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Sample records for aerated sodium chloride

  1. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  2. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  3. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  4. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, Thomas; Marsik, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  5. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  6. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-03

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  7. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  8. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  9. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  10. TOLERANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TO SODIUM CHLORIDE

    PubMed Central

    Parfentjev, I. A.; Catelli, Anna R.

    1964-01-01

    Parfentjev, I. A. (Institute of Applied Biology, New York, N.Y.), and Anna R. Catelli. Tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to sodium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 88:1–3. 1964.—The tolerance of Staphylococcus aureus to high concentrations of sodium chloride in liquid medium has been reported. We found that S. aureus grows at 37 C in Tryptose Phosphate Broth saturated with sodium chloride. No difference was noticed between possibly pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Under the conditions of our tests, no changes in the original properties of S. aureus strains occurred. In contrast, solutions of sodium chloride in distilled water were injurious to staphylococci and killed most of these organisms in 1 hr. Staphylococci were killed faster at 37 C than at room temperature in a solution of 0.85% sodium chloride in water. Addition of traces of Tryptose Phosphate Broth had a protective effect and prolonged the life of these organisms in physiological saline. All tests were performed at pH 7.2. PMID:14197887

  11. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  12. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  13. Sodium chloride transport across the chicken coprodeum. Basic characteristics and dependence on sodium chloride intake

    PubMed Central

    Choshniak, I.; Munck, B. G.; Skadhauge, E.

    1977-01-01

    1. The transport characteristics of the chicken coprodeum have been examined in vitro using the isolated mucosa. The short-circuit current (Isc), the transepithelial electrical potential difference (p.d.), the unidirectional transmural fluxes (Jms, Jsm) of sodium and chloride measured in the short-circuited state, and the unidirectional influx of sodium and chloride across the brush border membrane measured under open-circuit conditions have been studied. The effect of the sodium chloride contents of the diet on these parameters have been investigated. 2. The isolated mucosa depends functionally on the presence of glucose in the incubation media. This dependence reflects the need of glucose as a fuel. There is no indication of coupling between transport of sugars and sodium across the brush border membrane. For preparations from chickens on a low sodium diet a very high and stable Isc can quantitatively be accounted for by the net transport of sodium. Influx of sodium across the brush border membrane is not significantly different from the net flux of sodium. By feeding the chickens a high sodium diet the Isc is reduced by more than 95%, the net transport of sodium is abolished, and the transepithelial electrical conductance is reduced by more than 50%. 3. Both unidirectional transepithelial fluxes of chloride, and the serosa to mucosa flux of sodium appear to proceed through a paracellular shunt. 4. Under the conditions of the low sodium diet the paracellular pathway appears to be anion selective. Whereas, under the conditions of the high sodium regimen the paracellular route appears to be cation selective. After adaptation to a high sodium diet the influx of sodium across the brush border membrane is only moderately reduced. Consequently the decisive event in the adaptation must be localized elsewhere. PMID:926000

  14. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    PubMed Central

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  15. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    PubMed

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  16. Sodium Chloride Respirator Quantitative Fit Test Instrument

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    surface to drain and air-dry. 7. If the glassware is to be stored, wrap it tightly with clean paper towels . 8. If the glassware has been stored, rinse...40 18. Sodium chloride calibration-challenge concentrations vs . photomultiplier tube (PMT) output voltage...Incorporated, Model No. 32514, Quincy Compressor Division, Quincy, IL 62301) is utilized to generate the air supply; and a refrigerated air dryer (Colt

  17. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  18. Sodium chloride deficiency in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, U; Göçmen, A; Kiper, N; Coşkun, T; Yilmaz, E; Ozgüç, M

    1994-11-01

    Sodium chloride deficiency (SCD) was observed within the 1st year of life in 12 of 46 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients between July 1989 and September 1992. All patients showed sweating, loss of appetite, fever, vomiting, irritation, dehydration, weakness, and cyanosis during an attack. Mean plasma sodium, potassium and chloride levels were 122.9 (range 106-135), 2.5 (range 1.6-3.5), and 73.3 (range 60-90) mEq/l respectively. Alkalosis and elevated plasma renin activity were detected in all patients. Of the patients, 50% showed microscopic haematuria, and hypercalciuria was detected in two out of four patients. Low urinary sodium and high urinary potassium were observed in the four examined patients. Increased creatinine, BUN and uric acid values returned to normal with treatment. All the patients were treated initially with intravenous fluids and electrolyte solutions. All patients were less than 7 months of age during the first attack, five received only breast milk and the others breast milk with formula milk. Their oral salt supplement was 2-4 mEq/kg per day, which is recommended for CF patients, but could be deficient in excessively sweating infants. The genotype of these patients might be cause of high salt losses. F508 is the most common mutation with the frequency of 38% in our CF patients with SCD, but the frequency of unknown mutations is high (54%).

  19. The sodium/metal chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

    This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

  20. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  1. Kainate receptor modulation by sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Plested, Andrew J R

    2011-01-01

    The kainate-type glutamate receptor displays strong modulation by monovalent anions and cations. This modulation is independent of permeation of the ion channel. Instead, structural, computational and biophysical evidence shows that receptor activity is controlled by binding of sodium and chloride ions at sites that stabilize active dimers of glutamate binding domains. Modulation by monovalent ions is a surprisingly general property across ion channel families. However, evidence of a physiological role for ion-dependent effects on glutamate receptors is lacking, perhaps reflecting the adventitious use of ions as structural components of the kainate receptor. "ergo, Hercules, vita humanior sine sale non quit degree […]" "Heaven known, a civilized life is impossible without salt" -Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXI 88.

  2. Stability of aztreonam and ampicillin sodium-sulbactam sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, P P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-04-01

    The stability of aztreonam, ampicillin sodium, and sulbactam sodium admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature and under refrigeration was studied. Each of the following admixtures was prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection: (1) aztreonam 10 mg/mL; (2) ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt); and (3) aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL, and sulbactam 10 mg/mL. Three minibags of each admixture were stored at room temperature and three were refrigerated. Every 12 hours, up to 96 hours, the admixtures were visually inspected and 5-mL samples were withdrawn for high-performance liquid chromatography and pH testing. No color change or precipitation was observed in any sample. In admixtures containing ampicillin, ampicillin was the first or only drug to lose more than 10% of initial concentration. In the ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 32 hours at room temperature and 68 hours refrigerated. In the aztreonam-ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours refrigerated. Aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt), and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable in combination for up to 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours under refrigeration.

  3. Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

  4. Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-01-01

    Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

  5. Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-01-01

    Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

  6. [Gustatory sensitivity to sodium chloride and potassium chloride and certain parameters of sodium metabolism in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mineev, V N; Suparnovich, I Iu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine threshold gustatory sensitivity (TGS) to sodium chloride and potassium chloride in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) taking into account a number of factors responsible for the enhanced risk of development and progress of this disease. Forty five practically healthy subjects were compared with 139 asthmatic patients; a separate group comprised patients treated permanently with oral glucocorticoids and those having non-pulmonary allergy. Chemically pure solutions of sodium and potassium chlorides were used in the dripping test to assess TGS. Asthmatic patients had enhanced TGS to sodium chloride compared with healthy subjects. TGS values were especially high in non-allergic bronchial asthma and minimal in allergic asthma when they were unrelated to the phase of the disease. TGS to potassium chloride in asthmatic patients also differed from that in healthy subjects; more patients were bitter-insensitive or sensitive only to high concentrations of potassium chloride. Patients treated with systemic glucocorticoids had the highest TGS to sodium chloride. Patients with non-pulmonary allergy and allergic BA had very similar TGS to potassium chloride. TGS to sodium chloride in the former was lower than in healthy subjects and patients with allergic BA. Asthmatic patients had a higher sodium ion concentration in erythrocytes than normal subjects; it reached maximum values in persons used to add salt to fully cooked food.

  7. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  8. Electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride solution in a diaphragm cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kubasov, V.L.; Ivanter, I.A.; Druzhinin, E.A.; Vorob'eva, V.B.

    1986-02-10

    In some cases, as in the production of iodine and bromine, dilute solutions of sodium chloride remain unutilized. In view of the existence of large amounts of unutilized spent sodium chloride solutions and their harmful effect when discharged into the environment, it is desirable to develop a process for production of chlorine and alkali with high current efficiencies, satisfying industrial requirements, from dilute sodium chloride solutions. The authors have therefore studied electrolysis of solutions containing 160 and 180 kg/m/sup 3/ of sodium chloride, having pH of 11.0-11.5, close in composition to solutions from the Cheleken chemical factory. The chlorine and alkali current efficiencies and the compositions of the anolyte, catholyte, and anode gas were determined.

  9. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  10. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  11. Response of Campylobacter jejuni to sodium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, M P; Roman, D J

    1982-01-01

    Studies were done to provide more comprehensive information on the response of Campylobacter jejuni and nalidixic acid-resistant, thermophilic Campylobacter (NARTC) to sodium chloride at 4, 25, and 42 degrees C. Three strains of C. jejuni were studies, and all could grow at 42 degrees C in the presence of 1.5% NaCl, but not 2.0% NaCl. At the same temperature, NARTC could grow in 2.0% NaCl and was substantially more tolerant to 2.5 and 4.5% NaCl than was C. jejuni. Both C. jejuni and NARTC grew poorly in the absence of added NaCl and grew best in the presence of 0.5% NaCl at 42 degrees C. At 25 degrees C, NaCl concentrations of 1.0 to 2.5% were protective to NARTC, but the same concentrations of salt generally enhanced the rate of death of C. jejuni. At 4 degrees C, both C. jejuni and NARTC were sensitive to 1.0% or more NaCl; however, the rate of death at this temperature was substantially less than that which occurred at 25 degrees C. A 3 log10 decrease of cells occurred in 4.5% NaCl after 1.2 to 2.1 days at 25 degrees C, and a similar reduction in cells took approximately 2 weeks at the same salt concentration and 4 degrees C. Although C. jejuni grows best in the presence of 0.5% NaCl, the presence of NaCl at concentrations as low as 1.0% may retard growth or increase rate of death; hence, it is advisable that growth media used for recovering or enumerating this organism contain 0.5% NaCl, but not 1.0% or more NaCl. PMID:7073274

  12. A sodium/beta-alumina/nickel chloride secondary cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium/beta alumina/sodium tetrachloroaluminate/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel/sodium choride sinter. Molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate electrolyte (NaAlCl4) acted as intermediate between electrode and beta alumina tube. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of low resistances and rates of discharge for cells up to 20-Ah capacity. Cells were operated over the temperature range from 230 to 400 C where the OCV of the cell reaction varied from 2.60 V to 2.56 V.

  13. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  14. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  15. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30 ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30 ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes.

  16. [Effects of sodium chloride on bone health].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marija; Piasek, Martina

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the physiology of sodium effects on calcium metabolism and possible implications of increased salt intake on bone remodelling and bone mass. Osteoporosis is an increasing public health problem affecting more than 200 million of women around the world. The major complications of osteoporosis are fractures, which are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality. A number of clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies aim at identifying lifestyle factors that may improve bone mass and prevent bone loss. Different nutrients are proposed to play a role in bone development during growth and in the maintenance of bone mass thereafter. However, the importance of sodium intake for bone health has not been elucidated. It is well known that high dietary sodium intake decreases renal calcium reabsorption, which in turn leads to a greater urinary calcium excretion. This effect has been demonstrated in studies in humans of all ages as well as in experimental animals. It is not clear to what extent sodium-induced calcium loss is compensated for by increased intestinal calcium absorption. It is suspected that, if not fully compensated, sustained hypercalciuria due to increased sodium intake may diminish bone mass. Postmenopausal women showed that increased dietary salt may indeed augment bone resorption. Sodium effects on bone mass in various studies are inconsistent and there is still no evidence that increased salt intake is a risk factor in the aetiology of osteoporosis A randomized longitudinal study of different sodium intake in two groups of subject could clarify the role of sodium in bone mass.

  17. UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    Arihara, K; Itoh, M

    2000-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri, one of the predominant lactobacilli in human intestinal tracts, is utilized for probiotics and dairy starter cultures. However, since L. gasseri is relatively sensitive to sodium chloride and sodium nitrite (essential compounds for meat products), it is difficult to utilize this species for conventional fermented meat products. In this study, efforts were directed to generate mutants of L. gasseri resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite. UV irradiation of the strain of L. gasseri JCM1131(T) generated several mutants resisting these compounds. A mutant strain 1131-M8 demonstrated satisfactory growth in meat containing 3.3% sodium chloride and 200 ppm sodium nitrite. Although proteins extracted from the cell surface of 1131-M8 were slightly different from those of the original strain, other biochemical characteristics of both strains were indistinguishable. These results suggest that the L. gasseri mutant obtained in this study could be utilized as a starter culture to develop probiotic meat products.

  18. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters.

    PubMed

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I

    2007-10-11

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  19. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  20. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  1. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  2. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  3. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  4. Epithelial Sodium and Chloride Channels and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To focus on the asthmatic pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/chlorine ion channel. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2015 from journal databases, primarily PubMed and Google Scholar. The terms used in the literature search were: (1) ENaCs; cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR); asthma/asthmatic, (2) ENaC/sodium salt; CF; asthma/asthmatic, (3) CFTR/chlorine ion channels; asthma/asthmatic, (4) ENaC/sodium channel/scnn1a/scnn1b/scnn1g/scnn1d/amiloride-sensitive/amiloride-inhibtable sodium channels/sodium salt; asthma/asthmatic, lung/pulmonary/respiratory/tracheal/alveolar, and (5) CFTR; CF; asthma/asthmatic (ti). Study Selection: These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies covering asthma pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to ENaC/chlorine ion channels within the last 25 years (from 1990 to 2015). The data involving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF obtained from individual studies were also reviewed by the authors. Results: Airway surface liquid dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction. ENaC and CFTR are closely related to the airway mucociliary clearance. Ion transporters may play a critical role in pathogenesis of asthmatic exacerbations. Conclusions: Ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthmatic pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. PMID:26265620

  5. A Monte Carlo simulation of a supersaturated sodium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendinger, Michael G.; Rode, Bernd M.

    1989-03-01

    A simulation of a supersaturated sodium chloride solution with the Monte Carlo statistical thermodynamic method is reported. The water-water interactions are described by the Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine (MCY) potential, while the ion-water potentials have been derived from ab initio calculations. Structural features of the solution have been evaluated, special interest being focused on possible precursors of nucleation.

  6. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  7. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  8. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  9. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  10. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  11. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Miscibility of sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the adsorbed film and aggregate.

    PubMed

    Iyota, Hidemi; Krastev, Rumen

    2009-04-01

    The adsorption, micelle formation, and salting out of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of sodium chloride were studied from the viewpoint of their mixed adsorption and aggregate formation. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of a sodium chloride-sodium dodecyl sulfate mixture was measured as a function of the total molality and composition of the mixture. Phase diagrams of adsorption and aggregate formation were obtained by applying thermodynamic equations to the surface tension. Judging from the phase diagrams, sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate are miscible in the adsorbed film at very large composition of sodium chloride and in the salted-out crystalline particle, while they are immiscible in the micelle. The miscibilities in the adsorbed film, micelle, and crystalline particle increase in the following order: particle > adsorbed film > micelle. The difference in miscibility among the oriented states was ascribed to the difference in geometry between the adsorbed film and micelle and to the interaction between bilayer surfaces in the particle.

  13. The Perceptual Characteristics of Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    PubMed

    St John, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    Three experiments assessed potential changes in the rat's perception of sodium chloride (NaCl) during a state of sodium appetite. In Experiment 1, sodium-sufficient rats licking a range of NaCl concentrations (0.028-0.89M) in 15s trials showed an inverted U-shaped concentration response function peaking at 0.281M. Depleted rats (furosemide) showed an identical function, merely elevated, suggesting altered qualitative or hedonic perception but no change in perceived intensity. In Experiment 2, sodium-depleted rats were tested with NaCl, sodium gluconate, and potassium chloride (KCl; 0.028-0.89M) similar to Experiment 1. KCl was licked at the same rate as water except for a slight elevation at 0.158; sodium gluconate and NaCl were treated similarly, but rats showed more licking for hypertonic sodium gluconate than hypertonic NaCl. Sodium-depleted rats were also tested with NaCl mixed in amiloride (10-300 μM). Amiloride reduced licking but did not alter the shape of the concentration-response function. Collectively, these results suggest that transduction of sodium by epithelial sodium channels (which are blocked by amiloride and are more dominant in sodium gluconate than NaCl transduction) is crucial for the perception of sodium during physiological sodium depletion. In Experiment 3, sodium-deplete rats were tested with NaCl as in Experiment 1 but after taste aversion conditioning to 0.3M NaCl or sucrose. Rats conditioned to avoid NaCl but not sucrose failed to express a sodium appetite, strongly suggesting that NaCl does not undergo a change in taste quality during sodium appetite-rats show no confusion between sucrose and NaCl in this paradigm. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of US Government 2016.

  14. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].

    PubMed

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-09-01

    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.

  15. Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Dowgiallo, E. J.

    1994-02-01

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl2 positive electrode for the Na/NiCl2 battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250 C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60 kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/beta(double prime)-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150-400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110-200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, midtemperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl2 battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  16. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  17. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  18. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  19. Influence of Surfactants on Sodium Chloride Crystallization in Confinement.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Mohsin J; Liefferink, Rinse W; Schlegel, Simon J; Backus, Ellen H G; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2017-05-02

    We study the influence of different surfactants on NaCl crystallization during evaporation of aqueous salt solutions. We found that at concentrations of sodium chloride close to saturation, only the cationic surfactant CTAB and the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 remain stable. For the nonionic surfactant, the high concentration of salt does not significantly change either the critical micellar concentration (CMC) or the surface tension at the CMC; for the cationic surfactant, the CMC is reduced by roughly 2 orders of magnitude upon adding the salt. The presence of both types of surfactants in the salt solution delays the crystallization of sodium chloride with evaporation. This, in turn, leads to high supersaturation which induces the rapid precipitation of a hopper crystal in the bulk. The crystallization inhibitor role of these surfactants is shown to be mainly due to the passivation of nucleation sites at both liquid/air and solid/liquid interfaces rather than a change in the evaporation rate which is found not to be affected by the presence of the surfactants. The adsorption of surfactants at the liquid/air interface prevents the crystallization at this location which is generally the place where the precipitation of sodium chloride is observed. Moreover, sum frequency generation spectroscopy measurements show that the surfactants are also present at the solid/liquid interface. The incorporation of the surfactants into the salt crystals is investigated using a novel, but simple, method based on surface tension measurements. Our results show that the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 is incorporated in the NaCl crystals but the cationic surfactant CTAB is not. Taken together, these results therefore allow us to establish the effect of the presence of surfactants on sodium chloride crystallization.

  20. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  1. Influence of Surfactants on Sodium Chloride Crystallization in Confinement

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We study the influence of different surfactants on NaCl crystallization during evaporation of aqueous salt solutions. We found that at concentrations of sodium chloride close to saturation, only the cationic surfactant CTAB and the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 remain stable. For the nonionic surfactant, the high concentration of salt does not significantly change either the critical micellar concentration (CMC) or the surface tension at the CMC; for the cationic surfactant, the CMC is reduced by roughly 2 orders of magnitude upon adding the salt. The presence of both types of surfactants in the salt solution delays the crystallization of sodium chloride with evaporation. This, in turn, leads to high supersaturation which induces the rapid precipitation of a hopper crystal in the bulk. The crystallization inhibitor role of these surfactants is shown to be mainly due to the passivation of nucleation sites at both liquid/air and solid/liquid interfaces rather than a change in the evaporation rate which is found not to be affected by the presence of the surfactants. The adsorption of surfactants at the liquid/air interface prevents the crystallization at this location which is generally the place where the precipitation of sodium chloride is observed. Moreover, sum frequency generation spectroscopy measurements show that the surfactants are also present at the solid/liquid interface. The incorporation of the surfactants into the salt crystals is investigated using a novel, but simple, method based on surface tension measurements. Our results show that the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 is incorporated in the NaCl crystals but the cationic surfactant CTAB is not. Taken together, these results therefore allow us to establish the effect of the presence of surfactants on sodium chloride crystallization. PMID:28425711

  2. Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various metal chlorides were tested as possible cathode materials for sodium-metal batteries (in addition to Fe and Ni chlorides, which have been already developed to a stage of commercialization), using an electrochemical cell consisting of a pyrex tube, heated to 250 C, with the metal wire as working electrode, concentric Ni foil as counterelectrode, and high-purity Al as reference electrode. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify metal chlorides insoluble even in neutral melts, possible at the interface during overcharge, in order to eliminate the failure mode of the cell through a cationic exchange of the dissolved metal ions with sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte. Results indicate that Mo and Co are likely alternatives to FeCl2 and NiCl2 cathodes in sodium batteries. The open circuit voltages of Na/CoCl(x) and Na/MoCl(x) cells at 250 C would be 2.55 V and 2.64 V, respectively.

  3. Chloride transport and the actions of nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium in asthma.

    PubMed

    Alton, E W; Norris, A A

    1996-11-01

    Nedocromil sodium has been shown to be capable of inhibiting chloride ion flux in mast cells, epithelial cells, and neurons. This feature may explain how it can prevent responses such as mast-cell degranulation, the effects of osmolarity changes in the airways, and neuronal activation. This mechanism may also provide a unifying hypothesis to explain the effects of nedocromil sodium on a range of cell types involved in asthma, such as sensory and efferent neurons and cells involved in inflammation.

  4. Extended Stability of Sodium Phosphate Solutions in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags

    PubMed Central

    Perks, William; Iazzetta, John; Chan, Pak Cheung; Brouzas, Athina; Law, Shirley; Walker, Scott E

    2017-01-01

    Background Sodium phosphate injection is used to treat moderate to severe hypophosphatemia. There have been no published reports documenting the physical compatibility or chemical stability of sodium phosphate injection in IV solutions. Objective To evaluate the physical compatibility and chemical stability of 30 and 150 mmol/L solutions of phosphate, prepared from sodium phosphate injection, in 5% dextrose in water (D5W) and in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags at 23°C or 4°C over 63 days. Methods On study day 0, solutions of phosphate 30 and 150 mmol/L in D5W or NS were prepared in PVC bags and stored at 4°C and 23°C. On prespecified days during the 63-day study period, the concentrations of sodium and phosphate were determined, and admixture weight was checked to assess moisture loss during storage without a plastic overwrap. Chemical stability was calculated from the intersection of the lower 95% confidence limit of the degradation rate and the lower limit of acceptability (90%) for concentration remaining. Results The analytical methods for both sodium and phosphate were found to be precise (coefficient of variation averaging less than 1% for pre-study validation samples). Both sodium and phosphate retained more than 94% of the initial concentration over the 63-day study period. With 95% confidence, the time to achieve 90% of the initial concentration of both sodium and phosphate approached or exceeded the 63-day study period, regardless of temperature, concentration, or base solution. Conclusions Sodium phosphate solutions at a phosphate concentration of 30 or 150 mmol/L in either NS or D5W retained more than 94% of the initial concentration of both sodium and phosphate over 63 days when stored at 23°C or 4°C. In compliance with United States Pharmacopeia General Chapter <797> recommendations, a beyond-use date of 14 days (with refrigeration) or 48 h (room temperature) may be applied. Extending the

  5. Preparation of ammonium paratungstate from a sodium tungstate-sodium chloride phase

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, A.E.; Gomes, J.M.; Carnahan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the tungstate-bearing sodium chloride phase can be a suitable feed material for preparing ammonium paratungstate (APT) by a modification to the present industrial solvent extraction process. A combined crossflow-countercurrent flow solvent extraction technique to extract tungsten is presented.

  6. Evaporation with sodium chloride crystallization in a capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naillon, A.; Duru, P.; Marcoux, M.; Prat, M.

    2015-07-01

    Sodium chloride crystallization induced by evaporation of aqueous solution is studied from visualization experiments in a circular capillary tube. In agreement with recent studies, the onset of crystallization is observed with a significant supersaturation. Detailed information on the precipitation kinetics and transport of ions is obtained from numerical computations of the ion mass fraction field during the evaporation process. It is shown that the precipitation kinetics is fast compared to transport so that the crystal growth is mostly controlled by the transport. This offers possible simplifications for analyzing more involved situations such as crystallization in porous media. The fact that the significant supersaturation does not lead to tube damage is explained.

  7. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-04-03

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(loxloxCre)) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3(loxloxCre) mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified.

  8. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

    1998-01-01

    Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  9. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  10. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    PubMed

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  11. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role. PMID:26197394

  12. Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely.

  13. Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

  14. Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

  15. Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

  16. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kendal W; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

  17. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

  18. Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

  19. Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

    1991-05-01

    The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

  20. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-01

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

  1. Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.

    2005-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations or visualizations of chemical processes at the molecular level are better able to answer conceptual questions about particulate phenomena, publishers have supplemented their textbooks with compact discs or websites containing molecular animations. In this study, eighteen college students enrolled in general chemistry participated in three research sessions. First, they were individually shown two popular textbook animations of salt dissolution after each performed an activity of the same event. Second, after one week the same subjects were asked to interpret a precipitation reaction at the molecular level. Third, a debriefing session and semi-structured interview were held. An analysis of the data from the first session showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations, and many were able to connect how the microscopic process of dissolution related to the macroscopic disappearance of the salt. Although students' drawn explanations displayed many features seen in the salt dissolution animations, their verbal explanations sometimes indicated that they drew these features without full comprehension of their meaning. In a study of the transfer of learning, it was found that most students did not see a relation between the sodium chloride solution made when dissolving the salt and the sodium chloride solution used in a precipitation reaction.

  2. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique.

    PubMed

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S

    2016-04-21

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  3. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-04

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  4. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  5. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    PubMed Central

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products. PMID:27110818

  6. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C) subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  7. Effect of diuretics on sodium and chloride permeability in the rat papillary collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Ray, C; Carney, S; Gillies, A

    1998-01-01

    While in vivo data suggests that diuretics such as furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide alter inner medulla collecting duct (IMCD) cell electrolyte transport, this has not been confirmed by in vivo studies nor have the mechanisms been evaluated. This study evaluated the direct effect of these diuretics as well as amiloride on sodium and chloride unidirectional permeability in the isolated perfused rat IMCD. In the absence of diuretics, the permeability of sodium was lower than that of chloride (0.63 +/- 0.05 compared with 0.83 +/- 0.08 micrometer/s), although both were relatively impermeable when compared to water. Furosemide (10(-4)) and hydrochlorothiazide (10(-3)) both increased the diffusional permeability of chloride by approximately 30% (0.80 +/- 0.06 to 1.04 +/- 0.09 micrometer/s, p < 0.01, and 0.74 +/- 0.09 to 0.98 +/- 0.10 micrometer/s, p < 0.02, respectively). However, sodium permeability was unaltered. Inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase by ouabain or cooling (4 degrees C) inhibited basal sodium but not chloride permeability while a maximal antidiuretic AVP concentration did not alter sodium or chloride permeability. However, increasing the lumen and bath sodium chloride concentration from 150 to 300 and 600 mM significantly increased both sodium and particularly chloride conductance. In contrast, amiloride (10(-4)) significantly reduced both sodium and chloride permeability. These studies support a direct effect of furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide on the IMCD and suggest that their in vivo effect is primarily mediated by facilitating the passive movement of chloride into the lumen via a favourable electrochemical gradient. These results also demonstrate that amiloride inhibits both sodium and chloride unidirectional permeability by mechanisms separate to that of the sulphonamide-related diuretics.

  8. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P < .001) as well as the surface energy (P < .001) significantly decreased with increasing benzalkonium chloride concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional analysis of the effect of paved roads on sodium and chloride in lakes.

    PubMed

    Kelting, Daniel L; Laxson, Corey L; Yerger, Elizabeth C

    2012-05-15

    Salinization of surface water from sodium chloride (road salt) applied to paved roads is a widely recognized environmental concern in the northern hemisphere, yet practical information to improve winter road management to reduce the environmental impacts of this deicer is lacking. The purpose of our study was to provide such information by developing baseline concentrations for sodium and chloride for lakes in watersheds without paved roads, and then determining the relationship between these ions and density, type, and proximity of paved roads to shoreline. We used average summer (June-September) sodium and chloride data for 138 lakes combined in a watershed based analysis of paved road networks in the Adirondack Park of New York, U.S.A. The watersheds used in our study represented a broad range in paved road density and type, 56 of which had no paved roads. Median lake sodium and chloride concentrations in these 56 watersheds averaged 0.55 and 0.24 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, the median sodium and chloride concentrations for the 82 lakes in watersheds with paved roads were 3.60 and 7.22 mg/L, respectively. Paved road density (lane-km/km(2)) was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations, but only state roads were significantly correlated with sodium and chloride while local roads were not. State road density alone explained 84 percent of the variation in both ions. We also successfully modeled the relationship between road proximity to shoreline and sodium and chloride concentrations in lakes, which allowed us to identify sections of road that contributed more to explaining the variation in sodium and chloride in lakes. This model and our approach could be used as part of larger efforts to identify environmentally sensitive areas where alternative winter road management treatments should be applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of sodium chloride and volume depletion in the chronic kidney disease of congenital chloride diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wedenoja, Satu; Ormälä, Timo; Berg, Ulla B; Halling, Stella F Edström; Jalanko, Hannu; Karikoski, Riitta; Kere, Juha; Holmberg, Christer; Höglund, Pia

    2008-10-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea is due to mutations in the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange (SLC26A3) which results in sodium chloride and fluid depletion leading to hypochloremic and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. Although treatment with sodium and potassium chloride offers protection from renal involvement in childhood, the long-term renal outcome remains unclear. Here we describe two cases of congenital chloride diarrhea-associated end-stage renal disease with transplantation. Further, we show that there is a high incidence of mild chronic kidney disease in 35 other patients with congenital chloride diarrhea. The main feature of the renal injury was nephrocalcinosis, without hypercalciuria or nephrolithiasis with small sized kidneys and commensurately reduced glomerular filtration rates. This suggests that diarrhea-related sodium chloride and volume depletion, the first signs of non-optimal salt substitution, promote urine supersaturation and crystal precipitation. The poor compliance with salt substitution along with long-lasting hypochloremic and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis is likely to induce progressive calcification and renal failure. Both our patients developed nephrocalcinosis in the transplanted kidneys suggesting that this complication is a consequence of intestinal SLC26A3 deficiency. Interestingly, the transporter is expressed in the distal nephron but the recurrence of nephrocalcinosis in the transplanted kidney suggests that it does not play a significant renal role in this syndrome.

  11. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  12. Development of high performance sodium/metal chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, D. R.; Bloom, I. D.; Hash, M. C.; Redey, L.; Hammer, C. L.; Dees, D. W.; Nelson, P. A.

    Sodium/metal chloride (MCl2) cells and batteries are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for stationary energy storage and transportation applications. The work is being directed toward (1) development of thin, high capacity density electrodes and inexpensive beta double prime alumina-glass composite electrolyte materials to replace beta double prime alumina, and (2) the development of models to project MCl2 system performances. In our NiCl2 electrode work, the effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on electrode performance were determined using annular electrodes fabricated in the uncharged state. Of all electrode design parameters mentioned, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and on the area-specific impedance. The beta double prime alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive (3.3 x 10(exp -2)S/cm at 250 C) composite material. Preliminary modeling studies indicate that the performance of the MCl2 electrodes can be fitted by a mathematic model very successfully and that cell electrolyte configurations of either multiple tubes joined at a header or compartmented flat structures of either beta double prime alumina or of the composite material would result in high performance batteries with power-to-energy ratios of about 5.

  13. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  14. Water redispersible dried nanofibrillated cellulose by adding sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Missoum, Karim; Bras, Julien; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

    2012-12-10

    The present study reports for the first time a method to obtain water redispersible dried NFC using freeze-drying. No chemical surface modification was required to get this kind of product. Salt addition (sodium chloride: NaCl) strategy has been selected to block and then to regenerate hydrogen bonds during the drying and the redispersion steps, respectively. Several samples were produced at different pH (i.e., 4, 6, 8, and 10). All the redispersed NFC were characterized by different techniques (e.g., FE-SEM, XRD, EPMA-EDX) to check the effect of salt on NFC aggregation. The interactions between NFC and NaCl at different pH conditions have been discussed and the rheology of the redispersed NFC suspension has been performed. All the results prove a perfect water redispersion at pH 8 and exactly similar suspension is obtained after water dispersion of dried NFC following our procedure. These results are very promising for increasing application of NFC.

  15. Sodium chloride on Si(100) grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jen-Yang; Li, Hong-Dao; Chang, Wan-Heng; Leung, T. C.; Lin, Deng-Sung

    2011-02-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) films were grown on an Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface at near room temperature by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The atomic structure and growth mode of the prototypical ionic materials on the covalent bonded semiconductor surface is examined by synchrotron core-level x-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles calculations. The Si 2p, Na 2p, and Cl 2p core-level spectra together indicate that adsorbed NaCl molecules at submonolayer coverage [i.e., below 0.4 monolayer (ML)] partially dissociate and form Si-Cl species, and that a significant portion of the dangling-bond characteristics of the clean surface remains after NaCl deposition of 1.8 MLs. The deposition of 0.65-ML NaCl forms a partially ordered adlayer, which includes NaCl networks, Si-Cl species, adsorbed Na species, and isolated dangling bonds. The STM results revealed that the first adlayer consists of bright protrusions which form small c(2 × 4) and (2 × 2) patches. Above 0.65 ML, the two-dimensional NaCl double-layer growth proceeds on top of the first adlayer.

  16. gamma. -Aminobutyric acid transport in reconstituted preparations from rat brain: coupled sodium and chloride fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Keynan, S.; Kanner, B.I.

    1988-01-12

    Transport of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is electrogenic and completely depends on the presence of both sodium and chloride ions. These ions appear to be cotransported with ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid through its transporter. Using proteoliposomes into which a partially purified ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid transporter preparation was reconstituted. The authors have been able-for the first time-to provide direct evidence for sodium- and chloride-coupled ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid transport. This has been done by measuring the fluxes of /sup 22/Na/sup +/, /sup 36/Cl/sup -/, and (/sup 3/H)GABA. These fluxes have the following characteristics: There are components of the net fluxes of sodium and chloride that are ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid dependent. The sodium flux is chloride dependent. The chloride flux is sodium dependent. Thus, the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid dependent sodium and chloride fluxes appear to be catalyzed by the transporter. Using these fluxes they have attempted to determine the stoichiometry of the process. They measured the initial rate of sodium-dependent ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid fluxes and that of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid dependent sodium fluxes. Similarly, they measured the stoichiometry between chloride and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid. The half-maximal effect obtained when the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid concentration dependence of Cl/sup -/ and Na/sup +/ transport is determined is much higher than the known K/sub m/ of this system. Reexamination of the kinetics of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid transport reveals that there are two transport systems for it. The sodium, chloride, and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid fluxes probably originate from the low-affinity transporter.

  17. INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEAT-CURING BRINES1

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Manuel; Deibel, R. H.; Niven, C. F.

    1963-01-01

    Goldman, Manuel (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), R. H. Deibel, and C. F. Niven, Jr. Interrelationship between temperature and sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria isolated from meat-curing brines. J. Bacteriol. 85:1017–1021. 1963.—An elevation of the temperature limit for growth of some Pediococcus homari (Gaffkya homari) and motile Lactobacillus strains could be effected by the addition of sodium chloride to the growth medium. At the optimal temperature for growth, sodium chloride was stimulatory, and as the temperature of incubation was increased a mandatory requirement for sodium chloride was manifested. At the optimal temperature for growth (30 C), the highest sodium chloride concentrations were tolerated; as the temperature was increased, this tolerance decreased, although the optimal sodium chloride concentration increased. No other substances were found that would replace the sodium chloride requirement at higher temperatures of incubation. PMID:14043988

  18. The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) associate.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Abinash C; Wynne, Brandi M; Yu, Ling; Tomilin, Viktor; Yue, Qiang; Zhou, Yiqun; Al-Khalili, Otor; Mallick, Rickta; Cai, Hui; Alli, Abdel A; Ko, Benjamin; Mattheyses, Alexa; Bao, Hui-Fang; Pochynyuk, Oleh; Theilig, Franziska; Eaton, Douglas C; Hoover, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) are two of the most important determinants of salt balance and thus systemic blood pressure. Abnormalities in either result in profound changes in blood pressure. There is one segment of the nephron where these two sodium transporters are coexpressed, the second part of the distal convoluted tubule. This is a key part of the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, the final regulator of salt handling in the kidney. Aldosterone is the key hormonal regulator for both of these proteins. Despite these shared regulators and coexpression in a key nephron segment, associations between these proteins have not been investigated. After confirming apical localization of these proteins, we demonstrated the presence of functional transport proteins and native association by blue native PAGE. Extensive coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated a consistent interaction of NCC with α- and γ-ENaC. Mammalian two-hybrid studies demonstrated direct binding of NCC to ENaC subunits. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and immunogold EM studies confirmed that these transport proteins are within appropriate proximity for direct binding. Additionally, we demonstrate that there are functional consequences of this interaction, with inhibition of NCC affecting the function of ENaC. This novel finding of an association between ENaC and NCC could alter our understanding of salt transport in the distal tubule. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  20. [The use of sodium chloride baths in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Anisimkina, A N; Aĭrapetova, N S; Davydova, O B; Doronina, Iu V; Derevnina, N A; Gontar', E V

    1996-01-01

    80 patients with chronic bronchitis took baths with sodium chloride concentration 20, 40, 60 g/l and temperature 37-38 degrees C. The baths produced a positive effect on central and regional hemodynamics, reduced inflammation and sensitization.

  1. [Sulfide ooze mud and sodium chloride baths in treating osteoarthrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Novikova, N V

    1989-01-01

    Humoral immunity initially affected in patients with osteoarthrosis returns to normal under the influence of a multiple-modality treatment involving application of sulphide moor in combination with sodium chloride baths.

  2. A diffusive anomaly of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2008-02-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are presented for the self-diffusion coefficient of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions. At temperatures above the freezing point of pure water, the self-diffusion coefficient is a monotonically decreasing function of salt concentration. Below the freezing point of pure water, however, the self-diffusion coefficient is a non-monotonic function of salt concentration, showing a maximum at approximately one molal salt. This suggests that sodium chloride, which is considered a structure-making salt at room temperature, becomes a structure-breaking salt at low temperatures. A qualitative understanding of this effect can be obtained by considering the effect of ions on the residence time of water molecules near other water molecules. A consideration of the freezing point depression of aqueous sodium chloride solutions suggests that the self-diffusion coefficient of water in supercooled sodium chloride solutions is always higher than that in pure (supercooled) water at the same temperature.

  3. Lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar for the enumeration of bifidobacteria in fermented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, L; Undeland, P; Cox, L J

    1992-05-01

    Lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar has been developed for the enumeration of bifidobacteria in fermented dairy products. The medium contains lithium chloride and sodium propionate to inhibit the growth of other lactic acid bacteria. Pure cultures of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and streptococci were tested for growth in this medium. With one exception, all bifidobacteria were able to grow in this medium and in a nonselective agar with a difference not exceeding .4 log units. However, none of the lactobacilli tested and only one strain each of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris grew in lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar. In those cases, the numbers of colonies were lower in lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar by 1.26 and 2.51 log units, respectively, compared with a nonselective agar. Bifidobacteria were also selectively isolated from all fermented milks and cheeses analyzed.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Laboratory spectroscopy of sodium chloride (NaCl) (Cabezas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Pena, I.; Agundez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuniga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-09-01

    The rotational spectrum of sodium chloride (NaCl) has been obtained using two different Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometers constructed at the University of Valladolid. See section 2.1 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  5. The coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of frog skin epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, P L; Ferreira, H G; Ferreira, K T

    1989-01-01

    1. When frog skin epithelium was exposed to a chloride-free solution bathing the basolateral side of the frog skin preparation the short-circuit current fell and there was a simultaneous loss of chloride and water from its cells. This effect was partially blocked by furosemide when this drug was added to the basolateral bathing solution. 2. Under control conditions and when added to the solution bathing the basolateral side of the preparation furosemide had no effect on the ion and water contents of the frog skin epithelium. 3. Furosemide but not SITS (4-acetamide-4'-isothiocyanate-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or amiloride blocked the recovery of short-circuit current and the reuptake of chloride and water by preparations pre-incubated with chloride-free solution on the basolateral side. The recovery of the short-circuit current was also blocked by the replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium. 4. The effect on the short-circuit current of graded replacements by impermeant ions of sodium or chloride did not show saturation for concentrations of these ions up to their control values. 5. Replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium inhibited the short-circuit current and the recovery observed when potassium was reintroduced in the basolateral bathing solution was blocked by furosemide. 6. The replacement of basolateral sodium or chloride by impermeant ions induced an immediate fall in the intracellular concentrations of both sodium and chloride suggesting that the transport system coupling the movements of the two ions across the basolateral membrane is operative under control conditions. 7. It is proposed that the coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium are mediated by a sodium-potassium-2 chloride co-transport system which under control conditions is very near equilibrium. PMID:2607456

  6. Electrical impedance and HV plasma images of high dilutions of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, R

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports impedance data and high voltage plasma photographic plates of high dilutions of sodium chloride in water submitted to the homeopathic dilution and succession up to 30cH. Extremely low concentrations of the original salt, even beyond Avogadro number, clearly differ from 'pure' water and; the action of sodium chloride on the electrical properties of water is inverted at high dilution.

  7. View of Sodium Chloride inserted onto blueberry jelly within a metal loop on Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-15

    ISS006-E-39282 (15 March 2003) --- A view of sodium chloride inserted onto blueberry jelly within a 50-millimeter (mm) metal loop was photographed by an Expedition Six crewmember. The water in the sodium chloride solution evaporates as it leaves larger three-dimensional crystals while the blueberry jelly hardens. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  8. Equilibrium diagrams at 27 [degree]C of the water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Dantas Neto, A.A.; Castro Dantas, T.N. de; Duarte, M.M.L.; Avelino, S. . Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica)

    1993-01-01

    Amines are usually used in extracting tungsten from scheelite. Dodecylamine chloride in kerosene and octanol was used as an extracting agent in order to establish the phase diagram at 27C for water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride. Acetone was used to prevent emulsion formation. This procedure made it possible to achieve better partition coefficients; however, there appears to be a saturation region.

  9. EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS-PHAGE RELATIONSHIPS

    PubMed Central

    West, B.; Kelly, Florene C.; Shields, Doris A.

    1963-01-01

    West, B. (University of Oklahoma Medical Center, Oklahoma City), Florene C. Kelly, and Doris A. Shields. Effect of sodium chloride on staphylococcus-phage relationships. J. Bacteriol. 86:773–780. 1963.—Phage patterns of 21 phage-propagating strains of staphylococci on medium with high NaCl content appeared to be an expression of the staphylococcal cells, as well as of the salt tolerance of the phages. Serological group A phages, previously found to be NaCl-tolerant in the free state, were capable of lysing susceptible staphylococci on 3, 7.5, and 10% NaCl Trypticase Soy Agar. None of the other phages tested was active when the medium contained 7.5 and 10% NaCl. Increasing the NaCl content of the medium rarely resulted in nonspecific reactions; rather the effect was, generally, a narrowing of the phage spectrum of the cells, with persistence in the phage pattern of the phage, or phages, which were propagated on the cells being tested. Although NaCl tolerance of the phages was the chief limiting factor of phage activity in the presence of 7.5 and 10% NaCl, reactions on salt medium also depended on the degree of susceptibility of cells to phage on routine typing medium and to certain other unexplained factors. In some instances, under the influence of increased NaCl, significant lysis at 1000 RTD was replaced by thinning of growth (inhibition), with or without the presence of plaques. Conversely, certain phage-cell combinations, which gave inhibition at 1000 RTD on standard medium produced some degree of lysis when the NaCl concentration was increased. Studies of phage 81 and its propagating strain showed that replication of phage occurred in 10% NaCl medium, although adsorption diminished as salt concentration was increased, and the time required to reach maximal lytic activity was delayed. PMID:14066474

  10. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content.

  11. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  12. Investigations of Selective Interactions of the Iron/Aqueous Sodium Chloride System. Part 1. The Adsorption of Chloride Ion by Alpha-Iron(III) Oxide in Sodium Chloride Solutions Saturated by Oxygen at 30C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A radioisotope procedure was used to investigate the chloride ion adsorption characteristics of crystalline alpha - iron (III) oxide in dilute sodium...competed for the active sites on hydrated alpha - iron (III) oxide surfaces. The chloride ion was preferentially adsorbed in the solution pH range of

  13. Comparison of Sodium Chloride Tablets-Induced, Sodium Chloride Solution-Induced, and Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Fluid Balance Responses in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Félix A; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2016-10-01

    Savoie, FA, Asselin, A, and Goulet, EDB. Comparison of sodium chloride tablets-induced, sodium chloride solution-induced, and glycerol-induced hyperhydration on fluid balance responses in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2880-2891, 2016-Sodium chloride solution-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-SolIH) is a powerful strategy to increase body water before exercise. However, NaCl-SolIH is associated with an unpleasant salty taste, potentially dissuading some athletes from using it and coaches from recommending it. Therefore, we evaluated the hyperhydrating potential of sodium chloride tablets-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-TabIH), which bypasses the palatability issue of NaCl-SolIH without sacrificing sodium chloride content, and compared it to NaCl-SolIH and glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH). Sixteen healthy males (age: 21 ± 2 years; fat-free mass (FFM): 65 ± 6 kg) underwent three, 3-hour long passive hyperhydration protocols during which they drank, over the first 60 minutes, 30-ml·kg FFM of an artificially sweetened solution. During NaCl-TabIH, participants swallowed 7.5, 1 g each, sodium chloride tablets with every liter of solution. During NaCl-SolIH, an equal quantity of sodium chloride tablets was dissolved in each liter of solution. With GIH, the glycerol concentration was 46.7 g·L. Urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the trials. Total fluid intake was 1948 ± 182 ml. After 3 hour, there were no significant differences among treatments for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma volume changes. Fluid retention was significantly greater with NaCl-SolIH (1150 ± 287 ml) than NaCl-TabIH (905 ± 340 ml) or GIH (800 ± 211 ml), with no difference between NaCl-TabIH and GIH. No differences were found among treatments for perceptual variables. NaCl-TabIH and GIH are equally effective, but inferior than NaCl-SolIH. NaCl-TabIH represents an alternative to hyperhydration induced

  14. Comparison of effects of isotonic sodium chloride with diltiazem in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Beyazal, Hatice; Caliskan, Zuhal; Utaç, Cengiz

    2014-04-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) significantly increases the morbidity and mortality of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the protective effects of isotonic sodium chloride with sodium bicarbonate infusion and isotonic sodium chloride infusion with diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, in preventing CIN. Our study included patients who were administered 30-60 mL of iodinated contrast agent for percutaneous coronary angiography (PCAG), all with creatinine values between 1.1 and 3.1 mg/dL. Patients were divided into three groups and each group had 20 patients. The first group of patients was administered isotonic sodium chloride; the second group was administered a solution that of 5% dextrose and sodium bicarbonate, while the third group was administered isotonic sodium chloride before and after the contrast injection. The third group received an additional injection of diltiazem the day before and first 2 days after the contrast injection. All of the patients' plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels were measured on the second and seventh day after the administration of intravenous contrast material. The basal creatinine levels were similar for all three groups (p > 0.05). Among a total of 60 patients included in the study, 16 patients developed acute renal failure (ARF) on the second day after contrast material was injected (26.6%). The number of patients who developed ARF on the second day after the injection in the first group was five (25%), in the second group was six (30%) and the third group was five (25%) (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between isotonic sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and isotonic sodium chloride with diltiazem application in prevention of CIN.

  15. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  16. Development of an animal model of nephrocalcinosis via selective dietary sodium and chloride depletion

    PubMed Central

    Tuchman, Shamir; Asico, Laureano D.; Escano, Crisanto; Bobb, Daniel A.; Ray, Patricio E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nephrocalcinosis (NC) is an important clinical problem seen in critically ill pre-term neonates treated with loop diuretics. No reliable animal models are available to study the pathogenesis of NC in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible and clinically relevant animal model of NC for these patients, and to explore the impact of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume contraction induced by sodium and chloride depletion in this process. Methods Three-week old weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets deficient in either chloride or sodium and chloride. A sub-group of rats from each dietary group was injected daily with furosemide (40 mg/kg; i.p.). Results Rats fed a control diet, with or without furosemide, or a chloride depleted diet alone, did not develop NC. In contrast, 50% of the rats injected with furosemide and fed the chloride depleted diet developed NC. Moreover, 94% of the rats fed the combined sodium/chloride depleted diet developed NC, independently of furosemide use. NC was associated with the development of severe ECF volume contraction, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, increased phosphaturia, and growth retardation. Conclusion Severe ECF volume contraction induced by chronic sodium and chloride depletion appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NC. PMID:23174703

  17. [Effects of a supplementation on sodium chloride or ammonium chloride on urolithic potential in the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Rückert, Cornelia; Siener, Roswitha; Ganter, Martin; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2016-08-17

    Reduction of urolithic potential by means of increased water intake and urine dilution through supplementation of sodium chloride (NaCl) or decrease of urine pH by supplementation of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) in rabbits. Sixteen female, 6-month-old dwarf rabbits received the following three feeding regimens in a random order: complete feed without supplements = control; complete feed + 10 g NaCl/kg feed = NaCl; complete feed + 2.5 g NH4Cl/kg feed = NH4Cl. The diets were fed ad libitum over a period of 27 days without roughage. Water was provided ad libitum by a drinker. A 14-day wash-out-period (hay feeding) was performed between the different diets. Blood, faeces, and urine were collected at the beginning of each feeding period, after 21-day adaptation to the respective diet, and after the 3-day collection period. The following parameters were analysed: water and food intake as well as acid-base balance and mineral content in blood, urine, and faeces. NaCl supplementation numerically increased the daily water intake from 40.5 ± 14.4 ml/kg body weight (BW) (control) up to 49.5 ± 14.3 ml/kg BW and significantly increased the daily urine volume from 16.9 ± 7.8 ml/kg BW (control group) to 21.1 ± 7.4 ml/kg BW. The specific gravity of urine samples from NaCl supplementation decreased from 1.060 ± 0.008 to 1.044 ± 0.008. NH4Cl supplementation did not induce significant changes in urine pH, blood acid-base parameters, or calcium retention. Relative supersaturations (RSS) for calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate showed no significant changes after treatment. RSS for struvite increased from 360 ± 735 (after hay feeding) to 3312 ± 6188 on control feeding, 2910 ± 4913 with NaCl supplementation, and 3022 ± 6635 with NH4Cl supplementation (p < 0.05). NaCl supplementation significantly increased the urine volume and decreased its specific gravity. Therefore, NaCl supplementation might be an additional dietary treatment to increase the

  18. Apical membrane sodium and chloride entry during osmotic swelling of renal (A6) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crowe, W E; Ehrenfeld, J; Brochiero, E; Wills, N K

    1995-03-01

    To assess the role of chloride in cell volume and sodium transport regulation, we measured cell height changes (CH), transepithelial chloride and sodium fluxes, and intracellular chloride content during challenge with hyposmotic solutions under open circuit (OC) conditions. CH maximally increased following hyposmotic challenge within approximately 5 minutes. The change in CH was smaller under short circuit (SC) conditions or following replacement of chloride in the mucosal solution by gluconate or cyclamate (Cl(-)-freem). When corrected for the osmotically inactive cell volume (30 +/- 2%), delta CH for controls (OC) were greater than predicted for an ideal osmometer. In contrast, delta CH for Cl(-)-freem or SC conditions were similar to that predicted for an ideal osmometer. Na+ and Cl- mucosa-to-serosa fluxes increased following hyposmotic challenge. Chloride fluxes increased maximally within 5 min, then decreased. In contrast, the Na+ flux increased slowly and reached a steady state after approximately 25 min. Under isosmotic conditions, exposure to Cl(-)-freem solutions led to decreases in the transepithelial conductance, Na+ flux, and CH. Chloride permeabilities in the apical and basolateral membranes were detected using the fluorescent intracellular chloride indicator MQAE. The results indicate that during osmotic swelling, the entry of both sodium and chloride is increased. The time courses of these increases differ, suggesting distinct mechanisms for the osmotic regulation of these apical membrane transport processes.

  19. Sodium and chloride in cows' drinking water and freezing point of milk.

    PubMed

    Mussenden, S; Hodges, J; Hiley, P G

    1977-10-01

    The study was in two dairying regions of British Columbia, Canada, 700 Holstein-Friesian cows in 10 herds, to examine sodium and chloride in the drinking water of cows and to relate these to the composition of milk and to its freezing point. The Peace River had more sodium and more variation between herds in natural water supplies, which usually derive from surface dugouts, whereas the Fraser Valley region draws its water from mountain reservoirs. There were associated differences in the sodium content of milk between the two regions. These did not result in any regional differences in the freezing point of milk and there were no detectable changes in the chloride and lactose contents of milk to compensate for the higher sodium. The relationships between concentrations of milk lactose and milk chloride on the one hand and milk freezing point variations on the other were as expected.

  20. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  1. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    PubMed

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species.

  2. Development of an animal model of nephrocalcinosis via selective dietary sodium and chloride depletion.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Shamir; Asico, Laureano D; Escano, Crisanto; Bobb, Daniel A; Ray, Patricio E

    2013-02-01

    Nephrocalcinosis (NC) is an important clinical problem seen in critically ill preterm neonates treated with loop diuretics. No reliable animal models are available to study the pathogenesis of NC in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible and clinically relevant animal model of NC for these patients and to explore the impact of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume contraction induced by sodium and chloride depletion in this process. Three-week-old weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets deficient in either chloride or sodium or both. A subgroup of rats from each dietary group was injected daily with furosemide (40 mg/kg i.p.). Rats fed a control diet, with or without furosemide, or a chloride-depleted diet alone, did not develop NC. By contrast, 50% of the rats injected with furosemide and fed the chloride-depleted diet developed NC. Moreover, 94% of the rats fed the combined sodium- and chloride-depleted diet developed NC, independently of furosemide use. NC was associated with the development of severe ECF volume contraction; hypochloremic, hypokalemic, metabolic alkalosis; increased phosphaturia; and growth retardation. Severe ECF volume contraction induced by chronic sodium and chloride depletion appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NC.

  3. Insecticide sensitivity of native chloride and sodium channels in a mosquito cell line.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Lacey J; Anderson, Troy D; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of cultured Anopheles gambiae Sua1B cells for insecticide screening applications without genetic engineering or other treatments. Sua1B cells were exposed to the known insecticidal compounds lindane and DIDS, which inhibited cell growth at micromolar concentrations. In patch clamp studies, DIDS produced partial inhibition (69%) of chloride current amplitudes, and an IC50 of 5.1μM was determined for Sua1B cells. A sub-set of chloride currents showed no response to DIDS; however, inhibition (64%) of these currents was achieved using a low chloride saline solution, confirming their identity as chloride channels. In contrast, lindane increased chloride current amplitude (EC50=116nM), which was reversed when cells were bathed in calcium-free extracellular solution. Voltage-sensitive chloride channels were also inhibited by the presence of fenvalerate, a type 2 pyrethroid, but not significantly blocked by type 1 allethrin, an effect not previously shown in insects. Although no evidence of fast inward currents typical of sodium channels was observed, studies with fenvalerate in combination with veratridine, a sodium channel activator, revealed complete inhibition of cell growth that was best fit by a two-site binding model. The high potency effect was completely inhibited in the presence of tetrodotoxin, a specific sodium channel blocker, suggesting the presence of some type of sodium channel. Thus, Sua1B cells express native insect ion channels with potential utility for insecticide screening.

  4. Dopamine DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells are regulated by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Yokokawa, K; Horio, T; Takeda, T

    1994-09-01

    The modulation of dopamine DA1 receptors of cultured rat renal arterial smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid and sodium chloride was studied. At a concentration of 10 nM, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone increased maximum receptor binding but had no effect on the dissociation constant. However, the maximum binding of [3H]Sch-23390 in cells treated with 100 mM sodium chloride did not change. However, the dissociation constant for DA1 receptor was increased by adding sodium chloride. The glucocorticoid effect on DA1 of arterial smooth muscle cells became apparent after hours of incubation in the presence of the steroid and was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide (10 micrograms/ml) or by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-38486, indicating that the effect required protein synthesis through glucocorticoid receptors. Treatment of cells with 1 microM dexamethasone for 24 h increased basal and DA1-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. Basal adenylate cyclase was decreased by sodium chloride in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest differential control of DA1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by glucocorticoid or sodium chloride.

  5. [Sodium chloride in food rations and dinners in mass catering institutions].

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Respondek, W; Zareba, M

    2001-01-01

    The sodium chloride content in meals given by mass catering institution in all over country in 1988-1998 years was estimated. This study included daily food rations from 183 mass catering institution as hospitals, sanatoriums for both children and adults, boarding schools, infant schools and social welfare homes. We assessed also school dinners from 422 randomized selected schools and dinners from 55 internal and 56 surgical departments of provincial and regional hospitals in Poland. The mass of each meal was evaluated and sodium chloride content by Mohr's method was assessed. In most cases the salt content by 100 g of meal of 1000 kcal was calculated. The dinners and daily food rations analyze showed that sodium chloride content in meals was much higher than value recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Salt amount in daily food rations of both children and adults was above 16 g. This value didn't include salt added to meals by boarders. School dinners provided about 7-10 g of salt. The average sodium chloride content in hospital dinners was about 16-20 g. In each studied group the NaCl content per 100 g of meal was similarly high and was 0.7-0.9 g. The results of this study show that meals given by mass catering institutions can increase risk of hypertension, strokes and gastric cancers because of high sodium chloride content.

  6. Temporal and spatial trends of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire, 1960–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire were assembled from various State and Federal agencies and organized into a database. This report provides documentation of many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives and investigates temporal and spatial trends of the data. Data summaries presented in this report and analyses performed for this study needed to take into account the 27 percent of chloride and 5 percent of sodium data that were censored (less than a reporting limit) at multiple reporting limits that systematically decreased over time. Throughout New Hampshire, median concentrations of chloride were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than in every decade since the 1970s, and median concentrations of sodium were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than during the 1990s. Results of summary statistics showed that the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the median concentrations of chloride and sodium by source (well) from Rockingham and Strafford counties were the highest in the State; and the 75th and 90th percentiles from Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties were the lowest. Large increases in median concentrations of chloride and sodium for individual wells after 1995 compared with concentrations for years before were found in parts of Belknap and Rockingham counties and in small clusters within Carroll, Hillsborough, and Merrimack counties.

  7. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Novel Al-Al2O3 Composites in Aerated 3.5% Chloride Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo-Hurtado, P. O.; Sundaram, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of novel Al-Al2O3 MMCs was evaluated in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These materials corrode almost spontaneously by pitting in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution. Observations indicate that intermetallic particles in these composites appear to play an important role in this pitting corrosion behavior. Addition of Al2O3 particles to the base alloys did not appear to increase their corrosion resistance significantly, although corrosion rate was affected by these reinforcement particles. In cyclic polarization experiments, the small difference between the pitting potentials and the repassivation potentials for these MMCs indicated their low resistance to pitting corrosion. EIS measurements indicate adsorption/diffusion phenomena at the interface of the composites. Electrically equivalent circuits are proposed to describe and substantiate the corrosion processes occurring in these materials.

  9. Randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate and 5% sodium chloride on raised intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bourdeaux, Chris P; Brown, Jules M

    2011-08-01

    Hypertonic sodium chloride solutions are routinely used to control raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after traumatic brain injury but have the potential to cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate 8.4% has previously been shown to reduce ICP and we have therefore conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare these two solutions. Patients with severe traumatic brain injury were randomly allocated to receive an equiosmolar dose of either 100 ml of sodium chloride 5% or 85 ml of sodium bicarbonate 8.4% for each episode of intracranial hypertension. ICP and blood pressure were measured continuously. Arterial pCO(2), sodium, chloride, osmolality, and pH were measured at intervals. We studied 20 episodes of intracranial hypertension in 11 patients. Treatments with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate and 5% sodium chloride reduced raised ICP effectively with a significant fall in ICP from baseline at all time points (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in ICP with time between those episodes treated with 5% sodium chloride or 8.4% sodium bicarbonate, P = 0.504. Arterial pH was raised after treatment with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate. An equiosmolar infusion of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate is as effective as 5% sodium chloride for reduction of raised ICP after traumatic brain injury when infused over 30 min.

  10. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  11. Mechanism of chemical activation of sodium chloride in the presence of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Anja K K; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been shown to promote chlorination of glycerol during thermal processing. However, the detailed mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Preliminary experiments have indicated that the reaction mixture should contain an amino acid and it should be dissolved thoroughly in water in order to induce chlorination. These observations are consistent with the process of dissociation of sodium chloride and its re-association with amino acid and eventual formation of the chlorinating agent in the form of the hydrochloride salt. Release of HCl from this salt can be manifested in chlorination and hydrolytic reactions occurring during thermal processing. The generation of HCl at room temperature from a mixture of sodium chloride and glycine was confirmed through spectrophotometric monitoring of the pH. Hydrolytic and chlorination reactions were demonstrated through monitoring of formation of HMF and chlorinated products under pyrolytic conditions using glucose or sucrose and amino acid mixtures.

  12. Effect of sodium chloride on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471.

    PubMed

    Neysens, Patricia; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-11-15

    A kinetic investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on cell growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 and amylovorin L471 production was carried out through in vitro experiments using a temperature and pH prevailing during sourdough fermentations. Sodium chloride interfered both with cell growth and bacteriocin production. Biomass formation and amylovorin L471 production decreased in the presence of increasing salt concentrations. Maximum bacteriocin activities were observed after the addition of 10 g l(-1) of NaCl, while the maximum specific growth rate reached an optimum at 5 g l(-1) of NaCl. High salt concentrations (20-40 g l(-1)) resulted in biphasic fermentation profiles. Based on these results, incorporation of 5-10 g l(-1) of sodium chloride in the water phase of type II sourdough preparations might be beneficial to enhance bacterial growth and amylovorin L471 production, and so contribute to the competitiveness of the strain in a sourdough environment.

  13. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  14. Use of Moderately Hypertonic Sodium Chloride in the Resuscitation of Patients from Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-08

    administered at the time of entry. Measurements Serum samples were collected for measurement of chemistry panels, blood counts and blood gases, which...chloride; moderately hypertonic solutions; trauma; fluid resuscitation;psystolic blood pressure; heart rate, urine output; PaO 2/FI0 2 ratio; fluid...administeredv-patients; survival; shock; trauma, isotonic solutions lactated Ringer’s; organ failure; 3% sodium chloride- blood replacement; pulmonary

  15. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    PubMed

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts.

  16. Incidence of Adverse Events During Peripheral Administration of Sodium Chloride 3.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Ryan C; Merchan, Cristian; Altshuler, Diana; Papadopoulos, John

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, sodium chloride 3% has been administered via a central venous line (CVL) because of the perceived risk of infiltration and tissue injury due to its high osmolarity. In clinical practice, sodium chloride 3% is commonly administered through peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) given the necessity of timely administration. However, there is no published data on the safety of administering sodium chloride 3% through PVCs in the adult population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of peripheral venous administration of sodium chloride 3%. A retrospective review was conducted in patients who received sodium chloride 3% in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were excluded if they had a CVL for the entire duration of the infusion or younger than 18 years at the time of administration. Baseline patient and infusion characteristics were collected. Infusion-related adverse events (IRAEs) were recorded, graded, and interventions required were noted. A total of 66 patients were included in the analysis. The most common indication was hyponatremia and majority of the patients were managed in the neurosurgical ICU. The most common risk factor for IRAEs was the presence of altered mental status. Four patients experienced an IRAE at an event rate of 6.1%. Patients who experienced an IRAE ranged from 38 to 82 years old. The IRAEs were grade 1 in severity, managed conservatively with removal of the PVC, and 2 of the 4 patients had their infusions restarted peripherally. The time to initial IRAE ranged from 2 to 94 hours. For the entire cohort, hospital and ICU length of stay were 8 and 4 days, respectively. The rate of IRAEs related to the infusion of sodium chloride 3% through PVCs appears to be similar to those reported with other hyperosmotic agents and could be considered for patients who need time-sensitive therapy.

  17. Taste properties of potassium chloride alone and in mixtures with sodium chloride using a check-all-that-apply method.

    PubMed

    Sinopoli, Dominique A; Lawless, Harry T

    2012-09-01

    As consumers try to reduce their sodium consumption for health purposes, the food industry seeks ways to reduce the sodium content in products while maintaining palatability. One potential solution for lowering sodium content is using potassium chloride (KCl) as a substitute. However, many people find KCl to have unpleasant off-tastes, which limits its effectiveness to replace sodium chloride (NaCl). This study examined the taste properties of KCl using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) ballot. The objectives were to see which terms people use to describe KCl and in what ways this changes in various combinations with NaCl. Panelists were served mixtures of varying NaCl and KCl concentrations, and evaluated them using a set of predetermined terms on a CATA ballot. Frequency counts were taken, and binomial and McNemar tests were performed to see which stimuli changed the most between samples. Results showed that adding KCl increased salt perception slightly, and salty was chosen more frequently when in combination with NaCl. Adding NaCl in a mixture with KCl decreases unpleasant side tastes associated with KCl, such as bitter, chemical, and metallic.

  18. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  19. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  20. The effect of sodium chloride on the two-step kinetics of the nitrifying process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Omar; Aspé, Estrella; Martí, María C; Roeckel, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    Sodium chloride affects the transformation rate of several compounds in bioreactors. Most authors report a decrease in microorganism activity at increasing salt concentrations. In this work, a kinetic model that relates sodium chloride concentration with the rates of each step of the nitrification process is proposed; thus, the effect of sodium chloride concentration (0 to 60 g/L) on the nitritation and nitratation rates was separately studied. To carry out the independent study of each step, a combination of the respirometric method with sodium azide, an inhibitor of the nitratation step, was performed. The dot-blot hybridization technique with 16S rRNA-targeted probes was used to determine the ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial fraction, then it was possible to relate the culture's function with its biological composition. Rates of both steps were linearly reduced at increasing salt concentrations: the nitratation rate was more affected than the nitritation rate. Simulations carried out in a nitrifying sequencing batch reactor indicate that nitrite might accumulate at high salt concentrations. Sodium chloride exerts a reversible inhibition on ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation.

  1. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  2. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-02-11

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  3. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  4. A Comparison of Taste and Odor Perception in Pediatric Patients Receiving a 0.9% Sodium Chloride Flush From 2 Different Brands of Prefilled 0.9% Sodium Chloride Syringes.

    PubMed

    Hamze, Benjamin; Vaillancourt, Régis; Sharp, Diane; Villarreal, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized single-blind study is to compare taste and odor disturbances in patients receiving 0.9% sodium chloride flushes from 2 brands. Seventy-five patients from 6 to 18 years of age received intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride infusions, and 50 healthy volunteers who tasted the 2 brands of 0.9% sodium chloride from prefilled syringes were assessed for taste and/or odor disturbances. Taste or odor disturbances were equally present in patients flushed with MedXL and Becton-Dickinson 0.9% sodium chloride. Disturbances are more frequent when 0.9% sodium chloride is flushed through central venous access devices than through peripheral catheters. No difference between the brands was found when healthy volunteers tasted it orally.

  5. Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

    2006-01-17

    Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack

  6. Sodium and chloride transport in the large intestine of potassium-loaded rats

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, M.E.; Foster, E.S.; Hayslett, J.P.; Binder, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    Increased dietary potassium (potassium loading) induces several adaptive changes in colonic function, including increased potential dependent potassium secretion, active potassium secretion, and Na-K-ATPase activity, but does not alter net sodium absorption in vivo. To establish whether potassium loading stimulates active sodium transport, unidirectional, net sodium, and chloride fluxes were determined under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated rat distal colonic mucosa. In normal animals net sodium flux (J/sub net/sup Na/), net chloride flux (J/sub net/sub Cl/) and short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) were 6.1 +/- 1.1, 8.4 +/-1.0, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 eq h cm S, respectively; potassium loading significantly increased J/sub net/sup Na/ and I/sup sc/ by 4.9 +/- 1.4 and 3.5 +/- 0.7 eq h cm S, respectively, without changing J/sub net/sup Na/ and I/sub sc/ produced by potassium loading. In Cl-free Ringer solution in normal animals J/sub net/sup Na was reduced to 0.6 +/- 0.3 eq h cm S. Potassium loading produced identical increases in J/sub net/sup Na/ and I/sub sc/, which were also completely inhibited by 0.1 mM amiloride. These studies establish that potassium loading induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption without affecting electroneutral sodium-chloride absorption.

  7. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs

    PubMed Central

    Cantarella, Raquel de Araújo; de Oliveira, Juliana Kravetz; Dorbandt, Daniel M.; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015) with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013), increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001), most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  8. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac tromethamine and benzalkonium chloride on corneal sensitivity in normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Raquel de Araújo; de Oliveira, Juliana Kravetz; Dorbandt, Daniel M; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Six healthy mixed breed dogs from the same litter were used in two different stages. First, one drop of flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% and diclofenac sodium 0.1% in each eye; second, one drop of ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and benzalkonium chloride 0.01% in each eye. Baseline esthesiometry was obtained before eye drop application and every 15 minutes thereafter until a total of 105 minutes of evaluation time. A one-week interval was allowed between the two treatment phases. Statistical analysis was used to compare means according to time of evaluation and drug used. Diclofenac sodium 0.1% decreased corneal sensitivity at 75 and 90 minutes (P > 0.015) with possible interference on neuronal nociceptive activity and analgesic effect while ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% did not show any variation for esthesiometry means along the evaluation. Flurbiprofen sodium 0.03% resulted in increased esthesiometry values 30 minutes after instillation (P > 0.013), increasing corneal sensitivity and possibly producing a greater irritant corneal effect over its analgesic properties. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% significantly increased corneal sensitivity at 15 minutes of evaluation (P > 0.001), most likely resulting from its irritating effect. Esthesiometry did not allow a definite conclusion over the analgesic effect of the NSAIDs tested; however it was effective in detecting fluctuations in corneal sensitivity.

  9. Antimicrobial effects of electrolytic products of sodium chloride--comparative evaluation with sodium hypochlorite solution and efficacy in handwashing.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, S; Baba, S; Yano, H; Morisawa, Y; Kimura, S

    1998-11-01

    We examined the in vitro bactericidal effects and efficacy on handwashing of water containing electrolytic products of sodium chloride (electrolytic water). The electrolytic water, whose pH and concentration of free residual chlorine were 6.7-6.9 and 20-22 ppm, respectively, showed equal reduction of both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to dilution of commercially available sodium hypochlorite containing 60 ppm of free residual chlorine. This bactericidal effect was calculated to be due to hypochlorous acid, based on the pH and the amount of chlorine in solution. Handwashing with the electrolytic water reduced the numbers of S. aureus on hands by 1/10(2), while running water and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride with 80% ethanol gave a 1/10 and 1/10(5) reduction, respectively. We conclude that electrolytic water might be applicable for handwashing in place of running water.

  10. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T

    1988-01-01

    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  11. The specific requirement for sodium chloride for the active uptake of l-glutamate by Halobacterium salinarium

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, J.

    1966-01-01

    1. Uptake of l-glutamate by Halobacterium salinarium is dependent on high concentrations of sodium chloride in the environment. When the sodium chloride is replaced by isomolar concentrations of potassium chloride, sodium acetate or potassium acetate, only negligible uptake occurs. 2. Most of the glutamate taken up can be shown to be in the cells in the free state and at a concentration of at least 50 times that in the medium. Sodium chloride is therefore required for an active transport of the glutamate into the cells. 3. The question whether sodium chloride is essential for the actual migration of glutamate across the cell envelope or for the mechanism supplying energy for this migration is discussed on the basis of experiments on endogenous respiration and with inhibitors. PMID:5947144

  12. Sodium perbarate and benzalkonium chloride induce DNA damage in Chang conjunctival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huina; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Ye, Juan

    2017-02-06

    Content and objective: To investigate and compare the toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and new type oxidative preservative sodium perborate (NaBO3) on DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell survival in immortalized human Chang conjunctival cells.

  13. [Status of microcirculation in elderly hypertensive patients during treatment with sodium chloride baths].

    PubMed

    Abramovich, S G

    2002-01-01

    Microcirculation was studied with biomicroscopy of the eye bulbar conjunctiva's vessels in 50 patients with essential hypertension stage II aged 60-80 years. They took half baths with sodium chloride mineral water at Irkutsk health resort "Angara". The treatment resulted in improvement of perivascular and intravascular end blood flow.

  14. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  15. Sodium and chloride concentration in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese; B. Sexton; R.B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature about the response of different genomic groups and clones of Populus to elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-). In addition, there is an increasing need to understand the variation in salt tolerance and tissue composition of such genotypes over multiple...

  16. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  17. Investigation of a sodium-chloride-damage region by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavasheli, Yu. O.; Komarov, P. S.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Savintsev, A. P.; Agranat, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The damaged regions (craters) arising under optical destruction of a sodium-chloride surface by 40-fs pulses emitted from a terawatt titanium-sapphire laser system are investigated. The dependence of the sizes of the damaged spot and the crater depth on the laser-pulse energy are determined at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  18. Close-up view of Sodium Chloride crystals in a water bubble on Expedition Six.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-14

    ISS006-E-39236 (14 March 2003) --- A view of sodium chloride crystals in a water bubble within a 50-millimeter metal loop was photographed by an Expedition Six crewmember. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  19. View of Sodium Chloride inserted onto blueberry jelly within a metal loop on Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-14

    ISS006-E-39258 (14 March 2003) --- A close up view of sodium chloride inserted onto blueberry jelly within a 50-millimeter (mm) metal loop was photographed by an Expedition Six crewmember. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  20. View of Sodium Chloride inserted onto blueberry jelly within a metal loop on Expedition Six

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-14

    ISS006-E-39254 (14 March 2003) --- A view of sodium chloride inserted onto blueberry jelly within a 50-millimeter (mm) metal loop was photographed by an Expedition Six crewmember. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. Close-up view of Sodium Chloride crystals in a water bubble on Expedition Six.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-14

    ISS006-E-39238 (14 March 2003) --- A close up view of sodium chloride crystals in a water bubble within a 50-millimeter metal loop was photographed by an Expedition Six crewmember. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  2. Close-up view of Sodium Chloride crystals in a water bubble on Expedition Six.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-13

    ISS006-E-39211 (13 March 2003) --- A close up view of sodium chloride crystals in a water bubble within a 50-millimeter metal loop was photographed by an Expedition Six crewmember. The experiment took place in the Destiny laboratory on the International Space Station (ISS).

  3. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl−) and sodium (Na...

  4. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  5. Salt microspheres and potassium chloride usage for sodium reduction: Case study with sushi.

    PubMed

    Đorđević, Đani; Buchtová, Hana; Macharáčková, Blanka

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate possibilities of salt substitutes usage in the preparation of two sushi types (nigiri and maki) prepared with different seafood (salmon: Salmo salar, tuna: Thunnus albacares, and shrimp: Pleoticus muelleri). Potassium chloride (Mary samples), Soda-Lo (hollowed microsphere of regular salt crystals), and regular salt (sodium chloride) were used in the experiment. Sushi samples (n = 1960) were evaluated by 40 trained panelists who noticed that maki shrimp samples prepared with Mary salt had higher bitterness (21.48 ± 28.01) in comparison with 2% sodium chloride (7.91 ± 8.80). The saltiness was lower in nigiri tuna prepared with Mary (49.59 ± 17.47) than 2% sodium chloride (61.11 ± 15.75). The study clearly showed the possibility of lowering sodium content in sushi meal with the usage of salt substitutes, with emphasis that Soda-Lo should be considered as a better option due to the retention of sensory properties in sushi samples prepared with this salt substitute.

  6. The sodium chloride cotransporter SLC12A3: new roles in sodium, potassium, and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Moes, Arthur D; van der Lubbe, Nils; Zietse, Robert; Loffing, Johannes; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2014-01-01

    SLC12A3 encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), which is primarily expressed in the kidney, but also in intestine and bone. In the kidney, NCC is located in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the distal convoluted tubule. Although NCC reabsorbs only 5 to 10% of filtered sodium, it is important for the fine-tuning of renal sodium excretion in response to various hormonal and non-hormonal stimuli. Several new roles for NCC in the regulation of sodium, potassium, and blood pressure have been unraveled recently. For example, the recent discoveries that NCC is activated by angiotensin II but inhibited by dietary potassium shed light on how the kidney handles sodium during hypovolemia (high angiotensin II) and hyperkalemia. The additive effect of angiotensin II and aldosterone maximizes sodium reabsorption during hypovolemia, whereas the inhibitory effect of potassium on NCC increases delivery of sodium to the potassium-secreting portion of the nephron. In addition, great steps have been made in unraveling the molecular machinery that controls NCC. This complex network consists of kinases and ubiquitinases, including WNKs, SGK1, SPAK, Nedd4-2, Cullin-3, and Kelch-like 3. The pathophysiological significance of this network is illustrated by the fact that modification of each individual protein in the network changes NCC activity and results in salt-dependent hypotension or hypertension. This review aims to summarize these new insights in an integrated manner while identifying unanswered questions.

  7. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    PubMed

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Baré, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry.

  8. The influence of sodium salts (iodide, chloride and sulfate) on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hao; Liu, Min; Qu, Wen; Johnson, James; Brunson, Ed; Almoazen, Hassan

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium iodide, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals by wet ball milling. Sulfamerazine was milled using zirconium oxide beads in a solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and a sodium salt (iodide, chloride or sulfate). Particle size distributions were evaluated by light diffraction before and after milling. High-performance liquid chromatography was utilized to determine the amount of PVP adsorbed onto sulfamerazine surface. Lyophilized nanocrystals were further characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and dissolution testing. Sulfate ion had more profound effect on reducing particle size via milling than iodide or chloride. We linked our findings to Hofmeister ion series, which indicates that sulfate ions tends to break the water structure, increases the surface tension and lowers the solubility of hydrocarbons in water. We hypothesized that the addition of sulfate ions dehydrated the PVP molecules and enhanced its adsorption onto the sulfamerazine particle surfaces. Consequently, the adsorbed PVP helped to stabilize of the nanosuspension. The nanocrystals that were obtained from the lyophilized milled suspensions exhibited a notable increase in dissolution rate. The addition of sodium sulfate enhanced the formation efficiency of sulfamerazine nanocrystals.

  9. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium chloride is one of the primary contaminants that enter gas turbine engines and contribute, either directly or indirectly, to the hot corrosion degradation of hot-gas-path components. The paper surveys the results of laboratory experiments along with thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, intended for elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments. It is shown that besides being a source of sodium for the formation of corrosive liquid Na2SO4, the NaCl itself contributes in other indirect ways to the material degradation associated with the high-temperature environmental attack. In addition, the experimental results lend credence to the conceptual scheme presented schematically (behavior of NaCl in a turbine engine combustion gas environment) and resolve conflicting aspects of relevant NaCl misconceptions.

  10. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix.

  11. Estimation of 24-h sodium excretion from a spot urine sample using chloride and creatinine dipsticks.

    PubMed

    Mann, Samuel J; Gerber, Linda M

    2010-07-01

    Despite its clinical relevance, sodium intake is seldom monitored by physicians, largely because of shortcomings of the 24-h urine collection for sodium excretion. In a prior study, sodium excretion was shown to be accurately estimated from a late afternoon/early evening spot urine sodium/creatinine ratio, adjusted for 24-h creatinine excretion. In this study, we assessed a more convenient and inexpensive method, using chloride and creatinine dipsticks. Subjects submitted 24-h urine collections along with an "AM sample," collected at the beginning, a "PM sample" collected in the late afternoon/early evening before dinner, at roughly the midpoint, and a "random sample," collected after completion, of the 24-h collection. Predicted 24-h sodium excretion was then determined from the spot urine dipstick chloride/creatinine ratio, measured by two independent observers, and from the spot urine laboratory sodium/creatinine ratio. Both ratios were adjusted for 24-h creatinine excretion. For PM samples, predicted sodium excretion correlated strongly with actual 24-h sodium excretion, both for the dipstick method (r = 0.71; observer 1 and r = 0.65; observer 2; both P < 0.001), and the laboratory method (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). PM samples also differentiated subjects with sodium excretion <100 mEq/day vs. > or =100 mEq/day (sensitivity and specificity: dipstick method: 83 and 82%, respectively for observer 1, 89 and 77%, respectively, for observer 2; laboratory method: 100 and 82%, respectively). AM samples and random samples correlated less strongly. The dipstick method appears promising as a convenient and inexpensive means to serially assess sodium excretion.

  12. Salt, sodium chloride or sodium? Content and relationship with chemical, instrumental and sensory attributes in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Kameník, Josef; Saláková, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Pechová, Alena; Haruštiaková, Danka

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salt content in selected cooked meat products by the methods of determining the sodium content and the content of chlorides. The resulting data was compared with other chemical, instrumental and sensory parameters of the analysed samples. A total of 133 samples of 5 meat products were tested. The sodium content ranged from 558.0 to 1308.0mgNa/100g. Salt level determined by the two methods strongly correlated and did not differ in any meat product. Intensity of salty taste of the product was independent on its salt content. The salt (sodium) content may be reduced without a negative impact on sensory or instrumental properties of meat products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Clinical experience of supplying sodium chloride for the treatment of patients with severe heart failure].

    PubMed

    He, Li-xia; Sun, Lu-lu; Yang, Yue-jin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-hui; Song, Wei-hua; Huang, Yan; Lü, Rong; Ji, Shi-ming

    2012-09-01

    To observe the effect and safety of supplying sodium chloride in the treatment of patients with severe heart failure. Consecutive 51 hospitalized patients with severe heart failure and cardiac edema were included in this study. Normal diet (6 g NaCl/d) was supplied to all patients. On the basis of controlling fluid intake and treating related etiological factors as well as standard medications including furosemide for severe heart failure, patients with mild hyponatremia (serum sodium level 130 - 134 mmol/L) ate additional salted vegetables, patients with moderate hyponatremia (serum sodium level 125 - 129 mmol/L) and severe hyponatremia (serum sodium level < 125 mmol/L) ate additional salted vegetables and were received additionally intravenous 3%NaCl hypertonic saline infusion (10 ml/h) until reaching normal serum sodium level. On admission, 37.25% (19/51) patients had hyponatremia. During the first two weeks hospitalization period, 88.24% (45/51) patients were treated with intravenous diuretics and total incidence of hyponatremia was 64.71% (33/51), mild hyponatremia was 50.98% (26/51), middle and severe hyponatremia was 13.73% (7/51); among them, hyponatremia lasted less than 3 d in 57.58% (19/33) patients and ≥ 3 d in 42.42% (14/33) patients. Heart failure exacerbation and hypernatremia were not observed in patients receiving additional sodium chloride therapy. Hospitalization time was similar among patients with different blood natrium levels [average (16 ± 12) d]. Fifty out of 51 (98%) patients discharged from the hospital with improved heart failure symptoms and signs. Supplying additional sodium chloride could rapid correct hyponatremia in heart failure patients with or without intravenous diuretics therapy which might contribute to a favorable prognosis in hospitalized heart failure patients.

  14. Malnutrition causes a reduction in alveolar epithelial sodium and chloride transport which predisposes to death from lung injury.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2007-01-01

    All forms of malnutrition have been associated with increased severity of pneumonia, an increased pneumonia associated mortality and an increased risk of pulmonary fluid overload. Malnutrition was found to be associated with increased sweat sodium and chloride concentrations. A reduction of systemic sodium and chloride transport reflected in sweat sodium and chloride levels has been linked to increased severity of pulmonary edema in children with septicemia. Malnutrition causes a reduction in alveolar epithelial sodium and chloride transport which predisposes to death from lung injury. SUPPORTING EVIDENCE FOR THE HYPOTHESIS: Malnutrition caused reduced pulmonary fluid clearance in the rat model. Amiloride insensitive pulmonary fluid clearance in malnourished rats was reduced. The reduction in fluid clearance was reversible by beta agonists which increases epithelial sodium and chloride transport. Reduction of alveolar ion and fluid transport capacity explains the predisposition to death from pulmonary edema associated with intravenous fluids and blood transfusions in inpatients with malnutrition. Reduced alveolar epithelial ion transport impairs absorption of intra-alveolar inflammatory exudate in pneumonia leading to a increased severity of respiratory compromise and increased mortality. MEANS TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS: Nasal potential difference measurements could compare airway epithelial sodium and chloride transport in patients with and without malnutrition and malnutrition associated lung disease. Sweat sodium and chloride concentrations could be compared in patients with and without respiratory disease associated with malnutrition and correlated with the severity of respiratory compromise.

  15. Heparin or 0.9% sodium chloride to maintain central venous catheter patency: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Schallom, Marilyn E; Prentice, Donna; Sona, Carrie; Micek, Scott T; Skrupky, Lee P

    2012-06-01

    To compare heparin (3 mL, 10 units/mL) and 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl, 10 mL) flush solutions with respect to central venous catheter lumen patency. Single-center, randomized, open label trial. Medical intensive care unit and Surgical/Burn/Trauma intensive care unit at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO. Three hundred forty-one patients with multilumen central venous catheters. Patients with at least one lumen with a minimum of two flushes were included in the analysis. Patients were randomly assigned within 12 hrs of central venous catheter insertion to receive either heparin or 0.9% sodium chloride flush. The primary outcome was lumen nonpatency. Secondary outcomes included the rates of loss of blood return, inability to infuse or flush through the lumen (flush failure), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and catheter-related blood stream infection. Assessment for patency was performed every 8 hrs in lumens without continuous infusions for the duration of catheter placement or discharge from intensive care unit. Three hundred twenty-six central venous catheters were studied yielding 709 lumens for analysis. The nonpatency rate was 3.8% in the heparin group (n = 314) and 6.3% in the 0.9% sodium chloride group (n = 395) (relative risk 1.66, 95% confidence interval 0.86-3.22, p = .136). The Kaplan-Meier analysis for time to first patency loss was not significantly different (log rank = 0.093) between groups. The rates of loss of blood return and flush failure were similar between the heparin and 0.9% sodium chloride groups. Pressure-injectable central venous catheters had significantly greater rates of nonpatency (10.6% vs. 4.3%, p = .001) and loss of blood return (37.0% vs. 18.8%, p <.001) compared to nonpressure-injectable catheters. The frequencies of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and catheter-related blood stream infection were similar between groups. 0.9% sodium chloride and heparin flushing solutions have similar rates of lumen nonpatency. Given potential

  16. [The sodium-potassium-chloride cotransport of the cell membrane].

    PubMed

    Urazaev, A Kh

    1998-01-01

    Discovery and active exploration of the furosemid-sensitive derived-active co-transport of sodium-potassium-chlorine ions took place in the end of 1970-es-1980-es. This transportation mechanism was discovered in various types of cells, both of plant and of animal origin. This review describes properties of the transportation process, which was most comprehensive explored in experiments with erythrocytes, epithelium cells and muscles. The review covers the following properties: anion and cation selectivity of the chlorine transportation, its sensitivity to the specific blocking agents (furocemid, bumetanid, etc.), stoichiometry of the transportation process, etc. For energy source, the chlorine transportation is based on transmembrane electrochemical gradient for sodium ions. The article provides the most recent results of investigation of the chemical nature of the molecule of the chlorine membrane transport. Based on various studies, the molecule of this protein weighs from 120 to 200 kD, includes about 1200 amino acid residua, and forms long cytoplasmatic NH2 and COOH-termini. The gene encoding the amino acid sequence has been cloned. The article discusses the issues of regulation of the chlorine transportation. Humoral control of intensity of the chlorine transportation has been mostly studied in experiments with plain muscles, the issues related to nervous regulation--with only skeleton muscle fibers. The article provides specific data on the mechanisms of the above types of the physiological regulation of active chlorine transportation. In general, the humoral factors, which increase the intracellular concentration of cAMF stimulate chlorine transportation. On the contrary, the hormones, which increase concentration of cGMF in cytoplasm reduce its activity in plain muscles. The discussion of the mechanisms of the nervous controls of the chlorine transportation in the skeleton muscles includes the original results of the author. These results indicate that the

  17. Preferential formation of sodium salts from frozen sodium-ammonium-chloride-carbonate brines - Implications for Ceres' bright spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan H.; Hodyss, Robert; Johnson, Paul V.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2017-07-01

    Observations of bright deposits in Ceres' Occator crater have revealed large quantities of natrite (Na2CO3) and smaller amounts of NH4Cl or NH4HCO3. These materials have been suggested to originate from the crystallization of brines that reached the surface from below. Here we report a systematic study of the chemistry of frozen brines containing sodium, ammonium, chloride, and carbonate ions via micro-Raman spectroscopy. Natrite and hydrohalite (NaCl·2H2O) are found to form preferentially, even in ammonium-dominated solutions. Additionally, NH4Cl could only form when NH4+ or Cl- (or both) are present in excess in the brine solutions. The detection of NH4Cl on Ceres' surface may thus imply an early subsurface reservoir rich in ammonium and/or chloride, placing an important constraint on modeling of the liquid composition.

  18. A comparison of sodium, chloride, thiocyanate, and sucrose spaces as estimates of extracellular fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Caster, W O; Simon, A B

    1980-01-01

    Sodium, chloride, thiocyanate, and sucrose spaces were measured in whole body and different tissues of rat. For each analytical method, when all tissue spaces were added the sum was in good agreement with corresponding total body fluid space obtained by dilution methods. There was surprisingly good agreement among the three ionic space measures in the total body, when one considers that there were discrepancies as large as 2- to 8-fold within certain of the different tissues. Some differences could be explained by the facts that sodium is a constituent of bond mineral and that there are marked differences between these four measures when observed in the water of the gastrointestinal contents.

  19. Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

  20. Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra E

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and cavitation and this can mask the role that cavitation bubbles play. High frequency ultrasound from a plate transducer can be used to examine the effect of cavitation bubbles without the intense shear effect. This study reports the crystal size and morphology with various mixing speeds and ultrasound frequencies. The results show high frequency ultrasound produced sodium chloride crystals of similar size distribution as an ultrasonic horn. In addition, ultrasound generated sodium chloride crystals having a more symmetrical cubic structure compared to crystals produced by a high shear mixer.

  1. Removal of sodium and chloride ions from aqueous solutions using fique fibers (Furcraea spp.).

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Nikolay; Hinestroza, Juan P; Husserl, Johana

    2016-01-01

    Fique fibers obtained from the leaves of Furcraea spp., a highly abundant plant in the mountains of South America, may offer an alternative as biosorbents in desalination processes as they exhibit high removal capacities (13.26 meq/g for chloride ions and 15.52 meq/g for sodium ions) up to four times higher than exchange capacities commonly observed in synthetic resins. The ion removal capacity of the fibers was also found to be a function of the pH of the solution with the maximum removal of ions obtained at pH 8. Unlike most commercial ion exchange resins, our results suggest that fique fibers allow simultaneous removal of chloride and sodium ions.

  2. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

  3. Functional assessment of sodium chloride cotransporter NCC mutants in polarized mammalian epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Rizzo, Federica; MacAulay, Nanna; Staub, Olivier; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter NCC is important for maintaining serum sodium (Na(+)) and, indirectly, serum potassium (K(+)) levels. Functional studies on NCC have used cell lines with native NCC expression, transiently transfected nonpolarized cell lines, or Xenopus laevis oocytes. Here, we developed the use of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) mammalian epithelial cell lines with tetracycline-inducible human NCC expression to study NCC activity and membrane abundance in the same system. In radiotracer assays, induced cells grown on filters had robust thiazide-sensitive and chloride dependent sodium-22 ((22)Na) uptake from the apical side. To minimize cost and maximize throughput, assays were modified to use cells grown on plastic. On plastic, cells had similar thiazide-sensitive (22)Na uptakes that increased following preincubation of cells in chloride-free solutions. NCC was detected in the plasma membrane, and both membrane abundance and phosphorylation of NCC were increased by incubation in chloride-free solutions. Furthermore, in cells exposed for 15 min to low or high extracellular K(+), the levels of phosphorylated NCC increased and decreased, respectively. To demonstrate that the system allows rapid and systematic assessment of mutated NCC, three phosphorylation sites in NCC were mutated, and NCC activity was examined. (22)Na fluxes in phosphorylation-deficient mutants were reduced to baseline levels, whereas phosphorylation-mimicking mutants were constitutively active, even without chloride-free stimulation. In conclusion, this system allows the activity, cellular localization, and abundance of wild-type or mutant NCC to be examined in the same polarized mammalian expression system in a rapid, easy, and low-cost fashion. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    PubMed

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  5. [Interference currents and chloride sodium baths in combined treatment of scoliosis in children].

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Popov, V V; Podgornaia, O V

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of administration of interference currents, chloride sodium baths and their combined effect in therapy of scoliosis of the first and second degree in children. These physical factors have a positive effect on the orthopedic status, functional condition of spinal and abdominal muscles, parameters of peakflowmetry, electrocardio- and cardiointervalography. The highest therapeutic activity was noted in combined use of these factors.

  6. The Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is Essential for Growth Under Sodium Chloride Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gancz, Hanan; Merrell, D. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological data and animal models indicate that Helicobacter pylori and dietary NaCl have a synergistic ill effect on gastric maladies. Here we show that the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur), which is a crucial regulatory factor required for H. pylori colonization, is essential for growth in the presence of high NaCl concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transcriptional response induced by sodium chloride stress exhibits similarities to that seen under iron depletion. PMID:21538253

  7. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  8. Electroreduction of the tantalum oxofluoride complexes in an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, V. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the tantalum mono-, di-, and trioxofluoride complexes in the equimolar NaCl-KCl melt is studied. The trioxofluoride TaO3F2- complexes are shown to discharge at the potentials that are more negative than those of alkali metal cations; that is, they are electrochemically inactive against the background of the equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides.

  9. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  10. A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

  11. A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

  12. Evaluation of angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculation after application of polyhexanide, chitosan and sodium chloride in rodents.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Ole; Lauer, Henrik; Hirsch, Tobias; Daigeler, Adrien; Harati, Kamran; Stricker, Ingo; Lehnhardt, Marcus; von der Lohe, Leon

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polyhexanide and a new developed chitin-based wound dressing on skin microcirculation, epithelialisation and angiogenesis. A full-thickness dermal layer extending to the underlying cartilage was excised on the dorsal side of hairless mice (n = 27; 2·3 ± 0·3 mm(2) ). A polyhexanide ointment, a chitosan solution and a sodium chloride group as control were analysed using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Angiogenesis, epithelialisation and microcirculatory standard parameters were measured over a time period of 20 days. The non-perfused area is regarded as a parameter for angiogenesis and showed the following results: on days 12, 16 and 20, the sodium chloride group was significantly superior to chitosan solution (P < 0·05) and, on days 8, 12, 16 and 20, the polyhexanide group was superior to chitosan solution (P < 0·05). The epithelialisation was measured significantly faster in the polyhexanide and control group on day 8 versus chitosan solution. Whereas polyhexanide and sodium chloride were nearly completely epithelialised, treatment with chitosan solution showed still an open wound of 11% of the initial wound size. Altogether, we could demonstrate the advantageous effects of a polyhexanide ointment on microcirculation, angiogenesis and epithelialisation. Chitosan solution appears to inhibit angiogenesis and delays epithelialisation. Further studies in different models would be worthwhile to confirm these results. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Human skin preserved in anhydric sodium chloride for months can be successfully transplanted.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Waldemar L; Moscicka, Maria; Zolich, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    Human skin can be preserved in pulverized sodium chloride dehydrated at 240C for 2 hours at room temperature for periods of weeks or months and successfully transplanted to scid mouse, retaining its normal morphological structure. Fragment of skin of a size of 10 x 10 x 6 mm were harvested during elective vascular and orthopaedic surgery of lower limbs, dried of blood and placed in anhydric sodium chloride powder in tight sealed containers. Prior to transplantation to scid mice, the specimens were desalinated and rehydrated. Specimes preserved for 1 to 6 months and harvested 3-4 weeks after transplantation revealed intensive incorporation of bromdeoxyuridine (BrdU) into basal keratinocytes. They expressed p63 and CD29 (stem cells, and transient cells antigens), PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and cytokeratin 16 specific for proliferating keratinocytes. Dermal fibroblasts and few large HLA II cells showed a normal structure. Bacterial flora of skin did not change after grafting. We conclude that human skin can survive in a dehydrated state in sodium chloride for months and after transplantation the epidermal basal layer cells give rise to keratinocyte progenies. Skin fibroblasts and some resident immune cells can also survive.

  14. Sodium chloride and water transport in the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle. Evidence for active chloride transport.

    PubMed

    Rocha, A S; Kokko, J P

    1973-03-01

    Transport of NaCl and water was examined in the rabbit medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (ALH) by perfusing isolated segments of these nephrons in vitro. Osmotic water permeability was evaluated by perfusing tubules against imposed osmotic gradients. In these experiments the net transport of fluid remained at zero when segments of thick ALH were perfused with isotonic ultrafiltrate in a bath of rabbit serum in which the serum osmolality was increased by the addition of either 239+/-8 mosmol/liter of raffinose or 232+/-17 mosmol of NaCl indicating that the thick ascending limb of Henle is impermeant to osmotic flow of water. When these tubules were perfused at slow rates with isosmolal ultrafiltrate of same rabbit serum as used for the bath, the effluent osmolality was consistently lowered to concentrations less than the perfusate and the bath. That this decrease in collected fluid osmolality represented salt transport was demonstrated in a separate set of experiments in which it was shown that the sodium and chloride concentrations decreased to 0.79+/-0.02 and 0.77+/-0.02 respectively when compared with the perfusion fluid concentrations. In each instance the simultaneously determined transtubular potential difference (PD) revealed the lumen to be positive with the magnitude dependent on the perfusion rate. At flow rates above 2 nl.min(-1), the mean transtubular PD was stable and equal to 6.70+/-0.34 mv. At stop-flow conditions this PD became more positive. Ouabain and cooling reversibly decreased the magnitude of this PD. The transtubular PD remained positive, 3.3+/-0.2 mV, when complete substitution of Na by choline was carried out in both the perfusion fluid and the bathing media. These results are interpreted to indicate that the active transport process is primarily an electrogenic chloride mechanism. The isotopic permeability coefficient for Na was 6.27+/-0.38 x 10(-5) cm.s(-1) indicating that the thick ALH is approximately as permeable to Na as the

  15. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.

    1981-09-01

    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  16. Stability of Melphalan in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions Prepared in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags for Intravenous Injection.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, Romain-Pacôme; Mercier, Lionel; Paci, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Melphalan is an alkylating agent frequently used in an intravenous formulation to treat hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in both adults and children. According to the manufacturer, melphalan is stable in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride for 90 min at room temperature (RT). Several authors have studied the stability of different concentrations of melphalan; however, most were not adapted to the current manufacturing process applied in pharmaceutical centralized units. This study was conducted to determine the stability of melphalan in 0.9% sodium chloride solutions at concentrations used for intravenous injection in practice. Melphalan is commonly prepared in diluted solutions ranging from 2 to 4 mg/ml for the treatment of adult patients and at lower concentrations (down to 0.5 mg/ml) for pediatric use. Accordingly, these were the three concentrations chosen for this study. Melphalan concentrations were measured with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). At RT, admixtures prepared at 4 mg/ml were stable for up to 8 h without protection from light; however, at lower concentrations, such as 0.5 and 2 mg/ml, stability did not exceed 2 h. When refrigerated, melphalan was stable for 24 h at 2 mg/ml; however, at 0.5 and 4 mg/ml, the drug was not stable. Melphalan solutions present with limited stability at 0.5, 2, and 4 mg/ml and are not adapted for delayed administration in pharmaceutical centralized units. However, at 4 mg/ml and at RT, a stability of 8 h is very interesting in practice and allows sufficient time for preparation, pharmaceutical control, transport, and administration.

  17. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  18. [Effectiveness of differential application of sodium chloride baths for the treatment of early forms of cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kholmogorov, N A; Shprakh, V V; Miriutova, N F

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of patients at the early stages of cerebrovascular diseases with the use of sodium chloride baths resulted in the improvement of morphological and functional characteristics of brain vessels. Combination of sodium chloride baths with impulse currents and magnetic fields caused regression of neurologic and neuropsychotic disturbances in 80% of the patients. Beneficial therapeutic effects persisted especially long when the patients received the above treatment during 21-24 days.

  19. Renal regulation of sodium, potassium and chloride balance in single- and twin-pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Michałek, Katarzyna; Jankowiak, Dorota; Ozgo, Małgorzata; Skrzypczak, Wiesław F

    2010-06-01

    The aim of these studies was to analyse and compare changes in selected parameters of renal function in terms of water-electrolyte balance regulation in single- and twin-pregnant goats. Clearance analyses were carried out on 16 pregnant White Improved goats (8 in single and 8 in twin gestation). Blood plasma and urine samples were analysed for the concentration of inulin, endogenous creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chlorides. It has been demonstrated that glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the goat kidney does not change significantly during gestation. GFR recorded from the 1st week until the 20th week of gestation in twin-pregnant goats was only slightly higher compared to those observed in single-pregnant does. Blood plasma concentrations of major electrolytes, i.e. sodium, potassium and chloride ions, did not differ significantly in pregnant and non-pregnant goats, and remained within the reference values. From the very beginning of gestation, the single-pregnant goats showed increased renal potassium clearance; however, the level of sodium clearance remained stable. On the other hand, sodium clearance increased from the 2nd month of gestation in the twin-pregnant goats, while the load of excreted potassium did not change. These changes had probably resulted from varied levels of aldosterone and progesterone and their mutual proportions differing between the groups.

  20. The effects of temperature on the electrochemical performance of sodium-nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-10-01

    Sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) batteries are typically operated at relatively high temperatures (3 300 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present study, the effects of operating temperature on the electrochemical performance of planar-type Na/NiCl2 batteries were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of battery operation at low temperatures (£200 °C). The planar-type cell was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175 °C despite higher cell polarization. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175 °C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280 °C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride. The cells tested at lower temperatures (£200 °C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of catholyte or the poor wettability of sodium on the β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE). Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of catholyte and sodium wetting as well as reduction in the ohmic resistance of BASE are required to enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

  1. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  2. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  3. Inhibition of sodium current by taurine magnesium coordination compound prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongqiang; Wen, Ke; Wu, Yanna; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism(s) by which taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) inhibits experimental arrhythmias remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of TMCC against cesium chloride-induced arrhythmia in the rabbit heart and find whether the antiarrhythmic activity is related to inhibition of sodium current. Early afterdepolarization was induced by 1.5 mM cesium chloride (1 ml kg(-1)) through intravenous injection. The monophasic action potentials (MAP) and electrocardiograms were simultaneously recorded. The effect of TMCC on functional refractory periods (FRPs) in the left atrium was also observed in vitro. Arrhythmias onset was significantly retarded by TMCC. The number of ventricular premature contractions and incidence of monophasic ventricular tachycardia and polyphasic ventricular tachycardia in 10 min were decreased by TMCC. These effects can be abolished by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). MAP duration at 90% repolarization was significantly prolonged by TMCC, which can be prolonged even longer by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). In vitro experiments showed that FRPs was prolonged by TMCC which can be cancelled by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). TMCC prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias, and inhibition of sodium current, in part, contributes to the antiarrhythmic effect of TMCC.

  4. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  5. Compatibility of butorphanol and droperidol in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2013-03-15

    The compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate and droperidol in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags and glass bottles stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 15 days were studied. Admixtures were assessed initially and for 15 days after preparation in PVC bags and glass bottles using 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent and stored at 4°C and 25°C. The initial drug concentrations were 0.08 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate and 0.05 mg/mL for droperidol. Samples were withdrawn from each container immediately after preparation and at predetermined intervals (2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 240, and 360 hours after preparation). The solutions were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography method. After 15 days of storage, all formulations tested retained >98% of the initial concentrations of both drugs. The drug mixtures were clear in appearance, and no color change or precipitation was observed. Throughout this period, pH values remained stable. Admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and droperidol 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for at least 360 hours when stored in PVC bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light.

  6. Mercuric chloride-induced testicular toxicity in rats and the protective role of sodium selenite and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Suna; Uzun, Fatma Gokce; Demir, Filiz; Uzunhisarcıklı, Meltem; Aslanturk, Ayse

    2013-05-01

    Mercury has been recognized as an environmental pollutant that adversely affects male reproductive systems of animals. This study examined the effects of mercuric chloride on the antioxidant system and histopathological changes and also evaluated the ameliorating effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E in the rat testis tissues. Sexually mature male Wistar rats (weighing 300-320g and each group six animals) were given mercuric chloride (1mg/kg bw) and/or sodium selenite (0.25mg/kg bw)+vitamin E (100mg/kg) daily via gavage for 4weeks. In the present study, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the TBARS level and a decrease in the SOD, CAT, GPx activities, with respect to the control. Further, light microscopic investigation revealed that mercury exposure induced histopathological alterations in the testis tissues. Supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercury-induced groups declined lipid peroxidation, increased SOD, CAT, GPx activities. While some histopathological changes were detected in mercuric chloride treated group, milder histopathological changes were observed in animal co-treated with sodium selenite and/or vitamin E supplementation to mercuric chloride-treated rats. As a result, mercuric chloride induced testicular toxicity is reduced by sodium selenite and/or vitamin E, but not ameliorate completely.

  7. Intravenous bicarbonate and sodium chloride both prolong endurance during intense cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, T H; Abraham, G; Wing, S; Magder, S A; Cosio, M G; Deschamps, A; Marliss, E B

    1990-08-01

    To determine the effects of neutralizing exercise systemic acidosis via the intravenous route upon endurance and metabolic responses, eight lean, normal, postabsorptive men exercised to exhaustion at about 80% of their VO2 max (69 +/- 3%, mean +/- SEM, of maximum power output) on a cycle ergometer. Exercise studies were performed either with no infusion (control) or with a total infusion volume of about 1.5 L, mainly as 1.3% sodium bicarbonate or as 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl), infused (double-blind) throughout exercise. The sodium bicarbonate was to prevent acid-base change, the sodium chloride was as a control for the volume infused. Arterialized venous blood and breath-by-breath analysis of expired gases were obtained. [H+] (nmol.L-1) and [HCO3-] (mmol.L-1) at exhaustion were similar in control and NaCl (46.5 +/- 1.8, 19.9 +/- 0.9), but remained unchanged from rest values with bicarbonate (38.4 +/- 0.9, 24.8 +/- 1.5, p less than 0.005 vs control and NaCl). At exhaustion, VO2, VCO2, RER, heart rate, and systolic BP as well as FFA, glycerol, alanine, insulin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine did not differ among protocols. Endurance was markedly prolonged (p less than 0.01) with bicarbonate (31.9 +/- 5.8 min) and NaCl (31.8 +/- 4.1 min) compared with the control (19.0 +/- 2.9 min) condition. Plasma glucose at exhaustion was higher (p less than 0.025) in the control compared to bicarbonate and NaCl experiments, while lactate was higher (p less than 0.025) in the bicarbonate than in the control and NaCl experiments. Thus, the prolonged endurance with sodium bicarbonate infusion could not be explained either by its effect of maintaining blood acid-base equilibrium or concomitant metabolic changes.

  8. Stability of amrinone and digoxin, procainamide hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, or verapamil hydrochloride in intravenous admixtures.

    PubMed

    Riley, C M; Junkin, P

    1991-06-01

    The stability of amrinone and digoxin, procainamide hydrochloride, propranolol hydrochloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, or verapamil hydrochloride in intravenous admixtures was studied. Admixtures of amrinone and digoxin were studied at one concentration. Amrinone admixtures with propranolol hydrochloride, sodium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, and verapamil hydrochloride were studied at two concentrations. In general, 0.45% sodium chloride injection was used as the diluent; 5% dextrose injection was also used for the procainamide hydrochloride experiments. Duplicate solutions of each test admixture and single-drug control admixture were prepared and stored for four hours at 22-23 degrees C under fluorescent light. Samples were analyzed by visual inspection, tested for pH, and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Admixtures containing amrinone 1.25 or 2.5 mg/mL (as the lactate salt) and sodium bicarbonate 37.5 mg/mL precipitated immediately or within 10 minutes. No changes in pH or visual appearance were noted for amrinone admixtures with procainamide hydrochloride, digoxin, propranolol hydrochloride, potassium chloride, and verapamil hydrochloride. Appreciable degradation of both amrinone and procainamide was observed after four hours when the two were mixed in 5% dextrose. No degradation of amrinone or procainamide was seen when the 5% dextrose was replaced by 0.45% sodium chloride. Amrinone and sodium bicarbonate were incompatible in intravenous admixtures. Amrinone was compatible with digoxin, propranolol hydrochloride, potassium chloride, and verapamil hydrochloride. Amrinone and procainamide were compatible in 0.45% sodium chloride injection but not in 5% dextrose injection.

  9. Preservative-free 0.9% sodium chloride for flushing and locking peripheral intravenous access device: a prospective controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Luo, Ou; He, Liu; Li, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Ming-Guang

    2012-11-01

    In Mainland China, heparin saline solution is commonly used for flushing and locking peripheral intravenous access devices in clinical practice for a long time. We conducted a prospective controlled trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of preservative-free 0.9% sodium chloride solution versus heparin saline solution as flushing and locking solution for peripheral intravenous access devices. Patients with gastroenterological or hepatic diseases were enrolled for this study from August 2011 to October 2011. After non-randomized allocation, preservative-free 0.9% sodium chloride was used as flushing and locking solution in the sodium chloride solution group, while hepatic solution (10 U/mL) was given in the heparin saline solution group. The device related complications and its maintenance duration were compared between two groups. One-way ANOVA, Chi(2), or Mantel-Haenszel test were performed using SPSS 13.0 and RevMan 5.0. Totally, 181 and 178 peripheral intravenous access devices in the sodium chloride solution and heparin saline solution groups were included and analyzed. Results indicated than sodium chloride solution did not increase the risks of occlusion (7.7% vs. 7.9%) and other adverse events of peripheral intravenous access devices (P = 0.163). Sodium chloride solution neither shortened the duration of peripheral intravenous access devices maintenance (3.6 ± 1.1 days vs. 3.7 ± 1.2 days, P = 0.651), nor increased the proportion of abnormal withdrawal (29.3% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.654). Sodium chloride solution is as effective and safe as conventional heparin saline solution for flushing and locking peripheral intravenous access devices, which results from our evidence-based study and should be transferred to other nurses in China. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  10. Sodium Chloride and Water Transport in the Medullary Thick Ascending Limb of Henle. EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE CHLORIDE TRANSPORT

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Antonino S.; Kokko, Juha P.

    1973-01-01

    Transport of NaCl and water was examined in the rabbit medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (ALH) by perfusing isolated segments of these nephrons in vitro. Osmotic water permeability was evaluated by perfusing tubules against imposed osmotic gradients. In these experiments the net transport of fluid remained at zero when segments of thick ALH were perfused with isotonic ultrafiltrate in a bath of rabbit serum in which the serum osmolality was increased by the addition of either 239±8 mosmol/liter of raffinose or 232±17 mosmol of NaCl indicating that the thick ascending limb of Henle is impermeant to osmotic flow of water. When these tubules were perfused at slow rates with isosmolal ultrafiltrate of same rabbit serum as used for the bath, the effluent osmolality was consistently lowered to concentrations less than the perfusate and the bath. That this decrease in collected fluid osmolality represented salt transport was demonstrated in a separate set of experiments in which it was shown that the sodium and chloride concentrations decreased to 0.79±0.02 and 0.77±0.02 respectively when compared with the perfusion fluid concentrations. In each instance the simultaneously determined transtubular potential difference (PD) revealed the lumen to be positive with the magnitude dependent on the perfusion rate. At flow rates above 2 nl·min-1, the mean transtubular PD was stable and equal to 6.70±0.34 mv. At stop-flow conditions this PD became more positive. Ouabain and cooling reversibly decreased the magnitude of this PD. The transtubular PD remained positive, 3.3±0.2 mV, when complete substitution of Na by choline was carried out in both the perfusion fluid and the bathing media. These results are interpreted to indicate that the active transport process is primarily an electrogenic chloride mechanism. The isotopic permeability coefficient for Na was 6.27±0.38 × 10-5 cm·s-1 indicating that the thick ALH is approximately as permeable to Na as the proximal

  11. Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium Borohydride-Water Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    temperature of the reaction depends on both the H2O:NaBH4 ratio and the percentage of CoCl2 relative to NaBH4. Experiments showed that the minimum...TECHNICAL REPORT 2082 July 2015 Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium...hydrogen gas all as a function of reaction time. This 100-L experiment used a H2O:NaBH4 ratio of 4.6:1 and 4% CoCl2 relative to NaBH4. The cooling

  12. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  13. Compressed sodium chloride as a fast-acting antimicrobial surface: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B D; Smith, S W

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial surfaces are currently being studied as an aid to reduce transmission of pathogens leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Among the most harmful and costly pathogens that cause HAIs is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Currently available and previously investigated antimicrobial surface technologies that are effective against MRSA (e.g. copper alloy surfaces) take 30min to several hours to achieve significant reduction. This article presents a new antimicrobial surface technology made of compressed sodium chloride that reduces MRSA 20-30 times faster than copper alloy surfaces.

  14. The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

    2014-08-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

  15. Sodium chloride-esculin hydrolysis test for rapid identification of enterococci.

    PubMed

    Qadri, S M; Flournoy, D J; Qadri, S G

    1987-06-01

    The ability of enterococci to cause severe disease in humans and their relative resistance to chemotherapeutic agents make it desirable to rapidly differentiate these organisms from other streptococci. We developed and evaluated a test that within 2 h distinguishes enterococci from other alpha-, beta-, or nonhemolytic streptococci in a buffered solution containing 0.2% esculin and 5% sodium chloride. All 239 strains of enterococci tested gave a positive reaction within 2 h, whereas 95 of 96 isolates of other streptococci remained negative at 4 h.

  16. [Dimensional changes in die stones with an additive and sodium chloride].

    PubMed

    di Girolamo Netto, J A; Oda, M; Matson, E

    1989-01-01

    The obtention of a working model and the preparation of the die must be developed with great care and attention to detail. Based on these principles, a study was conducted referring to the different kinds of special plasters or die plasters available on the market, with respect to dimensional alterations, as well as an investigation of the dimensional behavior of special plasters in the presence of two additives. The results shows that Vel-mix had the greatest difference. All the special plasters brands showed alterations when the Gypsum Hardener were used. These alterations did not occur with sodium chloride.

  17. Sodium nickel chloride battery technology for large-scale stationary storage in the high voltage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benato, Roberto; Cosciani, Nicola; Crugnola, Giorgio; Dambone Sessa, Sebastian; Lodi, Giuseppe; Parmeggiani, Carlo; Todeschini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of Sodium-Nickel Chloride (Na-NiCl2) secondary batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles, in which the safety requirements are more restrictive than these of stationary storage applications, depicts the Na-NiCl2 technology as perfectly suitable for the stationary storage applications. The risk of fire is negligible because of the intrinsic safety of the cell chemical reactions, related to the sodium-tetrachloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) content into the cell, which acts as a secondary electrolyte (the primary one being the ceramic β″-alumina as common for Na-Beta batteries). The 3 h rate discharge time makes this technology very attractive for load levelling, voltage regulation, time shifting and the power fluctuation mitigation of the renewable energy sources in both HV and EHV networks.

  18. Ultrastructural Alterations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica Caused by Treatment with Aluminum Chloride and Sodium Metabisulfite

    PubMed Central

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Arul, Joseph; Tweddell, Russell J.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum and bisulfite salts inhibit the growth of several fungi and bacteria, and their application effectively controls potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora. In an effort to understand their inhibitory action, ultrastructural changes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica after exposure (0 to 20 min) to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) of these salts were examined by using transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membrane integrity was evaluated by using the SYTOX Green fluorochrome that penetrates only cells with altered membranes. Bacteria exposed to all aluminum chloride concentrations, especially 0.2 M, exhibited loosening of the cell walls, cell wall rupture, cytoplasmic aggregation, and an absence of extracellular vesicles. Sodium metabisulfite caused mainly a retraction of plasma membrane and cellular voids which were more pronounced with increasing concentration. Bacterial mortality was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption when bacteria were exposed to either a high concentration (0.2 M) of aluminum chloride or prolonged exposure (20 min) to 0.05 M aluminum chloride or to a pH of 2.5. Bacteria exposed to lower concentrations of aluminum chloride (0.05 and 0.1 M) for 10 min or less, or to metabisulfite at all concentrations, did not exhibit significant stain absorption, suggesting that no membrane damage occurred or it was too weak to allow the penetration of the stain into the cell. While mortality caused by aluminum chloride involves membrane damage and subsequent cytoplasmic aggregation, sulfite exerts its effect intracellularly; it is transported across the membrane by free diffusion of molecular SO2 with little damage to the cellular membrane. PMID:15528547

  19. Ultrastructural alterations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica caused by treatment with aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite.

    PubMed

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Arul, Joseph; Tweddell, Russell J

    2004-11-01

    Aluminum and bisulfite salts inhibit the growth of several fungi and bacteria, and their application effectively controls potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora. In an effort to understand their inhibitory action, ultrastructural changes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica after exposure (0 to 20 min) to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) of these salts were examined by using transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membrane integrity was evaluated by using the SYTOX Green fluorochrome that penetrates only cells with altered membranes. Bacteria exposed to all aluminum chloride concentrations, especially 0.2 M, exhibited loosening of the cell walls, cell wall rupture, cytoplasmic aggregation, and an absence of extracellular vesicles. Sodium metabisulfite caused mainly a retraction of plasma membrane and cellular voids which were more pronounced with increasing concentration. Bacterial mortality was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption when bacteria were exposed to either a high concentration (0.2 M) of aluminum chloride or prolonged exposure (20 min) to 0.05 M aluminum chloride or to a pH of 2.5. Bacteria exposed to lower concentrations of aluminum chloride (0.05 and 0.1 M) for 10 min or less, or to metabisulfite at all concentrations, did not exhibit significant stain absorption, suggesting that no membrane damage occurred or it was too weak to allow the penetration of the stain into the cell. While mortality caused by aluminum chloride involves membrane damage and subsequent cytoplasmic aggregation, sulfite exerts its effect intracellularly; it is transported across the membrane by free diffusion of molecular SO2 with little damage to the cellular membrane.

  20. Clinical, hematologic, and electrolyte changes with 0.9% sodium chloride or acetated fluids in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fielding, C Langdon; Magdesian, K Gary; Meier, Chloe A; Rhodes, Diane M

    2012-06-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory changes associated with the use of IV0.9% sodium chloride and a commercially available acetated fluid (CAF) to treat endurance horses requiring emergency medical treatment. Randomized, controlled clinical trial from 2007 to 2010. Emergency treatment centers of the Western States 100-mile (220 km) endurance ride. Twelve horses requiring emergency medical treatment in the form of IVfluids completed the study. Horses were assigned to either the 0.9% sodium chloride group (6 horses) or CAF group (6 horses) and received a total of 20 L of fluid. Clinical, hematologic, and electrolyte data were collected prior to and during fluid therapy. As compared to results prior to fluid therapy, horses treated with 0.9% sodium chloride had a decrease in heart rate (P < 0.01), PCV (P < 0.001), total plasma protein (TPP) (P < 0.001), and the sodium-chloride difference (P < 0.05). These horses also had an increase in plasma chloride (P < 0.01) and sodium (P < 0.01) concentrations. Horses treated with CAF showed a decrease in PCV (P < 0.01) and TPP (P < 0.001). These findings should aid in the design a larger clinical trial to provide further clarification on the effects of type of fluid therapy on clinical and biochemical parameters in endurance horses. The use of 0.9% sodium chloride may not be ideal for the emergency management of endurance horses as it was associated with an increase in plasma chloride concentration. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  1. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ambrosewicz-Walacik, Marta; Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  2. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  3. The antilisterial effect of Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and leucocins 4010 in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite examined in a structured gelatin system.

    PubMed

    Hornbaek, Tina; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2004-04-15

    To further enhance biopreservation of meat products, the antilisterial effect of the newly described protective culture Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and its bacteriocins, leucocins 4010, was examined in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite in a solid matrix using a structured gelatin system. Interaction between Listeria monocytogenes 4140 and Leuc. carnosum 4010 or the leucocins 4010-resistant mutant L. monocytogenes 4140P showed that the inhibitory effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the gelatin system was caused by the production and activity of leucocins 4010. The presence of sodium chloride (2.5% w/v) and sodium nitrite (60 mg/l) reduced the antilisterial effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the structured gel system compared to the use of Leuc. carnosum 4010 alone. Investigations carried out at 10 degrees C showed that the lag phase of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 was reduced from 71 to 58 h by the addition of sodium chloride and to 40 h by the addition of sodium nitrite. Addition of sodium chloride increased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 from 0.02 to 0.06 h(-1), whereas no change was observed by the addition of sodium nitrite. Compared to the antilisterial effect of leucocins 4010 alone, the addition of sodium chloride (2.5%, w/v) decreased the antilisterial effect at high concentrations of leucocins 4010 (5.3 and 10.6 AU/ml) as measured after 11 days of incubation at 10 degrees C. In gels with added leucocins 4010, the most pronounced reduction in growth of L. monocytogenes 4140 was observed at the highest concentration of leucocins 4010 (10.6 AU/ml) together with sodium nitrite (60 mg/l). More detailed information on the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of single colonies of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of leucocins 4010 was obtained using microscopy and image analysis. No pronounced difference in the growth of single colonies was

  4. Infrared optical constants of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate: application to study the crystallization of aqueous sodium chloride solution droplets at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Möhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin

    2012-08-23

    Complex refractive indices of sodium chloride dihydrate, NaCl·2H(2)O, have been retrieved in the 6000-800 cm(-1) wavenumber regime from the infrared extinction spectra of crystallized aqueous NaCl solution droplets. The data set is valid in the temperature range from 235 to 216 K and was inferred from crystallization experiments with airborne particles performed in the large coolable aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The retrieval concept was based on the Kramers-Kronig relationship for a complex function of the optical constants n and k whose imaginary part is proportional to the optical depth of a small particle absorption spectrum in the Rayleigh approximation. The appropriate proportionality factor was inferred from a fitting algorithm applied to the extinction spectra of about 1 μm sized particles, which, apart from absorption, also featured a pronounced scattering contribution. NaCl·2H(2)O is the thermodynamically stable crystalline solid in the sodium chloride-water system below the peritectic at 273.3 K; above 273.3 K, the anhydrous NaCl is more stable. In contrast to anhydrous NaCl crystals, the dihydrate particles reveal prominent absorption signatures at mid-infrared wavelengths due to the hydration water molecules. Formation of NaCl·2H(2)O was only detected at temperatures clearly below the peritectic and was first evidenced in a crystallization experiment conducted at 235 K. We have employed the retrieved refractive indices of NaCl·2H(2)O to quantify the temperature dependent partitioning between anhydrous and dihydrate NaCl particles upon crystallization of aqueous NaCl solution droplets. It was found that the temperature range from 235 to 216 K represents the transition regime where the composition of the crystallized particle ensemble changes from almost only NaCl to almost only NaCl·2H(2)O particles. Compared to the findings on the NaCl/NaCl·2H(2)O partitioning from a recent study conducted with micron

  5. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in the wet precipitation of sodium and chloride over the continental United States, 1984-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Philip J.

    2010-08-01

    Data on wet-only precipitation from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network were analysed for trends in the sodium and chloride fluxes over the United States between 1 January 1984 and 31 December 2006. The data were first checked for consistency and for ionic balance. It was necessary to correct for changes in bicarbonate due to changes in atmospheric CO 2 levels over the study period, in order to obtain a balance. The fluxes were calculated and the trends determined by linear regression in the log domain. The significance of the trends was checked using both F- and t-tests. At 154 sites having reasonably continuous records over the assessment period, the sodium flux fell significantly at 139 and increased significantly at only one. The chloride flux similarly fell significantly at 140 and increased significantly at the same one as the sodium flux increased. At coastal sites the chloride to sodium ratio was the same as that in sea water, within experimental limits. Further from the coast the ratio changed apparently due to changes in the entire aerosol chemistry. The findings are discussed in terms of the simplicity and robustness of the methodology employed to determine the trends; the oceanic origin of most observable sodium even in the interior of the continent, probably because it occurs as a fine (<1 micron) aerosol which is poorly scavenged by precipitation; and the possibility that the drop in sodium and chloride fluxes might be driven by climate change.

  7. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  8. Changes in metabolites, antioxidant system, and gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa under sodium chloride stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Mao, Feijian; Kirumba, George Chira; Jiang, Cheng; Manefield, Mike; He, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Microcystis (M.) aeruginosa, one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria, occurs worldwide. The Qingcaosha (QCS) Reservoir is undergoing eutrophication and faces the problem of saltwater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sudden salinity changes on physiological parameters and related gene transcription in M. aeruginosa under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that sodium chloride (50, 200 and 500 mg L(-1) NaCl) inhibited the algal growth and decreased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a, carotenoid and phycocyanin). Sodium chloride increased both the intracellular and extracellular microcystin contents and elevated the mcyD transcript level in M. aeruginosa. It also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and caused cytomembrane damage. This damage caused the release of intracellular toxins into the culture medium. In addition, NaCl decreased the maximum electron transport rate, increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changed the cellular redox status. Consequently, NaCl inhibited the expression of cpcB, psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, NaCl increased the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The transcript levels of sod and reduced glutathione (gsh) were also increased after exposure to NaCl. Our results indicate that a sudden increase in salinity increases the production and excretion of microcystin, changes the cellular redox status, enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibits photosynthesis, and affects transcript levels of related genes in M. aeruginosa.

  9. Superiority of experts over novices in trueness and precision of concentration estimation of sodium chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yui; Kimura, Atsushi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu; Kawai, Takayuki; Dan, Ippeita; Hayakawa, Fumiyo

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have reported that experts outperform novices in specific domains. However, the superiority of experts in accuracy, taking both trueness and precision into consideration, has not yet been explored. Here, we examined differences between expert and novice performances by evaluating the accuracy of their estimations of physical concentrations of sodium chloride in solutions while employing a visual analog scale. In Experiment 1, 14 experts and 13 novices tasted 6 concentrations of the solutions until they had learned their intensities. Subsequently, they repeatedly rated the concentration of 3 other solutions in random order. Although we did not find a difference between the performances of the 2 groups in trueness (difference between rating and correct concentration), the precision (consistency of ratings for each participant) of experts was higher than that of novices. In Experiment 2, 13 experts who had participated in Experiment 1 and 10 experts and 12 novices who had not participated in Experiment 1 rated the salt concentration in sodium chloride/sucrose mixtures in the same way as in Experiment 1. Both trueness and precision of performance were higher in both expert groups than in the novice group. By introducing precision and trueness parameters, we succeeded in quantifying the estimations of experts and novices in rating the concentration of solutions, revealing experts' superiority even for a task they had not been trained for.

  10. Refractive-index measurements in freezing sea-ice and sodium chloride brines.

    PubMed

    Maykut, G A; Light, B

    1995-02-20

    Sea ice contains numerous pockets of brine and precipitated salts whose size and number distributions change dramatically with temperature. Theoretical treatment of scattering produced by these inclusions requires information on refractive-index differences among the brine, salts, and surrounding ice. Lacking specific data on refractive-index variations in the brine, we carried out laboratory measurements in freezing-equilibrium solutions between -2 and -32 °C. Index values at 589 nm increased from 1.341 to 1.397 over this temperature range, corresponding to salinities of 35 and 240 parts per thousand (ppt). Spectral data were also taken at 50-nm intervals between 400 and 700 nm in nonequilibrium solutions with salinities ranging up to 300 ppt. Spectral gradients increased slightly with salinity but showed no measurable dependence on temperature between +12 and -16 °C. The Lorentz-Lorenz equation, combined with data on density, molar refractivities, and brine composition, yielded temperature-dependent index predictions in excellent agreement with the experimental data. Similar index and density measurements in freezing sodium chloride brines yielded values nearly identical to those in the sea-ice brines. The absence of mirabilite crystals in sodium chloride ice, however, will cause it to have higher transmissivity and lower reflectivity than sea ice above -22 °C.

  11. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously.

  12. Melting point equations for the ternary system water/sodium chloride/ethylene glycol revisited.

    PubMed

    Benson, James D; Bagchi, Aniruddha; Han, Xu; Critser, John K; Woods, Erik J

    2010-12-01

    Partial phase diagrams are of considerable utility in the development of optimized cryobiological procedures. Recent theoretical predictions of the melting points of ternary solutions of interest to cryobiology have caused us to re-examine measurements that our group made for the ethylene-glycol-sodium chloride-water phase diagram. Here we revisit our previous experiments by measuring melting points at five ethylene-glycol to sodium chloride ratios (R values; R=5, 10, 15, 30, and 45) and five levels of concentration for each ratio. Melting points were averaged from three measurements and plotted as a function of total solute concentration for each R value studied. The new measurements differed from our original experimental values and agreed with predicted values from both theoretical models. Additionally, the data were fit to the polynomial described in our previous report and the resulting equation was obtained: T(m) = (38.3-2.145 x 10⁻¹ R)w + (81.19 - 2.909×10⁻¹ R)w², where w is the total solute mass fraction. This new equation provided good fits to the experimental data as well as published values and relates the determined polynomial constants to the R value of the corresponding isopleths of the three dimensional phase diagram, allowing the liquids curve for any R value to be obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deliquescence and crystallization of ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Atul; Fok, Abel; Parsons, Matthew T.; Mak, Jackson; Bertram, Allan K.

    2004-06-01

    In the following, we report the deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) of mixed inorganic-organic particles, specifically ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles. Knowledge of the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic particles is crucial for predicting the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Our DRH results are in good agreement with previous measurements, but our CRH results are significantly lower than some of the previous measurements reported in the literature. Our studies show that the DRH and CRH of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride only decreased slightly when the mole fraction of the acid was less than 0.4. If other organics in the atmosphere behave in a similar manner, then the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic atmospheric particles will only be slightly less than the DRH and CRH of pure inorganic particles when the organic mole fraction is less than 0.4. Our results also show that if the particles contain a significant amount of organics (mole fraction > 0.5) the crystallization relative humidity decreases significantly and the particles are more likely to remain in the liquid state. Further work is needed to determine if other organics species of atmospheric importance have a similar effect.

  14. Development of a novel method for decellularizing a nerve graft using a hypertonic sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yasuhisa; Sakakibara, Shuhsuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-11-01

    Acellular nerves are a reconstruction material and provide scaffolds for nerve regeneration. Numerous methods to develop acellular nerves have been described. However, these methods pose problems that can be attributed to incomplete acellular processing and destruction of the extracellular matrix (ECM); the former may lead to rejection response, while the latter may damage the scaffold. In order to overcome problems associated with the above-mentioned methods, we developed a novel method that employs a hypertonic sodium chloride solution to decellularize nerve graft material. Rat sciatic nerves were harvested, dipped in hypertonic sodium chloride solution (1 M), and shaken for 24 h. We then washed the nerves in phosphate-buffered saline for 7 days with shaking and evaluated the acellular nerves by hematoxylin-eosin (H-E) staining, immunostaining, and electron microscopy. We then transplanted the grafts to the sciatic nerve of another rat and evaluated the outcomes by H-E staining, immunostaining (anti-neurofilament antibody, anti-S-100 antibody), anterograde nerve tracing, and electron microscopy. We found that our method successfully decellularized the grafts, but was mild enough to leave the ECM intact. Two months after transplantation, immunostaining and anterograde nerve tracing confirmed that Schwann cells infiltrated the grafts and induced neurofilament extension. Our methodology preserves the ECM, is simple to develop, and does not involve substances that harm biogenic tissue. Acellular nerve tissue processed in this way could become a substitute material for bridging nerve gaps. Our method could also aid in the development of other acellular tissues.

  15. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-11-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor.

  17. Clonidine and lidamidine (WHR-1142) stimulate sodium and chloride absorption in the rabbit intestine.

    PubMed

    Durbin, T; Rosenthal, L; McArthur, K; Anderson, D; Dharmsathaphorn, K

    1982-06-01

    The effects of clonidine and lidamidine on ion transport in the intestine of the rabbit were determined. In the ileum both clonidine (10(-6) M) and lidamidine (10(-3) M) (a) decreased the short circuit current (-1.9 +/- 0.3 and -2.0 +/- 0.4 muEq/h . cm2, respectively) and potential difference; (b) increased net sodium absorption (2.0 +/- 0.6 and 1.8 +/- 0.4 muEq/h . cm2) and chloride absorption (3.4 +/- 0.5 and 3.4 +/- 0.6 muEq/h . cm2); and (c) increased tissue conductance (8.7 +/- 1.7 and 10.0 +/- 1.6 mmho/cm2). The increase in net sodium and chloride absorption was primarily due to an increase in mucosal-to-serosal movement of the ions and a decrease in serosal-to-mucosal movement of chloride. The action of clonidine on the short circuit current was quantitatively similar to the action of epinephrine. Both were readily reversed by yohimbine, a specific alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist. Further, methoxamine, an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist has no effect on the short circuit current up to the concentration of 10(-5) M; and prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the change of the short circuit current induced by epinephrine. The results indicate the presence of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on the intestine and suggest that alpha 2-adrenergic stimulation may account for the effect of epinephrine on ion transport. Lidamidine was studied because it is structurally related to clonidine and has many similar actions. Yohimbine transiently reversed the effect of lidamidine. alpha 1-Adrenergic or dopaminergic antagonists did not reverse the effect of lidamidine, suggesting that it may affect alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. The results indicate that both clonidine and lidamidine stimulate electrolyte absorption and may be clinically useful.

  18. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. . E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-07-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  19. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Harris, A W; Manning, M; Chambers, A; Swanton, S W

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 degrees C compared to those prepared at 25 degrees C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  20. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Thirkill, Twanda L.; Ji, Jennifer; Monte, Louise H.; Douglas, Gordon C.

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2) and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts) and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast). Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator) induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion). Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNFα production. The

  1. Attenuation by d-limonene of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yano, H; Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Baba, M; Sakai, N; Uedo, N

    1999-08-27

    The effects of prolonged administration of d-limonene, a monocyclic monoterpene, on sodium chloride-enhanced induction of gastric carcinogenesis by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, the labeling and apoptotic indices, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity of gastric cancers were investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and 1% limonene ad libitum. In week 52, the incidence of gastric cancers, the labeling index and ODC activity were significantly higher and the apoptotic index was significantly lower in rats given sodium chlolide than in untreated control rats. However, in rats given both sodium chloride and d-limonene, the incidence of gastric cancers, the labeling index and ODC activity were significantly lower and the apoptotic index was significantly higher than in rats given sodium chloride alone. Our findings suggest that limonene attenuates the gastric carcinogenesis enhanced by sodium chloride via increased apoptosis and decreased ODC activity in gastric cancers.

  2. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    PubMed

    Quay, I; Tan, E

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  3. Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven, and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10 to the -13th to 5.4 x 10 to the -11th g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the particle mass to the 0.86-power. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09, showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol.

  4. Increased levels of sodium chloride directly increase osteoclastic differentiation and resorption in mice and men.

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Luthringer, B J C; Feyerabend, F; Zhang, Z; Machens, H G; Maeda, M; Taipaleenmäki, H; Hesse, E; Willumeit-Römer, R; Schilling, A F

    2017-08-29

    To better understand the association between high salt intake and osteoporosis, we investigated the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on mice and human osteoclastogenesis. The results suggest a direct, activating role of NaCl supplementation on bone resorption. High NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary calcium elimination and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion which in turn stimulates the release of calcium from the bone, resulting in increased bone resorption. However, while calciuria after NaCl loading could be shown repeatedly, several studies failed to reveal a significant increase in PTH in response to a high-sodium diet. Another possible explanation that we investigated here could be a direct effect of high-sodium concentration on bone resorption. Mouse bone marrow macrophage and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) driven towards an osteoclastogenesis pathway were cultivated under culture conditions mimicking hypernatremia environments. In this study, a direct effect of increased NaCl concentrations on mouse osteoclast differentiation and function was observed. Surprisingly, in a human osteoclast culture system, significant increases in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts, calcitonin receptor (CTR)-positive osteoclasts, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) gene expression, and areal and volumetric resorptions were observed for increasing concentrations of NaCl. This suggests a direct, activating, cell-mediated effect of increased concentrations of NaCl on osteoclasts. The reported that enhanced bone resorption after high-sodium diets may not only be secondary to the urinary calcium loss but may also be a direct, cell-mediated effect on osteoclastic resorption. These findings allow us to suggest an explanation for the clinical findings independent of a PTH-mediated regulation.

  5. Differential elution of sodium or potassium dihydrogen- and hydrogenphosphate ions from a sephadex G-15 column with sodium or potassium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Okada, T K; Miyakoshi, M; Inoue, M; Nakabayashi, Y; Jisaki, F

    2001-04-20

    When a mixed solution of sodium or potassium dihydrogenphosphate and disodium or dipotassium hydrogenphosphate was eluted from a Sephadex G-15 column with either a sodium or potassium chloride solution, the elution profiles of ions showed that the hydrogenphosphate ion was eluted more rapidly than the dihydrogenphosphate ion. When the sample solutions containing potassium dihydrogenphosphate and/or dipotassium hydrogenphosphate, all of which were supplemented with phosphorus-32-labelled potassium dihydrogenphosphate, were eluted with sodium chloride solution, the elution profiles of radioactivity showed that the dihydrogenphosphate ion changed to hydrogenphosphate ion and vice versa, depending on the pH values of the sample solution and the availability of the cation of the eluent during elution for the phosphate ion to pair with.

  6. Suppression by iron chelator phenanthroline of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Masaharu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Baba, Miyako; Mikuni, Tomiko; Narahara, Hiroyuki; Uedo, Noriya; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2003-02-28

    The effect of prolonged administration of iron chelator phenanthroline on sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labeling and apoptotic indices in the gastric cancers was investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, the rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and intraperitoneal injections of phenanthroline at doses of 15 or 30 mg/kg body weight every other day. At week 52, feeding of sodium chloride significantly increased the incidence of gastric cancers, as compared with the control group. Prolonged injections of phenanthroline at both doses significantly reduced the incidence of gastric cancers, which was enhanced by oral supplementation with sodium chloride. Phenanthroline at both doses significantly decreased the labeling index of gastric cancers, which was enhanced by sodium chloride, and significantly increased the apoptotic index of gastric cancers, which was lowered by sodium chloride. In vitro examination using electron spin resonance revealed that sodium chloride promotes the production of hydroxyl radical during Fe(2+) oxidation by Fenton's reaction. These findings suggest that enhancement by sodium chloride of gastric carcinogenesis may be mediated by hydroxyl radicals.

  7. The influence of sodium chlorides fog on corrosion resistance of heat exchangers used in automotive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peta, Katarzyna; Grochalski, Karol; Piasecki, Adam; Żurek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In the work, the most important factors which influence on the exploitative durability of heat exchangers are classified. Particular attention was paid to the compounds of sodium chloride used in the winter season for road maintenance. In order to determine their impact on automotive heat exchanger corrosion resistance, a test of heaters in a salt chamber which imitates the conditions of their work was realized. It also allows to verify the durability of these products. To evaluate the corrosion changes, observation with the use of light microscopy and scanning microscopy SEM were made supplemented with microanalysis of chemical composition by EDS spectroscopy method. Critical areas in the heat exchangers which are mostly exposed to damage including the formation of local corrosion pits were located and analyzed.

  8. Surfactant Behavior of Sodium Dodecylsulfate in Deep Eutectic Solvent Choline Chloride/Urea.

    PubMed

    Arnold, T; Jackson, A J; Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Magnone, D; Terry, A E; Edler, K J

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) resemble ionic liquids but are formed from an ionic mixture instead of being a single ionic compound. Here we present some results that demonstrate that surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) remains surface-active and shows self-assembly phenomena in the most commonly studied DES, choline chloride/urea. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) suggest that the behavior is significantly different from that in water. Our SANS data supports our determination of the critical micelle concentration using surface-tension measurements and suggests that the micelles formed in DES do not have the same shape and size as those seen in water. Reflectivity measurements have also demonstrated that the surfactants remain surface-active below this concentration.

  9. Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, Will; Robinson, Carly

    2006-04-01

    High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset from the water activity at the melting point of the solution, though films of the longer chain alcohols may undergo structural changes at higher salt concentrations which cause a deviation from the constant offset. The heterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient, averaged over all solutions, alcohols, and droplet sizes is 6.0 × 104 +/- 4.0 × 104 cm-2 s-1, with no dependence on any of those parameters.

  10. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of water clusters co-adsorbed with hydrogen molecules on a sodium chloride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Koichiro; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen gas containing a trace of water vapor was dosed on a vacuum-evaporated sodium chloride film at 13 K, and water clusters formed on the substrate were investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Absorption bands due to (H2O)n clusters with n = 3-6 and an induced absorption band due to hydrogen were clearly observed. With increasing gas dosage, the intensities of the cluster bands increased linearly while the intensity of the hydrogen band was constant. This suggests that the water clusters were formed in two-dimensional matrices of hydrogen. We found that the water clusters did exist on the surface upon heating even after the hydrogen molecules had desorbed. A further rise of the substrate temperature up to 27 K yielded the formation of larger clusters, (H2O)n with n > 6 . We also discuss the origins of the two bands of the trimer in terms of pseudorotation and a metastable isomer.

  12. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  13. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  14. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J., C.; Hernández A., J.; Murrieta S., H.

    2013-07-01

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl2:MnCl2(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from 60Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  15. Mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of saccharides in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kanou, Mikihito; Kameoka, Takaharu; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    The infrared spectral characteristics of three different types of disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, and sucrose) and four different types of monosaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose) in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride (NaCl) were determined. The infrared spectra were obtained using the FT-IR/ATR method and the absorption intensities respected the interaction between the saccharide and water with NaCl were determined. This study also focused on not only the glycosidic linkage position and the constituent monosaccharides, but also the concentration of the saccharides and NaCl and found that they have a significant influence on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of the disaccharides in an aqueous solution with NaCl. The absorption intensities representing the interaction between a saccharide and water with NaCl were spectroscopically determined. Additionally, the applications of MIR spectroscopy to obtain information about saccharide-NaCl interactions in foods and biosystems were suggested.

  16. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride, p38 mitogen activated protein and cytokine-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dinarello, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increasing clinical evidence that high salt intake contributes to cardiovascular events and deaths seemingly independent of hypertension, the molecular mechanism for increased atherogenesis remains unclear. Vessel wall inflammation secondary to proinflammatory cytokines is one mechanism for atherogenesis. The role of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 in cytokine production such as IL-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 are well established. The link between inflammation and salt intake likely includes p38 MAPK as hyperosmolar sodium chloride triggers phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and stimulates gene expression and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Hence a possible link of high salt intake, inflammation, and atherogenesis may be one molecular mechanism for the association of high salt intake and cardiovascular events.

  17. Mutational scanning of potassium, sodium and chloride ion channels in malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Bellini, Giulia; Longaretti, Francesca; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Pascotto, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    The mutational analysis of potassium (KCNQ2, KCNQ3), sodium (SCN1A, SCN2A), and chloride (CLCN2) ion channels was performed in three children with typical features of the recently described syndrome of migrating partial seizures in infancy. Mutational analysis was performed by PCR and automatic sequencing. The coding regions, including the exon-intron boundaries, were amplified in the patients using appropriate primers sets. No mutations associated to migrating partial seizures have been found. Mutational screening of CLCN2 gene, revealed a homozygous mutation G2003C (exon 17), leading to a Ser/Thr substitution at the codon 668, in two of the three patients. The same variation has been found in 38 out of 100 control alleles. The identification of the genetic basis of this new epileptic encephalopathy requires further studies that might be enforced by familial cases.

  18. Disinfection potential of electrolyzed solutions containing sodium chloride at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Morita, C; Sano, K; Morimatsu, S; Kiura, H; Goto, T; Kohno, T; Hong, W U; Miyoshi, H; Iwasawa, A; Nakamura, Y; Tagawa, M; Yokosuka, O; Saisho, H; Maeda, T; Katsuoka, Y

    2000-03-01

    Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained from the positive well. The oxidation reduction potential (ORP), pH and free chlorine content of the product were 1053 mV, pH 2.34 and 4.20 ppm, respectively. The products modified the antigenicity of the surface protein of HBV as well as the infectivity of HIV in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Although the inactivating potential was decreased by the addition of contaminating protein, recycling of the product or continuous addition of fresh product may restore the complete disinfection against bloodborne pathogens.

  19. Solution processed sodium chloride interlayers for efficient electron extraction from polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Reinhard, Manuel; Zhang, Zhenhao; Pütz, Andreas; Kettlitz, Siegfried; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    We investigate a solution-processable, non-toxic sodium chloride (NaCl) interlayer for aluminum cathodes in organic solar cells. The electron extraction at the cathode interface is strongly improved upon the insertion of NaCl leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.9% as compared to 1.8% efficient devices without interlayer. Scanning electron and kelvin probe force microscopy studies reveal that the formation of NaCl crystals causes a decrease of the aluminum work function by more than 300 mV. By impedance spectroscopy, we found evidence that the NaCl crystals improve the energetic alignment at the polymer/metal interface.

  20. [Resistance of Toxoplasma gondii to sodium chloride and condiments in pork sausage].

    PubMed

    Navarro, I T; Vidotto, O; Giraldi, N; Mitsuka, R

    1992-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the resistance of Toxoplasma gondii cysts to salt (sodium chloride) and condiments (black pepper and garlic) in fresh sausages prepared with experimentally infected pork. The sausages were treated with 1.25, 2.00, and 2.50% salt with condiments added, and were refrigerated for 2, 24, and 48 hours, after which they were artificially digested. Mice were then inoculated with the digested matter. After 42 days the surviving mice were sacrificed and their serum examined using indirect immunofluorescence to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. This examination showed that the treatments with salt over periods of less than 24 hours did not eliminate the parasite, and that only after 48 hours did the salt, at concentrations of 2.00 and 2.50%, effectively kill the parasite. The results of this experiment also showed that the condiments had no effect on the viability of T. gondii.

  1. [The hepatotropic action of sodium chloride and hydrocarbonate mineral water containing humic acids (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Verigo, N S; Ulashchik, V S

    2015-01-01

    The present article summarizes the results of experimental studies on the hepatotropic action of native and modified low-mineralized sodium chloride and bicarbonate waters differing in the content of humic acids. It was found that the most beneficial changes after a course of 21 day therapy with the use of such mineral waters for the treatment of experimental hepatitis were observed after the application of the water with a humic acid content of roughly 20 g/dm3. Such treatment resulted in the significant improvement of the liver antitoxic function, intensification of basal metabolism, reduction of the inflammatory processes, normalization of the hepatic enzyme activity, and stimulation of proteinsynthetic function in parallel with positive dynamics of the morphological and histochemical characteristics of the liver.

  2. Combined effect of alkali pretreatment and sodium chloride addition on the olive fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Chammem, N; Kachouri, M; Mejri, M; Peres, C; Boudabous, A; Hamdi, M

    2005-07-01

    Green olives of the Tunisian variety "Meski" were treated according to a Spanish-style green olive preservation process by using an alkaline treatment (1.5, 2 and 2.5% (w/v) NaOH) to eliminate bitterness, combined with different brine concentrations (6, 9 and 12% (w/v) NaCl). A spontaneous fermentation by the environmental microflora took place. Results showed that 2% NaOH solution and 9% sodium chloride brine was an optimal combination inducing the best growth of Lactobacillus species (10(8) CFU/ml) and acidity of 0.726 g lactic acid/100 ml brine. In all trials and independently of the treatment, Lb. plantarum was the most dominant strain of Lactobacillus. Moreover, pretreatment with lye and lactic fermentation of olives contributed to coliform elimination.

  3. Influence of sodium chloride concentration on the controlled lactic acid fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, C; Palop, L; Sánchez, I

    1999-12-01

    The effect of a commercial Lactobacillus starter and sodium chloride concentration on the fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum depressum) was studied. The results of fermentation using added starter and varying salt concentrations (4, 6, and 10% w/v) in brine were compared with the results of spontaneous fermentation taking place in brine with a salt concentration of 4%. Fresh fruits, medium in size (34-44 g), were used in all cases; all fruits were blanched under identical conditions. Temperature in the fermenters was 32+/-2 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that addition of a suitable starter shortened the fermentation process, provided the salt concentration in the brine did not exceed 6%. In the conditions tested, the eggplants obtained after fermentation were found to be of good quality though somewhat bitter which may explained by the starter employed.

  4. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  5. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  6. Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Marrs, Krystin; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of co-formulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and sodium chloride (NaCl), a deliquescent crystalline solid, on moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0), and glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviours were investigated. Moisture sorption profiles of binary NaCl:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators at temperatures from 22 to 50°C and by dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and dynamic dewpoint sorption (DDS) techniques. Close proximity of MD and NaCl induced synergistic moisture uptake in binary mixtures above a threshold RH, resulting in significantly lower Tgs in binary mixtures compared to individual MDs. The RH0 of NaCl was also lower in the blends. Mixing amorphous MD with crystalline NaCl resulted in synergistic moisture sorption and reduced both Tg and RH0, thus blends were more sensitive to environmental moisture than the individual solids. This has implications for quality control of many formulated powder products.

  7. The Sodium-Driven Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger in Presynaptic Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Burette, Alain C.; Weinberg, Richard J.; Sassani, Patrick; Abuladze, Natalia; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

    2013-01-01

    The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, was recently found to modulate excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampus. By using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate here that NDCBE is expressed throughout the adult rat brain, and selectively concentrates in presynaptic terminals, where it is closely associated with synaptic vesicles. NDCBE is in most glutamatergic axon terminals, and is also present in the terminals of parvalbumin-positive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells. These findings suggest that NDCBE can regulate glutamatergic transmission throughout the brain, and point to a role for NDCBE as a possible regulator of GABAergic neurotransmission. PMID:22102085

  8. Chemotaxis behavior toward an odor is regulated by constant sodium chloride stimulus in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Shingai, Ryuzo; Ichijo, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Tokumitsu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Ogurusu, Tarou

    2014-01-01

    We studied the chemotaxis behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans toward a chemoattractant in the presence of background sensory stimulus. Chemotaxis toward an odor butanone was greater in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) than that without NaCl. By contrast, chemotaxis toward NaCl was not affected by a butanone background. The salt-sensing ASE neuron-deficient che-1(p674) mutants and worms with ASE genetically ablated showed high chemotaxis toward butanone, regardless of the presence of a NaCl background. Therefore, in wild-type worms, information from ASE in the absence of NaCl suppresses butanone chemotaxis, while the suppression is removed in the presence of NaCl.

  9. Monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in solar ponds by electrical conductivity and temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fynn, R.P.; Short, T.H.; Badger, P.C.; Sciarini, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple accurate and semi-automatic system was developed for monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in a solar pond. The profile meter, which measures pond solution conductivity and temperature, and the equations which convert this data into salt concentration and/or brine density, are covered in detail so that any potential users may construct their own equipment. The use of the profile meter, its advantages and disadvantages, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the day-to-day profile monitoring that the conductivity-temperature method enables, and the use of the meter during modification of the pond profiles. A program is also available to calculate the pond profile using a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 programmable calculator.

  10. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage.

    PubMed

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  11. Stability of fosphenytoin sodium with intravenous solutions in glass bottles, polyvinyl chloride bags, and polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J H; Cwik, M J; Luer, M S; Sibley, C B; Deyo, K L

    1997-05-01

    To determine the stability of fosphenytoin sodium admixtures with NaCl 0.9% injection and dextrose 5% (D5W) injection when stored in glass or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers, to evaluate the compatibility of fosphenytoin with 11 other intravenous solutions, and to determine the stability of fosphenytoin repackaged in polypropylene syringes. Dilutions of fosphenytoin sodium 1, 8, and 20 mg phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE)/mL were prepared in NaCl 0.9%, D5W, and 11 other intravenous fluids. Aliquots of each solution in NaCL 0.9% or D5W were transferred to three glass bottles for storage at 25 degrees C and 21 PVC bags for storage at 25, 4, or -20 degrees C. Aliquots of each admixture with the other intravenous fluids were transferred to three PVC bags and stored at 25 degrees C for 7 days. In addition, 63 syringes were filled with fosphenytoin sodium 50 mg PE/mL (undiluted) and stored at 25, 4, or -20 degrees C. Samples of each solution from the three containers were analyzed for visual compatibility, pH, and fosphenytoin concentration initially and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days during storage at 25 and 4 degrees C and at 1, 7, 14, and 30 days during storage at -20 degrees C. Following removal of containers from the freezer, additional samples were obtained after 7 days at 4 or 25 degrees C, and 7 days at 25 degrees C, and then 7 days at -20 degrees C. No visible precipitation or change in color or clarity was observed in any of the fosphenytoin solutions during the study. The concentration of fosphenytoin at each sampling time remained within 97-104% of initial concentration, regardless of container, concentration, intravenous admixture, or storage temperature. Fosphenytoin sodium, either undiluted in polypropylene syringes or diluted with NaCl 0.9% or D5W in PVC bags, remains stable for at least 30 days at room temperature, under refrigeration, or frozen. After removal from the freezer, fosphenytoin can be thawed, kept at 4 or 25 degrees C for 7 days

  12. Sodium-chloride Difference and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-based Large-scale Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Toda, Hitoshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Hypernatremia and hypochloremia are also associated with an increased mortality. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the sodium-chloride difference (Na(+)-Cl(-)) and MetS. Methods In this cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 3,875 subjects and evaluated the relationship between Na(+)-Cl(-) and MetS using logistic regression analyses. MetS was diagnosed according to the joint interim statement when a subject had three or more of the following criteria: hypertension; hyperglycemia; hypertriglyceridemia; low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; and abdominal obesity. Results There were 3,354 subjects without MetS and 521 subjects with MetS at baseline. The highest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartile (≥43 mmol/L) was associated with an increased risk of the presence of MetS compared to the lowest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartile (≤38 mmol/L) after adjusting for covariates, including age, sex, the body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and lifestyle factors [multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.84, p=0.0078]. After an 8-year follow-up, 658 out of 3,352 subjects were newly diagnosed with MetS. The highest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartile (≥43 mmol/L) was associated with an increased risk of the development of MetS compared to the lowest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartiles (≤38 mmol/L) after adjusting for covariates (multivariate OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.27-2.45, p=0.0007). Conclusion The sodium and chloride difference is associated with MetS.

  13. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%).

  14. Effects of potassium chloride on plasma renin activity during sodium restriction in normal man.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J H; Gauntner, W C; Nolph, K D; Van Stone, J C

    1977-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that large intakes of potassium (K) will suppress plasma renin activity (PRA) in normal man. The effect of more modest intakes of K on PRA is unclear. The present study was designed to compare the PRA in 11 normal volunteers maintained on an electrolyte-free diet (7000 J), with and without the addition of 50 mEq/day of potassium chloride (7000 J + KCl), well within the limits of usual dietary consumption. Control recumbent and 2 hr of upright PRA determinations were made by radioimmunoassay prior to the initiation of either the 7000 J diet or the 7000 J + KCl diet and on the fourth day of the diet, at a time when urinary sodium, K, and chloride excretions were near intakes. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) PRA's are indicated in Table II. There are significant (p less than 0.01) differences between (1) all respective recumbent and upright posture positions and (2) before and after the administration of 7000 J and 7000 J + KCl. However, there are no significant differences between (1) control periods or (2) before and after the addition of KCl to the electrolyte-free diet. We conclude from these studies that K, given in modest amounts, has no inhibiting effect on PRA.

  15. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  16. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis.

  17. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus activates the renal sodium chloride cotransporter to cause hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoorn, Ewout J.; Walsh, Stephen B.; McCormick, James A.; Fürstenberg, Antje; Yang, Chao-Ling; Roeschel, Tom; Paliege, Alexander; Howie, Alexander J.; Conley, James; Bachmann, Sebastian; Unwin, Robert J.; Ellison, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are immunosuppressive drugs, which are used widely to prevent rejection of transplanted organs and treat autoimmune disease. Hypertension and renal tubule dysfunction, including hyperkalemia, hypercalciuria, and acidosis often complicate their use1,2. These side effects resemble familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt), a genetic disease characterized by overactivity of the renal sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC), and caused by mutations in WNK kinases. We hypothesized that CNIs induce hypertension by stimulating NCC. In wild-type mice, the CNI tacrolimus caused salt-sensitive hypertension and increased the abundance of phosphorylated NCC, and the NCC regulatory kinases WNK3, WNK4, and SPAK. The functional importance of NCC in this response was demonstrated by showing that tacrolimus did not affect blood pressure in NCC knockout mice, whereas the hypertensive response to tacrolimus was exaggerated in mice over-expressing NCC. Moreover, hydrochlorothiazide reversed tacrolimus-induced hypertension. In kidney transplant recipients treated with tacrolimus, fractional chloride excretion in response to bendroflumethiazide was greater than in controls, and renal NCC abundance was also greater, extending these observations to humans. Together, these findings indicate that tacrolimus-induced hypertension is mediated largely by NCC activation, and suggest that inexpensive and well-tolerated thiazide diuretics may be especially effective in preventing the complications of CNI treatment. PMID:21963515

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (−) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  19. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  20. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the combined treatment of trophic ulcers of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Zhirov, V P; Lipnitskiĭ, E M; Nagovitsyn, E S; Aksenova, E N; Kasimtseva, E V

    1989-01-01

    The use of sodium chloride baths for preoperative treatment of lower-limb trophic ulcers in 60 patients relieved the pain of the ulcer, enhanced repair processes. Epithelialization occurred in 9 patients. The duration of the hospital stay and the number of postoperative complications reduced.

  1. Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-06-21

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.

  2. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  3. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  4. Phytoaccumulation of sodium and chloride into leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart T. Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2007-01-01

    Information is limited about the response of Populus to elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-). We irrigated eight Populus clones (NC13460, NC14018, NC14104, NC14106, DM115, DN5, NM2, NM6) with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during...

  5. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Treesearch

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Adam H. Wiese; Bart Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in...

  6. Intrauterine tracheal obstruction, a new treatment for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, decreases amniotic fluid sodium and chloride concentrations in the fetal lamb.

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, V A; Flageole, H; Deprest, J A; Vandenberghe, K; Verhaeghe, J; Lerut, T E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of fetal tracheal occlusion on sodium and chloride concentrations in amniotic and tracheal fluid. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Intrauterine tracheal occlusion has been proposed to reverse pulmonary hypoplasia, an important prognostic factor in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In early human trials, technical failure of the obstructive device has been reported. METHODS: Eight fetal lambs (gestational age = 95 days) were subjected to fetal tracheoscopy, and amniotic and tracheal fluid samples were taken. In multiple pregnancies (n = 6), amniotic fluid was also sampled from the contralateral amniotic sac and used as a control. Subsequently, endotracheal obstruction, using a detachable balloon, was performed. After 14 days, all fetuses were delivered, and sodium and chloride concentrations in amniotic and tracheal fluid were measured again. Statistical analysis was done using a two-tailed Student's t test, paired or unpaired as appropriate. RESULTS: In controls, between 95 and 109 days gestational age, no significant changes occurred in sodium or chloride concentrations in amniotic or tracheal fluid. After 2 weeks of tracheal obstruction, however, chloride and sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid decreased (chloride = 76.7 mEq/L vs. 107.6 mEq/L, p = 0.0003; sodium = 109.6 mEq/L vs. 125.9 +/- 5.2 mEq/L, p = 0.019). A concomitant increase in chloride and sodium concentration was observed in tracheal fluid (chloride = 145.4 mEq/L vs. 130.0 mEq/L, p = 0.047; sodium = 153.1 mEq/L vs. 142.9 mEq/L, p = 0.051). When comparing groups at 109 days, chloride and sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid were markedly lower in the treated group versus controls (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.05 for chloride and sodium, respectively). CONCLUSION: Complete tracheal occlusion in ovine fetuses results in a significant decrease of amniotic fluid sodium and chloride concentrations. PMID:9409574

  7. Stability of i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Kintzel, Polly E; Zhao, Ting; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin

    2014-12-01

    The chemical stability of a sterile admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was evaluated. Triplicate samples were prepared and stored at room temperature without light protection for a total of 48 hours. Aliquots from each sample were tested for chemical stability immediately after preparation and at 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Metoclopramide, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate were selectively monitored using multiple-reaction monitoring. Samples were diluted differently for quantitation using three individual LC-MS/MS methods. To determine the drug concentration of the three compounds in the samples, three calibration curves were constructed by plotting the peak area or the peak area ratio versus the concentration of the calibration standards of each tested compound. Apixaban was used as an internal standard. Linearity of the calibration curve was evaluated by the correlation coefficient r(2). Constituents of the admixture of metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection retained more than 90% of their initial concentrations over 48 hours of storage at room temperature without protection from light. The observed variability in concentrations of these three compounds was within the limits of assay variability. An i.v. admixture containing metoclopramide 1.6 mg/mL, diphenhydramine hydrochloride 2 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.16 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was chemically stable for 48 hours when stored at room temperature without light protection. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prolactin stimulates sodium and chloride ion channels in A6 renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Megan M.; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D.; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Bao, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Many hormonal pathways contribute to the regulation of renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function, a key process for maintaining blood volume and controlling blood pressure. In the present study, we examined whether the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates ENaC function in renal epithelial cells (A6). Basolateral application of several different concentrations of PRL dramatically stimulated the transepithelial current in A6 cells, increasing both amiloride-sensitive (ENaC) and amiloride-insensitive currents. Using cell-attached patch clamp, we determined that PRL increased both the number (N) and open probability (Po) of ENaC present in the apical membrane. Inhibition of PKA with H-89 abolished the effect of PRL on amiloride-sensitive and insensitive transepithelial currents and eliminated the increase in ENaC NPo with PRL exposure. PRL also increased cAMP in A6 cells, consistent with signaling through the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. We also identified that PRL induced activity of a 2-pS anion channel with outward rectification, electrophysiological properties consistent with ClC4 or ClC5. RT-PCR only detected ClC4, but not ClC5 transcripts. Here, we show for the first time that PRL activates sodium and chloride transport in renal epithelial cells via ENaC and ClC4. PMID:25587116

  9. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  10. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-01-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  11. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-09

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment.

  12. The Use of Sodium Chloride & Aluminum as Phase Change Materials for High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Characterized by Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM) have a great deal of potential for the storage of thermal energy in a wide range of applications. The present work is aimed at developing encapsulated phase change materials capable of storing thermal energy at temperatures above 700°C for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. EPCM with a phase change material (PCM) with both a salt (sodium chloride) and a metal (aluminum) are considered here. Sodium chloride and aluminum are effective storage mediums because of their high melting points and large latent heats of fusion, 800°C and 660°C and 430kJ/kg and 397kJ/kg, respectively. Based on the heat capacities and the latent heat of fusion, for a 100 degree temperature range centered on the melting point of the PCM, 80% of the energy stored by the sodium chloride PCM can be attributed to the latent heat and 79% for the aluminum PCM. These large fractions attributed to latent heat have the potential for making EPCM based thermal energy storage devices smaller and less expensive. To study the performance of the candidate PCMs considered here, a specialized immersion calorimeter was designed, calibrated, and used to evaluate the storage capabilities of sodium chloride and aluminum based EPCMs. Additionally, the EPCMs were studied to ensure no loss of capacity would occur over the lifetime of the EPCM. While no reduction in the storage capacity of the sodium chloride EPCMs was found after repeated thermal cycles, there was a decrease in the storage capacity of the aluminum EPCMs after prolonged exposure to high temperatures.

  13. Spectrofluorimetric determination of warfarin sodium by using N1-methylnicotinamide chloride as a fluorigenic agent.

    PubMed

    El Dawy, Mohamed A; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; El Barbary, Riad A

    2005-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of drugs containing active methylene groups adjacent to carbonyl groups. The method was applied successfully to the determination of warfarin sodium in laboratory-prepared mixtures, in commercial tablets, and in spiked human plasma samples. Finally, the method was applied to the determination of the steady-state concentration of warfarin sodium in the blood of a hospitalized patient. The method involves the reaction of warfarin sodium with 0.2 ml (0.4 x 10(-3)M) N1-methylnicotinamide chloride reagent in the presence of 3 mL 1.0N NaOH and cooling in ice for 8 min, followed by adjustment of the pH to 2.0, using formic acid and heating for 4 min, whereby a highly fluorescent reaction product is produced. The optimal wavelengths of excitation and emission were determined by using a synchronous wavelength search and found to be 284 and 354 nm, respectively. The standard curves were linear over a concentration range of 50-1500 ng/mL in both aqueous solutions and spiked human plasma samples. The mean recoveries (+/- standard deviation) were 101.157 (+/-1.33) and 95.73 (+/-1.88%) for aqueous solutions and spiked human plasma samples, respectively. The method showed good specificity and precision. The proposed method is simple and economical because of its minimal instrumentation and chemicals requirements. Nevertheless, it is highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible. Accordingly, it is suitable for quality-control applications, drug monitoring, and bioavailability and bioequivalency studies.

  14. Effective inhibition of mannitol crystallization in frozen solutions by sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Telang, Chitra; Yu, Lian; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the possibility of preventing mannitol crystallization in frozen solutions by using pharmaceutically acceptable additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low-temperature X-ray diffractometry (LTXRD) were used to characterize the effect of additives on mannitol crystallization. DSC screening revealed that salts (sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and sodium acetate) inhibited mannitol crystallization in frozen solutions more effectively than selected surfactants, alpha-cyclodextrin, polymers, and alditols. This finding prompted further studies of the crystallization in the mannitol-NaCl-water system. Isothermal DSC results indicated that mannitol crystallization in frozen solutions was significantly retarded in the presence of NaCl and that NaCl did not crystallize until mannitol crystallization completed. Low-temperature X-ray diffractometry data showed that when a 10% w/v mannitol solution without additive was cooled at 1 degrees C/min, the crystalline phases emerging after ice crystallization were those of a mannitol hydrate as well as the anhydrous polymorphs. In the presence of NaCl (5% w/v), mannitol crystallization was suppressed during both cooling and warming and occurred only after annealing and rewarming. In the latter case however, mannitol did not crystallize as the hydrate, but as the anhydrous delta polymorph. At a lower NaCl concentration of 1% w/v, the inhibitory effect of NaCl on mannitol crystallization was evident even during annealing at temperatures close to the Tg' (-40 degrees C). A preliminary lyophilization cycle with polyvinyl pyrrolidone and NaCl as additives rendered mannitol amorphous. The effectiveness of additives in inhibiting mannitol crystallization in frozen solutions follows the general order: salts > alditols > polyvinyl pyrrolidone > alpha-cyclodextrin > polysorbate 80 approximately polyethylene glycol approximately poloxamer. The judicious use of additives can retain mannitol

  15. Oxygen, water, and sodium chloride transport in soft contact lenses materials.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Rafael; Compañ, Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Oxygen permeability, diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions and water flux and permeability in different conventional hydrogel (Hy) and silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lenses have been measured experimentally. The results showed that oxygen permeability and transmissibility requirements of the lens have been addressed through the use of siloxane containing hydrogels. In general, oxygen and sodium chloride permeability values increased with the water content of the lens but there was a percolation phenomenon from a given value of water uptake mainly in the Si-Hy lenses which appeared to be related with the differences between free water and bound water contents. The increase of ion permeability with water content did not follow a unique trend indicating a possible dependence of the chemical structure of the polymer and character ionic and non-ionic of the lens. Indeed, the salt permeability values for silicone hydrogel contact lenses were one order of magnitude below those of conventional hydrogel contact lenses, which can be explained by a diffusion of sodium ions occurring only through the hydrophilic channels. The increase of the ionic permeability in Si-Hy materials may be due to the confinement of ions in nanoscale water channels involving possible decreased degrees of freedom for diffusion of both water and ions. In general, ionic lenses presented values of ionic permeability and diffusivity higher than most non-ionic lenses. The tortuosity of the ionic lenses is lower than the non-ionic Si-Hy lenses. Frequency 55 and PureVision exhibited the highest water permeability and flux values and, these parameters were greater for ionic Si-Hy lenses than for ionic conventional hydrogel lenses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2218-2231, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    PubMed

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  17. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-10-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO{sub 3} solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO{sub 3} solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO{sub 3}, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary

  18. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  19. Delivery of paraldehyde in 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections through polyvinyl chloride i.v. sets and burettes.

    PubMed

    Welty, T E; Cloyd, J C; Abdel-Monem, M M

    1988-01-01

    The delivery of paraldehyde in 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection was studied, and the potential interaction between paraldehyde and plastic i.v. containers and sets was evaluated. Paraldehyde was mixed with either 5% dextrose injection or 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags to form a 4% solution. The bags were fitted with standard i.v. administration sets or burettes with administration sets. The solutions were allowed to drip through the i.v. sets for six hours at room temperature. Samples were taken from the i.v. bag or burette and from the distal end of the i.v. sets at zero, two, four, and six hours. Paraldehyde concentrations were measured using a stability-indicating gas chromatographic method, and the presence of plasticizers was detected by a scanning ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The cumulative amount of paraldehyde delivered at the end of the administration set at six hours was 84% for 5% dextrose solutions in burettes, and 89% or 90% for all other solutions and i.v. sets. An ultraviolet-light-absorbing substance appeared in some of the samples, although a relationship between the presence of this substance and type of solution, time of sampling, or site of sample did not emerge. Particulate matter appeared after two hours in all burettes. Approximately 10%-16% of paraldehyde in 5% dextrose or 0.9% sodium chloride injection is lost when delivered from PVC i.v. bags through standard i.v. administration sets and burettes over a six-hour period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fractional factorial design was used to assess the combined effects of four internal temperatures (55.0, 57.5, 60.0 and 62.5C) and five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt/wt%) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) (0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 wt/wt%) on the heat resis...

  1. Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

    2012-06-01

    Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

  2. Effects of sodium chloride and fat supplementation on finishing steers exposed to hot and cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2009-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat and salt (sodium chloride) on DMI, daily water intake (DWI), body temperature, and respiration rate (RR) in Bos taurus beef cattle. In Exp. 1 and 2, whole soybeans (SB) were used as the supplemental fat source. In Exp. 3, palm kernel meal and tallow were used. Experiment 1 (winter) and Exp. 2 (summer) were undertaken in an outside feedlot. Experiment 3 was conducted in a climate-controlled facility (mean ambient temperature = 29.9 degrees C). In Exp. 1, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 1% sodium chloride); and 3) salt-SB (control + 5% SB + 1% sodium chloride), were fed to 144 cattle (BW = 327.7 kg), using a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (BW = 334.1 kg) were used. In Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were used as in Exp. 1, and a 5% SB dietary treatment was included in an incomplete 3 x 4 Latin square design. In Exp. 3, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 0.92% NaCl); and 3) salt-fat (control + 3.2% added fat + 0.92% NaCl) were fed to 12 steers (BW = 602 kg) in a replicated Latin square design. In Exp. 1, cattle fed the salt-SB diet had elevated (P < 0.05) tympanic temperature (TT; 38.83 degrees C) compared with cattle fed the control (38.56 degrees C) or salt (38.50 degrees C) diet. In Exp. 2, cattle fed the salt and salt-SB diets had less (P < 0.05) DMI and greater (P < 0.05) DWI than cattle in the control and SB treatments. Cattle fed the salt-SB diet had the greatest (P < 0.05) TT (38.89 degrees C). Those fed only the salt diet or only the SB diet had the least (P < 0.05) TT, at 38.72 and 38.78 degrees C, respectively. Under hot conditions (Exp. 3), DMI of steers fed the salt and salt-fat diets declined by approximately 40% compared with only 24% for the control cattle. During hot conditions, DWI was greatest (P < 0.05) for steers on the salt-fat diet. These steers also had the greatest (P < 0.05) mean rectal temperature (40.03 +/- 0

  3. Expanding Spectrum of Sodium Potassium Chloride Co-transporters in the Pathophysiology of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Kaur, Aalamjeet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal

    2015-01-01

    Sodium potassium chloride co-transporter (NKCC) belongs to cation-dependent chloride co-transporter family, whose activation allows the entry of Na+, K+ and 2Cl- inside the cell. It acts in concert with K+ Cl- co-transporter (KCC), which extrudes K+ and Cl- ions from cell. NKCC1 is widely distributed throughout the body, while NKCC2 is exclusively present in kidney. Protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase, oxidative stress responsive kinases, With No K=lysine kinase and protein phosphatase type 1 control the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of key threonine residues of in regulatory domain of NKCC1. The selective inhibitors of NKCC1 including bumetanide and furosemide are conventionally employed as diuretics. However, recent studies have indicated that NKCC1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fragile X syndrome, autism and schizophrenia. The inhibitors of NKCC1 are shown to produce anxiolytic effects; attenuate cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal injury; produce antiepileptic effects and attenuate neuropathic pain. In the early developing brain, GABAA activation primarily produces excitatory actions due to high NKCC1/KCC2 ratio. However, as the development progresses, the ratio of NKCC1/KCC2 ratio reverses and there is switch in the polarity of GABAA actions and latter acquires the inhibitory actions. The recapitulation of developmental-like state during pathological state may be associated with increase in the expression and functioning of NKCC1, which decreases the strength of inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. The present review describes the expanding role and mechanism of NKCC1 in the pathophysiology of different diseases. PMID:26411965

  4. Attenuation by genistein of sodium-chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Baba, M; Yano, H; Uehara, H; Nakaizumi, A

    1999-01-29

    The effects of prolonged administration of genistein, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, on sodium-chloride-enhanced induction of gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labeling and apoptotic indices and vessel counts in the gastric mucosa and gastric cancers, were investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of the carcinogen treatment, rats were fed chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and were given s.c. injections of genistein at dosages of 15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg body weight every other day. In week 52, the incidence of gastric cancers was significantly greater in rats fed sodium chloride than in untreated control rats. Prolonged administration of genistein at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, but not 15 mg/kg, body weight significantly reduced the incidence of gastric cancers, which was increased by oral treatment with sodium chloride. Genistein at the higher dose significantly decreased the labeling index and vessel counts of the antral mucosa and the gastric cancers (which were increased by treatment with sodium chloride) and significantly increased the apoptotic index of the antral mucosa and the cancers (which was lowered by the treatment with sodium chloride). These findings suggest that genistein attenuates gastric carcinogenesis promoted by sodium chloride, by inducing increased apoptosis and lower cell proliferation and angiogenesis of antral mucosa and gastric cancers.

  5. Clinical and physiologic effects of sodium chloride baths in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Mitchell, Mark A; Watson, Megan

    2011-12-01

    Sodium chloride (salt; NaCl) has been used for freshwater fish to decrease stress and manage a variety of disease conditions. Recommendations for dose and duration vary greatly. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential adverse clinical and physiologic side effects of different concentrations of saltwater baths on goldfish. Eleven goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used in a cross-over study to assess the effects of three different salt concentrations (5, 10, and 20 g/L) on plasma biochemistries and clinical response. Baseline plasma chemistries were obtained and analyzed immediately prior to placing the goldfish into the saltwater bath and after the fish was removed. A 2-wk washout period was used in-between each treatment. Significant differences were found in fish in the sodium (10 g/L, P = 0.007; 20 g/L, P = 0.01), chloride (10 g/L, P = 0.006; 20 g/L, P = 0.001), and alanine aminotransferase (10 g/L, P = 0.002; 20 g/L, P = 0.004) after their exposure to 10 and 20 g/L saltwater. Glucose levels were found to differ significantly after exposure to all three NaCl concentrations (5 g/L, P = 0.0009; 10 g/L, P = 0.0001; 20 g/L, P = 0.0005). Clinically, 5 g/L and 10 g/L saltwater baths were well tolerated by the fish for the duration of the intended 12-hr treatments, with only one goldfish being removed during the 10 g/L bath at 7 hr for listlessness. The average time goldfish spent in the 20 g/L salt bath was 43 min, with six (54%) of the fish remaining in the 20 g/L salt bath for the intended 60-min treatment period. The remaining 5 (46%) goldfish were removed because they became listless or dyspneic. All of the fish recovered from the treatments without complication. The results of this study suggest that goldfish tolerate saltwater baths but that physiologic disturbances can occur at the higher doses.

  6. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-04-01

    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p < 0.01) of Cispt in Cispt + NaCl + DMSO formulation was equal to 78 and 7 %. These values were estimated 79 and 18 % for Cispt + DMSO formulation and 79 and 24 % for free drug. IC50 values demonstrated reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  7. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  8. Sodium chloride-enriched Diet Enhanced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Exacerbated Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Ivan; Marafini, Irene; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Di Fusco, Davide; Troncone, Edoardo; Zorzi, Francesca; Laudisi, Federica; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Environmental factors are supposed to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]. Increased dietary salt intake has been linked with the development of autoimmune diseases, but the impact of a salt-enriched diet on the course of IBD remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether high salt intake alters mucosal cytokine production and exacerbates colitis. Normal intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells [LPMCs] were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] and/or SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38/MAP Kinase. For in vivo experiments, a high dose of NaCl was administered to mice 15 days before induction of trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid [TNBS]-colitis or dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis. In parallel, mice were given SB202190 before induction of TNBS-colitis. Transcription factors and effector cytokines were evaluated by flow-cytometry and real-time PCR. IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α, and Ror-γT were significantly increased in human LPMCs following NaCl exposure, while there was no significant change in IFN-γ, T-bet or Foxp3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38/MAPK abrogated the NaCl-inducing effect on LPMC-derived cytokines. Mice receiving the high-salt diet developed a more severe colitis than control mice, and this effect was preventable by SB202190. Our data indicated that exposure of intestinal mononuclear cells to a high-NaCl diet enhanced effector cytokine production and contributed to the exacerbation of experimental colitis in mice. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effect of dietary sodium chloride on gastro-oesophageal reflux: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aanen, Marissa C; Bredenoord, Albert J; Smout, André J P M

    2006-10-01

    It has been suggested that a high consumption of sodium chloride (NaCl) is associated with reflux symptoms. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of increased dietary NaCl intake on gastro-oesophageal reflux and reflux mechanisms. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study 10 healthy male subjects received 5 g NaCl or placebo in capsules per day for one week, after which concurrent manometric, pH and impedance monitoring was carried out for 4.5 h. Oesophageal acid exposure time (pH < 4) was similar for placebo (median 11% (25th 3-75th 36)) and NaCl (9% (1-36)). No differences in the numbers of reflux episodes were found for NaCl (16 (13.5-22)) and placebo (23 (14.8-27)). Furthermore, similar numbers of liquid acid reflux episodes (placebo 12 (6.5-17.3); NaCl 10 (2.3-14.3)), liquid weakly acidic reflux episodes (placebo 5.5 (4-12.3); NaCl 6.5 (3-10.8)) and gaseous reflux episodes (placebo 1 (0-1.8); NaCl 2 (0-3)) were seen. In both conditions transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) were the most common reflux mechanism, followed by swallow-induced reflux. High salt intake lowered LOS pressure overall and in the first postprandial hour (p<0.01). High dietary sodium intake does not increase gastro-oesophageal reflux in healthy volunteers, despite a decrease in LOS pressure.

  10. Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Chloride for All-Cause Mortality After Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremiah R; Pearlman, Daniel M; Marshall, Emily J; Alam, Shama S; MacKenzie, Todd A; Recio-Mayoral, Alejandro; Gomes, Vitor O; Kim, Bokyung; Jensen, Lisette O; Mueller, Christian; Maioli, Mauro; Solomon, Richard J

    2016-11-15

    We sought to examine the relation between sodium bicarbonate prophylaxis for contrast-associated nephropathy (CAN) and mortality. We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis from multiple randomized controlled trials. We obtained individual patient data sets for 7 of 10 eligible trials (2,292 of 2,764 participants). For the remaining 3 trials, time-to-event data were imputed based on follow-up periods described in their original reports. We included all trials that compared periprocedural intravenous sodium bicarbonate to periprocedural intravenous sodium chloride in patients undergoing coronary angiography or other intra-arterial interventions. Included trials were determined by consensus according to predefined eligibility criteria. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality hazard, defined as time from randomization to death. In 10 trials with a total of 2,764 participants, sodium bicarbonate was associated with lower mortality hazard than sodium chloride at 1 year (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 0.89, p = 0.011). Although periprocedural sodium bicarbonate was associated with a reduction in the incidence of CAN (relative risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.91, p = 0.003), there exists a statistically significant interaction between the effect on mortality and the occurrence of CAN (hazard ratio 5.65, 95% CI 3.58 to 8.92, p <0.001) for up to 1-year mortality. Periprocedural intravenous sodium bicarbonate seems to be associated with a reduction in long-term mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography or other intra-arterial interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of antibacterial efficacy of plasma-treated sodium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Mareike A. C.; Mann, Miriam; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the change of chemical composition of sodium chloride solutions (NaCl, 0.85%) induced by non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment and subsequent effects on bacteria (Escherichia coli) are investigated. Besides acidification caused by APP, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrite (\\text{NO}2- ), and nitrate (\\text{NO}3- ) are generated as stable end-products of various chemical reactions in APP-treated liquids. Inactivation kinetics and reduction factors were recorded for E. coli (K12). Almost identical antimicrobial effects were observed with both direct APP exposure to bacteria suspension and exposure of APP-treated liquids to bacteria (indirect treatment). Consequently, main bactericidal effects are caused by chemical reactions which are mediated via the liquid phase. Moreover, APP-treated liquids have shown long-term activity (30 min) that possibly correlates with the ratio of \\text{NO}2- /H2O2. Therefore, \\text{NO}2- and H2O2 are identified as key agents for antimicrobial short- and long-term effects, respectively. The antimicrobial stability observed is strongly dependent on the used treatment regime and correlates additionally with the altered chemical composition of APP-treated liquids. Besides these effects, it was also shown that bacteria do not acquire resistance to such APP-treated solutions.

  12. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the “amyloid cascade” hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels. PMID:26075716

  13. Correlation Between Analytical and Thermodynamicaly Calculated Values of Density For Chloride-sodium Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudukalov, A.

    Leakage from pipe-lines, nonhermetic wells and other industrial equipment of highly mineralized chloride-sodium brines, incidentally produced during oil field exploitation is one of the main source of fresh groundwater contamination on the Arlan oil field. Thermodynamic calculation, aimed to define more exactly brines chemical composi- tion and density was carried out by FREZCHEM2 program (Mironenko M.V. et al. 1997). Five brines types with mineralization of 137.9, 181.2, 217.4, 243.7, 267.8 g/l and density of 1.176, 1.09, 1.135, 1.153, 1.167 g/cm3 correspondingly were used. It is necessary to note that preliminarily chemical compositions of two last brines were corrected according to their mineralization. During calculations it was determined the following density values of brines: 1.082, 1.114, 1.131, 1.146, 1.158 g/cm3 conse- quently. Obtained results demonstrate the significant discrepancy in experimental and model estimates. Significant excess of anions over cations in experimental data indicates a major prob- lem with the analytical measurements. During calculations it was analyzed the possi- bility of changes in brines density depending on editing to cations or deducting from anions requisite amount of agent for keeping charge balance equal to zero. Received results demonstrate that in this case brines density can change on 0.004-0.011 g/cm3.

  14. Thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of an aqueous sodium chloride solution upon supercooling.

    PubMed

    Corradini, D; Gallo, P; Rovere, M

    2008-06-28

    We present the results of a molecular dynamics simulation study of thermodynamic and structural properties upon supercooling of a low concentration sodium chloride solution in TIP4P water and the comparison with the corresponding bulk quantities. We study the isotherms and the isochores for both the aqueous solution and bulk water. The comparison of the phase diagrams shows that thermodynamic properties of the solution are not merely shifted with respect to the bulk. Moreover, from the analysis of the thermodynamic curves, both the spinodal line and the temperatures of maximum density curve can be calculated. The spinodal line appears not to be influenced by the presence of ions at the chosen concentration, while the temperatures of maximum density curve displays both a mild shift in temperature and a shape modification with respect to bulk. Signatures of the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point are found in the aqueous solution. By analyzing the water-ion radial distribution functions of the aqueous solution, we observe that upon changing density, structural modifications appear close to the spinodal. For low temperatures, additional modifications appear also for densities close to that corresponding to a low density configurational energy minimum.

  15. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    PubMed

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative aging of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J.; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2012-10-01

    Studies of the oxidative aging of single mixed component aerosol particles formed from oleic acid (OL) and sodium chloride over a range of relative humidities (RH) and ozone concentrations by aerosol optical tweezers are reported. The rate of loss of OL and changes in the organic phase volume are directly measured, comparing particles with effloresced and deliquesced inorganic seeds. The kinetics of the OL loss are analyzed and the value of the reactive uptake coefficient of ozone by OL is compared to previous studies. The reaction of OL is accompanied by a decrease in the particle volume, consistent with the evaporation of semivolatile products over a time scale of tens of thousands of seconds. Measurements of the change in the organic phase volume allow the branching ratio to involatile components to be estimated; between 50 and 85% of the initial organic volume remains involatile, depending on ozone concentration. The refractive index (RI) of the organic phase increases during and after evaporation of volatile products, consistent with aging followed by a slow restructuring in particle morphology. The hygroscopicity of the particle and kinetics of the response of the organic phase to changes in RH are investigated. Both size and RI of unoxidized and oxidized particles respond promptly to RH changes with values of the RI consistent with linear mixing rules. Such studies of the simultaneous changes in composition and size of mixed component aerosol provide valuable data for benchmarking kinetic models of heterogeneous atmospheric aging.

  17. Molecular dynamics simulation of an archaeal lipid bilayer with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Keiko; Shinoda, Wataru; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2007-02-07

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a bilayer formed by the synthetic archaeal lipid, diphytanyl phosphatidylcholine, in NaCl electrolyte solution at four different concentrations (0-4 M) to investigate how structural and dynamic properties of the model archaeal membrane are changed due to the ionic strength of the solution. The archaeal lipid bilayer shows minor changes in their physical properties, indicating the unusual high stability of the membrane against salt, though small reductions of molecular area and lateral diffusion of the lipid are detected at the highest electrolyte concentration of 4 M. Sodium ions penetrate to the ether-rich region, where the ions are likely bound to the ether oxygen in the sn-1 chain rather than to that in the sn-2 chain. The observed salt bridges among two or three neighboring lipids account for the small reduction in the molecular area. The bound ions together with the counter (chloride) ions give rise to a diffusive electric double layer; as a result, the membrane dipole potential is slightly increased with increasing NaCl concentration.

  18. Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread

    PubMed Central

    Belz, Markus C. E.; Axel, Claudia; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K.; Czerny, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. High-sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify 2-phenylethanol in the headspace of the bread dough during fermentation. The analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) changes in the aroma compounds 2-phenylethanol, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal. Descriptive sensory analysis and discriminating triangle tests revealed that significant differences were only determinable in samples with different yeast levels but not samples with different NaCl concentrations. This indicates that a reduction in NaCl does not significantly influence the aroma profile of yeasted bread at levels above the odour thresholds of the relevant compounds, thus consumers in general cannot detect an altered odour profile of low‑salt bread crumb. PMID:28805678

  19. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii.

  20. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the "amyloid cascade" hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.

  1. Determination of sodium chloride in pork meat by computed tomography at different voltages.

    PubMed

    Håseth, T T; Høy, M; Kongsro, J; Kohler, A; Sørheim, O; Egelandsdal, B

    2008-09-01

    Ground pork samples simulating the widely different chemical composition of hams during dry-cured ham production were produced and scanned by x-ray computed tomography (CT). Chemical composition accounted for most of the variation in CT values (97%). Tube voltage (80, 110, and 130 kV) affected CT value and the effect varied between different types of tissue. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was predicted in the ground samples with average prediction errors (RMSEP) as low as 0.2% to 1.0% NaCl. NaCl was also predicted in small samples of raw to dry-cured ham. When dry and fat ham samples were left out of the models, NaCl was predicted with a high precision (RMSEP 0.2% to 0.4% NaCl, R(2) > 0.99). CT can be used as a valuable, nondestructive tool to analyze distribution of and quantify NaCl in ham during dry-curing.

  2. Use of ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate in acute heat exposure of broilers.

    PubMed

    Branton, S L; Reece, F N; Deaton, J W

    1986-09-01

    Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were added separately to the drinking water of 42- to 52-day-old broilers. Birds were given access to the water ad libitum for a total of 42.5 hr consisting of 18.5 hr prior to an 8-hr interval of severe heat exposure and a further 16 hr-post exposure. Water and feed intake during the treatment period were unaffected by either NH4Cl at 6.25 g/liter (.63%) of distilled water (DW) or NaHCO3 at 3.15 g/liter (.32%) DW. Water intake was increased by approximately 20% in birds given water containing 6.25 g of NaHCO3/liter (.63%) DW, while both feed and water intake were severely limited by NH4Cl at 31 g/liter (3.1%) DW. Blood pH of birds was substantially lowered by consumption of NH4Cl, while consumption of NaHCO3 did not significantly affect blood pH. Blood pH of all treatments increased during the heat exposure period and declined afterward; however, blood pH change appeared to be more pronounced for birds receiving the NH4CL. A correlation coefficient (r = -.31) existed between blood pH and mortality, while a correlation (r = -.72) was demonstrated between water consumption and mortality.

  3. Effect of sodium chloride on the gelatinization of starch: a multimeasurement study.

    PubMed

    Chiotelli, Eleni; Pilosio, Giorgio; Le Meste, Martine

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on the gelatinization and rheological properties of wheat and potato starches has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and electron spin resonance techniques. All samples contained 60% water (w/w wet starch basis) and the salt content ranged from 0 to 16% (g/100 g starch-water). The presence of salt affected the onset (T(o)), peak (T(p)), and end (T(e)) temperatures of gelatinization, gelatinization enthalpy (DeltaH), storage modulus (G'), and rotational mobility coefficient (D(rot)), and the effect differed by salt concentration. 1H-NMR was used in parallel in order to elucidate how salts affect the properties of water in starch suspensions and in aqueous salt solutions according to their position on the Hofmeister series classification. The obtained results suggest that the mechanism of starch gelatinization in salt solutions can be attributed to the effect of solute on water properties and direct polymer-solute interactions. These two effects conflict with one another and result in complex effect patterns depending on the concentration of the salts. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103-104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  5. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  6. On the Post-Compaction Evolution of Tensile Strength of Sodium Chloride-Starch Mixture Tablets.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Jovana; Zavaliangos, Antonios

    2017-08-01

    This study focuses on the evolution of mechanical behavior of starch and sodium chloride (NaCl) mixture tablets after compaction. This type of mixture has attracted attention in the past because such tablets exhibit lower tensile strengths than the ones of its individual components. Here we demonstrate that the strengths of NaCl-starch mixtures and NaCl tablets evolve after compaction in an opposite way. When stored at relative humidity of 60%, NaCl tablets strengthen with time, whereas NaCl-starch mixtures weaken. To explain this behavior, we propose that in the NaCl-starch mixture, the presence of 2 materials with significantly different elastic moduli leads to creation of tensile stresses at the stiffer NaCl-NaCl contacts. Such tensile stresses lead to a reduction in strength of the compacted mixtures by negating a local dissolution-reprecipitation mechanism, which strengthens the NaCl-NaCl in pure NaCl tablet. This effect is proven by experimental results from NaCl specimens diametrically loaded during storage. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sodium chloride crystallization from thin liquid sheets, thick layers, and sessile drops in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Pietro; Pettit, Donald; Cristoforetti, Samantha

    2015-10-01

    Crystallization from aqueous sodium chloride solutions as thin liquid sheets, 0.2-0.7 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by a wire frame, thick liquid layers, 4-6 mm thick, with two free surfaces supported by metal frame, and hemispherical sessile drops, 20-32 mm diameter, supported by a flat polycarbonate surface or an initially flat gelatin film, were carried out under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). Different crystal morphologies resulted based on the fluid geometry: tabular hoppers, hopper cubes, circular [111]-oriented crystals, and dendrites. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-3350) inhibited the hopper growth resulting in flat-faced surfaces. In sessile drops, 1-4 mm tabular hopper crystals formed on the free surface and moved to the fixed contact line at the support (polycarbonate or gelatin) self-assembling into a shell. Ring formation created by sessile drop evaporation to dryness was observed but with crystals 100 times larger than particles in terrestrially formed coffee rings. No hopper pyramids formed. By choosing solution geometries offered by microgravity, we found it was possible to selectively grow crystals of preferred morphologies.

  8. Uncoupling of sodium and chloride to assist breeding for salinity tolerance in crops.

    PubMed

    Genc, Yusuf; Oldach, Klaus; Taylor, Julian; Lyons, Graham H

    2016-04-01

    The separation of toxic effects of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) by the current methods of mixed salts and subsequent determination of their relevance to breeding has been problematic. We report a novel method (Na(+) humate) to study the ionic effects of Na(+) toxicity without interference from Cl(-), and ionic and osmotic effects when combined with salinity (NaCl). Three cereal species (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum with and without the Na(+) exclusion gene Nax2) differing in Na(+) exclusion were grown in a potting mix under sodicity (Na(+) humate) and salinity (NaCl), and water use, leaf nutrient profiles and yield were determined. Under sodicity, Na(+)-excluding bread wheat and durum wheat with the Nax2 gene had higher yield than Na(+)-accumulating barley and durum wheat without the Nax2 gene. However, under salinity, despite a 100-fold difference in leaf Na(+), all species yielded similarly, indicating that osmotic stress negated the benefits of Na(+) exclusion. In conclusion, Na(+) exclusion can be an effective mechanism for sodicity tolerance, while osmoregulation and tissue tolerance to Na(+) and/or Cl(-) should be the main foci for further improvement of salinity tolerance in cereals. This represents a paradigm shift for breeding cereals with salinity tolerance.

  9. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast.

  10. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Effects of calcium chloride and sodium hexametaphosphate on certain chemical and physical properties of soymilk.

    PubMed

    Pathomrungsiyounggul, P; Grandison, A S; Lewis, M J

    2007-10-01

    Soymilks with sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) (0% to 1.2%) and calcium chloride (12.50, 18.75, and 25.00 mM Ca) were analyzed for total Ca, Ca ion concentration, pH, kinematic viscosity, particle diameter, and sediment after pasteurization. Higher added Ca led to significant (P

  12. Impact of sodium chloride on wheat flour dough for yeast-leavened products. I. Rheological attributes.

    PubMed

    Beck, Margit; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The rheological properties of wheat dough for yeast-leavened products were tested at different levels of sodium chloride (NaCl) addition ranging from 0 to 40 g NaCl kg⁻¹ wheat flour. Rheological tests carried out to make this evaluation included (1) empirical rheological methods of the Farinograph, load extension and a dough stickiness test and (2) fundamental rheological methods of creep recovery and dynamic rheometry. Modifications to the gluten matrix microstructure by NaCl were examined by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Highly significant (P⩽0.001) differences due to NaCl addition could be determined in particular by the stickiness test as well as by examination of the creep test with the Burger model. Rheological changes measured in the creep test probably depend on protein charge shielding due to NaCl interaction, resulting in an improvement in gluten network formation. An increase in dough stickiness was measured when using NaCl. The present result for stickiness is contrary to the common subjective results. Therefore the theory proposed here for increased stickiness suggests that it is based on more non-protein-bound water in the dough system due to NaCl interaction and thus more viscous dough behaviour, which leads to higher stickiness as measured with the stickiness test. This may also suggest that the objectively measured 'stickiness' in this case does not properly indicate the subjectively measured stickiness it was designed to represent. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of sodium chloride content in electrolyte solution on electrochemical impedance measurements of human dentin

    PubMed Central

    Eldarrat, Aziza; High, Alec; Kale, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) content in electrolyte solution on electrochemical impedance measurements of human dentin by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: Dentin samples were prepared from extracted molars. Electrochemical impedance measurements were carried out over a wide frequency range (0.01Hz-10MHz). After measurements, samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the mean values of dentin electrical resistance were 4284, 2062, 1336, 53 and 48kΩ at different NaCl contents in electrolyte solution. One-way ANOVA test of mean values of dentin electrical resistance revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) as a function of NaCl content in electrolyte solution. Comparing electrical resistance values of dentin samples at 0.05% w/v and 0.9% w/v concentrations were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05 at 95% confidence level). Scanning electron microscopy revealed structure of dentin sample with intertubular dentin matrix and distribution of patent dentinal tubules. Conclusion: This in vitro study indicated, through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, that electrical resistance of dentin was affected by the concentration of NaCl in electrolyte solution. It is clear from the current study that NaCl concentration in electrolyte solution has a marked influence on dentin electrical resistance. Therefore, this baseline data need to be considered in any future study on dental samples. PMID:28348614

  14. OVER-EXPRESSION OF THE SODIUM CHLORIDE COTRANSPORTER IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE FAMILIAL HYPERKALEMIC HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, James A.; Nelson, Joshua H.; Yang, Chao-Ling; Curry, Joshua N.; Ellison, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC) is the primary target of thiazides diuretics, drugs used commonly for long-term hypertension therapy. Thiazides also completely reverse the signs of Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt), suggesting that the primary defect in FHHt is increased NCC activity. To test whether increased NCC abundance alone is sufficient to generate the FHHt phenotype, we generated NCC transgenic mice; surprisingly, these mice did not display an FHHt-like phenotype. Systolic blood pressures of NCC transgenic mice did not differ from those of wild type mice, even after dietary salt-loading. NCC transgenic mice also did not display hyperkalemia or hypercalciuria, even when challenged with dietary electrolyte manipulation. Administration of fludrocortisone to NCC transgenic mice, to stimulate NCC, resulted in an increase in systolic blood pressure equivalent to that of wild type mice (approximately 20 mmHg). Although total NCC abundance was increased in the transgenic animals, phosphorylated (activated) NCC was not, suggesting that the defect in FHHt involves either activation of ion transport pathways other than NCC, or else direct activation of NCC, in addition to an increase in NCC abundance. PMID:21896937

  15. Variables Affecting Results of Sodium Chloride Tolerance Test for Identification of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Conville, Patricia S.; Witebsky, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium chloride tolerance test is often used in the identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria, particularly for distinguishing between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae. This test, however, is frequently unreliable for the identification of some species. In this study we examined the following variables: medium manufacturer, inoculum concentration, and atmosphere and temperature of incubation. Results show that reliability is improved if the test and control slants are inoculated with an organism suspension spectrophotometrically equal to a 1 McFarland standard. Slants should be incubated at 35°C in ambient air and checked weekly for 4 weeks. Growth on control slants should be critically evaluated to determine the adequacy of the inoculum; colonies should number greater than 50. Salt-containing media should be examined carefully to detect pinpoint or tiny colonies, and colonies should number greater than 50 for a positive reaction. Concurrent use of a citrate slant may be helpful for distinguishing between M. abscessus and M. chelonae. Molecular methodologies are probably the most reliable means for the identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria and should be used, if possible, when unequivocal species identification is of particular importance. PMID:9620376

  16. PENETRATION OF RADIOACTIVE SODIUM AND CHLORIDE INTO CEREBROSPINAL FLUID AND AQUEOUS HUMOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Ch'uan

    1948-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed on six dogs to determine the rate of penetration of Cl33 and Na24 across the blood-aqueous humor and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers after intravenous injection of the radioactive ions. The radioactivity measurements were made with an immersion type of Geiger-Müller counter. 2. The concentrations of the labelled ions in the anterior chamber and the cisterna magna increase slowly to approach that of plasma. The rate of penetration k is calculated from a simple exponential equation with the half-value interval t0.5 or the time required for the labelled-ion concentration in the fluid to reach 50 per cent of that of plasma. The average t0.5 for Cl38 and Na24 in aqueous humor are 34.3 ± 9 and 27.3 ± 9 minutes, respectively, while those for cerebrospinal fluid are 90 ± 6 and 95 ± 6 minutes, respectively. 3. A study of the radioactivity in plasma was made to determine the per cent remaining after a steady state was reached. By means of this determination the sodium and chloride space was calculated to be 33 ± 5 per cent. PMID:18920614

  17. Studies of excess electrons in sodium chloride clusters and of excess protons in water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, R.N.; Cheng, H.P.; Hakkinen, H.; Landman, U.

    1995-05-11

    Electronic structure calculations using the local density functional method with nonlocal norm-conserving pseudopotentials, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, and a novel method of all-quantum simulations, combining a quantum path-integral description of the nuclear degrees of freedom with concurrent electronic structure calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface, were employed in investigations of the structure and dynamics of sodium chloride and protonated water clusters. The Na{sub 14}Cl{sub 9} (or Na{sub 14}Cl{sub 9}{sup +}) cluster exhibits a face (surface) segregated metallic Na{sub 5} (Na{sub 5}{sup +}) over-layer, the stability of which is demonstrated by a molecular dynamics simulation at 660 K. In analogy with color centers in bulk ionic crystals, the excess electrons in the halogen-deficient clusters in the various metallization sequences occupy energy levels which are split from the bottom of the unoccupied `conduction band` of the corresponding stoichiometric parent. Analysis of the electronic spatial distributions and participation ratios indicates that the excess electrons are of a more delocalized nature in comparison with the electrons occupying the p-like `valence band`. 133 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  19. Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian-Hang; Reith, Maarten E A; Quick, Michael W

    2004-02-01

    The SLC6 family is a diverse set of transporters that mediate solute translocation across cell plasma membranes by coupling solute transport to the cotransport of sodium and chloride down their electrochemical gradients. These transporters probably have 12 transmembrane domains, with cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal tails, and at least some may function as homo-oligomers. Family members include the transporters for the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine, the aminergic transmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, the osmolytes betaine and taurine, the amino acid proline, and the metabolic compound creatine. In addition, this family includes a system B(0+) cationic and neutral amino acid transporter, and two transporters for which the solutes are unknown. In general, SLC6 transporters act to regulate the level of extracellular solute concentrations. In the central and the peripheral nervous system, these transporters can regulate signaling among neurons, are the sites of action of various drugs of abuse, and naturally occurring mutations in several of these proteins are associated with a variety of neurological disorders. For example, transgenic animals lacking specific aminergic transporters show profoundly disturbed behavioral phenotypes and probably represent excellent systems for investigating psychiatric disease. SLC6 transporters are also found in many non-neural tissues, including kidney, intestine, and testis, consistent with their diverse physiological roles. Transporters in this family represent attractive therapeutic targets because they are subject to multiple forms of regulation by many different signaling cascades, and because a number of pharmacological agents have been identified that act specifically on these proteins.

  20. Influence of sodium chloride content in electrolyte solution on electrochemical impedance measurements of human dentin.

    PubMed

    Eldarrat, Aziza; High, Alec; Kale, Girish

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) content in electrolyte solution on electrochemical impedance measurements of human dentin by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Dentin samples were prepared from extracted molars. Electrochemical impedance measurements were carried out over a wide frequency range (0.01Hz-10MHz). After measurements, samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the mean values of dentin electrical resistance were 4284, 2062, 1336, 53 and 48kΩ at different NaCl contents in electrolyte solution. One-way ANOVA test of mean values of dentin electrical resistance revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) as a function of NaCl content in electrolyte solution. Comparing electrical resistance values of dentin samples at 0.05% w/v and 0.9% w/v concentrations were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05 at 95% confidence level). Scanning electron microscopy revealed structure of dentin sample with intertubular dentin matrix and distribution of patent dentinal tubules. This in vitro study indicated, through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, that electrical resistance of dentin was affected by the concentration of NaCl in electrolyte solution. It is clear from the current study that NaCl concentration in electrolyte solution has a marked influence on dentin electrical resistance. Therefore, this baseline data need to be considered in any future study on dental samples.

  1. Sodium chloride promotes tissue inflammation via osmotic stimuli in subtotal-nephrectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Fumiko; Ito, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Sawai, Akiho; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Takako; Tawada, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Akio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sagara, Akihiro; Wada, Takashi; Maruyama, Shoichi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Imai, Enyu; Takei, Yoshifumi

    2017-04-01

    Chronic inflammation, which is often associated with high all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, is prevalent in patients with renal failure; however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. High-salt intake was reported to induce lymphangiogenesis and autoimmune diseases via osmotic stimuli with accumulation of sodium or chloride. In addition, sodium was recently reported to be stored in the extremities of dialysis patients. We studied the effects and mechanisms of high salt loading on tissue and systemic inflammation in subtotal-nephrectomized mice (5/6Nx) and in cultured cells. Macrophage infiltration in the peritoneal wall (P<0.001), heart (P<0.05) and para-aortic tissues (P<0.001) was significantly higher in 5/6Nx with salt loading (5/6Nx/NaCl) than in 5/6Nx without salt loading (5/6Nx/Water); however, there were no significant differences in blood pressure and renal function between the groups. Tissue interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1) and tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) mRNA were significantly elevated in the peritoneal wall and heart with 5/6Nx/NaCl when compared with 5/6Nx/Water. Sodium was stored in the abdominal wall, exerting high-osmotic conditions. Reversal of salt loading reduced macrophage infiltration associated with decreased TonEBP in 5/6Nx/NaCl. Macrophage infiltration associated with fibrosis induced by salt loading was decreased in the 5/6Nx/NaCl/CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2, receptor of MCP-1)-deficient mice when compared with 5/6Nx/NaCl/Wild mice, suggesting that CCR2 is required for macrophage infiltration in 5/6Nx with NaCl loading. In cultured mesothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, culture media with high NaCl concentration induced MCP-1, Sgk1 and TonEBP mRNA, all of which were suppressed by TonEBP siRNA, indicating that both MCP-1 and Sgk1 are downstream of TonEBP. Our study indicates that high NaCl intake induces MCP-1 expression leading to

  2. Inhibition of vacuolation toxin activity of Helicobacter pylori by iodine, nitrite and potentiation by sodium chloride, sterigmatocystin and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengjuan; Zhao, Wenyuan; Kudo, Masanobu; Aoki, Kazuo; Misumi, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    The toxin VacA produced by Helicobacter pylori is an important determinant of virulence. VacA causes vacuolation of cultured cells such as HeLa cells. Iodine, nitrite, sodium chloride, thiocyanate and fungus toxin sterigmatocystin are universally present in nature and could possibly be related to carcinogenesis of the stomach. The present study was designed to examine the effects of the above-mentioned compound on VacA-induced vacuolation of HeLa cells, which was quantitated using the neutral red uptake assay. VacA-induced vacuolation was inhibited by BafA1 and NPPB. Formation of large vacuoles was inhibited in the presence of iodine, nitrite, but enhanced by sodium chloride, thiocyanate, fluoride and sterigmatocystin. Our results indicate that VacA toxin may interact with other gastric cancer risk factors present naturally in the environment, and suggest that those compounds may modulate the development of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori.

  3. Standard state thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride using high dilution calorimetry at extreme temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

    2009-04-16

    In this communication, we report the first calorimetric data for the standard state enthalpies of a solution of sodium chloride obtained from high dilution, down to (10(-3) m), integral heats of solution measurements to 596.30 K. Although there are no comparable thermodynamic data available at such high dilutions in the literature, the present results for NaCl(aq) can be used for many thermodynamic studies by others to achieve a complete thermodynamic description of this key electrolyte over very wide ranges of concentration. From the recently developed unified theory of electrolytes, the experimental data from this study were used to predict Gibbs free energies of hydration of sodium chloride up to 1100 K. These Gibbs free energies of hydration at different pressures and densities compare well with reported values obtained from ab initio calculations by others.

  4. Studies of single aerosol particles containing malonic acid, glutaric acid, and their mixtures with sodium chloride. I. Hygroscopic growth.

    PubMed

    Pope, Francis D; Dennis-Smither, Ben J; Griffiths, Paul T; Clegg, Simon L; Cox, R Anthony

    2010-04-29

    We describe a newly constructed electrodynamic balance with which to measure the relative mass of single aerosol particles at varying relative humidity. Measurements of changing mass with respect to the relative humidity allow mass (m) growth factors (m(aqueous)/m(dry)) and diameter (d) growth factors (d(aqueous)/d(dry)) of the aerosol to be determined. Four aerosol types were investigated: malonic acid, glutaric acid, mixtures of malonic acid and sodium chloride, and mixtures of glutaric acid and sodium chloride. The mass growth factors of the malonic acid and glutaric acid aqueous phase aerosols, at 85% relative humidity, were 2.11 +/- 0.08 and 1.73 +/- 0.19, respectively. The mass growth factors of the mixed organic/inorganic aerosols are dependent upon the molar fraction of the individual components. Results are compared with previous laboratory determinations and theoretical predictions.

  5. Comparison of heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride for maintaining peripheral intravenous catheter patency in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yu; Odunayo, Adesola; Mann, F A

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether heparinized saline would be more effective in maintaining the patency of peripheral IV catheters in dogs compared to 0.9% sodium chloride. Prospective blinded randomized study. University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Thirty healthy purpose bred dogs, intended for use in the junior surgery laboratory, were utilized. The dogs were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, 2 treatment groups and a control group. An 18-Ga cephalic catheter was placed in the cephalic vein of each dog. Each dog in the treatment group had their catheter flushed with either 10 IU/mL heparinized saline or 0.9% sodium chloride every 6 hours for 42 hours. The dogs in the control group did not have their catheters flushed until the end of the study period. Immediately prior to flushing catheters, each catheter was evaluated for patency by aspiration of blood and the catheter site was evaluated for phlebitis. All dogs in the heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride group had catheters that flushed easily at each evaluation point. More dogs in the saline group had catheters from which blood could not be aspirated, but there was no significant difference between these groups. All dogs in the control group had catheters that flushed easily at the end of the assigned 6 hour interval except in 1 dog. Phlebitis was not detected in any dog. Flushes of 0.9% sodium chloride were found to be as effective as 10 IU/mL heparinized saline flushes in maintaining patency of 18-Ga peripheral venous catheters in dogs for up to 42 hours. For peripheral catheters placed with the intention of performing serial blood draws, heparinized flushes may be warranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  6. The transport dynamics of chloride and sodium in a ladder fen during a continuous wastewater polishing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, Colin P. R.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2017-06-01

    Ladder fen peatlands have excellent potential for wastewater polishing as they naturally contain both open water (pools) and subsurface (peat) treatment landforms; however, there is a poor understanding of solute transport in ladder fens with and without the increased hydrological load imposed by wastewater discharge. To better understand solute transport in ladder fens under wastewater polishing conditions a continuous solute (NaCl) tracer experiment (38 m3 day-1 of water, chloride - 47.2 mg L-1, and sodium - 25.3 mg L-1) was conducted during the summer of 2014 (day of year 192-243) in a small ladder fen in the James Bay Lowland. The transmissivity distribution and effective porosity (average 0.5) of the peat ribs were determined through repeated bail tests and the drainable porosity of 18 peat cores at -100 mb, respectively. Water samples were taken at least every 7 days to capture the solute (sodium and chloride) plumes. Both solute plumes never reached the site outflow (∼250 m downgradient) and displayed complex plume morphology, typically following the patterns of higher hydraulic conductivity within the upper 0.1 m of the saturated peat, rather than the microtopography. Based on the 50% breakthrough isotherms, sodium and chloride were transported at an average solute velocity of 1.9 and 1.1 m day-1, respectively (average linear groundwater velocity = 2.1 m day-1); thus, the solutes were retarded by a factor of 2.1 and 1.2 for sodium and chloride, respectively. Due to the inherent retardation of solutes into inactive pores and relatively high solute residence times, this study demonstrates the potential for wastewater polishing in ladder fens.

  7. Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the activities of proteases and amylases in soy sauce koji.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Wei; Wang, Mei-Ling; Kwok, Kam-Fu; Lee, Min-Hsiung

    2005-03-09

    This study investigated the effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of soy sauce koji. The optimal temperatures for both protease and amylase were found in the range of 50-55 degrees C. The protease was not stable at 55 degrees C and retained only approximately 20% residual activity after incubation at 55 degrees C for 4 h. The protease was labile in sodium chloride solution, whereas the amylase was quite stable. The residual protease activity in an 18% NaCl solution was only approximately 3%. The harvested koji was mixed with 1.5 volumes of water (v/w) and incubated at 45 degrees C for 48 h; the total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were 1.3 and 0.56%, respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis of koji at the critical temperature of 45 degrees C could be employed as a rapid fermentation method to reduce the time for soy sauce manufacturing. According to this study, the combination of 5% sodium chloride and fermentation at 45 degrees C was considered as the best condition for the prohydrolysis of koji for making soy sauce. In addition, the critical temperature of 45 degrees C was very important when used in the preparation of protein hydrolysates for the flavoring industry and for the preparation of biologically active peptides.

  8. A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

    2012-07-01

    Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70°C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sodium Chloride Reduces Production of Curvacin A, a Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus curvatus Strain LTH 1174, Originating from Fermented Sausage

    PubMed Central

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain originating in fermented sausage, produces the antilisterial bacteriocin curvacin A. Its biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production as a function of various concentrations of salt (sodium chloride) were investigated in vitro during laboratory fermentations using modified MRS medium. A model was set up to describe the effects of different NaCl concentrations on microbial behavior. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were affected by changes in the salt concentration. Sodium chloride clearly slowed down the growth of L. curvatus LTH 1174, but more importantly, it had a detrimental effect on specific curvacin A production (kB) and hence on overall bacteriocin activity. Even a low salt concentration (2%, wt/vol) decreased bacteriocin production, while growth was unaffected at this concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaCl was mainly due to its role as an aw-lowering agent. Further, it was clear that salt interfered with bacteriocin induction. Additionally, when 6% (wt/vol) sodium chloride was added, the minimum biomass concentration necessary to start the production of curvacin A (XB) was 0.90 g (cell dry mass) per liter. Addition of the cell-free culture supernatant or a protein solution as a source of induction factor resulted in a decrease in XB, an increase in kB, and hence an increase in the maximum attainable bacteriocin activity. PMID:15066822

  10. Transcriptional analysis of different stress response genes in Escherichia coli strains subjected to sodium chloride and lactic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Tasara, Taurai

    2014-12-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli in food depends on its ability to adapt against encountered stress typically involving induction of stress response genes. In this study, the transcriptional induction of selected acid (cadA, speF) and salt (kdpA, proP, proW, otsA, betA) stress response genes was investigated among five E. coli strains, including three Shiga toxin-producing strains, exposed to sodium chloride or lactic acid stress. Transcriptional induction upon lactic acid stress exposure was similar in all but one E. coli strain, which lacked the lysine decarboxylase gene cadA. In response to sodium chloride stress exposure, proW and otsA were similarly induced, while significant differences were observed between the E. coli strains in induction of kdpA, proP and betA. The kdpA and betA genes were significantly induced in four and three strains, respectively, whereas one strain did not induce these genes. The proP gene was only induced in two E. coli strains. Interestingly, transcriptional induction differences in response to sodium chloride stress exposure were associated with survival phenotypes observed for the E. coli strains in cheese as the E. coli strain lacking significant induction in three salt stress response genes investigated also survived poorly compared to the other E. coli strains in cheese.

  11. Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y; Chai, L C; Pui, C F; Mustafa, S; Cheah, Y K; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 1-10% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 °C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 °C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 °C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress.

  12. Sodium chloride reduces production of curvacin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus strain LTH 1174, originating from fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain originating in fermented sausage, produces the antilisterial bacteriocin curvacin A. Its biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production as a function of various concentrations of salt (sodium chloride) were investigated in vitro during laboratory fermentations using modified MRS medium. A model was set up to describe the effects of different NaCl concentrations on microbial behavior. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were affected by changes in the salt concentration. Sodium chloride clearly slowed down the growth of L. curvatus LTH 1174, but more importantly, it had a detrimental effect on specific curvacin A production (k(B)) and hence on overall bacteriocin activity. Even a low salt concentration (2%, wt/vol) decreased bacteriocin production, while growth was unaffected at this concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaCl was mainly due to its role as an a(w)-lowering agent. Further, it was clear that salt interfered with bacteriocin induction. Additionally, when 6% (wt/vol) sodium chloride was added, the minimum biomass concentration necessary to start the production of curvacin A (X(B)) was 0.90 g (cell dry mass) per liter. Addition of the cell-free culture supernatant or a protein solution as a source of induction factor resulted in a decrease in X(B), an increase in k(B), and hence an increase in the maximum attainable bacteriocin activity.

  13. Oral calcium pectinate-insulin nanoparticles: influences of alginate, sodium chloride and Tween 80 on their blood glucose lowering performance.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin W; Sumiran, Nurjaya

    2014-05-01

    Examine the formation of pectin-insulin nanoparticles and their blood glucose lowering properties. The calcium pectinate nanoparticles were prepared by ionotropic gelation method, with alginate, sodium chloride or Tween 80 as additive. Their in vitro physicochemical, drug release and in vivo blood glucose lowering characteristics were evaluated. Spherical calcium pectinate-insulin nanoparticles were characterized by size, zeta potential, insulin content and insulin association efficiency of 348.4 ± 12.9 nm, -17.9 ± 0.8 mV, 8.4 ± 1.0% and 63.8 ± 7.4%, respectively. They released less than 25% insulin following 24 h in simulated intestinal medium and exhibited delayed blood glucose lowering effect in rats. Incorporation of solubilizer sodium chloride or Tween 80 into nanoparticles did not enhance blood glucose lowering capacity owing to sodium chloride reduced matrix insulin content and Tween 80 interacted with water and had its blood glucose dilution effect negated. Combination of nanoparticles with alginate gel to allow prolonged intestinal residence and more insulin release did not enhance their blood glucose lowering capacity because of calcium alginate-cross-linked gel formation that could retard insulin release and migration into systemic circulation. Physicochemical responses of additives in vivo affected blood glucose regulation property of pectin-insulin nanoparticles. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Chemical castration in cattle with intratesticular injection of sodium chloride: Effects on stress and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando C; Ferreira, Carlos E R; Haas, Cristina S; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Mondadori, Rafael G; Schneider, Augusto; Rovani, Monique T; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Lucia, Thomaz

    2017-03-01

    Intratesticular injection (ITI) of sodium chloride (NaCl) is efficient for chemical castration of young calves, but its effects on calves welfare are unknown. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ITI of 20% NaCl on stress and inflammatory markers in calves less than 20 days old and to assess the efficiency of ITI of 30% NaCl in 5 months old calves. In Experiment 1, control calves were only restrained and compared to calves submitted to castration through surgery (SC) and ITI with 20% NaCl (n = 9/group). No differences were observed for the eye corner temperature measured by thermography from 60 s before to 60 s after the procedures (P > 0.05). In the SC group, acute serum cortisol levels increased at 30 and 60 min after the procedure, but increased levels in the ITI group occurred only at 30 min (P < 0.05). Chronic discomfort markers were measured at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the procedures (D0, D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively). The serum levels of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme and cortisol did not differ among groups (P > 0.05). Scrotal temperature was higher at D1 in the SC group than for the other groups, but lowest at D4 compared to the control (both P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, histological sections of testes were compared after ITI with either 30% NaCl or 30% calcium chloride (CaCl2), to intact calves (control). After 60 days, intact seminiferous tubules and mediastinum were observed after ITI with 30% NaCl, whereas coagulative necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and calcification occurred after ITI with 30% CaCl2. Efficient chemical castration through ITI of 20% NaCl in young calves was followed by slight stress and inflammatory responses compared to surgical castration. However, ITI of 30% NaCl was ineffective for chemical castration of 5 months old calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The effect of sodium chloride baths on the physical work capacity and extrasystole of patients with ischemic heart disease and stable stenocardia].

    PubMed

    Klemenkov, S V; Davydova, O B; Levitskiĭ, E F; Chashchin, N F; Sharova, O Ia; Kubushko, I V

    1999-01-01

    73 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stable angina pectoris of NYHA class I and II underwent balneotherapy. 43 of them took a course of sodium chloride baths, 30 control patients took common water baths. As shown by spiroveloergometry and Holter monitoring, sodium chloride baths are a good training modality in IHD patients. They enhance muscular performance and coronary heart reserve, reduce the mean 24-h number of ventricular extrasystoles by 49.9%, supraventricular extrasystoles by 57.5%.

  16. Effect of different non-chloride sodium sources on the performance of heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, T; Mushtaq, T; Mahr-Un-Nisa; Sarwar, M; Hooge, D M; Mirza, M A

    2006-06-01

    1. One hundred and eighty 1-d-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect upon broiler performance during severely hot summer months of three different sodium salts: sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), in starter and finisher diets having an identical electrolyte balance (DEB) of 250 mEq/kg. 2. The non-chloride sodium salts were added to contribute the same amount of sodium and were substituted at the expense of builder's sand in the basal diets containing common salt (NaCl) as Na and Cl source. 3. Each diet was fed to three experimental units having 15 chicks each until 42 d of age. Severe heat-stress conditions, maintained in the rearing room, were indicated by high average weekly room temperature (minimum 29.3 degrees C; maximum 38.0 degrees C). 4. Diets containing sodium salts gave better body weight gain, feed intake and feed to gain ratio than the control diet. Sodium salts also enhanced water intake as well as water to feed intake ratio. This effect was more pronounced in broilers fed NaHCO3 supplement (with NaCl in the basal diets). 5. The increased water intake resulted in lower body temperature in heat-stressed birds fed NaHCO3 supplemented diet than in birds fed other sodium salts. A lower mortality rate was noted with NaHCO3 (15.15%), Na2CO3 (13.64%) and Na2SO4 (15.15%) supplements than with the control (33.33%) treatment. 6. Better carcase and parts yield were observed in sodium supplemented broilers. Sodium salts reduced the alkalotic pH and enhanced the blood sodium content, which ultimately improved the blood electrolyte balance and overall performance of heat-stressed broilers. 7. Supplementing broiler diets with sodium salts improved the live performance of heat-stressed broilers and better productive performance was noted with NaHCO3 than other sodium supplements.

  17. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B; MacAulay, N; Fenton, R A

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antibodies targeting pS124-NCC demonstrated a band of 160 kDa in the kidney cortex, but not medulla, which was preabsorbed by a corresponding phosphorylated peptide. Confocal microscopy with kidney tubule segment-specific markers localized pS124-NCC to all distal convoluted tubule cells. Double immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that pS124-NCC co-localized with total NCC in the apical plasma membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells and intracellular vesicles. Acute treatment of Munich-Wistar rats or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats with the vasopressin type 2 receptor-specific agonist dDAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and mTOR/FRAP) showed weak but significant phosphorylation activity at S124. In oocytes, (36)Cl uptake studies combined with biochemical analysis showed decreased activity of plasma membrane-associated NCC when replacing S124 with alanine (A) or aspartic acid (D). In novel tetracycline-inducible MDCKII-NCC cell lines, S124A and S124D mutants were able to traffic to the plasma membrane similarly to wildtype NCC.

  18. Biofilm Formation by Clostridium ljungdahlii Is Induced by Sodium Chloride Stress: Experimental Evaluation and Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rabaey, Korneel; Lovley, Derek R.; Vargas, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii is capable of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilm formation could benefit both these applications, but was not yet reported for C. ljungdahlii. Biofilm formation does not occur under standard growth conditions, but attachment or aggregation could be induced by different stresses. The strongest biofilm formation was observed with the addition of sodium chloride. After 3 days of incubation, the biomass volume attached to a plastic surface was 20 times higher with than without the addition of 200 mM NaCl to the medium. The addition of NaCl also resulted in biofilm formation on glass, graphite and glassy carbon, the latter two being often used electrode materials for microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilms were composed of extracellular proteins, polysaccharides, as well as DNA, while pilus-like appendages were observed with, but not without, the addition of NaCl. A transcriptome analysis comparing planktonic (no NaCl) and biofilm (NaCl addition) cells showed that C. ljungdahlii coped with the salt stress by the upregulation of the general stress response, Na+ export and osmoprotectant accumulation. A potential role for poly-N-acetylglucosamines and D-alanine in biofilm formation was found. Flagellar motility was downregulated, while putative type IV pili biosynthesis genes were not expressed. Moreover, the gene expression analysis suggested the involvement of the transcriptional regulators LexA, Spo0A and CcpA in stress response and biofilm formation. This study showed that NaCl addition might be a valuable strategy to induce biofilm formation by C. ljungdahlii, which can improve the efficacy of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis applications. PMID:28118386

  19. Inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of Aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eizo; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2011-01-01

    The present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of Aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when A. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (NaCl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of ASP is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of A. sobria (ASP) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. In this study, the effect of salt in the medium on the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria (AMP) was examined. A. sobria produced AMP in the milieu when the bacteria were cultured in medium containing (NaCl) at a concentration of 0.5%. However, AMP was not produced when the bacteria were cultured in salty medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. To examine how NaCl reduces the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria, the amount of amp mRNA in the cell was measured and it was found that this decreased in proportion to the concentration of NaCl in the medium. The mRNA of amp was not detected in cells cultured in medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. This means that the transcription of amp is inhibited in salty condition. As described, NaCl in the medium disturbs the maturation pathway of ASP. The mode of action whereby NaCl suppresses AMP activity in A. sobria differs from the mechanism for suppressing ASP activity. © 2010 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri.

    PubMed

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško

    2015-07-01

    Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2 S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2 S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2 S with or without Cl(-) channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K(+) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca(2+) channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Na2 S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2 S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2 S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3 (-) , suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2 S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. The relaxant effects of Na2 S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl(-) -pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca(2+) -dependent. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  2. The association of serum sodium and chloride levels with blood pressure and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kei; Oda, Eiji; Kanda, Eiichiro

    2016-01-01

    High serum sodium (sNa) concentrations may be associated with hypertension, which deteriorates kidney function. However, it is equivocal whether high sNa concentrations are associated with impaired kidney function independently of blood pressure (BP) or serum chloride (sCl). Therefore, we addressed this issue in an apparently healthy population. Clinical variables including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were examined in 3603 men and women (aged 25-75 years) who underwent health-screening check-ups. sNa concentrations were classified into five categories. Most parameters, including age and BP, increased with increasing sNa, whereas eGFR decreased. Logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with low-normal sNa (≤ 140 mEq/l), high sNa (≥ 144 mEq/l) was significantly associated with elevated BP (≥ 130/85 mmHg) even after adjustment for blood hematocrit, eGFR, serum potassium (sK) concentration and sCl. The highest sNa category was significantly associated with reduced eGFR (< 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) independently of elevated BP. Unlike adjustment for sK, adjustment for sCl strengthened the association between high sNa and elevated BP but attenuated the association between high sNa and reduced eGFR. These results suggest that high sNa concentrations, even within the normal range, are independently associated with elevated BP and impaired kidney function. These associations may be substantially modified by sCl.

  3. Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells.

    PubMed

    Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Manzel, Arndt; Titze, Jens; Kvakan, Heda; Yosef, Nir; Linker, Ralf A; Muller, Dominik N; Hafler, David A

    2013-04-25

    There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases in the past half-century. Although the underlying genetic basis of this class of diseases has recently been elucidated, implicating predominantly immune-response genes, changes in environmental factors must ultimately be driving this increase. The newly identified population of interleukin (IL)-17-producing CD4(+) helper T cells (TH17 cells) has a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases. Pathogenic IL-23-dependent TH17 cells have been shown to be critical for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, and genetic risk factors associated with multiple sclerosis are related to the IL-23-TH17 pathway. However, little is known about the environmental factors that directly influence TH17 cells. Here we show that increased salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) concentrations found locally under physiological conditions in vivo markedly boost the induction of murine and human TH17 cells. High-salt conditions activate the p38/MAPK pathway involving nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5; also called TONEBP) and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) during cytokine-induced TH17 polarization. Gene silencing or chemical inhibition of p38/MAPK, NFAT5 or SGK1 abrogates the high-salt-induced TH17 cell development. The TH17 cells generated under high-salt conditions display a highly pathogenic and stable phenotype characterized by the upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF, TNF-α and IL-2. Moreover, mice fed with a high-salt diet develop a more severe form of EAE, in line with augmented central nervous system infiltrating and peripherally induced antigen-specific TH17 cells. Thus, increased dietary salt intake might represent an environmental risk factor for the development of autoimmune diseases through the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells.

  4. Influence of Sodium Chloride on the Formation and Dissociation Behavior of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Holzammer, Christine; Schicks, Judith M; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2017-09-07

    We present an experimental study on the formation and dissociation characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas hydrates using Raman spectroscopy. The CO2 hydrates were formed from sodium chloride/water solutions with salinities of 0-10 wt %, which were pressurized with liquid CO2 in a stirred vessel at 6 MPa and a subcooling of 9.5 K. The formation of the CO2 hydrate resulted in a hydrate gel where the solid hydrate can be considered as the continuous phase that includes small amounts of a dispersed liquid water-rich phase that has not been converted to hydrate. During the hydrate formation process we quantified the fraction of solid hydrate, xH, and the fraction of the dispersed liquid water-rich phase, xL, from the signature of the hydroxyl (OH)-stretching vibration of the hydrate gel. We found that the fraction of hydrate xH contained in the hydrate gel linearly depends on the salinity of the initial liquid water-rich phase. In addition, the ratio of CO2 and water was analyzed in the liquid water-rich phase before hydrate formation, in the hydrate gel during growth and dissociation, and after its complete dissociation again in the liquid water-rich phase. We observed a supersaturation of CO2 in the water-rich phase after complete dissociation of the hydrate gel and were able to show that the excess CO2 exists as dispersed micro- or nanoscale liquid droplets in the liquid water-rich phase. These residual nano- and microdroplets could be a possible explanation for the so-called memory effect.

  5. RasGRP1 stimulation enhances ubiquitination and endocytosis of the sodium-chloride cotransporter

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Benjamin; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Cooke, Leslie L.; Moddes, Lauren N.; Deen, Peter M. T.

    2010-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt-absorptive pathway in the distal convoluted tubule. Recently, we described a novel pathway of NCC regulation in which phorbol esters (PE) stimulate Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), triggering a cascade ultimately activating ERK1/2 MAPK and decreasing NCC cell surface expression (Ko B, Joshi LM, Cooke LL, Vazquez N, Musch MW, Hebert SC, Gamba G, Hoover RS. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 20120–20125, 2007). Little is known about the mechanisms which underlie these effects on NCC activity. Regulation of NCC via changes in NCC surface expression has been reported, but endocytosis of NCC has not been demonstrated. In this study, utilizing biotinylation, internalization assays, and a dynamin dominant-negative construct, we demonstrate that the regulation of NCC by PE occurs via an enhancement in internalization of NCC and is dynamin dependent. In addition, immunoprecipitation of NCC and subsequent immunoblotting for ubiquitin showed increased ubiquitination of NCC with phorbol ester treatment. MEK1/2 inhibitors and gene silencing of RasGRP1 indicated that this effect was dependent on RasGRP1 and ERK1/2 activation. Inhibition of ubiquitination prevents any PE-mediated decrease in NCC surface expression as measured by biotinylation or NCC activity as measured by radiotracer uptake. These findings confirmed that the PE effect on NCC is mediated by endocytosis of NCC. Furthermore, ubiquitination of NCC is essential for this process and this ubiquitination is dependent upon RasGRP1-mediated ERK1/2 activation. PMID:20392800

  6. Biofilm Formation by Clostridium ljungdahlii Is Induced by Sodium Chloride Stress: Experimental Evaluation and Transcriptome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Jo; Rabaey, Korneel; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii is capable of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilm formation could benefit both these applications, but was not yet reported for C. ljungdahlii. Biofilm formation does not occur under standard growth conditions, but attachment or aggregation could be induced by different stresses. The strongest biofilm formation was observed with the addition of sodium chloride. After 3 days of incubation, the biomass volume attached to a plastic surface was 20 times higher with than without the addition of 200 mM NaCl to the medium. The addition of NaCl also resulted in biofilm formation on glass, graphite and glassy carbon, the latter two being often used electrode materials for microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilms were composed of extracellular proteins, polysaccharides, as well as DNA, while pilus-like appendages were observed with, but not without, the addition of NaCl. A transcriptome analysis comparing planktonic (no NaCl) and biofilm (NaCl addition) cells showed that C. ljungdahlii coped with the salt stress by the upregulation of the general stress response, Na+ export and osmoprotectant accumulation. A potential role for poly-N-acetylglucosamines and D-alanine in biofilm formation was found. Flagellar motility was downregulated, while putative type IV pili biosynthesis genes were not expressed. Moreover, the gene expression analysis suggested the involvement of the transcriptional regulators LexA, Spo0A and CcpA in stress response and biofilm formation. This study showed that NaCl addition might be a valuable strategy to induce biofilm formation by C. ljungdahlii, which can improve the efficacy of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis applications.

  7. Effect of Sodium and Chloride Binding on a Lecithin Bilayer. A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Maria M.; Kallies, Christopher; Knecht, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The effect of ion binding on the structural, mechanical, dynamic and electrostatic properties of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in a 0.5 M aqueous NaCl solution is investigated using classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation with different force-field descriptions for ion-ion and ion-lipid interactions. Most importantly, the repulsive Lennard–Jones parameters for the latter were modified, such that approximately similar binding of cations and anions to the lipid membrane is achieved. This was done to qualitatively improve the apparent ion-lipid binding constants obtained from simulations with the original force field (Berger lipids and GROMOS87 ions in combination with the SPC water model) in comparison to experimental data. Furthermore, various parameters characterizing membrane structure, elasticity, order and dynamics are analyzed. It is found that ion binding as observed in simulations involving the modified in comparison to the original force-field description leads to: (i) a smaller salt-induced change in the area per lipid, which is in closer agreement with the experiment; (ii) a decrease in the area compressibility and bilayer thickness to values comparable to a bilayer in pure water; (iii) lipid deuterium order parameters and lipid diffusion coefficients on nanosecond timescales that are very similar to the values for a membrane in pure water. In general, salt effects on the structural properties of a POPC bilayer in an aqueous sodium-chloride solution appear to be reproduced reasonably well by the new force-field description. An analysis of membrane-membrane disjoining pressure suggests that the smaller salt-induced change in area per lipid induced by the new force-field description is not due to the alteration of membrane-associated net charge, but must rather be understood as a consequence of ion-specific effects on the arrangement of lipid molecules. PMID:28125062

  8. Benzodiazepine effects on licking responses for sodium chloride solutions in water-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Steven J; Higgs, Suzanne

    2005-06-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the effects of a centrally active benzodiazepine receptor agonist, midazolam maleate, on the microstructure of licking responses for a range of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions in mildly water-deprived male rats. Doses of midazolam were chosen (0.3-3.0 mg/kg. i.p.) which have been characterised in studies of licking responses for several different kinds of nutrients. NaCl concentrations (0.075 M-0.45 M) were chosen to cover a range of taste preferences and acceptability. A brief-contact testing session was employed to focus on the initial determinants of licking responses (i.e. taste palatability), and to minimise any contribution of post-ingestional effects. The results indicate the midazolam significantly increased the total number of licks recorded across all salt concentrations, but that it had no effect on the number of bouts of licking. Instead, midazolam specifically enhanced the mean duration of licking bouts, an effect that was most evident at the weaker but more acceptable NaCl concentrations (0.075 M and 0.15 M). In addition, midazolam diminished the intrabout rate of licking across all salt concentrations. These results confirm that benzodiazepines can exert a specific pattern of effects on the microstructure of licking for salt solutions. They are discussed in terms of the oropharyngeal stimulation controlling intake and the palatability or "liking" hypothesis for the effects of benzodiazepines on taste stimuli, and indicate that the hypothesis is applicable to salt solution ingestive behaviour.

  9. Effects of sodium chloride on constitutive relations in variably saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Erick R.; Selker, John S.; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Guenther, Ronald B.

    2006-05-01

    Though many arid and contaminated sites have high salinity, prediction of effects of salinity on water movement in soils has been based on dilute solution approximations. Here a sensitivity analysis compares predicted liquid and vapor pressure in variably saturated porous media found using both the dilute approximations and a more general formulation that is valid for salt concentrations from zero to saturation. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was selected as a representative salt of environmental importance. Salt-mineral interactions are not included in the analysis. The dilute approximations neglect the salt-related changes in specific volume, which translate into nonnegligible pressure effects (i.e., error >1%) under dry conditions, being more pronounced for finer media. The analysis shows that for silt textures, the dilute approximation to the vapor pressure constitutive relation is acceptable for water contents θ > 5%, for sand θ > 1%, and for loam θ > 2%. When computing gradients of vapor pressure resulting from gradients in salt concentration, volume correction is necessary for silt for θ < 10%. Gradients in vapor pressure with changes in water content require volume correction, except under dilute conditions (i.e., <0.5 molal). For concentrated solutions in silt, salt effect errors are not acceptable for prediction of liquid pressure, nor are the effects on gradients negligible. Errors for sand and loam are only marginally better, with acceptable errors generally occurring only for ionic strengths of less than 1 molal. An example of use of the constitutive relations to plot results from experiments is provided to illustrate how the theory may be used to determine which thermodynamic corrections must be incorporated into analyses of the experimental results. Here the volumetric effects of the salt on vapor depression were negligible, though volumetric effects may be nonnegligible for computation of gradients of both vapor and liquid pressures. The method of

  10. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri

    PubMed Central

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Experimental Approach Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2S with or without Cl− channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K+ channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca2+ channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Key Results Na2S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3−, suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. Conclusions and Implications The relaxant effects of Na2S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl−-pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca2+-dependent. PMID:25857480

  11. Heterozygous mutations of the sodium chloride cotransporter in Chinese children: prevalence and association with blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Juei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Chu, Nain-Feng; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2009-04-01

    Gitelman's syndrome (GS), which is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), usually manifests in children and is associated with low blood pressure. However, the prevalence of heterozygous NCC mutations and their association with blood pressure in children have not yet been studied. Five hundred unrelated children from the Taipei Children Heart Study were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and the SLC12A3 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 15 NCC mutations previously identified in Chinese patients with GS were evaluated using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Blood pressure, biochemistry and urine pH were measured. The allelic frequency of heterozygous NCC mutations and their association with low blood pressure were also investigated. RFLP analysis for the 15 NCC mutations revealed heterozygous T60M in 1 child, T163M in 1, S283Y in 4, R642C in 2, W844X in 2, R928C in 9 and R959frameshift in 10 children. The overall incidence of positive heterozygous NCC mutations was approximately 2.9%. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure, biochemical profiles or urine pH between children with heterozygous NCC mutations (n = 29) and non-affected controls (n = 471), except for slightly higher fasting plasma glucose concentrations in NCC-heterozygous children (91 +/- 2.3 versus 88 +/- 0.4 mg/dL, P < 0.05). Examination among the different NCC mutations showed that these children also had comparable blood pressures. We found a relatively high prevalence of heterozygous NCC mutations in Chinese children, suggesting that GS may not be rare in this population. Heterozygous NCC mutations were not associated with lower blood pressure in these Chinese children.

  12. Thermoelastic parameter αKT of sodium chloride at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Feng; Cai, Ling-Cang; Jing, Fu-Qian

    2012-08-01

    Two different potential models to the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been applied to investigate the thermoelastic parameter αKT of sodium chloride (NaCl) under high pressure and high temperature. The first one is the shell model (SM) potential that due to the short-range interaction when pairs of ions are moved together as is the case in that polarization of a crystal due to the motion of the positive and negative ions, and the second one is the two-body rigid-ion Born-Mayer-Huggins-Fumi-Tosi (BMHFT) potential with full treatment of long-range Coulomb forces. Particular attention is paid to the comparison of the SM- and BMHFT-MD simulations with the Debye model for the first time, and this model combines with ab initio calculations within local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) using ultrasoft pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis in the framework of density functional theory (DFT), and it takes into account the phononic effects within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Note that the MD calculated volumes using SM model is somewhat larger than both the DFT and experimental volumes despite not considering the temperature effect. Compared with SM potential, the MD simulated 300 K isotherm of NaCl with BMHFT potential is very successful in reproducing accurately the measured volumes and the GGA calculated volumes. Generally, it is found that there exist minor differences between the LDA and GGA computed the thermoelastic parameter αKT of NaCl, with both average results giving good agreement with SM-MD simulations. At an extended pressure and temperature ranges, the variation of thermoelastic parameter αKT which play a central role in the formulation of approximate equations of state has also been predicted. The properties of NaCl are summarized in the pressure range of 0-300 kbar and the temperature up to 2000 K.

  13. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  14. Effects of Replacement of External Sodium Chloride with Sucrose on Membrane Currents of the Squid Giant Axon

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, William J.; Taylor, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    It was observed that a reduction of the sodium chloride concentration in the external solution bathing a squid giant axon by replacement with sucrose resulted in marked decreases in the peak inward and steady-state outward currents through the axon membrane following a step decrease in membrane potential. These effects are quantitatively acounted for by the increase in series resistance resulting from the decreased conductivity of the sea water and the assumption that the sodium current obeys a relation of the form I = k1C1 - k2C2 where C1, C2 are internal and external ion activities and k1, k2 are independent of concentration. It is concluded that the potassium ion current is independent of the sodium concentration. That the inward current is carried by sodium ions has been confirmed. The electrical potential (or barrier height) profile in the membrane which drives sodium ions appears to be independent of sodium ion concentration or current. A specific effect of the sucrose on hyperpolarizing currents was observed and noted but not investigated in detail. PMID:14232131

  15. Bromination of aromatic compounds by residual bromide in sodium chloride matrix modifier salt during heated headspace GC/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Dennis D; Ko, Saebom; Huling, Scott

    2013-12-15

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation reactions and contained aromatic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferric sulfate. Prior to GC/MS headspace analysis, the samples were acidified (pH<2), and sodium chloride was amended to the headspace vial as a matrix modifier. The brominated artifacts were generated during heated headspace analysis. Further, when samples were spiked with a mixture of volatile chlorinated and aromatic compounds (50 µg/L), poor spike recoveries of toluene and xylenes occurred, and in some cases complete loss of trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene resulted. Where poor recovery of aromatic spike compounds occurred, brominated aromatic compounds were found. The only significant source of bromine in the reaction scheme is the bromide typically present (<0.01% w/w) in the sodium chloride amended to the samples. Conversely, brominated artifacts were absent when a buffered salt mixture composed of sodium chloride and potassium phosphate dibasic/monobasic was used as a matrix modifier and raised the sample pH (pH~6). This indicated that the brominated artifacts resulted from the reaction of the aromatic compounds with BrCl, which was formed by the reaction of H2O2, chloride, and bromide under acidic conditions. An alternative matrix modifier salt is recommended that prevents the bromination reaction and avoids these deleterious effects on sample integrity during headspace analysis.

  16. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  17. Partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in dry fermented sausages: Influence on carbohydrate fermentation and the nitrosation process.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, C; Quintanilla, L; Irigoyen, A; Garcia-Jalón, I; Cid, C; Astiasarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-01-01

    Two types of dry fermented sausages were manufactured: type A with traditional formulation and type B with reduced sodium content. pH and a(w) values and the counts of aerobic mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae and lactobacilli micro-organisms during the ripening of both fermented sausages were similar. Final lactic acid contents were also similar, but carbohydrate content was significantly lower in type B sausage. Content of acetic, propionic and butyric acids were significantly higher in type B, suggesting a higher heterofermentative activity. Also type B sausage showed lower nitrate level and higher chemical conversion percentage, suggesting a higher nitrosation intensity.

  18. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag.

    PubMed

    Rocchio, Megan A; Belisle, Caryn D; Greenwood, Bonnie C; Cotugno, Michael C; Szumita, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797. At time "0" three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C-8°C [36°F-46°F]), and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours. The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL). At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL. Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours when stored at 2°C-8°C (36°F-46°F).

  19. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    PubMed Central

    Rocchio, Megan A; Belisle, Caryn D; Greenwood, Bonnie C; Cotugno, Michael C; Szumita, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Background Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797. Methods At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F]), and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours. Results The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL). At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL. Conclusion Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours when stored at 2°C–8°C (36°F–46°F). PMID:24143117

  20. Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Sodium Chloride for Preventing Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien

    2017-04-01

    To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p < 0.0001). The frequency of contrast-associated acute kidney injury was similar in both groups: 52 patients (33.3%) in the saline group and 53 patients (35.1%) in the bicarbonate group (absolute risk difference, -1.8%; 95% CI [-12.3% to 8.9%]; p = 0.81). The need for renal replacement therapy (five [3.2%] and six [3.9%] patients; p = 0.77), ICU length of stay (24.7 ± 22.9 and 23 ± 23.8 d; p = 0.52), and mortality (25 [16.0%] and 24 [15.9%] patients; p > 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.

  1. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  2. Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

    2013-07-03

    The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials.

  3. Enhanced stability performance of nickel nanowire with 3D conducting network for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tian; Zhang, Sanpei; Ao, Xin; Wu, Xiangwei; Yang, Jianhua; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2017-08-01

    High temperature sodium batteries with inorganic electrolytes are attracting increasing attention due to their high thermal stability, reliability, long-cycle life and safety. Despite the intensive investigation of Na-NiCl2 batteries during last decades, designing a stable conducting network in the cathode is still challenging but desirable. In this work, a new cathode structure composed of Ni nanowires with an effective electron conducting network is proposed for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries. During the first stage of charge, Ni nanowires reacted with Cl ion to form NiCl2 on the surface and the excessive Ni nanowires inside can serve as conducting framework to facilitate the fast electron transport. As expected, the metal nanowires show a high specific capacity of 130 mA h g-1 (∼14 mAh cm-2) at 0.05 C after 100 cycles. Meanwhile, the batteries show stable cycling performance at 0.05 C with a high cut-off energy density of 360 W h kg-1, much higher than the traditional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (∼100 Wh kg-1). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the cathode after long cycling reveal the ultra-slow growth of Ni particles, confirming the excellent stability of the prepared nanowires cathode.

  4. Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2007-08-01

    The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies.

  5. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-03-15

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined.

  6. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  7. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive.

  8. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

    2013-10-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 °C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log₁₀ cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log₁₀ cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log₁₀ cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also

  9. Adsorption of water molecules on selected charged sodium-chloride clusters.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, James A; Gordon, Sidney L; Leavitt, Andrew J; Whetten, Robert L

    2012-01-12

    The adsorption of water molecules (H(2)O) on sodium chloride cluster cations and anions was studied at 298 K over a mass range of 100-1200 amu using a custom-built laser desorption ionization reactor and mass spectrometer. Under the conditions used, the cations Na(3)Cl(2)(+) and Na(4)Cl(3)(+) bind up to three water molecules, whereas the larger cations, Na(5)Cl(4)(+) to Na(19)Cl(18)(+), formed hydrates with one or two only. The overall trend is a decrease in hydration with increasing cluster size, with an abrupt drop occurring at the closed-shell Na(14)Cl(13)(+). As compared to the cluster cations, the cluster anions showed almost no adsorption. Among smaller clusters, a weak adsorption of one water molecule was observed for the cluster anions Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-). In the higher mass region, a substantial adsorption of one water molecule was observed for Na(14)Cl(15)(-). Density functional theory (DFT) computations were carried out for the adsorption of one molecule of H(2)O on the cations Na(n)Cl(n-1)(+), for n = 2-8, and the anions Na(n)Cl(n+1)(-), for n = 1-7. For each ion, the structure of the hydrate, the hydration energy, and the standard-state enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of hydration at 298 K were computed. In addition, it was useful to compute the distortion energy, defined as the electronic energy lost due to weakening of the Na-Cl bonds upon adsorption of H(2)O. The results show that strong adsorption of a H(2)O molecule occurs for the linear cations only at an end Na ion and for the nonlinear cations only at a corner Na ion bonded to two Cl ions. An unexpected result of the theoretical investigation for the anions is that certain low-energy isomers of Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-) bind H(2)O strongly enough to produce the observed weak adsorption. The possible implications of these results for the initial hydration of extended NaCl surfaces are discussed.

  10. Stream Tracer Integrity: Comparative Analyses of Rhodamine-WT and Sodium Chloride through Transient Storage Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport in natural channels describes the transport of water and dissolved matter through a river reach of interest. Conservative tracers allow us to label a parcel of stream water, such that we can track its movement downstream through space and time. A transient storage model (TSM) can be fit to the breakthrough curve (BTC) following a stream tracer experiment, as a way to quantify advection, dispersion, and transient storage processes. Arctic streams and rivers, in particular, are continuously underlain by permafrost, which provides for a simplified surface water-groundwater exchange. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Rhodamine-WT (RWT) are widely used tracers, and differences between the two in conservative behavior and detection limits have been noted in small-scale field and laboratory studies. This study seeks to further this understanding by applying the OTIS model to NaCl and RWT BTC data from a field study on the Kuparuk River, Alaska, at varying flow rates. There are two main questions to be answered: 1) Do differences in NaCl and RWT manifest in OTIS parameter values? 2) Are the OTIS model results reliable for NaCl, RWT, or both? Fieldwork was performed in the summer of 2012 on the Kuparuk River, and modeling was performed using a modified OTIS framework, which provided for parameter optimization and further global sensitivity analyses. The results of this study will contribute to the greater body of literature surrounding Arctic stream hydrology, and it will assist in methodology for future tracer field studies. Additionally, the modeling work will provide an analysis for OTIS parameter identifiability, and assess stream tracer integrity (i.e. how well the BTC data represents the system) and its relation to TSM performance (i.e. how well the TSM can find a unique fit to the BTC data). The quantitative tools used can be applied to other solute transport studies, to better understand potential deviations in model outcome due to stream tracer choice and

  11. Osmotic virial coefficients of hydroxyethyl starch from aqueous hydroxyethyl starch-sodium chloride vapor pressure osmometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingjiang; Gier, Martin; Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Prasad, Vinay; Elliott, Janet A W; Sputtek, Andreas

    2013-09-05

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is an important industrial additive in the paper, textile, food, and cosmetic industries and has been shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for red blood cells; however, little is known about its thermodynamic solution properties. In many applications, in particular those in biology, HES is used in an aqueous solution with sodium chloride (NaCl). The osmotic virial solution thermodynamics approach accurately captures the dependence of osmolality on molality for many types of solutes in aqueous systems, including electrolytes, sugars, alcohols, proteins, and starches. Elliott et al. proposed mixing rules for the osmotic virial equation to be used for osmolality of multisolute aqueous solutions [Elliott, J. A. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 1775-1785] and recently applied this approach to the fitting of one set of aqueous HES-NaCl solution data reported by Jochem and Körber [Cryobiology 1987, 24, 513-536], indicating that the HES osmotic virial coefficients are dependent on HES-to-NaCl mass ratios. The current study reports new aqueous HES-NaCl vapor pressure osmometry data which are analyzed using the osmotic virial equation. HES modifications were measured after dialysis (membrane cut off: 10,000 g/mol) and freeze-drying using vapor pressure osmometry at different mass ratios of HES to NaCl for HES up to 50% and NaCl up to 25% with three different HES modifications (weight average molecular weights [g/mol]/degree of substitution: 40,000/0.5; 200,000/0.5; 450,000/0.7). Equations were then fit to the data to provide a model for HES osmotic virial coefficient dependence on mass ratio of HES to NaCl. The osmolality data of the three HES modifications were accurately described over a broad range of HES-to-NaCl mass ratios using only four parameters, illustrating the power of the osmotic virial approach in analyzing complex data sets. As expected, the second osmotic virial coefficients increase with molecular weight of the HES and

  12. Identification of the Causes for Chronic Hypokalemia: Importance of Urinary Sodium and Chloride Excretion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Lin; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Sung, Chih-Chen; Tseng, Ming-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Chau, Tom; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Uncovering the correct diagnosis of chronic hypokalemia with potassium (K(+)) wasting from the kidneys or gut can be fraught with challenges. We identified clinical and laboratory parameters helpful for differentiating the causes of chronic hypokalemia. Normotensive patients referred to our tertiary academic medical center for the evaluation of chronic hypokalemia were prospectively enrolled over 5 years. Clinical features, laboratory examinations-including blood and spot urine electrolytes, acid-base status, biochemistries, and hormones-as well as genetic analysis, were determined. Ninety-nine patients with chronic normotensive hypokalemia (serum K(+) 2.8 ± 0.4 mmol/L, duration 4.1 ± 0.9 years) were enrolled. Neuromuscular symptoms were the most common complaints. Although Gitelman syndrome (n = 33), Bartter syndrome (n = 10), and distal renal tubular acidosis (n = 12) were the predominant renal tubular disorders, 44 patients (44%) were diagnosed with anorexia/bulimia nervosa (n = 21), surreptitious use of laxatives (n = 11), or diuretics (n = 12). Patients with gastrointestinal causes and surreptitious diuretics use exhibited a female predominance, lower body mass index, and less K(+) supplementation. High urine K(+) excretion (transtubular potassium gradient >3, urine K(+)/Cr >2 mmol/mmol) was universally present in patients with renal tubular disorders, but also found in >50% patients with gastrointestinal causes. Of interest, while urine sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) excretions were high and coupled (urine Na(+)/Cl(-) ratio ∼1) in renal tubular disorders and "on" diuretics use, skewed or uncoupled urine Na(+) and Cl(-) excretions were found in anorexia/bulimia nervosa and laxatives abuse (urine Na(+)/Cl(-) ratio: 5.0 ± 2.2, 0.4 ± 0.2, respectively) and low urine Na(+) and Cl(-) excretions with fixed Na(+)/Cl(-) ratios (0.9 ± 0.2) when "off" diuretics. Besides body mass index, sex, and blood acid-base status, integrated interpretation of

  13. Chemical oxygen demand analysis of wastewater using trivalent manganese oxidant with chloride removal by sodium bismuthate pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, D G; Brayton, S V; Boyles, W T

    2001-01-01

    Current chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses generate wastes containing hexavalent and trivalent chromium, mercury, and silver. Waste disposal is difficult, expensive, and poses environmental hazards. A new COD test is proposed that eliminates these metals and shortens analysis time, where trivalent manganese oxidant replaces hexavalent chromium (dichromate). A silver catalyst is not required. Optional pretreatment removes chloride via oxidation to chlorine using sodium bismuthate, eliminating the need for mercury. Sample aqueous and solid components are separated for chloride removal, then recombined for total COD measurement. Soluble and nonsoluble COD can be determined separately. Digestion at 150 degrees C is complete in 1 hour. Results are determined by titration or by spectrophotometric reading. Test wastes contain none of the metals regulated for disposal under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Results are shown for selected organic compounds and various wastewaters. Statistical comparisons are made with dichromate COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test values.

  14. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  15. Stability of butorphanol-tropisetron mixtures in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for patient-controlled analgesia use.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2015-02-01

    Tropisetron is an adjuvant for butorphanol used in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and has been reported to provide superior pain control. It is efficacious in reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, this admixture is not available commercially and stability data applicable to hospital practice are limited. This study aimed to describe the drug compounding and evaluates the long-term (up to 14 days) stability of butorphanol and tropisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA use.In this study, commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and tropisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05 mg/mL. The polyolefin bags and glass bottles were stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 14 days. The drug stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay of drug concentrations.The data obtained for admixtures prepared and stored at temperatures of 25°C and 4°C show the drugs have maintained at least 98% of the initial concentration. All solutions remained clear and colorless over the 14-day period, and the pH value did not change significantly.The results indicate that admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. The infusion is feasible for manufacturing in pharmacy aseptic units and can be stored for up to 14 days for routine use in PCA infusions.

  16. Effect of water stress by Polyethylene Glycol 8000 and Sodium Chloride on germination of Ephedra alata Decne seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Taisan, Wafa'a A; Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Alsubiee, Moodi S

    2010-07-01

    Ephedra alata Decne is a perennial shrub and it is a very effective sand-binder. In Saudi Arabia, the species is associated with sand dunes formation, especially the mobile, non-saline and low moisture content ones. Its geographical distribution in Saudi Arabia includes the Northern, Eastern and Central regions. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of temperature, water potential and Sodium Chloride on germination of E. alata. Seeds were collected from King Khalid Centre of Wildlife Research and Development at Thumama (80 km north east of Riyadh), Saudi Arabia. Seeds were germinated at four alternating temperature regimes (8/22; 9/23; 13/27 and 18/35 °C). Seeds were also germinated under stress of aqueous Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) solutions mixed to create water potentials of 0; -0.3; -0.6; -1.2 and -1.5 MPa. Seed were also germinated in Sodium Chloride solutions of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mol l(-1). Optimum germination was attained at 13/28 °C that corresponds to temperatures prevailing during spring time. Seeds germinated in Polyethylene Glycol solutions exhibited significantly lower germination than control especially when water potential fell below -0.3 MPa. Germination was also negatively affected by 0.1 mol l(-1) Sodium Chloride solution or above. Results indicated that the germination temperature responses of the nondormant seeds synchronize the event of germination with the season when environmental conditions are more favorable for subsequent growth and seedling establishment. Germination was also sensitive to both water potential and salinity.

  17. Stability of Butorphanol–Tropisetron Mixtures in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Use

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Tropisetron is an adjuvant for butorphanol used in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and has been reported to provide superior pain control. It is efficacious in reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, this admixture is not available commercially and stability data applicable to hospital practice are limited. This study aimed to describe the drug compounding and evaluates the long-term (up to 14 days) stability of butorphanol and tropisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA use. In this study, commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and tropisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05 mg/mL. The polyolefin bags and glass bottles were stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 14 days. The drug stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay of drug concentrations. The data obtained for admixtures prepared and stored at temperatures of 25°C and 4°C show the drugs have maintained at least 98% of the initial concentration. All solutions remained clear and colorless over the 14-day period, and the pH value did not change significantly. The results indicate that admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. The infusion is feasible for manufacturing in pharmacy aseptic units and can be stored for up to 14 days for routine use in PCA infusions. PMID:25674732

  18. Ultra-long-term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion.

    PubMed

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik Hg Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long-term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland-Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion12

    PubMed Central

    Birukov, Anna; Rakova, Natalia; Lerchl, Kathrin; Engberink, Rik HG Olde; Johannes, Bernd; Wabel, Peter; Moissl, Ulrich; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals. PMID:27225435

  20. Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2014-03-01

    Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with control (treatment I). The sensory analysis indicated that it was possible to reduce NaCl by 40% without adverse effects on sensory properties, but 70% replacement of NaCl with KCl resulted in bacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness.

  1. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  2. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content.

  3. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S; Wiese, Adam H; Sexton, Bart; Hall, Richard B

    2008-09-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA (45.6 degrees N, 89.4 degrees W). During August 2006, we tested for differences in total Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration in preplanting and harvest soils, and in leaf, woody (stems+branches), and root tissue. The leachate-irrigated soils at harvest had the greatest Na(+) and Cl(-) levels. Genotypes exhibited elevated total tree Cl(-) concentration and increased biomass (clones NC14104, NM2, NM6), elevated Cl(-) and decreased biomass (NC14018, NC14106, DM115), or mid levels of Cl(-) and biomass (NC13460, DN5). Leachate tissue concentrations were 17 (Na(+)) and four (Cl(-)) times greater than water. Sodium and Cl(-) levels were greatest in roots and leaves, respectively.

  4. Thermodynamics of aqueous borate solutions I. Mixture of boric acid with sodium or potassium borate and chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Roy, R.N.; Roy, L.N.; Johnson, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Potentials for the cell without liquid junction H/sub 2/, Ptlt. slashB(OH)/sub 3/(m/sub 1/),MB(OH)/sub 4/(m/sub 2/),MCl(m/sub 3/)lt. slashAgCl,Ag where M is sodium or potassium are reported over a range of ionic strength to I = 3 mol-kg/sup -1/ at 5 to 55/sup 0/C. Total boron concentration in the solutions was restricted to low levels to minimize formation of polynuclear boron species. Cell potentials are treated with the Pitzer ion interaction treatment for mixed electrolytes, with linear ionic strength dependence assumed for the activity coefficient of undissociated boric acid. Trace activity coefficients of sodium and potassium borates in chloride media are calculated at various temperatures.

  5. Protective effects of dietary potassium chloride on hemodynamics of Dahl salt-sensitive rats in response to chronic administration of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Manger, William M; Simchon, Shlomoh; Stier, Charles T; Loscalzo, Joseph; Jan, Kung-Ming; Jan, Rex; Haddy, Francis

    2003-12-01

    Dietary potassium supplementation decreases blood pressure and prevents strokes in humans, and prevents strokes and renal damage in Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats. To study the effects of various concentrations of dietary potassium chloride (KCl) on the hemodynamics of Dahl salt-resistant (DSR) and DSS rats receiving a 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) diet for 8 months, to determine whether there is an optimal dietary concentration of KCl that minimizes increases in blood pressure and causes least impairment of blood flow in the brain and kidneys. We found a biphasic effect on hemodynamic parameters as a function of dietary KCl in DSS rats of the Rapp strain fed 1% NaCl with increasing dietary KCl (0.7, 2.6, 4 and 8%). After 8 months receiving a diet containing 1% NaCl and 0.7% KCl, DSS rats had mean arterial pressures (MAP), plasma volumes, cardiac outputs and renal and cerebral vascular resistances that were significantly increased compared with those of DSR rats receiving the same diet. With a 2.6% KCl diet, all these parameters were significantly reduced compared with those in DSS rats fed the 0.7% KCl diet and were similar to those in DSR rats fed 2.6% KCl. Total peripheral resistance in DSR and DSS rats was similar on all diets. When KCl was increased to 4 and 8%, MAP, plasma volume, cardiac output and renal vascular resistance progressively increased in DSR and DSS rats, without changing total peripheral resistance. These changes paralleled increases in plasma aldosterone, which resulted from adrenocortical stimulation by the increasing dietary KCl; however, cerebral vascular resistance of DSR and DSS rats decreased significantly with a 4% KCl diet, despite increased aldosterone and sodium retention. Only DSS rats fed a 2.6% KCl diet had hemodynamics similar to those of DSR control rats fed the same diet, and hyperaldosteronism, sodium retention and increased plasma volume did not occur. 'Optimal' dietary KCl (2.6%) prevents hypertension and preserves cerebral and

  6. Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products.

  7. Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2012-12-06

    The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination.

  8. Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement on the Sensory and Physico-Chemical Properties of Restructured Chicken Jerky.

    PubMed

    Luckose, Feby; Pandey, Mohan Chandra; Abhishek, Virat

    2015-10-05

    Replacement of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium lactate (KLact) in restructured chicken jerky was studied. The experiment was conducted considering three levels of each NaCl (1%, 1.5%, 2%), KCl (0%, 0.5%, 1%) and KLact (0%, 0.5%, 1%) resulting in six treatments with a total salt content of 2% in the product. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of the jerky containing salt replacers were examined and the most suitable NaCl replacement was to be identified. The jerky samples had moisture content below 25%, more than 60% protein and about 5-6% fat. All samples attained a water activity level below 0.8 after 5 hours of drying. Reduction of NaCl in jerky led to increased shrinkage and shear force values. Significant difference was also observed in the hunter color values especially in the case of L* values which increased as the NaCl content in the samples decreased. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that replacing NaCl reduced the structural density and compactness in jerky. Sensory panelists preferred treatments with only KCl. According to principal component analysis carried out and from sensory point of view, 50% replacement of NaCl with KCl was found to be most suitable strategy for developing low sodium jerky without compromising the product quality. (Key words: Restructured jerky, salt replacement, Sensory analysis, JAR profile, Microstructure, Dried meat).

  9. Role of Lipid Composition and Lipid Peroxidation in the Sensitivity of Fungal Plant Pathogens to Aluminum Chloride and Sodium Metabisulfite▿

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Tyler J.; Michaud, Mélanie; Tweddell, Russell J.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite have shown high efficacy at low doses in controlling postharvest pathogens on potato tubers. Direct effects of these two salts included the loss of cell membrane integrity in exposed pathogens. In this work, four fungal potato pathogens were studied in order to elucidate the role of membrane lipids and lipid peroxidation in the relative sensitivity of microorganisms exposed to these salts. Inhibition of mycelial growth in these fungi varied considerably and revealed sensitivity groups within the tested fungi. Analysis of fatty acids in these fungi demonstrated that sensitivity was related to high intrinsic fatty acid unsaturation. When exposed to the antifungal salts, sensitive fungi demonstrated a loss of fatty acid unsaturation, which was accompanied by an elevation in malondialdehyde content (a biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation). Our data suggest that aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite could induce lipid peroxidation in sensitive fungi, which may promote the ensuing loss of integrity in the plasma membrane. This direct effect on fungal membranes may contribute, at least in part, to the observed antimicrobial effects of these two salts. PMID:17337539

  10. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Laura S.; Galbraith, Heather S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cornman, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5′-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation

  11. Effects of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride concentration on PEG/protein liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Dumetz, André C; Lewus, Rachael A; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

    2008-09-16

    When added to protein solutions, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) creates an effective attraction between protein molecules due to depletion forces. This effect has been widely used to crystallize proteins, and PEG is among the most successful crystallization agents in current use. However, PEG is almost always used in combination with a salt at either low or relatively high concentrations. Here the effects of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate concentration on PEG 8000/ovalbumin liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation are investigated. At low salt the L-L phase separation occurs at decreasing protein concentration with increasing salt concentration, presumably due to repulsive electrostatic interactions between proteins. At high salt concentration, the behavior depends on the nature of the salt. Sodium chloride has little effect on the L-L phase separation, but ammonium sulfate decreases the protein concentration at which the L-L phase separation occurs. This trend is attributed to the effects of critical fluctuations on depletion forces. The implications of these results for designing solution conditions optimal for protein crystallization are discussed.

  12. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    PubMed

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  13. Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-04-16

    The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal.

  14. An electrical impedance tomography-based approach to monitor in vitro sodium chloride dissolution from pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Rimpiläinen, Ville; Heikkinen, Lasse M; Kuosmanen, Marko; Lehikoinen, Anssi; Voutilainen, Arto; Vauhkonen, Marko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2009-10-01

    An approach to monitor in vitro dissolution process from pharmaceutical tablets utilizing electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is introduced. In the demonstration, a tablet containing sodium chloride (NaCl) was dissolution tested using tap water as a dissolution medium within an apparatus similar to the United States Pharmacopoeia dissolution apparatus II. During the process, the three-dimensional sodium chloride concentration distribution was monitored with EIT measurements as a function of time. For EIT measurements, an array of electrodes was attached on the boundary of the dissolution vessel, a set of alternating electric currents was injected through the electrodes, and the resulting voltages were measured. With these data and by applying mathematical algorithms, an approximation for the spatial/temporal concentration distribution inside the vessel was computed. It was found that the computed distributions were relatively homogeneous. A NaCl release curve was computed by integrating the concentration distribution over the vessel volume, and the final value of the curve matched well with the reference point based on the weight loss of the tablet. Finally, EIT monitoring is suggested to be used for research and product development purposes.

  15. Comparison of pressure drop and filtration efficiency of particulate respirators using welding fumes and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seung-Joo; Viner, Andrew; Johnson, Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made. Fifteen commercial PRs and filters (seven filtering facepiece, two replaceable single-type filters, and six replaceable dual-type filters) were chosen for investigation. Four of the filtering facepiece respirators, one of the single-type filters, and all of the dual-type filters contained carbon to help reduce exposure to ozone and other vapors generated during the welding process. For the NaCl test, a modified National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health protocol was adopted for use with the TSI Model 8130 automated filter tester. For the welding fume test, welding fumes from mild steel flux-cored arcs were generated and measured with a SIBATA filter tester (AP-634A, Japan) and a manometer in the upstream and downstream sections of the test chamber. Size distributions of the two aerosols were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Penetration and pressure drop were measured over a period of aerosol loading onto the respirator or filter. Photos and scanning electron microscope images of clean and exposed respirators were taken. The count median diameter (CMD) and mass median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl aerosol were smaller than the welding fumes (CMD: 74 versus 216 nm; MMD: 198 versus 528 nm, respectively). Initial penetration and peak penetration were higher with the NaCl aerosol

  16. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  17. Imidazole chloride and tris-chloride substitute for sodium chloride in inducing high-affinity AdoPP[NH]P binding to (Na+ + K+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Rempeters, G; Schoner, W

    1983-01-05

    Optimal binding of [2,8-3H]AdoPP[NH]P to (Na+ + K+)-ATPase requires 25 mM Na+ (Cl-), 50 mM imidazole+ (Cl-) or 50 mM Tris+ (Cl-). Chloride is essential as counterion. We conclude that imidazole+ and Tris+ are able to bind to the Na+ site, and recommend the use of dilute buffers for studying the partial reactions of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. In NaCl or the substituting buffers the dissociation constant for the enzyme-AdoPP[NH]P complex at 0 degrees C and pH 7.25 is 0.4 microM, whereas in millimolar MgCl2 it is about 2 microM. These distinct levels in affinity with MgCl2 as compared to NaCl, together with the MgCl2-dependence of photolabelling of the enzyme with ATP analogues (Rempeters, G. and Schoner, W. (1981) Eur. J. Biochem. 121, 131-137), suggest significant changes within the substrate site of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase upon binding of Mg2+ (Cl-)2.

  18. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams in the system water/sodium chloride/heptane/1-butanol/sodium dodecyl sulphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gilje, E.; Maledal, T. )

    1992-01-01

    An entirely empirical model for estimating the pseudo-components in quarternary microemulsion systems has been adopted. Data for the system water/NaCl/ heptane/1-butanol/sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are used in the empirical model. In this paper calculated phase volumes and interfacial tensions are compared with experimental data. Further, a calculated pseudo-ternary phase diagram is compared with the data obtained from an experimental phase diagram where the pseudo-components are determined from the model. The results show a good agreement between calculated and experimental data.

  19. SPAK isoforms and OSR1 regulate sodium-chloride co-transporters in a nephron-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Grimm, P Richard; Taneja, Tarvinder K; Liu, Jie; Coleman, Richard; Chen, Yang-Yi; Delpire, Eric; Wade, James B; Welling, Paul A

    2012-11-02

    STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-related kinase (OSR1) activate the potassium-dependent sodium-chloride co-transporter, NKCC2, and thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vitro, and both co-localize with a kinase regulatory molecule, Cab39/MO25α, at the apical membrane of the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Yet genetic ablation of SPAK in mice causes a selective loss of NCC function, whereas NKCC2 becomes hyperphosphorylated. Here, we explore the underlying mechanisms in wild-type and SPAK-null mice. Unlike in the DCT, OSR1 remains at the TAL apical membrane of KO mice where it is accompanied by an increase in the active, phosphorylated form of AMP-activated kinase. We found an alterative SPAK isoform (putative SPAK2 form), which modestly inhibits co-transporter activity in vitro, is more abundant in the medulla than the cortex. Thus, enhanced NKCC2 phosphorylation in the SPAK knock-out may be explained by removal of inhibitory SPAK2, sustained activity of OSR1, and activation of other kinases. By contrast, the OSR1/SPAK/M025α signaling apparatus is disrupted in the DCT. OSR1 becomes largely inactive and displaced from M025α and NCC at the apical membrane, and redistributes to dense punctate structures, containing WNK1, within the cytoplasm. These changes are paralleled by a decrease in NCC phosphorylation and a decrease in the mass of the distal convoluted tubule, exclusive to DCT1. As a result of the dependent nature of OSR1 on SPAK in the DCT, NCC is unable to be activated. Consequently, SPAK(-/-) mice are highly sensitive to dietary salt restriction, displaying prolonged negative sodium balance and hypotension.

  20. SPAK Isoforms and OSR1 Regulate Sodium-Chloride Co-transporters in a Nephron-specific Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, P. Richard; Taneja, Tarvinder K.; Liu, Jie; Coleman, Richard; Chen, Yang-Yi; Delpire, Eric; Wade, James B.; Welling, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-related kinase (OSR1) activate the potassium-dependent sodium-chloride co-transporter, NKCC2, and thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vitro, and both co-localize with a kinase regulatory molecule, Cab39/MO25α, at the apical membrane of the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Yet genetic ablation of SPAK in mice causes a selective loss of NCC function, whereas NKCC2 becomes hyperphosphorylated. Here, we explore the underlying mechanisms in wild-type and SPAK-null mice. Unlike in the DCT, OSR1 remains at the TAL apical membrane of KO mice where it is accompanied by an increase in the active, phosphorylated form of AMP-activated kinase. We found an alterative SPAK isoform (putative SPAK2 form), which modestly inhibits co-transporter activity in vitro, is more abundant in the medulla than the cortex. Thus, enhanced NKCC2 phosphorylation in the SPAK knock-out may be explained by removal of inhibitory SPAK2, sustained activity of OSR1, and activation of other kinases. By contrast, the OSR1/SPAK/M025α signaling apparatus is disrupted in the DCT. OSR1 becomes largely inactive and displaced from M025α and NCC at the apical membrane, and redistributes to dense punctate structures, containing WNK1, within the cytoplasm. These changes are paralleled by a decrease in NCC phosphorylation and a decrease in the mass of the distal convoluted tubule, exclusive to DCT1. As a result of the dependent nature of OSR1 on SPAK in the DCT, NCC is unable to be activated. Consequently, SPAK−/− mice are highly sensitive to dietary salt restriction, displaying prolonged negative sodium balance and hypotension. PMID:22977235

  1. A solution NMR investigation into the early events of amelogenin nanosphere self-assembly initiated with sodium chloride or calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Buchko, Garry W; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Bekhazi, Jacky; Snead, Malcolm L; Shaw, Wendy J

    2008-12-16

    Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early events governing amelogenin supramolecular self-assembly have been identified using sodium chloride and calcium chloride to trigger the association. Two-dimensional 1H-15N HSQC spectra were recorded for 15N- and 13C-labeled murine amelogenin as a function of increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration beginning with solution conditions of 2% acetic acid at pH 3.0, where amelogenin was monomeric. Residue specific changes in molecular dynamics, manifested by the reduction in intensity and disappearance of 1H-15N HSQC cross-peaks, were observed with the addition of either salt to the protein. With increasing NaCl concentrations, residues between T21 and R31 near the N-terminus were affected first, suggesting that these residues may initiate amelogenin dimerization, the first step in nanosphere assembly. At higher NaCl concentrations, more residues near the N-terminus (Y12-I51) were affected, and with further additions of NaCl, residues near the C-terminus (L141-T171) began to show a similar change in molecular dynamics. With increasing CaCl2 concentrations, a similar stepwise change in molecular dynamics involving essentially the same set of amelogenin residues was observed. As the concentration of either salt was increased, a concomitant increase in the estimated overall rotational correlation time (tau(c)) was observed, consistent with assembly. Self-assembly into a dimer or trimer was established with dynamic light scattering studies under similar conditions that showed an increase in diameter of the smallest species from 4.1 nm in the absence of salt to 10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  3. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. PMID:24762210

  4. Intracellular chloride activities in canine tracheal epithelium. Direct evidence for sodium-coupled intracellular chloride accumulation in a chloride-secreting epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, M J

    1983-01-01

    Canine tracheal epithelium secretes Cl via an electrogenic transport process that appears to apply to a wide variety of secretory epithelia. To examine the mechanisms involved, intracellular chloride activity, acCl, was measured with Cl-selective intracellular microelectrodes. The results indicate that when the rate of secretion was minimal acCl was 37 mM; with stimulation of secretion the intracellular voltage depolarized, but acCl was not significantly altered, at 39 mM. These findings indicate that: (a) Cl is accumulated across the basolateral membrane under nonsecreting and secreting conditions at an activity 3.8 and 2.4 times, respectively, that predicted for an equilibrium distribution; (b) Cl exit across the apical membrane may be passive with an electrochemical driving force of 22 mV; and (c) stimulation of secretion enhanced the rate of Cl entry across the basolateral membrane, since Cl transport increased without a change in acCl. In the absence of Na in the extracellular fluid, acCl approached the value expected for an equilibrium distribution. This finding suggests that "uphill" entry of Cl into the cell against its electrochemical gradient is dependent upon, and energized by, the entry of Na down its gradient. Submucosal bumetanide, a loop diuretic, also decreased the rate of Cl secretion and decreased acCl, indicating an inhibition of Cl entry. These findings indicate that Cl entry into the cell is directed against its electrochemical gradient and is mediated by a Na-coupled, bumetanide-inhibitable, transport process at the basolateral membrane and that Cl may exit passively down a favorable electrochemical gradient across the apical membrane. PMID:6853719

  5. Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M

    2014-12-01

    Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia.

  6. Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/L) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (IV) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 mL/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/L. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/L was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/L. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to IV 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia. PMID:23816479

  7. Expression of the sodium potassium chloride cotransporter (NKCC1) and sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and their effects on rat lens transparency.

    PubMed

    Chee, K N; Vorontsova, I; Lim, J C; Kistler, J; Donaldson, P J

    2010-05-04

    To characterize the expression patterns of the Na+-K+-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and NKCC2, and the Na+-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the rat lens and to determine if they play a role in regulating lens volume and transparency. RT-PCR was performed on RNA extracted from fiber cells to identify sodium dependent cotransporters expressed in the rat lens. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, using NKCC1, NKCC2, and NCC antibodies, were used to verify expression at the protein level and to localize transporter expression. Organ cultured rat lenses were incubated in Artificial Aqueous Humor (AAH) of varying osmolarities or isotonic AAH that contained either the NKCC specific inhibitor bumetanide, or the NCC specific inhibitor thiazide for up to 18 h. Lens transparency was monitored with dark field microscopy, while tissue morphology and antibody labeling patterns were recorded using a confocal microscope. Molecular experiments showed that NKCC1 and NCC were expressed in the lens at both the transcript and protein levels, but NKCC2 was not. Immunohistochemistry showed that both NKCC1 and NCC were expressed in the lens cortex, but NCC expression was also found in the lens core. In the lens cortex the majority of labeling for both transporters was cytoplasmic in nature, while in the lens core, NCC labeling was associated with the membrane. Exposure of lenses to either hypotonic or hypertonic AAH had no noticeable effects on the predominantly cytoplasmic location of either transporter in the lens cortex. Incubation of lenses in isotonic AAH plus the NKCC inhibitor bumetanide for 18 h induced a cortical opacity that was initiated by a shrinkage of peripheral fiber cells and the dilation of the extracellular space between fiber cells in a deeper zone located some approximately 150 microm in from the capsule. In contrast, lenses incubated in isotonic AAH and the NCC inhibitor thiazide maintained both their transparency and their regular fiber cell morphology. We have

  8. Chemistry of Frozen Sodium-Magnesium-Sulfate-Chloride Brines: Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan H.; Hodyss, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu; Johnson, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of Europa’s subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability. However, our current understanding of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the surface. This work investigates experimentally the composition of mixed sodium-magnesium-sulfate-chloride solutions when frozen to 100 K, simulating conditions that likely occur as ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa’s surface. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize phase composition of the frozen brines at 100 K. Our results show that solutions containing Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, and {{{SO}}4}2- preferentially crystallize into Na2SO4 and MgCl2 hydrated minerals upon freezing, even at elevated [Mg2+]/[Na+] ratios. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) on Europa’s surface, if confirmed, may thus imply a relatively sodium-poor ocean composition or a radiolytic process that converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Brown & Hand. The formation of NaCl on the surface, while dependent upon a number of factors such as freezing rate, may indicate an ocean significantly more concentrated in sodium than in magnesium.

  9. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    PubMed

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  10. Galvanic corrosion of nitinol under deaerated and aerated conditions.

    PubMed

    Pound, Bruce G

    2016-10-01

    Various studies have examined the corrosion rate of nitinol generally under deaerated conditions. Likewise, galvanic corrosion studies have typically involved deaerated solutions. This work addressed the effect of galvanic coupling on the corrosion current of electropolished nitinol in phosphate buffered saline and 0.9% sodium chloride under dearated and aerated conditions for times up to 24 h. Tests were performed on nitinol alone and coupled with MP35N in both the mechanically polished and passivated conditions. Aeration and galvanic coupling were found to have relatively little effect, indicating that the corrosion current is controlled by the anodic reaction. The current can be attributed entirely to Ni(2+) dissolution, which appears to be governed by solid-state mass transport of Ni(2+) through the passive oxide film. Because corrosion of EP nitinol is controlled by the anodic reaction, contact between EP nitinol and MP35N or other biomedical Co-Cr alloys is unlikely to result in significant galvanic effects in vivo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1322-1327, 2016.

  11. Water, sodium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus on beef briskets.

    PubMed

    Hajmeer, M N; Marsden, J L; Fung, D Y C; Kemp, G K

    2004-10-01

    Effectiveness of spray application of potable water wash (WW), 25% (w/v) sodium chloride (NaCl), and 0.1% (v/v) acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus inoculated onto beef briskets. The purpose was to identify antimicrobial treatments which may be applied to beef carcasses and more specifically in kosher meat facilities. Treatments were applied for 10-60 s at pressure of 419 kPa. Water wash, NaCl, and ASC significantly reduced E. coli O157:H7 as compared with the control, although, only ASC resulted in improved removal with increased exposure time. Water wash did not significantly reduce S. aureus counts throughout exposure and NaCl was only effective after 60 s of exposure, while ASC reduced counts throughout exposure. E. coli O157:H7 was twice as sensitive to WW and NaCl as S. aureus in terms of percent reduction in cell count.

  12. Sodium chloride concentration affects yield, quality, and sensory acceptability of vacuum-tumbled marinated broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Lopez, K; Schilling, M W; Armstrong, T W; Smith, B S; Corzo, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium chloride concentration on yield, instrumental quality, and sensory acceptability of broiler breast meat that was vacuum tumbled with a 15% solution (over green weight) for 30 min. Different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50%) of NaCl (salt) and 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate were included in the marinade solution. After marinating, breast fillets were evaluated for marination yields, pH, surface color, cooking loss, tenderness, expressible moisture, proximate composition, purge loss, sodium content, and sensory acceptability. As salt concentration increased, CIE L* decreased linearly, with a concentration of 0.75% having lower (P < 0.05) CIE L* values when compared with the control, 0, and 0.25% NaCl treatments. In addition, there was a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in shear force as salt concentration increased, with no further decrease (P < 0.05) when greater than 0.75% NaCl was used. Cooking yield increased (P < 0.05) as the salt concentration increased to 1.0%. All marinated treatments were preferred (P < 0.05) over the control treatment, and all treatments marinated with at least 0.50% sodium chloride had an average rating of like moderately. Cluster analysis indicated that consumer groups varied in their preference of broiler breast meat treatments and that samples that were marinated with between 0.5 to 1.0% NaCl were acceptable to the majority of consumers. Marination with 0.75% NaCl was sufficient to maximize yields and decrease lightness (L*) in vacuum-tumbled, marinated broiler breast that is sold raw, but 1.0% NaCl could be used in a precooked product because it minimizes cook loss. In addition, use of 0.50% NaCl had minimal effects on yields, color, and sensory acceptability when compared with products that were marinated with greater concentrations of NaCl.

  13. Enhancement with varying phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2006-03-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, without sodium chloride. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles enhanced with STPP or TSPP had a higher (P<0.05) pH than SHMP or untreated muscles (CNT), whereas there was no difference (P>0.05) in pH between SHMP and CNT. Muscles enhanced with STPP had less (P<0.05) free water than CNT, whereas SHMP and TSPP did not differ from CNT. However, direct comparison of phosphate types revealed no difference (P>0.05) in free water. Steaks enhanced with SHMP had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas steaks treated with STPP or TSPP did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Phosphate inclusion at 0.2% allowed for greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas 0.4% phosphate inclusion exhibited similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in cooking loss between pump rates, steaks enhanced at an 18% pump rate had greater (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, whereas those enhanced at 12% had similar (P>0.05) cooking losses as CNT. Enhancement with any of the three phosphate types or either concentration did not improve (P>0.05) sensory tenderness or juiciness characteristics compared to CNT, but enhancement at an 18% pump rate allowed for improved (P<0.05) overall tenderness, compared to a 12% pump rate. These results suggest that while phosphate enhancement independent of sodium chloride generally did not improve water retention, cooked yields and palatability compared to untreated samples, utilizing higher phosphate concentrations or utilizing STPP or TSPP effectively retained the additional water associated with solution enhancement, allowing for similar free water and cook yields as untreated

  14. Effects of sodium chloride, phosphate type and concentration, and pump rate on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2005-06-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions comprising 2.0% sodium chloride and either sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles treated with all three phosphate types had decreased (P<0.05) free water compared to untreated muscles (CNT), and while TSPP-treated muscles were able to bind greater (P<0.05) additional water than CNT, STPP- and SHMP-treated muscles did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Disregarding phosphate type, steaks with 0.4% phosphate inclusion bound more (P<0.05) water than those with 0.2% phosphate inclusion. Steaks treated with STPP or TSPP had decreased (P<0.05) cooking losses than CNT, while SHMP-treated steaks did not differ (P>0.05) from CNT. Steaks injected at 18% pump had greater (P<0.05) percent moisture, and did not differ (P>0.05) in free water, water binding, or cooking losses from steaks injected at 12% pump. Although there were no differences (P>0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force in this study, steaks with SHMP, STPP, and TSPP all were rated more tender, and juicier (P<0.05) by sensory panelists than CNT steaks or steaks enhanced only with sodium chloride. Regardless of phosphate type, steaks enhanced with 0.4% phosphate and those steaks at 18% pump received improved (P<0.05) sensory tenderness ratings compared to 0.2% phosphate and 12% pump, respectively. These results suggest that enhancing biceps femoris muscles with STPP or TSPP can improve water retention, yield, and palatability characteristics. Additionally, enhancement with a phosphate/salt solution at an 18% pump rate, compared to a 12% pump rate, can allow for improved sensory tenderness perceptions without decreasing product yields.

  15. Corrosion behavior of ruthenium oxide-titanium anodes during production of sodium chlorate by electrolysis of chloride-chlorate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Uzbekov, A.A.; Klement 'pva, V.S.; Kubasov, V.L.; Lambrev, V.G.

    1985-09-01

    The authors studied the influence of specific factors in chlorate electrilysis on the corrosion behavior of ROTA. The technique used in the investigation was based on neutron activation of the test specimens followed by corrosion tests. Figures show the dependence rate of ruthenium dissolution on the sodium chloride production during production of chlorate by electrolysis with ROTA, and dependence of the rate of ruthenium dissolution and of the rate of oxygen evolution during polarization of ROTA. Over the entire range of ROTA potentials studied the process of oxygen evolution conforms to the Tafel relationship. The rate of ruthenium dissolution in chlorate solution rises by more than 4 orders of magnitude with increase of the ROTA potential.

  16. [Sylvinite speleochamber and general chloride sodium baths in medical rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Rassulova, M A

    2008-01-01

    Clinico-laboratory, functional and bronchoscopic examinations were performed in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 50 patients (41.7%) were in stage of low-intensity exacerbation, 70 patients (58.3%)--in remission stage. 55 patients (45.8%) had I degree respiratory failure, 65 patients (54.2%)--II degree respiratory failure. Easy degree of disease was detected in 58 patients (48.3%), mid degree--in 62 patients (51.7%). Possibility and reasonability of the use of artificial sylvinite speleotherapy and general chloride sodium baths in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were proved. Clinical results were confirmed by data of blood morphology and biochemical analysis, microscopy of sputum, spirometry, bronchoscopy, dynamics of immunological indices.

  17. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  18. Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

    2010-03-01

    In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

  19. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO4(2-)/SnO2(-) MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application.

  20. Liquid water-ice I phase diagrams under high pressure: sodium chloride and sucrose models for food systems.

    PubMed

    Guignon, Bérengère; Otero, Laura; Molina-García, Antonio D; Sanz, Pedro D

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of high pressure and low temperature phase diagrams of aqueous systems is required in fields such as food sciences, biology, cryo-microscopy and geology, to reduce processing costs, improve treatments results or advance in physical phenomena understanding. The phase transition curve between liquid water and ice I for sucrose and sodium chloride solutions has been obtained for concentrations ranging from 16% to 36% and from 1.63% to 16.09% (w/w), respectively. An accurate experimental method, based on the pressurization of an ice-solution mixture, adequate to build the entire phase transition curve at constant concentration, has been developed. Simon-like equations have been used to empirically describe the phase transition curves, so that they allow easy data interpolation.

  1. Aerosol photoemission for quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in simple mixtures adsorbed on carbonaceous and sodium chloride aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Niessner, R.; Hemmerich, B.; Wilbring, P. )

    1990-10-01

    The photoelectric aerosol sensor was applied as a tool for the in situ and on-line detection of surface-enriched polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Carbon aerosol and sodium chloride aerosol were coated stepwise with up to four different PAHs or simultaneously with three different PAHs (internally mixed aerosol). The measured photoelectric signal of the internally mixed aerosol was compared with the expected signal, which was calculated from the previous calibration of the sensor. An additivity of the individual contributions of the adsorbed PAHs on the sum signal was found. Experiments with photoelectrically inactive paraffin adsorbed on photoelectrically active aerosol particles have demonstrated that only the surface composition contributes to the photoemission signal.

  2. Structural, dynamic, and transport properties of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under an external static electric field.

    PubMed

    Ren, Gan; Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2014-04-24

    In the absence of an external electric field, it has already been known that ion clusters are formed instantaneously in moderately concentrated ionic solutions. In this work, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the changes of structural, dynamic, and transport properties in a sodium chloride solution under an external electric field from the ion cluster perspective. Our MD simulation results indicate that, with a strong external electric field E (≥0.1 V/nm) applied, ion clusters become smaller and less net charged, and the structures and dynamics as well as transport properties of the ion solution become anisotropic. The influence of the cluster structure and shell structure to transport properties was analyzed and the Einstein relation was found invalid in this system.

  3. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P < 0.05]. In these salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P < 0.05; NE+NS: 11.1 ± 1.1; NE+HS: 10.8 ± 0.4). NE infusion did not alter NCC expression in animals maintained on NS; however, dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC expression was prevented in animals challenged with NE. Chronic NCC antagonism abolished the salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  4. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kathryn R.; Kuwabara, Jill T.; Shim, Joon W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P < 0.05]. In these salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P < 0.05; NE+NS: 11.1 ± 1.1; NE+HS: 10.8 ± 0.4). NE infusion did not alter NCC expression in animals maintained on NS; however, dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC expression was prevented in animals challenged with NE. Chronic NCC antagonism abolished the salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:26608659

  5. Exploring time of death from potassium, sodium, chloride, glucose & calcium analysis of postmortem synovial fluid in semi arid climate.

    PubMed

    Siddhamsetty, Arun K; Verma, Satish K; Kohli, Anil; Verma, Aditi; Puri, Dinesh; Singh, Archana

    2014-11-01

    Estimation of time of death (TOD) with fair accuracy from postmortem changes still remains an important but difficult task to be performed by every autopsy surgeon under different climatic conditions. The environment plays an important role in the process of decomposition and thereby affecting the levels of electrolytes and other biochemical parameters in the postmortem samples. Since, there is limited information available on the levels of these biochemical parameters from semi arid environment, the present study was aimed to explore time of death by analyzing electrolyte, glucose and calcium levels of postmortem synovial fluid collected from samples under such climatic conditions. The synovial fluid samples from two hundred and ten bodies brought to University College of Medical Sciences and associated Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital Delhi for medico-legal postmortem examination, during the period of November 2010 to April 2012, were analyzed for potassium, sodium, chloride, glucose and calcium. Univariate regression analysis of electrolyte concentrations of synovial fluid showed significant positive relationship between time of death and potassium (r = 0.840, p = 0.000). However, there was negative relationship between time of death and sodium (r = -0.175, p = 0.011) & glucose (r = -0.427, p = 0.000) and no significant relationship was found between time of death and calcium (r = 0.099, p = 0.152) & chloride (r = 0.082, p = 0.24) among the samples analyzed.

  6. The use of chloride-sodium ratio in the evaluation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Abdullah; Ecevit, Ayşe; Ozkiraz, Servet; Ince, Deniz Anuk; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Tarcan, Aylin

    2012-06-01

    Acid-base disturbances have been usually evaluated with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbach method and Stewart's physiochemical approach by quantifying anions of tissue acids (TA). It is hypothesized that an increase in tissue acids during metabolic acidosis would cause a compensatory decrease in the plasma chloride (Cl) relative to sodium (Cl-Na ratio) in order to preserve electroneutral balance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the use of Cl-Na ratio as a bedside tool to evaluate the identifying raised TA in neonates as an alternative to complex calculations of Stewart's physiochemical approach. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. Infants were included in the study when blood gas analysis reveals a metabolic acidosis; pH <7.25 and sHCO(3) concentration was <22 mEq/L. The Cl-Na ratio, sodium-chloride difference (Diff(NaCl)), anion gap (AG), albumin-corrected AG (AG(corr)), strong ion difference (SID), unmeasured anions (UMA), and TA were calculated at each episode of metabolic acidosis. A total of 105 metabolic acidosis episodes occurred in 59 infants during follow-up. Hypochloremic metabolic acidosis occurred in 17 (16%) of samples, and all had increased TA. The dominant component of TA was UMA rather than lactate. There was a negative correlation between the Cl-Na ratio and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Also, there was a positive correlation between Diff(NaCl) and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Base deficit and actual bicarbonate performed poorly in identifying the TA. In conclusion, our study suggested that Diff(NaCl) and Cl-Na ratio are simple and fast, and may be an alternative method to complex Stewart's physiochemical approach in identifying raised UMA and TA in critically ill neonates.

  7. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather S; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Cornman, R Scott

    2017-09-01

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5'-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2352-2366. © Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. © 2017 SETAC.

  8. Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Pagedar, Ankita; Singh, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken with objectives of; a) to investigate and compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two dairies for biofilm formation potential and, b) to compares three common biocides for biofilm eradication efficiencies. Amongst the isolates from commercial dairy, 70 % were strong and/or moderate biofilm former in comparison to 40 % isolates from small scale dairy. All isolates, irrespective of source, exhibited higher susceptibility to biocides in planktonic stage than in biofilm. Antibiofilm efficiencies of three biocides i.e. benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite and iodophore were determined in terms of their microbial biofilms eradicating concentration (MBEC). Our findings show that the three biocides were ineffective against preformed biofilms at recommended in-use concentrations. Biofilms were the most resistant to benzalkonium chloride and least against iodophore. A trend of decreasing MBECs was observed with extended contact time. The findings of present study warrant for a systematic approach for selecting types and concentrations of biocide for application as antibiofilm agent in food industry.

  9. Benefits of a silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing o-cymen-5-ol, zinc chloride and sodium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Newby, Craig S; Rowland, Joanna L; Lynch, Richard J M; Bradshaw, David J; Whitworth, Darren; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Fluoride toothpastes in conjunction with tooth brushing are used to clean teeth, control plaque build-up and for anti-caries benefits. Toothpastes are designed with attractive flavours and appearances to encourage regular prolonged use to maximise these benefits. The incorporation of additional ingredients into toothpaste is a convenient way to provide supplementary protection that fits into people's everyday oral care routine. Such ingredients should not compromise the primary health benefits of toothpaste nor discourage its use. o-Cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride have been incorporated into a sodium fluoride (NaF)/silica toothpaste at 0.1%w/w and 0.6%w/w respectively to provide additional benefits. These include improved gingival health maintenance, in terms of the reduction of plaque, gingival index and bleeding, and an immediate and long lasting reduction in volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) measured on breath. These benefits can be attributed to the antimicrobial and neutralisation actions of the toothpaste. The use of established fluoride models demonstrated no compromise in NaF bioavailability. The toothpaste was formulated without compromising product aesthetics. The combination of o-cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride in toothpaste gave superior maintenance of gingival health and reduction in malodour related VSCs without compromising the primary health benefits of the toothpaste or diminishing attributes preferred for the product's use.

  10. Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Woo; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2009-12-15

    Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 70}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20} (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) at 60 deg. C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added. - Graphical abstract: Gold icosahedra were prepared by heating an aqueous solution of Pluronic P123 and HAuCl{sub 4}. When NaCl was added to this solution, gold nanoplates were produced.

  11. Effect of suckling an isotonic solution of sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, or sodium chloride on abomasal emptying rate and luminal pH in calves.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Tessa S; Constable, Peter D; Crochik, Sonia S; Wittek, Thomas; Freeman, David E; Morin, Dawn E

    2008-06-01

    To compare abomasal emptying rates in calves after suckling milk replacer or 3 common orally administered electrolyte solution components. 5 male calves < 35 days of age. Calves with a cannula fitted in the abomasal body were fed 2 L of milk replacer with or without parenteral administration of atropine (0.01 mg/kg, i.v., then 0.02 mg/ kg, s.c., q 30 min) or isotonic (150 mM) solutions of sodium acetate, NaHCO(3), or NaCl in a randomized crossover design. Abomasal emptying rates were determined via scintigraphy, acetaminophen absorption, ultrasonography, and change in abomasal luminal pH. Scintigraphic half-emptying time, time of maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration, ultrasonographic half-emptying time, and pH return time indicated similar abomasal emptying rates following suckling of isotonic sodium acetate, NaHCO(3), and NaCl solutions, whereas the emptying rate of milk replacer was significantly slower. Mean maximal abomasal luminal pH was highest following suckling of NaHCO(3) (pH(max)=7.85) and lowest following suckling of NaCl (pH(max)=4.52); sodium acetate (pH(max)=6.59) and milk replacer (pH(max)=5.84) yielded intermediate pH values. Isotonic solutions of sodium acetate, NaHCO(3), and NaCl were rapidly emptied from the abomasum but varied markedly in their ability to alkalinize the abomasum. Sodium bicarbonate-containing orally administered electrolyte solution might increase the frequency of infection or severity of clinical disease in diarrheic calves treated for dehydration by causing prolonged abomasal alkalinization.

  12. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 – 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE, 0-3%) on heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags submerged in ...

  13. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt %) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes ...

  14. Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats.

  15. USING AERATION FOR CORROSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeration is a useful drinking water treatment process. Aeration has been used to remove hydrogen sulfide, methane, radon, iron, manganese, and volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from drinking water. Aeration is also effective in removing carbon dioxide which directly impacts ...

  16. USING AERATION FOR CORROSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeration is a useful drinking water treatment process. Aeration has been used to remove hydrogen sulfide, methane, radon, iron, manganese, and volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) from drinking water. Aeration is also effective in removing carbon dioxide which directly impacts ...

  17. Serum Chloride and Sodium Interplay in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: An Analysis From the High-Risk Myocardial Infarction Database Initiative.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, João Pedro; Girerd, Nicolas; Duarte, Kevin; Coiro, Stefano; McMurray, John J V; Dargie, Henry J; Pitt, Bertram; Dickstein, Kenneth; Testani, Jeffrey M; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Serum chloride levels were recently found to be independently associated with mortality in heart failure (HF). We investigated the relationship between serum chloride and clinical outcomes in 7195 subjects with acute myocardial infarction complicated by reduced left ventricular function and HF. The studied outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalization for HF. Both chloride and sodium had a nonlinear association with the studied outcomes (P<0.05 for linearity). Patients in the lowest chloride tertile (chloride ≤100) were older, had more comorbidities, and had lower sodium levels (P<0.05 for all). Serum chloride showed a significant interaction with sodium with regard to all studied outcomes (P for interaction <0.05 for all). The lowest chloride tertile (≤100 mmol/L) was associated with increased mortality rates in the context of lower sodium (≤138 mmol/L; adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for all-cause mortality=1.42 (1.14-1.77); P=0.002), whereas in the context of higher sodium levels (>141 mmol/L), the association with mortality was lost. Spline-transformed chloride and its interaction with sodium did not add significant prognostic information on top of other well-established prognostic variables (P>0.05 for all outcomes). In post-myocardial infarction with systolic dysfunction and HF, low serum chloride was associated with mortality (but not hospitalization for HF) in the setting of lower sodium. Overall, chloride and its interaction with sodium did not add clinically relevant prognostic information on top of other well-established prognostic variables. Taken together, these data support an integrated and critical consideration of chloride and sodium interplay. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2014-08-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm.

  19. Involvement of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in the Regulation of Selective Excretion of Sodium or Chloride Ions by the Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Marina, A S; Kutina, A V; Shakhmatoba, E I; Natochin, Yu V

    2017-02-01

    An increase of total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentration in the plasma in rats was revealed 5 min after oral, but not intraperitoneal administration of NaCl or Trizma HCl solutions. The increase in GLP-1 level was similar to that after oral glucose administration. After intraperitoneal administration of 2.5% NaCl, GLP-1 mimetic exenatide accelerated natriuresis and urinary chloride excretion. Under conditions of normonatriemia and hyperchloremia induced by injection of 6.7% Trizma HCl, exenatide stimulated chloride excretion and reabsorption of sodium ions in the kidneys. These findings suggest that GLP-1 participates in selective regulation of the balance of sodium and chloride ions.

  20. Dietary Potassium: a Key Mediator of the Cardiovascular Response to Dietary Sodium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have demonstrated that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but could be prevented by increased dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence supports a diet high in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, especially in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension. PMID:23735420

  1. Dietary potassium: a key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have shown that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke, and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but might be curbed by increasing dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence suggests that a diet rich in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, particularly in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension.

  2. A benign synthesis of alane by the composition-controlled mechanochemical reaction of sodium hydride and aluminum chloride

    DOE PAGES

    Hlova, Ihor; Goldston, Jennifer F.; Gupta, Shalabh; ...

    2017-05-30

    Solid-state mechanochemical synthesis of alane (AlH3) starting from sodium hydride (NaH) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) has been achieved at room temperature. The transformation pathway of this solid-state reaction was controlled by a stepwise addition of AlCl3 to the initial reaction mixture that contained sodium hydride in excess of stoichiometric amount. As in the case of previously investigated LiH–AlCl3 system, complete selectivity was achieved whereby formation of unwanted elemental aluminum was fully suppressed, and AlH3 was obtained in quantitative yield. Reaction progress during each step was investigated by means of solid-state NMR and powder X-ray diffraction, which revealed that the overallmore » reaction proceeds through a series of intermediate alanates that may be partially chlorinated. The NaH–AlCl3 system presents some subtle differences compared to LiH–AlCl3 system particularly with respect to optimal concentrations needed during one of the reaction stages. Based on the results, we postulate that high local concentrations of NaH may stabilize chlorine-containing derivatives and prevent decomposition into elemental aluminum with hydrogen evolution. As a result, complete conversion with quantitative yield of alane was confirmed by both SSNMR and hydrogen desorption analysis.« less

  3. Intracarotid hypertonic sodium chloride differentially modulates sympathetic nerve activity to the heart and kidney

    PubMed Central

    Frithiof, Robert; Xing, Tao; McKinley, Michael J.; May, Clive N.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertonic NaCl infused into the carotid arteries increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and changes sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via cerebral mechanisms. We hypothesized that elevated sodium levels in the blood supply to the brain would induce differential responses in renal and cardiac SNA via sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured renal and cardiac SNA simultaneously in conscious sheep during intracarotid infusions of NaCl (1.2 M), sorbitol (2.4 M), or urea (2.4 M) at 1 ml/min for 4 min into each carotid. Intracarotid NaCl significantly increased MAP (91 ± 2 to 97 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) without changing heart rate (HR). Intracarotid NaCl was associated with no change in cardiac SNA (11 ± 5.0%), but a significant inhibition of renal SNA (−32.5 ± 6.4%, P < 0.05). Neither intracarotid sorbitol nor urea changed MAP, HR, central venous pressure, cardiac SNA, and renal SNA. The changes in MAP and renal SNA were completely abolished by microinjection of the GABA agonist muscimol (5 mM, 500 nl each side) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Infusion of intracarotid NaCl for 20 min stimulated a larger increase in water intake (1,100 ± 75 ml) than intracarotid sorbitol (683 ± 125 ml) or intracarotid urea (0 ml). These results demonstrate that acute increases in blood sodium levels cause a decrease in renal SNA, but no change in cardiac SNA in conscious sheep. These effects are mediated by cerebral sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier that are more responsive to changes in sodium concentration than osmolality. The renal sympathoinhibitory effects of sodium are mediated via a pathway that synapses in the PVN. PMID:24523342

  4. Insights into metabolism and sodium chloride adaptability of carbaryl degrading halotolerant Pseudomonas sp. strain C7.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Vikas D; Bharadwaj, Anahita; Varunjikar, Madhushri S; Singha, Arminder K; Upadhyay, Priya; Gautam, Kamini; Phale, Prashant S

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain C7 isolated from sediment of Thane creek near Mumbai, India, showed the ability to grow on glucose and carbaryl in the presence of 7.5 and 3.5% of NaCl, respectively. It also showed good growth in the absence of NaCl indicating the strain to be halotolerant. Increasing salt concentration impacted the growth on carbaryl; however, the specific activity of various enzymes involved in the metabolism remained unaffected. Among various enzymes, 1-naphthol 2-hydroxylase was found to be sensitive to chloride as compared to carbaryl hydrolase and gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. The intracellular concentration of Cl(-) ions remained constant (6-8 mM) for cells grown on carbaryl either in the presence or absence of NaCl. Thus the ability to adapt to the increasing concentration of NaCl is probably by employing chloride efflux pump and/or increase in the concentration of osmolytes as mechanism for halotolerance. The halotolerant nature of the strain will be beneficial to remediate carbaryl from saline agriculture fields, ecosystems and wastewaters.

  5. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  6. Upregulation of apical sodium-chloride cotransporter and basolateral chloride channels is responsible for the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Giovambattista; Rizzo, Maria; Garavaglia, Maria Lisa; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Mugione, Alessandra; Ferrari, Patrizia; Paulmichl, Markus; Lang, Florian; Loffing, Johannes; Carrel, Monique; Damiano, Sara; Wagner, Carsten A; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Meyer, Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    We investigated which of the NaCl transporters are involved in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats were studied 3 mo after birth. In MHS, compared with normotensive strain (MNS), mRNA abundance, quantified by competitive PCR on isolated tubules, was unchanged, both for Na+/H+ isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na+-K+-2Cl- (NKCC2), but higher (119%, n = 5, P < 0.005) for Na+-Cl- (NCC) in distal convoluted tubules (DCT). These results were confirmed by Western blots, which revealed: 1) unchanged NHE3 in the cortex and NKCC2 in the outer medulla; 2) a significant increase (52%, n = 6, P < 0.001) of NCC in the cortex; 3) alpha- and beta-sodium channels [epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)] unaffected in renal cortex and slightly reduced in the outer medulla, while gamma-ENaC remained unchanged. Pendrin protein expression was unaffected. The role of NCC was reinforced by immunocytochemical studies showing increased NCC on the apical membrane of DCT cells of MHS animals, and by clearance experiments demonstrating a larger sensitivity (P < 0.001) to bendroflumethiazide in MHS rats. Kidney-specific chloride channels (ClC-K) were studied by Western blot experiments on renal cortex and by patch-clamp studies on primary culture of DCT dissected from MNS and MHS animals. Electrophysiological characteristics of ClC-K channels were unchanged in MHS rats, but the number of active channels in a patch was 0.60 +/- 0.21 (n = 35) in MNS rats and 2.17 +/- 0.59 (n = 23) in MHS rats (P < 0.05). The data indicate that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, there is a strong upregulation, both of NCC and ClC-K along the DCT, which explains the persistence of hypertension.

  7. Central AT1 and AT2 receptors mediate chronic intracerebroventricular angiotensin II-induced drinking in rats fed high sodium chloride diet from weaning.

    PubMed

    Camara, A K; Osborn, J

    2001-02-01

    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) angiotensin (AIl) administration stimulates central AII receptors to induce water consumption in rats. The aim of this study was to determine the role of brain AT1 and AT2 receptors in mediating chronic ICV AII-induced drinking in rats raised on normal or high sodium chloride diets from weaning. Rats were weaned at 21 days of age and placed on normal or high sodium chloride diet for 10-12 weeks. At adulthood, the animals were instrumented with brain lateral ventricular cannulas and femoral arterial catheters. Low dose chronic central AII infusion (20 ng min(-1)) significantly (P < 0.05) increased water intake in both groups of rats when compared with their respective controls of 24 h artificial cerebrospinal fluid infusions. In a separate group of high sodium fed rats, coinfusion of AII with the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan (0.25 microg min(-1)) or the AT2 receptor blocker, PD 123319 (0.50 microg min(-1)) blocked chronic ICV AII-induced drinking. Upon reinfusion of AII water intake increased above control. Following the cessation of AII infusions, water intake returned to values not significantly different from control (P > 0.05). In contrast, in the normal sodium fed rats losartan, but not PD 123319, blocked the AII-mediated water intake. The data demonstrate that in high sodium chloride fed rats AII stimulates both central AT1 and AT2 receptors to induce drinking, while in the normal sodium chloride fed rats the peptide activates the drinking response primarily by stimulation of central AT1 receptors.

  8. Quantitative interaction effects of carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite on neurotoxin gene expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B.

    PubMed

    Lövenklev, Maria; Artin, Ingrid; Hagberg, Oskar; Borch, Elisabeth; Holst, Elisabet; Rådström, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite on type B botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/B) gene (cntB) expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were investigated in a tryptone-peptone-yeast extract (TPY) medium. Various concentrations of these selected food preservatives were studied by using a complete factorial design in order to quantitatively study interaction effects, as well as main effects, on the following responses: lag phase duration (LPD), growth rate, relative cntB expression, and extracellular BoNT/B production. Multiple linear regression was used to set up six statistical models to quantify and predict these responses. All combinations of NaCl and NaNO(2) in the growth medium resulted in a prolonged lag phase duration and in a reduction in the specific growth rate. In contrast, the relative BoNT/B gene expression was unchanged, as determined by the cntB-specific quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. This was confirmed when we measured the extracellular BoNT/B concentration by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CO(2) was found to have a major effect on gene expression when the cntB mRNA levels were monitored in the mid-exponential, late exponential, and late stationary growth phases. The expression of cntB relative to the expression of the 16S rRNA gene was stimulated by an elevated CO(2) concentration; the cntB mRNA level was fivefold greater in a 70% CO(2) atmosphere than in a 10% CO(2) atmosphere. These findings were also confirmed when we analyzed the extracellular BoNT/B concentration; we found that the concentrations were 27 ng x ml(-1). unit of optical density(-1) in the 10% CO(2) atmosphere and 126 ng x ml(-1). unit of optical density(-1) in the 70% CO(2) atmosphere.

  9. Effect of algogenic organic matter (AOM) and sodium chloride on Nannochloropsis salina flocculation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Sanabria, Andrea J; Ramirez-Caballero, Silvia S; Moss, Francesca E P; Nikolov, Zivko L

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of polymer molecular weight and charge density, algogenic organic matter (AOM), and salt concentration on harvesting efficiency of marine microalgae. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), chitosan, and five synthetic cationic polymers of different molecular weights and charge density levels were used as flocculation agents. Polymer flocculation of marine microalgae was most efficient when using the highest charge density polymer (FO4990). The flocculant dosage irrespectively of the agent chemistry and charge density was affected by the amount of AOM secreted into the culture media. The presence of AOM increased the amount of required flocculant 7-fold when using synthetic cationic polymers; 10-fold with chitosan; and ~3-fold with AlCl3. Salt concentration of 5 or 35 g/L NaCl alone did not significantly affect removal efficiency, indicating that AOM were the main cause for the increased flocculant dosage requirement. The synthetic cationic polymer (FO4990) was the least expensive flocculation agent.

  10. The effects of loading rats with intravenous isotonic sodium chloride on the renal response to diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, R.; Schnieden, H.

    1959-01-01

    The effect of a number of diuretic agents was investigated on rats with different degrees of expansion of extracellular fluid volume. With moderate saline loading aminoisometradine and chlorthiazide were the most efficient diuretics. However, with a more severe saline load aminoisometradine and mersalyl had the greatest effect while chlorthiazide had no significant diuretic activity. The action of acetazolamide seemed independent of the saline load. Potassium chloride showed no diuretic activity. Injecting the drugs in pairs resulted in probable potentiation only with acetazolamide plus chlorthiazide. Since all the diuretics were used in doses which gave maximal effects, the summation of the effects of the other pairs of diuretics suggested different sites of action. PMID:14405117

  11. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-03-03

    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important.

  12. Green synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanodots using sodium chloride template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Zou, Xianshuai; Yan, Tingnan; Fei, Junjie; Chu, Zengyong

    2016-05-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanodots are simply prepared by a thermal treatment of dicyandiamide (DCDA) confined within NaCl templates. Cyano groups are introduced to the nanodots due to the catalytic effect of NaCl. NaCl could facilitate the polymerization of DCDA at lower temperatures, but will promote the decomposition when the temperature is above 550 °C. Thermal treatment at 600 °C for 30 min is the optimal condition for the scalable synthesis of g-C3N4 nanodots with an average diameter of 9 nm. g-C3N4 nanodots have a higher band gap of 3.1 eV, which can emit bright blue light due to the decreased diameter, the introduction of cyano groups, and the incorporation of some sodium ions. The residue sodium ions and the cyano groups might lead to the local distortion of the graphitic crystals, or act as recombination centers for the enhanced photoluminescence.

  13. Activity of urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in glass or plastic syringes.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Tran, L T; Sinai, W J; Carr, L J

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the diluent, the container, the i.v. set, and the drug concentration on the adsorption of urokinase to i.v. administration systems were studied, along with the compatibility of urokinase with plastic and glass syringes. Solutions of urokinase 1500 and 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers were sampled at 2 and 30 minutes. Administration sets were attached to PVC containers containing the urokinase-5% dextrose injection solutions, and samples were collected at 90 and 150 minutes. Glass and polypropylene syringes containing urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours. Urokinase activity was measured by an in vitro clot lysis assay. No urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection adsorbed to glass or PVC containers. For urokinase 1500 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, a loss of 15% to 20% occurred almost instantaneously in PVC containers; additional losses to the infusion sets were minimal. However, for urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, no losses were observed in the PVC systems. No drug loss to glass bottles was seen for urokinase 1500 or 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection. Urokinase potency remained constant in polypropylene and glass syringes for 24 hours. To minimize urokinase sorption to PVC containers, higher concentrations of urokinase diluted in 5% dextrose injection should be used, provided that clinical safety and efficacy are not compromised. The use of 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent also prevents sorption losses.

  14. Effect of sodium chloride, chlorite, and perchlorate on the hypochlorite-induced peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Panasenko, O M; Arnhold, J; Sergienko, V I

    1997-01-01

    The abilities of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chlorite (NaClO2), chlorate (NaClO3), and perchlorate (NaClO4) to initiate lipid peroxidation (LP) in liposomes formed from unsaturated phosphatidylcholine were compared. It was shown that only NaClO induced an intensive accumulation of LP products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and diene conjugates) in the liposomes as a result of their co-incubation. The other oxochlorates produced no similar effects and did not affect the hypochlorite-induced LP. This indicates that the observed hypochlorite-induced LP does not result from the presence of chlorite, chlorate, or perchlorate anion admixtures in the medium.

  15. Sensory evaluation of sodium chloride-containing water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, Matthew R; Rousseau, Dérick; Duizer, Lisa

    2012-04-25

    The sensory perception of water-in-oil emulsions containing a saline-dispersed aqueous phase was investigated. Manipulating saltiness perception was achieved by varying the mass fraction aqueous phase (MFAP), initial salt load, and surfactant concentration [(polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PgPr)] of the emulsions, with formulations based on a central composite design. Saltiness and emulsion thickness were evaluated using a trained sensory panel, and collected data were analyzed using response surface analysis. Emulsion MFAP was the most important factor correlated with increased salt taste intensity. Emulsifier concentration and interactions between NaCl and PgPr had only minor effects. Emulsions more prone to destabilization were perceived as saltier irrespective of their initial salt load. The knowledge gained from this study provides a powerful tool for the development of novel sodium-reduced liquid-processed foods.

  16. Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; de Groot, Theun; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Wetzels, Jack F M; Loffing, Johannes; Deen, Peter M T

    2014-03-01

    Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or protein. These data indicated that in mpkCCD cells, HCTZ attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2 independently of NCC and ENaC. Treatment of Li-NDI NCC knockout mice with HCTZ revealed a significantly reduced urine volume, unchanged urine osmolality, and increased cortical AQP2 abundance compared with Li-treated NCC knockout mice. HCTZ treatment further resulted in reduced blood Li levels, creatinine clearance, and alkalinized urinary pH. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that part of the antidiuretic effect of HCTZ in Li-NDI is NCC independent and may involve a tubuloglomerular feedback response-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to proximal tubular carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

  17. Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

    2011-05-03

    The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process.

  18. The solubility of ozone and kinetics of its chemical reactions in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, A. V.; Kuskov, I. V.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    The solubility of ozone and the kinetics of its decomposition and interaction with chloride ions in a 1 M aqueous solution of NaCl at 20°C and pH 8.4-10.8 were studied. The ratio between the concentration of O3 in solution and the gas phase was found to be 0.16 at pH 8.4-9.8. The concentration of dissolved ozone decreased sharply as pH increased to 10.8 because of a substantial increase in the rate of its decomposition. It was observed for the first time that the interaction of O3 with Cl- in alkaline media resulted in the formation of ClO{3/-} chlorate ions. The dependence of the rate of formation of ClO{3/-} on pH was determined; its maximum value was found to be 9.6 × 10-6 mol l-1 min-1 at pH 10.0 and the concentration of ozone at the entrance of the reactor 30.0 g/m3. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of chlorate ions (concentrations 1 × 10-5-3 × 10-4 M) in aqueous solutions was suggested.

  19. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  20. Microstructure design of metal composite for active material in sodium nickel-iron chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Mangi; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Hong, Inchul; Kim, Woosung; Moon, Goyoung; Lee, Heesoo; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    In this manuscript, it is reported how the microstructure of metal composites can be designed to obtain excellent cycle performance in Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 battery. The microstructure consists of an active material and a conducting material. The conducting material is an active material as well as a conducting chain (an electron path). In Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cells, it is preferable that Ni is selected as the conducting material, since the nickel chloride is not formed on the surface of Ni particles during the electrochemical reaction of Fe particles. In addition, the particle size of Ni should be smaller than that of Fe, in order to ensure that the conducting chain is well-connected. Through this design, the cycle performance of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was significantly improved, compared to that of a Na-NiCl2 cell. At the 100th cycle, the charge/discharge capacity of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was much higher than that of a Na-NiCl2 cell, approximately 42%.

  1. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  2. Formation of palladium(II) hydroxychloride complexes and precipitates in sodium chloride solutions and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Yao, Wensheng

    2000-12-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements of Pd(II) in 0.5 M NaCl indicate that the PdCl3OH2- formation constant at 25°C is ClK∗1 = [PdCl3OH2-][H+][Cl-][PdCl42-]-1 = 10-8.98. This constant is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than previous results derived through solubility analysis. Kinetic experiments indicate that equilibration between PdCl42- and PdCl3OH2- is complete in less than one second. The discrepancy between depictions of Pd(II) speciation obtained by using spectrophotometric and solubility analysis is apparently caused by the formation of mixed hydroxychloride solid phases (PdClaOH2-a), rather than pure Pd(OH)2(s), when Pd(OH)2(s) is equilibrated in concentrated chloride solutions at high pH. In Pd(II) solubility analysis, and solubility analyses of other strongly hydrolyzed metals in seawater, the composition of the solid phase must be carefully examined for appropriate deconvolution of data.

  3. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage.

    PubMed

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Franco, Wendy; Perez-Diaz, Ilenys; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-07-01

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial instability. Objectives of this study were to determine the combined effects of NaCl and pH on fermented cucumber spoilage and to determine the ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) spoilage isolates to initiate lactic acid degradation in fermented cucumbers. Cucumbers fermented with 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% NaCl were blended into slurries (FCS) and adjusted to pH 3.2, 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 prior to centrifugation, sterile-filtration, and inoculation with spoilage organisms. Organic acids and pH were measured initially and after 3 wk, 2, 6, 12, and 18 mo anaerobic incubation at 25 °C. Anaerobic lactic acid degradation occurred in FCS at pH 3.8, 4.3, and 5.0 regardless of NaCl concentration. At pH 3.2, reduced NaCl concentrations resulted in increased susceptibility to spoilage, indicating that the pH limit for lactic acid utilization in reduced NaCl fermented cucumbers is 3.2 or lower. Over 18 mo incubation, only cucumbers fermented with 6% NaCl to pH 3.2 prevented anaerobic lactic acid degradation by spoilage bacteria. Among several LAB species isolated from fermented cucumber spoilage, Lactobacillus buchneri was unique in its ability to metabolize lactic acid in FCS with concurrent increases in acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. Therefore, L. buchneri may be one of multiple organisms that contribute to development of fermented cucumber spoilage. Microbial spoilage of fermented cucumbers during bulk storage causes economic losses for producers. Current knowledge is insufficient to predict or control these losses. This study demonstrated that in the absence of oxygen, cucumbers fermented with 6% sodium chloride to pH 3.2 were not subject to spoilage. However, lactic acid was degraded

  4. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  5. Quality of life in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in combination with essential hypertension considering taste sensitivity to sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mashura, Hanna Y; Hanych, Taras M; Rishko, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertensive disease - is the most common combination of abnormalities that occur in people suffering from metabolic syndrome. Their combination not only causes concurrent damage of the liver and the heart, caused by common pathogenic beginning, and also mutually complicate the disease course of each other. The leading role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease belongs to abdominal obesity and insulin resistance, and is seen as a manifestation of liver disease in metabolic syndrome. Genetic predisposition, lifestyle, improper nutrition, including excessive use of sodium chloride, lead to excessive formation of visceral adipose tissue with development of abdominal obesity, which is a likely criterion of insulin resistance. The long course of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in combination with essential hypertension in excessive consumption of sodium chloride may negatively affect their quality of life. The aim of the study is to find out the features of quality of life in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in combination with hypertensive disease with different taste sensitivity to sodium chloride. We have investigated the quality of life of 65 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in combination with hypertensive disease II stage with different taste sensitivity to sodium chloride. Salt taste sensitivity threshold to sodium chloride is determined by the method of R. Henkin. Assessment of quality of life was performed using the Ukrainian version of the questionnaire Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (MO S SF-36). Was revealed that in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in combination with hypertensive disease II stage with high salt taste sensitivity threshold observed the decline in the quality of life that manifests as a decline in physical condition (especially of the physical functioning, physical role functioning and general health perceptions) and mental health

  6. Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2011-05-30

    Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE) and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative) electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts.In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF) chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-.Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell.When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

  7. Renal cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase and epoxyge