production through predation. The aeration level is crucial for success. To evaluate aeration impacts on sludge reduction and determine an optimal aeration regime, this study investigated the processes of in-situ sludge reduction, using aquatic worms exposed to different aeration levels. The experiment also compared treatment results between a conventional reactor and an aquatic worm reactor (WR). Results indicated that the recommended concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) was 2.5 mg L(-1). The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand remained steady at 80% when the DO concentration was higher than 2.5 mg L(-1), while the removal rate of ammonia nitrogen continued to moderately increase. Increasing the DO concentration to 5 mg L(-1) did not improve sludge reduction, and consumed more power. With a DO concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1) and a power of 0.19 kWh t(-1) water, the absolute sludge reduction and relative sludge reduction rates in the WR were 60.0% and 45.7%, respectively, and the daily aquatic worm growth rate was 0.150 d(-1) during the 17-d test. Therefore, at the recommended aeration regime, aquatic worms reduced the sludge without increasing the power consumption or deteriorating the effluent.

  2. Cardiopulmonary changes with aeration of the newborn lung.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stuart Brian; Polglase, Graeme Roger; Roehr, Charles Christoph

    2015-06-01

    The newborn's transition from fetal to neonatal life includes aeration of the lungs, establishment of pulmonary gas exchange and changing the fetal circulation into the adult phenotype. This review summarizes the latest research findings, which show that lung aeration, airway liquid clearance and cardiovascular changes are directly interconnected at birth. The mechanisms of airway liquid clearance at birth are reviewed and the particular importance of the transpulmonary pressure gradient during lung aeration is discussed. Further, we summarize research findings which prove that lung aeration triggers the increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF) at birth, and how the increase in PBF secures the preload for left ventricular output. Consequently, we review animal experiments which suggest that delaying umbilical cord clamping until breathing commences facilitates hemodynamic stability during transition. These data are reviewed with respect to the clinical applicability: As lung aeration is the key to successful transition to newborn life, providing adequate respiratory support at birth must be the primary objective of neonatal staff attending to the newborn infant. Clinical studies are needed to demonstrate whether the obvious benefits of delaying cord clamping until breathing commences hold true in human babies.

  3. Cardiopulmonary changes with aeration of the newborn lung

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Stuart Brian; Polglase, Graeme Roger; Roehr, Charles Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The newborns transition from fetal to neonatal life includes aeration of the lungs, establishment of pulmonary gas exchange and a changing the fetal circulation into the adult phenotype. This review summarizes the latest research findings, which show that lung aeration, airway liquid clearance and cardiovascular changes are directly interconnected at birth. The mechanisms of airway liquid clearance at birth are reviewed and the particular importance of the transpulmonary pressure gradient during lung aeration is discussed. Further, we summarize research findings which prove that lung aeration triggers the increased in pulmonary blood flow (PBF) at birth, and how the increase in PBF secures the preload for left ventricular output. Consequently, we review animal experiments which suggest that delaying umbilical cord clamping until breathing commences facilitates hemodynamic stability during transition. These data are reviewed with respect to the clinical applicability: As lung aeration is the key to successful transition to newborn life, providing adequate respiratory support at birth must be the primary objective of neonatal staff attending to the newborn infant. Clinical studies are needed to demonstrate whether the obvious benefits of delaying cord clamping until breathing commences hold true in human babies. PMID:25870083

  4. Numerical evaluation of implantable hearing devices using a finite element model of human ear considering viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Jiabin; Ta, Na; Huang, Xinsheng; Rao, Zhushi

    2016-08-01

    Finite element method was employed in this study to analyze the change in performance of implantable hearing devices due to the consideration of soft tissues' viscoelasticity. An integrated finite element model of human ear including the external ear, middle ear and inner ear was first developed via reverse engineering and analyzed by acoustic-structure-fluid coupling. Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues in the middle ear were taken into consideration in this model. The model-derived dynamic responses including middle ear and cochlea functions showed a better agreement with experimental data at high frequencies above 3000 Hz than the Rayleigh-type damping. On this basis, a coupled finite element model consisting of the human ear and a piezoelectric actuator attached to the long process of incus was further constructed. Based on the electromechanical coupling analysis, equivalent sound pressure and power consumption of the actuator corresponding to viscoelasticity and Rayleigh damping were calculated using this model. The analytical results showed that the implant performance of the actuator evaluated using a finite element model considering viscoelastic properties gives a lower output above about 3 kHz than does Rayleigh damping model. Finite element model considering viscoelastic properties was more accurate to numerically evaluate implantable hearing devices.

  5. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect-pinna; Congenital defect-pinna ... most cases, a health care provider finds pinna abnormalities during the first well-baby exam. This exam ...

  6. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  7. Ear dominance and telephone sales.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Richardson, S; Miller, T

    1997-10-01

    In a field study, three equally sized sales teams used on of three head-sets--left, right, both ears--for a day's selling of insurance by telephone. This had no effect on sales. In a retrospective study of records, daily sales performance including the percentage conversion rate for sales divided by the number of calls and the number and duration of calls was related to preference for type of head-set. Sales were markedly influenced by the choice of head-set. People who chose to wear the left earpiece significantly out sold the others wearing right and stereohead-sets. Neither the number of incoming calls nor the time spent on the telephone were influenced by the choice of head-set. When sales are analysed in terms of individual differences in personal preference for type of head-set, those who chose the left ear had an advantage. Forced use of the left, versus right ear or both ears for one day had no effect.

  8. Ear recognition based on Gabor features and KFDA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Mu, Zhichun

    2014-01-01

    We propose an ear recognition system based on 2D ear images which includes three stages: ear enrollment, feature extraction, and ear recognition. Ear enrollment includes ear detection and ear normalization. The ear detection approach based on improved Adaboost algorithm detects the ear part under complex background using two steps: offline cascaded classifier training and online ear detection. Then Active Shape Model is applied to segment the ear part and normalize all the ear images to the same size. For its eminent characteristics in spatial local feature extraction and orientation selection, Gabor filter based ear feature extraction is presented in this paper. Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA) is then applied for dimension reduction of the high-dimensional Gabor features. Finally distance based classifier is applied for ear recognition. Experimental results of ear recognition on two datasets (USTB and UND datasets) and the performance of the ear authentication system show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. In situ groundwater aeration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Symons, B.D.; Linkenheil, R.; Pritchard, D.; Shanke, C.A.; Seep, D.

    1995-12-31

    At a former wood treating site in Minnesota, the feasibility of in situ groundwater aeration was investigated in a laboratory treatability setting, to evaluate biodegradability and optimal operation conditions of the site aquifer. After concluding that an aeration system would increase the dissolved oxygen concentrations in the groundwater enough to sustain microbial life, a field demonstration system was designed and installed. The system was operated for 1 year, during which groundwater quality at upgradient and downgradient wells was monitored to evaluate the system`s effectiveness. The groundwater aeration system successfully reduced groundwater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, especially naphthalene. Naphthalene concentrations were reduced from 1,319 {micro}g/L to below the laboratory detection limit of 0.5 {micro}g/L. Cumulative concentrations of other PAH compounds were reduced from 98 {micro}g/L to 23 {micro}g/L during the 1-year test.

  10. Otomycosis with Perforated Tympanic Membrane: Self medication with Topical Antifungal Solution versus Medicated Ear Wick

    PubMed Central

    Abou-halawa, A. S.; Khan, M. A.; AlRobaee, A. A.; Alzolibani, A. A.; AlShobaili, H. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In otomycosis with tympanic membrane perforation, many physicians prefer to insert an ear wick medicated with antimycotic cream. This needs multiple visits to the clinic and keeps the ear blocked for several days. Direct instillation of alcohol based antimycotic solution causes severe burning if it reaches the middle ear. In this work we compare patient’s self medication with clotrimazole antimycotic solution used on Q-tips with physician–inserted ear wicks; in terms of safety, efficacy and patient satisfaction. Study Design & Setting Prospective controlled study in ambulatory setting. Methodology Forty consecutive patients with otomycosis with tympanic membrane perforation were included in the study. Diagnosis of otomycosis was both clinical and with mycological culture. Mean pure tone average (PTA) in the involved ear was measured after cleaning fungal debris. Patients were then, randomized into two groups; Q-tip group patients (n=20) were taught to self-medicate their ears two times daily with the clotrimazole solution on suitable Q-tips for three weeks. In ear wick group (n=20), a gauze wick impregnated with clotrimazole cream was inserted in the ear. Wick was changed every third day for two more visits (one week overall). Patients were followed up for 3 months. Results After three weeks all patients in Q-tip group and ear wick group had relief of their ear itching and complete disappearance of fungal growth in the deep meatus and on the tympanic membrane. PTA was 22 ± 11dB in Q-tip group and 25 ± 12 dB in ear wick group; the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.11). Patients in ear wick group had sense of ear blocking and wetness during period of treatment. Transient burning sensation was reported by 2 patients in Q-tip group. During three months, there was recurrence of otomycosis in 5 patients from ear wick group and no recurrence in Q-tip group (p=0.04). Conclusion Self medication with clotrimazole solution on Q-tips and

  11. [Comparison of differental intracochlear pressures between round window stimulation and ear canal stimulation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuelin

    2012-12-01

    Stimulation of the round window (RW) for coupling an implantable hearing system to the cochlea has gained increasing clinical importance. To compare the vibration transfer to the cochlear fluids and partition in response to normal acoustic stimulation and to mechanical stimulation of the RW, we carried out an acoustic-structure coupled finite element analysis using a recently developed finite element (FE) model in our laboratory, which consisted of external ear canal, middle ear and cochlea. Intracochlear pressures were derived during normal forward sound stimulation as well as reverse RW stimulation. A model was utilized to calculate the force required of an actuator at the RW to produce a differential intracochlear pressure that is equivalent to a stimulus produced in normal ear by a given external ear-canal pressure. The current results provided further information to support the optimization of the actuators and adapt existing prostheses for RW stimulation in order to insure sufficient acoustic output.

  12. Facial extention of ear pathology: infected cholesteatoma causing a parotid abscess

    PubMed Central

    Tornari, Chrysostomos; Pal, Surojit; Lingam, Ravi Kumar; Kalan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A man in his early 30s presented with right-sided preauricular swelling and facial oedema. He had a history of acid injury to his right ear as a child resulting in pinna deformity and subsequent blind sac closure of the external auditory canal. Imaging showed abnormal ear anatomy and abnormal density of the right parotid gland. Antibiotic therapy prevented progression but did not resolve the symptoms. Therefore, the infected area was surgically drained. This showed an underlying cholesteatoma, a benign but locally destructive condition where keratinising squamous epithelium grows in the middle ear and mastoid. The infected region was drained and the cholesteatoma was excised. This led to full resolution of the infection. The patient is awaiting a follow-up diffusion-weighted MRI. This case was unusual as the disease had extended beyond the ear and we therefore wish to alert clinicians to cholesteatoma as a possible cause of facial swelling. PMID:25795747

  13. The Role of Skeletal Muscle in External Ear Development: A Mouse Model Histomorphometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Rot, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mechanical stimuli imparted by skeletal muscles play an important role during embryonic development in vertebrates. Little is known whether skeletal muscles are required for normal external ear development. Methods: We used Myf5−/−:MyoD−/− (double-mutant) mouse embryos that completely lack skeletal musculature and analyzed the development of the external ear. We concentrated on the external ear because several studies have suggested a muscular cause to various congenital auricular deformities, and middle and inner ear development was previously reported using the same mouse model. Wild-type mouse embryos were used as controls to compare the histomorphometric outcomes. Results: Our findings demonstrated an absence of the external auditory meatus, along with an abnormal auricular appearance, in the double-mutant mouse embryos. Specifically, the auricle did not protrude laterally as noted in the wild-type mouse ears. However, histomorphometric measurements were not significantly different between the wild-type and double-mutant mouse ears. Conclusion: Overall, our study showed that the development of the mouse external ear is dependent on the presence of skeletal muscles. PMID:26090272

  14. Aeration for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the tidal effects on aeration conditions for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh. We extend the work of Ursino et al. (2004) by using a two-phase model for air and water flows in the marsh. Simulations have been conducted to examine directly the link between the airflow dynamics and the aeration condition in the marsh soil. The results show that the effects of entrapped air on water movement in the vadose zone are significant in certain circumstances. Single-phase models based on Richards' equation, which neglect such effects, may not be adequate for quantifying the aeration condition in tidal marsh. The optimal aeration condition, represented by the maximum of the integral magnitude of tidally advected air mass (TAAM) flux, is found to occur near the tidal creek for the four soil textures simulated. This may explain the observation that some salt marsh plant species grow better near tidal creeks than in the inner marsh areas. Our analyses, based on the two-phase model and predicted TAAM flux magnitude, provide further insight into the "positive feedback" mechanism proposed by Ursino et al. (2004). That is, pioneer plants may grow successfully near the creek where the root aeration condition is optimal. The roots of the pioneer plants can soften and loosen the rhizosphere soil, which increases the evapotranspiration rate, the soil porosity, and absolute permeability and weakens the capillary effects. These, in turn, improve further the root aeration conditions and may lead to colonization by plants less resistant to anaerobic conditions.

  15. Aeration for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Ling; Lockington, David

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the tidal effects on aeration conditions for plant root respiration in a tidal marsh. We extend the work of Ursino et al. (2004) by using a two-phase model for air and water flows in the marsh. Simulations have been conducted to examine directly the link between the airflow dynamics and the aeration condition in the marsh soil. The results show that the effects of entrapped air on water movement in the vadose zone are significant in certain circumstances. Single-phase models based on Richards' equation, which neglect such effects, may not be adequate for quantifying the aeration condition in tidal marsh. The optimal aeration condition, represented by the maximum of the integral magnitude of tidally advected air mass (TAAM) flux, is found to occur near the tidal creek for the four soil textures simulated. This may explain the observation that some salt marsh plant species grow better near tidal creeks than in the inner marsh areas. Our analyses, based on the two-phase model and predicted TAAM flux magnitude, provide further insight into the ``positive feedback'' mechanism proposed by Ursino et al. (2004). That is, pioneer plants may grow successfully near the creek where the root aeration condition is optimal. The roots of the pioneer plants can soften and loosen the rhizosphere soil, which increases the evapotranspiration rate, the soil porosity, and absolute permeability and weakens the capillary effects. These, in turn, improve further the root aeration conditions and may lead to colonization by plants less resistant to anaerobic conditions.

  16. Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

  17. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? A A A en español ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  18. Immunologic Disorders of the Inner Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, William C.; Hughes, Gordon B.

    1997-01-01

    Immune inner ear disease represents a series of immune system mediated problems that can present with hearing loss, dizziness, or both. The etiology, presentation, testing, and treatment of primary immune inner ear disease is discussed. A review of secondary immune inner ear disease is presented for comparison. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  19. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth > For Kids > Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print A A A en ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  20. The mouse hairy ears mutation exhibits an extended growth (anagen) phase in hair follicles and altered Hoxc gene expression in the ears

    PubMed Central

    Mentzer, Sarah E.; Sundberg, John P.; Awgulewitsch, Alexander; Chao, Hanna HJ.; Carpenter, Donald A.; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Rinchik, Eugene M.; You, Yun

    2010-01-01

    The mouse In(15)2Rl (hairy ears, Eh) mutation is a paracentric inversion of the distal half of Chromosome 15 (Chr 15). Heterozygous Eh/+ mice display mis-shaped and hairy ears that have more and longer hair than the ears of their wild-type littermates. We mapped, cloned, and sequenced both inversion breakpoints. No protein-coding transcript was disrupted by either breakpoint. The proximal breakpoint is located between syntrophin basic 1 (Sntb1) and hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), and the distal breakpoint maps between homeobox C4 (Hoxc4) and single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase (Smug1), near the middle and the telomere ends of Chr 15, respectively. The inversion spans ~47 Megabases (Mb). Our genetic analysis suggests that the hairy-ear phenotype is caused by the proximal breakpoint of the inversion-bearing Chr 15. Quantitative RNA analysis by RT-PCR for the genes flanking the breakpoint indicated no changes in expression levels except for some homeobox C (Hoxc) genes whose expression was elevated in developing and mature skin of the ears but not of other body regions. The increased hair length on the ears of Eh/+ mice was due to an extension of the anagen stage in the hair cycle, as determined by histological analysis. Our data indicate that the Eh phenotype arises from mis-expression of Hoxc genes. PMID:19037915

  1. In-tank aeration, a necessary compliment of loaded systems in an airlift recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water treatment components in recirculating aquaculture systems in generally address solids removal, nitrification, circulation, aeration, and degasification. Airlift pumps in a recirculating aquaculture system can address water circulation, aeration, and degasification. Recent data indicates oxygen...

  2. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... speech in a noisy environment (such as a classroom) leading to a delay in learning important speech ... Oído - Spanish Brochure Get Involved Professional Development Practice Management ENT Careers Marketplace Privacy Policy Terms of Use © ...

  3. Incidence of Learning Problems among Children with Middle Ear Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Jerry B.

    1984-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to describe the incidence of learning disorders as reported by parents of children who had received surgical treatment for serous otitis media. Contrary to expectation, only 13 percent of the 90 children were enrolled in special education. (Author/CL)

  4. [Lyophilized homologous bone grafts in middle ear surgery: new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Maisin, J P; Munting, E; Delloye, C; Gersdorff, M

    1989-01-01

    The authors share their experience of the use of allografts in the reconstruction of the tympano-ossicular chain. The implants were cut from the cortical substance of the long bone in patients deceased for a maximum of six hours; the donors were tested for syphilis, hepatitis, AIDS, systemic diseases or a neoplasm. These bone allografts were cut to size, degreased, demineralized, frozen and then lyophilized in order to be presented to the surgeon in a sterile container (Bone Bank). The implants were all tolerated well. The anatomical results were satisfactory. Optical microscopic studies showed that the implant was: a) covered with mucosa, b) full of osteoblasts and c) the site of a bone neoformation. Experimental research is currently underway in order to perfect the implant preparation methodology.

  5. Effects of Acoustic Impulses on the Middle Ear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    impulsive noises (impacts and impulses). Keywords: Noise exposure; hearing loss, noise-induced; impulsive noise; reflex ; conditioned response...stated in the approved SOW are: 1. Determine the prevalence of acoustic reflexes to among young people with H-1 hearing status as per Army...Regulation 40-501, Table 7-1. 2. Determine whether reflexive MEMC are pervasive for multiple acoustic and non-acoustic stimuli. 3. Determine whether

  6. The Effects of Middle Ear Pressure on Hearing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-30

    Hultcrantz et al., 1982; Larsen et al., 1982; Prazma & Rogers , 1982); 3) direct visualization of flow in selected cochlear vessels (Perlman & Kimura, 1955...Plenum Publishers, New York. 4. DeVincetits, I., Bozzi, L. and Pizzichetta, V. 1964. Sulla terapia medica di alcuwe gravi ipoacusie. Valsalua 40:65-79

  7. Contact Aeration Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrading Evaluation, Reese Air Force Base, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    id* If negoeory sruidanilU y bl Wok nusm) A 1940 vintage contact aeration wastewater treatment (Hays Process ) plant at Reese APE TX was upgraded by...aeration process is presented. The pet.rmance effticiencies of the Reese APE contact aeration treatment plant before and after upgrading are presented...Efeve SE~CURITY CLASSIFICATION OF TbIISP AGECIWa.. Does #ntiorgo). contact aeration process . It was found that the performance efficiencies of the

  8. A New Acoustic Portal into the Odontocete Ear and Vibrational Analysis of the Tympanoperiotic Complex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    to test models that allowed simulations of the functional morphology, and consider possible functional implications. Materials and Methods Ethics ...principles of the mammalian middle ear. Advances in Anatomy Embryology and Cell Biology 55: 1–70. 24. McCormick JG, Wever EG, Ridgway SH, Palin J (1980

  9. Temperature stratification and insect pest populations in stored wheat with suction versus pressure aeration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year study was conducted to compare temperature profiles in the headspace and in the bulk mass of wheat aerated through pressure aeration and suction aeration. Insect pitfall traps were used to measure naturally-occurring populations of stored product insects. Results show uniform distributi...

  10. Dissolved Oxygen management in catfish ponds using electric paddlewheel aerators: new approaches with old technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electric paddlewheel aerator has been the main aerator used in the U.S. catfish industry for the post forty years. While it has its limitations, it is perhaps the most efficient shallow-water aerator yet to be developed. Its shortcomings result not so much from poor design, as from poor usage. U...

  11. Development and evaluation of a new aerator for the catfish industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional paddle-wheel aerators have been used for supplemental and emergency aeration in the aquaculture industry for over 30 years but distribute a high volume of water which dilutes the aeration effort over the entire pond volume. Thus, a great deal of equipment and a large amount of power is r...

  12. Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of middle ear fluid pathogens in Costa Rican children with otitis media before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the National Immunization Program: acute otitis media microbiology in Costa Rican children.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour, Arturo; Arguedas, Adriano; Dagan, Ron; Soley, Carolina; Porat, Nurith; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Van Dyke, Melissa K

    2015-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) microbiology was evaluated in children after 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in Costa Rica (private sector, 2004; National Immunization Program, 2009). This was a combined prospective and retrospective study conducted in a routine clinical setting in San José, Costa Rica. In the prospective part of the study, which was conducted post-PCV7 introduction (2010-2012), standard bacteriological procedures were used to evaluate the etiology and serotype distribution of middle ear fluid samples collected by tympanocentesis or otorrhea from children aged 3-59 months diagnosed with AOM. E-tests were used to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in culture-positive samples. Retrospective data recorded between 1999 and 2004 were used for comparison of bacterial etiology and serotype distribution before and after PCV7 introduction. Statistical significance was evaluated in bivariate analyses at the P-value < 0.05 level (without multiplicity correction). Post-PCV7 introduction, Haemophilus influenzae was detected in 118/456 and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 87/456 AOM episodes. Most H. influenzae isolates (113/118) were non-typeable. H. influenzae was more (27.4% vs 20.8%) and S. pneumoniae less (17.1% vs 25.5%) frequently observed in vaccinated (≥ 2 PCV7 doses or ≥ 1 PCV7 dose at >1 year of age) versus unvaccinated children. S. pneumoniae non-susceptibility rates were 1.1%, 34.5%, 31.7%, and 50.6% for penicillin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), respectively. H. influenzae non-susceptibility rate was 66.9% for TMP-SMX. Between pre- and post-PCV7 introduction, H. influenzae became more (20.5% vs 25.9%; P-value < 0.001) and S. pneumoniae less (27.7% vs 19.1%; P-value = 0.002) prevalent, and PCV7 serotype proportions decreased among pneumococcal isolates (65.8% vs 43.7%; P-value = 0.0005). Frequently identified pneumococcal serotypes were 19F (34.2%), 3 (9.7%), 6B (9.7%), and 14 (9

  13. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with mineral additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, L. V.; Rakov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of joint grinding of Portland cement clinker, silica and carbonate components and mineral additives to specific surface of 280 - 300 m2/kg on the properties (strength, average density and thermal conductivity) of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, and the porosity of the hardened cement paste produced from Portland cement clinker with mineral additives. The joint grinding of the Portland cement clinker with silica and carbonate components and mineral additives reduces the energy consumption of non-autoclaved aerated concrete production. The efficiency of mineral additives (diopside, wollastonite) is due to the closeness the composition, the type of chemical bonds, physical and chemical characteristics (specific enthalpy of formation, specific entropy) to anhydrous clinker minerals and their hydration products. Considering the influence of these additions on hydration of clinker minerals and formation of hardened cement paste structure, dispersed wollastonite and diopside should be used as mineral additives. The hardness and, consequently, the elastic modulus of diopside are higher than that of hardened cement paste. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the hardened cement paste interporous partitions and hardening, both the partitions and aerated concrete on the whole. The mineral additives introduction allowed to obtain the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with average density 580 kg/m3, compressive strength of 3.3 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.131 W/(m.°C).

  14. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  15. Aerated Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) describes the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. In addition, special troubleshooting and maintenance problems are discussed. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of slides used…

  16. Towards advanced aeration modelling: from blower to bubbles to bulk.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Andreia; Schraa, Oliver; Rieger, Leiv; Gillot, Sylvie; Fayolle, Yannick; Bellandi, Giacomo; Amerlinck, Youri; Mortier, Séverine T F C; Gori, Riccardo; Neves, Ramiro; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    Aeration is an essential component of aerobic biological wastewater treatment and is the largest energy consumer at most water resource recovery facilities. Most modelling studies neglect the inherent complexity of the aeration systems used. Typically, the blowers, air piping, and diffusers are not modelled in detail, completely mixed reactors in a series are used to represent plug-flow reactors, and empirical correlations are used to describe the impact of operating conditions on bubble formation and transport, and oxygen transfer from the bubbles to the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms involved are very complex in nature and require significant research efforts. This contribution highlights why and where there is a need for more detail in the different aspects of the aeration system and compiles recent efforts to develop physical models of the entire aeration system (blower, valves, air piping and diffusers), as well as adding rigour to the oxygen transfer efficiency modelling (impact of viscosity, bubble size distribution, shear and hydrodynamics). As a result of these model extensions, more realistic predictions of dissolved oxygen profiles and energy consumption have been achieved. Finally, the current needs for further model development are highlighted.

  17. 5. AERATOR VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM. FLUSH VALVE AT RIGHT OPENS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERATOR VIEW FROM DOWNSTREAM. FLUSH VALVE AT RIGHT OPENS TO CLEAR THE SYSTEM ABOVE THE SILT AND DEBRIS AND TO STOP THE FLOW OF WATER INTO THE SYSTEM DOWN LINE. BOX FLUME CONTINUES DOWN LINE TO SEDIMENTATION CHAMBER. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  18. Renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds.

    PubMed

    Hobus, I; Hegemann, W

    2003-01-01

    The application of a decentralised renewable energy supply for the aeration of wastewater ponds, and the influence of an unsteady oxygen supply on the specific conversion rate and biocoenose was investigated. With the discontinuous aeration the specific conversion rate is increased as compared to facultative ponds. The estimation of the microorganisms consortia was done with in situ hybridisation techniques. A significant shift in the bacteria population with the chosen specific probes for anaerobic, sulphate reducing and nitrifying bacteria could not be detected. Wastewater ponds have sufficient buffer volume to compensate for the fluctuating energy supply. But the efficiency of the energy supply of a photovoltaic plant decreases in shallow lakes (d < 1.5 m) corresponding to a high oxygen production of algae. For the layout of the individual components: photovoltaic and wind power plant, energy management, aeration system and wastewater pond, a simulation model was developed and tested. The application of renewable energy for the aeration of wastewater ponds is a useful alternative for the redevelopment of overloaded ponds as well as the construction of new wastewater ponds, especially in areas with an inadequate central electricity grid and a high availability of wind and solar energy.

  19. 4. AERATOR AT 525, CONSTRUCTED 19371938, VIEW FROM UPSTREAM (TRASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERATOR AT 525, CONSTRUCTED 1937-1938, VIEW FROM UPSTREAM (TRASH SCREEN REMOVED FOR CLARITY), WATER FROM INTAKE FLOWS THROUGH FLUME, THEN DAMS, AND SPILLS OVER STEPS TO MIX WITH OXYGEN, THUS REDUCING ACIDITY LEVELS. ACID INDUCES FASTER CORROSION OF PIPES AND SPOILS TASTE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  20. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  1. Ventilation/perfusion mismatch during lung aeration at birth.

    PubMed

    Lang, Justin A R; Pearson, James T; te Pas, Arjan B; Wallace, Megan J; Siew, Melissa L; Kitchen, Marcus J; Fouras, Andreas; Lewis, Robert A; Wheeler, Kevin I; Polglase, Graeme R; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Sonobe, Takashi; Hooper, Stuart B

    2014-09-01

    At birth, the transition to newborn life is triggered by lung aeration, which stimulates a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). Current theories predict that the increase in PBF is spatially related to ventilated lung regions as they aerate after birth. Using simultaneous phase-contrast X-ray imaging and angiography we investigated the spatial relationships between lung aeration and the increase in PBF after birth. Six near-term (30-day gestation) rabbits were delivered by caesarean section, intubated and an intravenous catheter inserted, before they were positioned for X-ray imaging. During imaging, iodine was injected before ventilation onset, after ventilation of the right lung only, and after ventilation of both lungs. Unilateral ventilation increased iodine levels entering both left and right pulmonary arteries (PAs) and significantly increased heart rate, iodine ejection per beat, diameters of both left and right PAs, and number of visible vessels in both lungs. Within the 6th intercostal space, the mean gray level (relative measure of iodine level) increased from 68.3 ± 11.6 and 70.3 ± 7.5%·s to 136.3 ± 22.6 and 136.3 ± 23.7%·s in the left and right PAs, respectively. No differences were observed between vessels in the left and right lungs, despite the left lung not initially being ventilated. The increase in PBF at birth is not spatially related to lung aeration allowing a large ventilation/perfusion mismatch, or pulmonary shunting, to occur in the partially aerated lung at birth.

  2. The potential for aeration of MSW landfills to accelerate completion

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Charlotte; Gronow, Jan; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2008-07-01

    Landfilling is a popular waste disposal method, but, as it is practised currently, it is fundamentally unsustainable. The low short-term financial costs belie the potential long-term environmental costs, and traditional landfill sites require long-term management in order to mitigate any possible environmental damage. Old landfill sites might require aftercare for decades or even centuries, and in some cases remediation may be necessary. Biological stabilisation of a landfill is the key issue; completion criteria provide a yardstick by which the success of any new technology may be measured. In order for a site to achieve completion it must pose no risk to human health or the environment, meaning that attenuation of any emissions from the site must occur within the local environment without causing harm. Remediation of old landfill sites by aerating the waste has been undertaken in Germany, the United States, Italy and The Netherlands, with considerable success. At a pilot scale, aeration has also been used in newly emplaced waste to accelerate stabilisation. This paper reviews the use of aerobic landfill worldwide, and assesses the ways in which the use of aerobic landfill techniques can decrease the risks associated with current landfill practices, making landfill a more sustainable waste disposal option. It focuses on assessing ways to utilise aeration to enhance stabilisation. The results demonstrated that aeration of old landfill sites may be an efficient and cost-effective method of remediation and allow the date of completion to be brought forward by decades. Similarly, aeration of newly emplaced waste can be effective in enhancing degradation, assisting with completion and reducing environmental risks. However, further research is required to establish what procedure for adding air to a landfill would be most suitable for the UK and to investigate new risks that may arise, such as the possible emission of non-methane organic compounds.

  3. Ear canal dynamic motion as a source of power for in-ear devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delnavaz, Aidin; Voix, Jérémie

    2013-02-01

    Ear canal deformation caused by temporomandibular joint (jaw joint) activity, also known as "ear canal dynamic motion," is introduced in this paper as a candidate source of power to possibly recharge hearing aid batteries. The geometrical deformation of the ear canal is quantified in 3D by laser scanning of different custom ear moulds. An experimental setup is proposed to measure the amount of power potentially available from this source. The results show that 9 mW of power is available from a 15 mm3 dynamic change in the ear canal volume. Finally, the dynamic motion and power capability of the ear canal are investigated in a group of 12 subjects.

  4. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    PubMed

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections.

  5. Recording and analysis of transient otoacoustic emissions during outer ear canal pressure compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Moises

    Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs) are sounds generated by an active process in the auditory system's cochlea. It has been widely accepted that the generation of OAEs is a precursor for healthy hearing. The measurement of evoked OAEs can be used to determine the general health of the cochlea and basilar membrane's response and sound transmission forward and backwards through the inner ear. OAEs are commonly used for newborn infant hearing screening where many middle ear pathologies are first detected. In most cases, secondary screening tests such as tympanometry are not conducted unless the patient has failed the OAE screening first. Increases in ear canal pressure have an almost identical effect on OAE recordings when compared to naturally occurring negative middle ear pressures (NMEPs) (Sun & Shaver, 2009). Thus arises the need for pressure compensated OAE screening. This study aims at reviewing the design of a self-compensating pressure system capable of generating steady meatal pressures during OAE subject screening. Facets of system design including patient safety, software interaction, and initial test results will be presented. We will also present the results of a volunteer study which collected the TEOAE and meatal responses of 20 individual ears during multiple pressure criteria. Testing and analysis of signals in both the time and frequency domains will be reviewed.

  6. Redox potential driven aeration during very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation by using flocculating yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-Guang; Hao, Xue-Mi; Lin, Yen-Han; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation requires oxygen to maintain high biomass and cell viability, especially under very-high-gravity (VHG) condition. In this work, fermentation redox potential (ORP) was applied to drive the aeration process at low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, which is infeasible to be regulated by a DO sensor. The performance and characteristics of flocculating yeast grown under 300 and 260 g glucose/L conditions were subjected to various aeration strategies including: no aeration; controlled aeration at −150, −100 and −50 mV levels; and constant aeration at 0.05 and 0.2 vvm. The results showed that anaerobic fermentation produced the least ethanol and had the highest residual glucose after 72 h of fermentation. Controlled aerations, depending on the real-time oxygen demand, led to higher cell viability than the no-aeration counterpart. Constant aeration triggered a quick biomass formation, and fast glucose utilization. However, over aeration at 0.2 vvm caused a reduction of final ethanol concentration. The controlled aeration driven by ORP under VHG conditions resulted in the best fermentation performance. Moreover, the controlled aeration could enhance yeast flocculating activity, promote an increase of flocs size, and accelerate yeast separation near the end of fermentation. PMID:27161047

  7. CT and MR imaging of congential abnormalities of the inner ear and internal auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Casselman, J W; Offeciers, E F; De Foer, B; Govaerts, P; Kuhweide, R; Somers, T

    2001-11-01

    The embryology of the inner ear must be known as many of the inner ear malformations present as a result of the arrest during the various stages of embryology. These malformations are described in this "embryologic" perspective and specific names for certain malformations are no longer used. Both CT and MR can be used to look at inner ear malformations but often both techniques are complementary. However, CT is preferred when associated middle- or external ear malformations must be excluded. Magnetic resonance is preferred when subtle changes in the membranous labyrinth or abnormalities of the nerves in the internal auditory canal must be visualised. The CT and MR technique must however be adapted as more and more subtle congenital malformations can only be seen when the right technique is used. The heavily T2-weighted gradient-echo or fast spin-echo MR techniques are mandatory if malformations of the inner ear must be excluded. The purpose of this paper is to describe the techniques used to study these patients and to give an overview of the most frequent and important congenital malformations which can be found in the inner ear and internal auditory canal/cerebellopontine angle.

  8. Comparison of nine methods to estimate ear-canal stimulus levels

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Natalie N.; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Neely, Stephen T.; Siegel, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of nine measures of the stimulus level in the human ear canal was compared by measuring the sensitivity of behavioral hearing thresholds to changes in the depth of insertion of an otoacoustic emission probe. Four measures were the ear-canal pressure, the eardrum pressure estimated from it and the pressure measured in an ear simulator with and without compensation for insertion depth. The remaining five quantities were derived from the ear-canal pressure and the Thévenin-equivalent source characteristics of the probe: Forward pressure, initial forward pressure, the pressure transmitted into the middle ear, eardrum sound pressure estimated by summing the magnitudes of the forward and reverse pressure (integrated pressure) and absorbed power. Two sets of behavioral thresholds were measured in 26 subjects from 0.125 to 20 kHz, with the probe inserted at relatively deep and shallow positions in the ear canal. The greatest dependence on insertion depth was for transmitted pressure and absorbed power. The measures with the least dependence on insertion depth throughout the frequency range (best performance) included the depth-compensated simulator, eardrum, forward, and integrated pressures. Among these, forward pressure is advantageous because it quantifies stimulus phase. PMID:25324079

  9. Effective pine bark composting with the Dome Aeration Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Trois, Cristina . E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za; Polster, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    In South Africa garden refuse is primarily disposed of in domestic landfills. Due to the large quantities generated, any form of treatment would be beneficial for volume reduction, waste stabilization and resource recovery. Dome Aeration Technology (DAT) is an advanced process for aerobic biological degradation of garden refuse and general waste [Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999a. Advantages of dome aeration in mechanical-biological waste treatment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, 4-8 October 1999; Paar, S., Brummack, J., Gemende, B., 1999b. Mechanical-biological waste stabilization by the dome aeration method. Environment Protection Engineering 25 (3/99). Mollekopf, N., Brummack, J., Paar, S., Vorster, K., 2002. Use of the Dome Aeration Technology for biochemical stabilization of waste prior to landfilling. In: Proceedings of the Wastecon 2002, Waste Congress and Exhibition, Durban, South Africa.]. It is a non-reactor open windrow composting process, with the main advantage being that the input material needs no periodic turning. A rotting time of only 3-4 months indicates the high efficiency. Additionally, the low capital/operational costs, low energy inputs and limited plant requirements provide potential for use in aerobic refuse stabilization. The innovation in the DAT process is the passive aeration achieved by thermally driven advection through open windrows caused by temperature differences between the degrading material and the outside environment. This paper investigates the application of Dome Aeration Technology to pine bark composting as part of an integrated waste management strategy. A full-scale field experiment was performed at the Bisasar Road Landfill Site in Durban to assess the influence of climate, waste composition and operational conditions on the process. A test windrow was constructed and measurements of temperature and airflow through the material were taken. The process

  10. BIOVENTING - Groundwater Aeration by Discontinuous Oxygen Gas Pulse Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater aeration by discontinuous oxygen gas pulse injections appears to be a promising concept for enhanced natural attenuation of dissolved contaminants that are susceptible for oxygenase enzyme attacks. Oxygen amendments facilitate indigenous microbiota to catabolize groundwater pollutants, such as aromatics, that are considered to be recalcitrant in absence of dissolved oxygen. As a rule, natural attenuation of many pollutants under aerobic conditions is considerably faster than under anaerobic conditions. Thus, enhancing the dissolved oxygen level appears to be worthwhile. In situ aeration of groundwater has been accomplished by air sparging, H2O2-supply, or by utilization of oxygen release compounds. However, continuous aeration of previously anaerobic groundwater is not desirable for several reasons: (a) economic efforts too high, (b) pollutant dislocation towards surface (desired only in air sparging), (c) risk of aquifer clogging (gas clogging, oxidation of ferrous iron, formation of bioslimes). In contrast, discontinuous oxygen gas sparging provides only for periodical groundwater aeration which is followed by microaerobic and suboxic conditions. Microaerobic conditions can prevail spatially (e.g., at plume fringes or within biofilms) or temporarily (e.g., at discontinuous bioventing). They still allow adapted bacteria to transform environmental pollutants to less toxic compounds, e.g., aromatic ring cleavage after dioxygenasis attack. Ring cleavage products, on the other hand, may be degraded more easily by anaerobic consortia than the initial aromatic compounds, making oxygen depletion periods highly intriguing in regard to an initiation of natural attenuation processes at plume fringes. In our work we outline the effect of oxygen depletion conditions on biodegradation of monchlorobenzene (MCB) as they occur subsequently to temporary aeration periods. For microaerobic conditions, relative to the oxygen supply, a stoichiometric transformation of MCB

  11. CT appearances of external ear canal cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, P N; Francis, I S; Wareing, M J; Cox, T C

    1997-09-01

    External ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC) is rare in ear, nose and throat (ENT) practice. Two cases, one bilateral, are described. Computed tomography demonstrates the extent of bony involvement. Erosion of the external canal should not be overlooked when reviewing CT of the petrous bone in cases of discharge from the ear. EECC may necessitate surgery and delay in the diagnosis of EECC can result in progressive bony destruction.

  12. Listening to Nature's orchestra with peculiar ears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, David D.

    2003-04-01

    Insects use hearing for the crucial tasks of communicating with conspecifics and avoiding predators. Although all are based on the same acoustic principles, the diversity of insect ears is staggering and instructive. For instance, a South African grasshopper demonstrates that hearing conspecific calls is possible over distances 1 km with ears that do not have tympana. Actually, these creatures have six pairs of ears that play different roles in behavior. In numerical contrast, praying mantises have just a single ear in the ventral midline. The ear is very effective at detecting ultrasonic bat cries. However, the bioacoustics of sound transduction by two tympana facing each other in a deep, narrow slit is a puzzle. Tachinid flies demonstrate that directional hearing at 5 kHz is possible with a pair of ears fused together to give a total size of 1 mm. The ears are under the fly's chin. Hawk moths have their ears built into their mouthparts and the tympanum is more like a hollow ball than the usual membrane. As an apt last example, cicada ears are actually part of the orchestra: their tympana function both in sound reception and sound production.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms of Inner Ear Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Doris K.; Kelley, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    The inner ear is a structurally complex vertebrate organ built to encode sound, motion, and orientation in space. Given its complexity, it is not surprising that inner ear dysfunction is a relatively common consequence of human genetic mutation. Studies in model organisms suggest that many genes currently known to be associated with human hearing impairment are active during embryogenesis. Hence, the study of inner ear development provides a rich context for understanding the functions of genes implicated in hearing loss. This chapter focuses on molecular mechanisms of inner ear development derived from studies of model organisms. PMID:22855724

  14. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  15. Milestones in the History of Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Alexander; Nicoló, Marion San

    2015-12-01

    The reconstruction of ear deformities has been challenging plastic surgeons since centuries. However, it is only in the 19th century that reports on partial and total ear reconstruction start increasing. In the quest for an aesthetically pleasing and natural-looking result, surgeons worked on the perfect framework and skin coverage. Different materials and flap techniques have evolved. Some were abandoned out of frustration, while others kept evolving over the years. In this article, we discuss the milestones in ear reconstruction-from ancient times to early attempts in Western civilization to the key chapters of ear reconstruction in the 20th century leading to the current techniques.

  16. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahui; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, David

    2015-01-01

    The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition. PMID:26061553

  17. Morphology and function of Neandertal and modern human ear ossicles

    PubMed Central

    David, Romain; Gunz, Philipp; Schmidt, Tobias; Spoor, Fred; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The diminutive middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) housed in the tympanic cavity of the temporal bone play an important role in audition. The few known ossicles of Neandertals are distinctly different from those of anatomically modern humans (AMHs), despite the close relationship between both human species. Although not mutually exclusive, these differences may affect hearing capacity or could reflect covariation with the surrounding temporal bone. Until now, detailed comparisons were hampered by the small sample of Neandertal ossicles and the unavailability of methods combining analyses of ossicles with surrounding structures. Here, we present an analysis of the largest sample of Neandertal ossicles to date, including many previously unknown specimens, covering a wide geographic and temporal range. Microcomputed tomography scans and 3D geometric morphometrics were used to quantify shape and functional properties of the ossicles and the tympanic cavity and make comparisons with recent and extinct AMHs as well as African apes. We find striking morphological differences between ossicles of AMHs and Neandertals. Ossicles of both Neandertals and AMHs appear derived compared with the inferred ancestral morphology, albeit in different ways. Brain size increase evolved separately in AMHs and Neandertals, leading to differences in the tympanic cavity and, consequently, the shape and spatial configuration of the ossicles. Despite these different evolutionary trajectories, functional properties of the middle ear of AMHs and Neandertals are largely similar. The relevance of these functionally equivalent solutions is likely to conserve a similar auditory sensitivity level inherited from their last common ancestor. PMID:27671643

  18. Human acoustics: From vocal chords to inner ear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamar, Michael Drew

    2005-11-01

    Part I covers the vocal chords, more accurately known as the vocal folds (VF). Modeling efforts are split into two areas: the VF tissue and the airflow. There are multiple existing models of the VF, with varying ranges of complexity for both the tissue and the airflow. In our model, the tissue is based on a recent two-mass model of Bogaert's [5], while the airflow is quasi-one-dimensional and is derived from the two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Our model is more accurate than Bernoulli's law (quasi-steady approximation), yet less complex than the full Navier-Stokes system. The model is shown to reproduce important transient behaviour intrinsic in vocal fold motion, such as pressure peaks before and after vocal fold closure. Part II concerns the inner ear, or cochlea. Again the modeling effort is split into two areas: the cochlear tissue and the cochlear fluid. We model the cochlear fluid with the well known two-dimensional box model of the cochlea, derived from the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The cochlear tissue structure is where the complexity takes place. We start with Neely and Kim's [25] linear active model for the cochlear structure and modify their active gain parameter into a nonlinear nonlocal functional. The nonlinearity forces us to work in the time domain, which is prone to dispersive instabilities if one uses a frequency domain middle ear model. The middle ear's role as a transient absorber is discussed and its time domain formulation is shown to reduce the dispersive instability. We perform simulations on the full system and show that the model recovers many important nonlinear phenomena, such as suppression and difference tones. A spectrogram based on the cochlear response is created and compared with the spectrogram of the input waveform. In both Part I and Part II, the emphasis is on time dependent modeling and numerical implementation.

  19. Investigation and Discussion of Techniques for Hypolimnion Aeration/Oxygenation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    limnion and hypolimnion was 0.1 mg/f/day. The inflow assumption was based upon field data; the latter two assumptions were based upon the.. Fontane and...the meta- limnion and hypolimnion. Because the centerlines of the RBRR penstocks -’ are approximately 70 ft below the surface and significant...technic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.-.:..- Fast, A. W., Dorr, V. A., and Rosen, R. J. 1975. "A Submerged Hypo- limnion Aerator

  20. Growth of Indigenous Organisms in Aerated Filtrate of Feedlot Waste

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, B. A.; Rhodes, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Filtrates from feedlot waste were incubated under aerobic conditions to evaluate the availability of nutrients for cell production and to assess the capacity of indigenous flora to produce stabilized effluents. Incubation was carried out in 9-liter aerated jar fermentors. Three-fourths of the organic material and one-third of the nitrogen were taken up in 4 days; 90% utilization of organic material and nitrogen required almost a month. Acid was produced initially, but aerated liquid thereafter rapidly became alkaline. With pH controlled at 7.0, a comparable pattern of carbon utilization occurred, but nitrogen was incompletely used. The numerically dominant organisms in the waste inoculum were almost immediately displaced by an emergent population of a few types of organisms not originally evident. Maximal viable populations of 109 to 3 × 109 cells/ml were obtained in aerated waste liquid within 48 h; subsequently, numbers declined quickly to initial levels. Numbers of fungi, yeasts, and streptomycetes slowly increased but never exceeded their initial concentration by more than tenfold. PMID:4609184

  1. Soil aeration status in a lowland wet grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, K. R.; Leeds-Harrison, P. B.; Lawson, C. S.; Gowing, D. J. G.

    2004-02-01

    The maintenance or development of plant community diversity in species-rich wet grasslands has been a focus of water management considerations in the UK for the past 20 years. Much attention has been given to the control of water levels in the ditch systems within these wet grassland systems. In this paper we report measurements of aeration status and water-table fluctuation made on a peat soil site at Tadham Moor in Somerset, UK, where water management has focused on the maintenance of wet conditions that often result in flooding in winter and wet soil conditions in the spring and summer. Measurement and modelling of the water-table fluctuation indicates the possibility of variability in the aeration of the root environment and anoxic conditions for much of the winter period and for part of the spring and summer. We have used water content and redox potential measurements to characterize the aeration status of the peat soil. We find that air-filled porosity is related to water-table depth in these situations. Redox potentials in the spring were generally found to be low, implying a reducing condition for nitrate and iron. A significant relationship (p < 0.01) between redox potential and water-table depth exists for data measured at 0.1 m depth, but no relationship could be found for data from 0.4 m depth.

  2. The ability to listen with independent ears.

    PubMed

    Gallun, Frederick J; Mason, Christine R; Kidd, Gerald

    2007-11-01

    In three experiments, listeners identified speech processed into narrow bands and presented to the right ("target") ear. The ability of listeners to ignore (or even use) conflicting contralateral stimulation was examined by presenting various maskers to the target ear ("ipsilateral") and nontarget ear ("contralateral"). Theoretically, an absence of contralateral interference would imply selectively attending to only the target ear; the presence of interference from the contralateral stimulus would imply that listeners were unable to treat the stimuli at the two ears independently; and improved performance in the presence of informative contralateral stimulation would imply that listeners can process the signals at both ears and keep them separate rather than combining them. Experiments showed evidence of the ability to selectively process (or respond to) only the target ear in some, but not all, conditions. No evidence was found for improved performance due to contralateral stimulation. The pattern of interference found across experiments supports an interaction of stimulus-based factors (auditory grouping) and task-based factors (demand for processing resources) and suggests that listeners may not always be able to listen to the "better" ear even when it would be beneficial to do so.

  3. Playing by Ear: Foundation or Frill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Many people divide musicians into two types: those who can read music and those who play by ear. Formal music education tends to place great emphasis on producing musically literate performers but devotes much less attention to teaching students to make music without notation. Some would suggest that playing by ear is a specialized skill that is…

  4. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  5. INNER EAR EMBRYOGENESIS: GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The anatomy and developmental molecular genetics of the inner ear from establishment of the otic placode to formation of the definitive cochlea and vestibular apparatus will be reviewed and the complex 3-D structural changes that shape the developing inner ear will be illustrated...

  6. Stem Cell Therapy for the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, perception of sound, motion, and balance is mediated through mechanosensory hair cells located within the inner ear. In mammals, hair cells are only generated during a short period of embryonic development. As a result, loss of hair cells as a consequence of injury, disease, or genetic mutation, leads to permanent sensory deficits. At present, cochlear implantation is the only option for profound hearing loss. However, outcomes are still variable and even the best implant cannot provide the acuity of a biological ear. The recent emergence of stem cell technology has the potential to open new approaches for hair cell regeneration. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of inner ear stem cell research from a viewpoint of its clinical application for inner ear disorders to illustrate how complementary studies have the potential to promote and refine stem cell therapies for inner ear diseases. The review initially discusses our current understanding of the genetic pathways that regulate hair cell formation from inner ear progenitors during normal development. Subsequent sections discuss the possible use of endogenous inner ear stem cells to induce repair as well as the initial studies aimed at transplanting stem cells into the ear. PMID:22514095

  7. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  10. 21 CFR 878.3590 - Ear prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear prosthesis. 878.3590 Section 878.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3590 Ear prosthesis. (a) Identification....

  11. Cutaneous lesions of the external ear

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Michael; Sand, Daniel; Brors, Dominik; Altmeyer, Peter; Mann, Benno; Bechara, Falk G

    2008-01-01

    Skin diseases on the external aspect of the ear are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, othorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners, general and plastic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the ear. This article will focus on those diseases wherefore surgery or laser therapy is considered as a possible treatment option or which are potentially subject to surgical evaluation. PMID:18261212

  12. Ultrasound-aided microbubbles facilitate the delivery of drugs to the inner ear via the round window membrane.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng-Ping; Chen, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Hang-Kang; Chiang, Min-Chang; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Lin, Yi-Chun; Li, Shiue-Li; Shih, Yu-Fan; Liao, Ai-Ho; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2013-04-28

    The round window membrane (RWM) acts as a barrier between the middle ear and cochlea and can serve as a crucial route for therapeutic medications entering the inner ear via middle ear applications. In this study, we targeted the practical application of microbubbles (MBs) ultrasound on increasing the RWM permeability for facilitating drug or medication delivery to the inner ear. Using biotin-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugates (biotin-FITC) as delivery agents and guinea pig animal models, we showed that MB ultrasound exposure can improve the inner ear system use of biotin-FITC delivery via the RWM by approximately 3.5 to 38 times that of solely soaking biotin-FITC around the RWM for spontaneous diffusion. We also showed that there was significant enhancement of hair cell uptake of gentamicin in animals whose tympanic bullas were soaked with MB-mixed gentamicin-Texas Red or gentamicin and exposed to ultrasound. Furthermore, increased permeability of the RWM from acoustic cavitation of MBs could also be visualized immediately following ultrasound exposure by using Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated phalloidin as a tracer. Most importantly, such applications had no resulting damage to the integrity of the RWM or deterioration of the hearing thresholds assessed by auditory brainstem responses. We herein provide a basis for MB ultrasound-mediated techniques with therapeutic medication delivery to the inner ear for future application in humans.

  13. Effect of aeration rate on production of xylitol from corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xinghong; Xia, Liming

    2006-06-01

    The effects of different aeration conditions on xylitol production from corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Candida sp. ZU04 were investigated. Batch fermentations were carried out in a 3.7-L fermentor at 30 degrees C, pH 5.5, and agitation of 300 rpm. It was found that the two-phase aeration process was more effective than the one-phase aeration process in xylitol production. In the first 24 h of the aerobic phase, a high aeration rate was applied, glucose was soon consumed, and biomass increased quickly. In the second fermentation phase, aeration rate was reduced and an improved xylitol yield was obtained. The maximum xylitol yield (0.76 g/g) was obtained with an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm (KLa of 37 h-1) for the first 24 h and 0.3 vvm (KLa of 6 h-1) from 24 to 96 h.

  14. Prototype Evaluation of Sluiceway Aeration System Libby Dam, Kootenai River, Montana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    during an emergency gate lowering operation.- Results of the data reduction indicated a virtual elimination of the cavitation-inducing negative... virtually been eliminated. the following tabulation lists The comparative data given in Plates 17 (without aerator) and 18 (with aerator, Series A). Sluice...pressures on the center sluice invert have been virtually eliminated with the introduction of the aerator. All calculated cavitation indices are

  15. Spray Structure in Near-Injector Region of Aerated Jet in Subsonic Crossflow (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    diameter by introducing gas bubbles into the liquid stream inside the injector. Aerated injection is similar to the flash atomization because it...produces gas bubbles inside the injector for promoting atomization. However, unlike flash atomizers, aerated injection can easily control the amount of... bubbles and their sizes without the complications of dissolving gas or heating the liquid to its boiling point. The aerated liquid injector allows a

  16. Landfill aeration in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2014-03-01

    In situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology was proposed for landfill conditioning before landfill mining in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. A 1-year aeration project was carried out on part of the landfill with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the Airflow technology for landfill aerobization, the evolution of waste biological stability during aeration and the effects on leachate and biogas quality and emissions. The main outcomes of the 1-year aeration project are presented in the paper. The beneficial effect of the aeration on waste biological stability was clear (63% reduction of the respiration index); however, the effectiveness of aeration on the lower part of the landfill is questionable, due to the limited potential for air migration into the leachate saturated layers. During the 1-year in situ aeration project approx. 275 MgC were discharged from the landfill body with the extracted gas, corresponding to 4.6 gC/kgDM. However, due to the presence of anaerobic niches in the aerated landfill, approx. 46% of this amount was extracted as CH4, which is higher than reported in other aeration projects. The O2 conversion quota was lower than reported in other similar projects, mainly due to the higher air flow rates applied. The results obtained enabled valuable recommendations to be made for the subsequent application of the Airflow technology to the whole landfill.

  17. Bioreactor tests preliminary to landfill in situ aeration: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Carbon and nitrogen mass balances in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Waste stabilization in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Effect of temperature on biodegradation processes in aerated landfills. - Abstract: Lab scale tests in bioreactor were carried out in the framework of the characterization studies of a landfill where in situ aeration (possibly followed by landfill mining) had been proposed as part of the novel waste management strategy in a region in northern Italy. The tests were run to monitor the effects produced by aerobic conditions at different temperatures on waste sampled at different depths in the landfill, with focus on the carbon and nitrogen conversion during aeration. Temperatures ranging from 35 to 45 °C were chosen, in order to evaluate possible inhibition of biodegradation processes (namely nitrification) at 45 °C in the landfill. The results obtained showed positive effects of the aeration on leachate quality and a significant reduction of waste biodegradability. Although a delay of biodegradation processes was observed in the reactor run at 45 °C, biodegradation rates increased after 2 months of aeration, providing very low values of the relevant parameters (as in the other aerated reactors) by the end of the study. Mass balances were carried out for TOC and N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}; the findings obtained were encouraging and provided evidence of the effectiveness of carbon and nitrogen conversion processes in the aerated landfill simulation reactors.

  18. Method and apparatus for energy efficient self-aeration in chemical, biochemical, and wastewater treatment processes

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-05-28

    The present invention is a pulse spilling self-aerator (PSSA) that has the potential to greatly lower the installation, operation, and maintenance cost associated with aerating and mixing aqueous solutions. Currently, large quantities of low-pressure air are required in aeration systems to support many biochemical production processes and wastewater treatment plants. Oxygen is traditionally supplied and mixed by a compressor or blower and a mechanical agitator. These systems have high-energy requirements and high installation and maintenance costs. The PSSA provides a mixing and aeration capability that can increase operational efficiency and reduce overall cost.

  19. Improvement of oxygen transfer efficiency in aerated ponds using liquid-film-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Imai, T; Tani, K; Ukita, M; Sekine, M; Higuchi, T; Zhang, Z

    2007-01-01

    In aerated ponds, oxygen is generally supplied through either diffused or mechanical aeration means. Surface transfer and bubble transfer both contribute significantly to oxygen transfer in a diffused aeration system. In the present study, a liquid-film-forming apparatus (LFFA) is successfully developed on a laboratory scale to improve considerably the surface transfer via the unique liquid film transfer technique. The experimental results show that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for LFFA alone is found to be as much as 5.3 times higher than that for water surface and that the total volumetric mass transfer coefficient for the liquid film aeration system increases by 37% in comparison with a conventional aeration system. Additionally, by tuning finely the structural parameters of the LFFA, it can also lead to high dissolved oxygen (DO) water with the DO percent saturation greater than 90%. More importantly, this result is accomplished by simply offering a single-pass aeration at a depth as shallow as 26 cm. As a result, the objective of economical energy consumption in aerated ponds can be realized by lowering the aeration depth without sacrificing the aeration efficiency. It is noteworthy that the data presented in this study are acquired either numerically or experimentally.

  20. Partial nitritation ANAMMOX in submerged attached growth bioreactors with smart aeration at 20 °C.

    PubMed

    Shannon, James M; Hauser, Lee W; Liu, Xikun; Parkin, Gene F; Mattes, Timothy E; Just, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    Submerged attached growth bioreactors (SAGBs) were operated at 20 °C for 30 weeks in smart-aerated, partial nitritation ANAMMOX mode and in a timer-controlled, cyclic aeration mode. The smart-aerated SAGBs removed 48-53% of total nitrogen (TN) compared to 45% for SAGBs with timed aeration. Low dissolved oxygen concentrations and cyclic pH patterns in the smart-aerated SAGBs suggested conditions favorable to partial nitritation ANAMMOX and stoichiometrically-derived and numerically modeled estimations attributed 63-68% and 14-44% of TN removal to partial nitritation ANAMMOX in these bioreactors, respectively. Ammonia removals of 36-67% in the smart-aerated SAGBs, with measured oxygen and organic carbon limitations, further suggest partial nitritation ANAMMOX. The smart-aerated SAGBs required substantially less aeration to achieve TN removals similar to SAGBs with timer-controlled aeration. Genomic DNA testing confirmed that the dominant ANAMMOX seed bacteria, received from a treatment plant utilizing the DEMON® sidestream deammonification process, was a Candidatus Brocadia sp. (of the Planctomycetales order). The DNA from these bacteria was also present in the SAGBs at the conclusion of the study providing evidence for attached growth and limited biomass washout.