Science.gov

Sample records for aerial application operations

  1. Application of solid state lighting in aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey; Walker, Richard; Ferguson, Joseph; Kemp, Richard

    2005-09-01

    Operating at altitude and often in turbulent, low visibility conditions, in-flight refueling of aircraft is a challenging endeavor, even for seasoned aviators. The receiving aircraft must approach a large airborne tanker; take position within a "reception window" beneath and/or behind the tanker and, dependent upon the type of receiving aircraft, mate with an extended refueling boom or hose and drogue. Light is used to assist in the approach, alignment and refuel process of the aircraft. Robust solid state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an appropriate choice for use in the challenging environments that these aircraft operate within. This paper examines how LEDs are incorporated into several unique lighting applications associated with such aerial refueling operations. We will discuss the design requirements, both environmental and photometric that defined the selection of different LED packages for use in state-of-the-art airborne refueling aircraft Formation Lights, Hose Drum/Drogue Unit lights and Pilot Director Lights.

  2. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  3. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  5. Applicator Training Manual for: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhults, Douglas G.

    This training manual discusses both the advantages and limitations of aerial application of pesticides. Other topics included are: agricultural aircraft equipment, dispersal accessories, drift control, calibration, spray testing, granular materials testing, operations, and personal safety. Safety check lists are given for pilots, ground crew, and…

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  7. Toxicological effects of aerial application of monocrotophos.

    PubMed

    Rao, R R; Quadros, F; Mazmudar, R M; Marathe, M R; Gangoli, S D

    1980-01-01

    Aerial application of the insecticide Nuvacron 40% (monocrotophos) had no significant effect on the cholinesterase level of plasma and erythrocytes of cattle, chicken, buffaloes, and human volunteers exposed to the spray. Contamination of canal water with the pesticide was completely eliminated within 24 hr, whereas that in the soil was reduced by 80% in 72 hr. The degradation of insecticide residue in grass was about 90% in seven days and in cotton leaves about 85% for the same period.

  8. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS (BOTTOM LEFT AND CENTER), COKE BY-PRODUCT PLANT (CENTER), AND THE FORMER THOMAS FURNACE COMMUNITY, NOW THE THOMAS NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT (CENTER RIGHT). - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, AL 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Development of Air Force aerial spray night operations: High altitude swath characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVG). Higher altitude application of pesticide (>400 feet above ground level [AGL]) suggested that effective vector control mi...

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  11. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. PMID:20088030

  12. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  13. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  14. Aerial applications dispersal systems control requirements study. [agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Cleary, W. L.; Rogers, W. F.; Simpson, W.; Sanders, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Performance deficiencies in aerial liquid and dry dispersal systems are identified. Five control system concepts are explored: (1) end of field on/off control; (2) manual control of particle size and application rate from the aircraft; (3) manual control of deposit rate on the field; (4) automatic alarm and shut-off control; and (5) fully automatic control. Operational aspects of the concepts and specifications for improved control configurations are discussed in detail. A research plan to provide the technology needed to develop the proposed improvements is presented along with a flight program to verify the benefits achieved.

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Cadastral Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manyoky, M.; Theiler, P.; Steudler, D.; Eisenbeiss, H.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial). However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.

  16. 23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS 771, 776/777, AND 707. BUILDING 771, IN THE FOREGROUND, WAS BUILT IN 1952 TO HOUSE ALL PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. BY 1956, BUILDING 771 WAS NO LONGER ADEQUATE FOR PRODUCTION DEMANDS. BUILDING 776/777, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 771, WAS CONSTRUCTED TO HOUSE PLUTONIUM FABRICATION AND FOUNDRY OPERATIONS. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY REMAINED IN BUILDING 771. BY 1967, CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING 707, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 776/777, BEGAN AS PRODUCTION LEVELS CONTINUED TO EXPAND NECESSITATING THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL PLUTONIUM FABRICATION SPACE (7/1/69). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Development of Air Force Aerial Spray Night Operations: High Altitude Swath Characterizations.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Karl A; Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C

    2015-01-01

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVGs). Higher altitude application of pesticide (more than 400 ft (121.9 m) above ground level (AGL)) suggested that effective vector control might be possible under ideal meteorological conditions. A series of lower altitude daytime applications (300 ft (91.4 m) AGL) demonstrated effective and repeatable mortality of target sentinel insects more than 5,000 ft (1,524 m) downwind, and control of natural vector populations. From these results we believe further pursuit of aerial night applications of pesticide using NVGs at 300 ft (91.4 m) AGL by this group is warranted. PMID:26276945

  18. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  19. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  20. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  2. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  3. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  4. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  5. Field Assessment of A Variable-rate Aerial Application System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the system response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates. The research is collaboration between the USDA, ARS, APTRU and Houma Avionics, USA, manufacturer of a widely used flow controller designed for agricultural airc...

  6. A Low-Cost Imaging System for Aerial Applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are being used for research and commercial applications, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial app...

  7. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  8. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  9. Current status and future directions of precision agriculture for aerial application in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision aerial application in the USA is less than a decade old since the development of the first variable-rate aerial application system. Many areas of the United States rely on readily available agricultural airplanes or helicopters for pest management. Variable-rate aerial application provides...

  10. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist aerial pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. An introduction with the explanation of requirements of effective aerial application is presented. The six topics included describe: (1) Dispersal equipment; (2) Calibration; (3) Pattern testing; (4)…

  11. Synthetic vision system for improving unmanned aerial vehicle operator situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, Gloria L.; Draper, Mark H.; Abernathy, Michael F.; Patzek, Michael; Delgado, Francisco

    2005-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate (AFRL/HE) supports research addressing human factors associated with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operator control stations. Recent research, in collaboration with Rapid Imaging Software, Inc., has focused on determining the value of combining synthetic vision data with live camera video presented on a UAV control station display. Information is constructed from databases (e.g., terrain, cultural features, pre-mission plan, etc.), as well as numerous information updates via networked communication with other sources (e.g., weather, intel). This information is overlaid conformal, in real time, onto the dynamic camera video image display presented to operators. Synthetic vision overlay technology is expected to improve operator situation awareness by highlighting key spatial information elements of interest directly onto the video image, such as threat locations, expected locations of targets, landmarks, emergency airfields, etc. Also, it may help maintain an operator"s situation awareness during periods of video datalink degradation/dropout and when operating in conditions of poor visibility. Additionally, this technology may serve as an intuitive means of distributed communications between geographically separated users. This paper discusses the tailoring of synthetic overlay technology for several UAV applications. Pertinent human factors issues are detailed, as well as the usability, simulation, and flight test evaluations required to determine how best to combine synthetic visual data with live camera video presented on a ground control station display and validate that a synthetic vision system is beneficial for UAV applications.

  12. Evaluation of foam-skin cables for aerial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelson, G. R.

    Since the introduction of foam-skin filled cables, there has been considerable discussion within the Industry, both pro and con, regarding the acceptability of foam-skin filled cables for aerial application. This paper reports on results obtained from a study undertaken to evaluate the changes in transmission properties of such cables in a simulated aerial environment. Cable samples produced by six cable manufacturers using conventional, high-temperature drip-resistant filling compounds with a petrolatum base were subjected to temperature cycling from -40 F to 140 F. Transmission parameters were measured at 1, 150 and 772 kHz and compared to initial values. A solid polypropylene insulated filled cable was included for reference. The results show that foam-skin petrolatum based filled cables exhibit stable electrical characteristics when exposed to cycled temperature extremes.

  13. 14 CFR 91.145 - Management of aircraft operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events. 91.145 Section 91.145 Aeronautics and Space... operations in the vicinity of aerial demonstrations and major sporting events. (a) The FAA will issue a... of aircraft in the vicinity of an aerial demonstration or major sporting event. These...

  14. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  15. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  16. A semi-operational agricultural inventory using small scale aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, W. C.; Pettinger, L. R.

    1970-01-01

    The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography was studied. The results were encouraging on two counts: (1) The very practical problems of an operational survey are being faced and solutions are being found. (2) It seems that a fully operational agricultural inventory using space photography is not beyond the scope of present technology.

  17. Ethyl parathion in wetlands following aerial application to sunflowers in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tome, M.W.; Grue, C.E.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    An operational aerial application of parathion to sunflower fields resulted in greater or equal spray deposit in wetlands adjacent to or surrounded by sunflower fields than in the sunflower fields. In another application, when the applicator attempted to avoid contamination of the wetlands, parathion still drifted into wetlands in detectable amounts; in 2 of 4 comparisons, spray deposit in wetlands and sunflower fields did not differ. Weather during both spray operations was ideal for North Dakota, Le., wind speeds <16 km/ hour, excellent visibility, and temperature <24 C. We review how spray droplet size, weather, terrain, and type of application equipment interact to determine the amount of drift from any application of pesticide. With this information, wildlife managers should be able to make decisions pertaining to insecticide applications that will minimize drift and reduce negative impacts to nontarget organisms

  18. Environmental application of aerial reconnaissance to search for open dumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getz, Thomas J.; Randolph, J. C.; Echelberger, Wayne F.

    1983-11-01

    Three approaches to using aerial photography are evaluated for searching for open dumps in the state of Indiana. Photography with hand-held cameras from a small airplane proved more effective and flexible than either photo-interpretation of existing air photos or subcontracting to a federal agency for new aerial photography. The rationale for our choice of aerial reconnaissance, other uses of low-level aerial surveillance, the utility of small-format camera aerial photography for environmental analysis, and methods used for locating open dumps are discussed.

  19. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  20. Unplanned releases and injuries associated with aerial application of chemicals, 1995-2002.

    PubMed

    Rice, Nancy; Messing, Rita; Souther, Larry; Berkowitz, Zahava

    2005-11-01

    For this article, records of the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were reviewed to identify and describe acute, unplanned releases of agricultural chemicals and associated injuries related to aerial application during 1995-2002. Records of aerial-application accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board were also reviewed. Of the 54,090 events in the HSEES system for 1995-2002, 91 were identified as aerial-application events. The most commonly released substance was malathion. There were 56 victims; 12 died, and 34 required treatment at a hospital. A higher percentage of HSEES aerial-applicator events involved injury and death than did other HSEES transportation events. The relatively high number of injuries and fatalities underscores the need for precautions such as monitoring and limiting pilot cumulative exposures to pesticides, and using appropriate personal protective equipment and decontamination equipment. Emergency responders should be educated about the hazards associated with chemicals at aerial-application crash sites. PMID:16334093

  1. Meteorological and Remote Sensing Applications of High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenung, S. M.; Wegener, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are maturing in performance and becoming available for routine use in environmental applications including weather reconnaissance and remote sensing. This paper presents a discussion of UAV characteristics and unique features compared with other measurement platforms. A summary of potential remote sensing applications is provided, along with details for four types of tropical cyclone missions. Capabilities of platforms developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program are reviewed, including the Altus, Perseus, and solar- powered Pathfinder, all of which have flown to over 57,000 ft (17 km). In many scientific missions, the science objectives drive the experimental design, thus defining the sensor payload, aircraft performance, and operational requirements. Some examples of science missions and the requisite UAV / payload system are given. A discussion of technology developments needed to fully mature UAV systems for routine operational use is included, along with remarks on future science and commercial UAV business opportunities.

  2. Mortality of nontarget arthropods from an aerial application of pyrethrins.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jonathan A; Novak, Mark G; Hyles, Timothy S; Niemela, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Mortality of nontarget organisms from an ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of pyrethrins (Evergreen EC 60-6) was monitored by collecting arthropods from ground tarps placed at the interface of open and canopy areas. A larger number and greater diversity of arthropods were recovered from tarps in the ULV spray area. The observed mortality was approximately 10-fold greater than in the control area. Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed a significant difference in the abundance and diversity of arthropods collected at treatment and control sites at 1 and 12 h postspray. Arthropods, primarily insects, from the treatment area included representatives from 12 orders and > or = 34 families, as compared to 7 orders and 12 families in the control area. Chironomidae (midges) and Formicidae (ants) were the most commonly represented families, accounting for 61% of the arthropods collected from the treatment area; no large-bodied insects (>8 mm) were recovered. Mortality of sentinel mosquitoes in the treatment and control areas averaged 96% and <1%, respectively, at 24 h postexposure. This study supports previous work that the impact of a single ULV application of pyrethrins was limited to a variety of small-bodied arthropods.

  3. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  4. Seasonal sleep effects on Louisiana aerial applicators' safety.

    PubMed

    Gregory, J M; Barbosa, R N

    2010-01-01

    Sleep management is one of the documented factors affecting safety and health. Using SLEEP (Sleep Loss Effects on Everyday Performance), a web-based model that integrates the dynamics of sleep to predict performance loss, aerial applicators licensed to work in the state of Louisiana were surveyed and evaluated for sleep deprivation. On and off season sleeping patterns were compared. During the off season, agricultural pilots reported having average sleeping time (6.9 hours), while during the farming season, because of their grueling schedule (sometimes working 100 hours a week), pilots reported sleeping only 3 hours per day in the week before the survey was made. Sleep deprivation greatly increases the chances of accidents. In the Mississippi delta region, 84% of the fatal accidents in the past nine years involving agricultural pilots were ruled as caused by human factors. Younger pilots are particularly at risk due to their limited flying experience and greater sleep needs. The agricultural pilot community would likely benefit from educational programs focused on better sleep management and the value and limitations of countermeasures to cope with fatigue. PMID:20222271

  5. Effects on birds of fenthion aerial application for mosquito control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; McEwen, L.C.; Settimi, L.A.; Deblinger, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Effects on birds of an aerial application of fenthion, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting insecticide, were assessed on four study sites 1.8 to 3.6 km2 in size. These sites were located within 121.5 km2 of wet meadows treated with 47 g of fenthion (AI) per ha in ultralow- volume formulation. Assessment methods were searches for sick or dead birds, measurements of brain ChE activity in specimens found dead or collected alive at different time intervals, and counts of bird populations. After treatment, 99 birds and 15 mammals were found sick or dead; 106 of these were on one site. Brain ChE activity in dead birds was depressed sufficiently to indicate that death was caused by an anti-ChE substance. Brain ChE activity in three common bird species collected alive showed the greatest reduction 2 days postspray. Two of these species had ChE activity that was still significantly (P<0.05) depressed 15 days postspray. Bird populations declined most where mortality was heaviest. Fenthion sprayed for mosquito control was life threatening to many birds inhabiting treated meadows.

  6. Optimization and application of Retinex algorithm in aerial image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; He, Jun; Li, Hongyu

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we provide a segmentation based Retinex for improving the visual quality of aerial images obtained under complex weather conditions. With the method, an aerial image will be segmented into different regions, and then an adaptive Gaussian based on the segmentations will be used to process it. The method addresses the problems existing in previously developed Retinex algorithms, such as halo artifacts and graying-out artifacts. The experimental result also shows evidence of its better effect.

  7. A framework for autonomous and continuous aerial intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, Christopher; Root, Philip; Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We propose a framework for intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance using an aerial vehicle with multiple sensor payloads to provide autonomous and continuous security operations at a fixed location. A control scheme and a graphical user interface between the vehicle and operator is strictly mandated for tasks requiring remote and unattended inspection. By leveraging existing navigation and path planning algorithms, the system can autonomously patrol large areas, automatically recharge when required, and relay on-demand data back to the user. This paper presents recent validation results of the system and its sensors using the proposed framework.

  8. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  9. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  10. Characterization of spray deposition and drift from a low drift nozzle for aerial application at different application altitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  11. Applicability Evaluation of Object Detection Method to Satellite and Aerial Imageries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Since satellite and aerial imageries are recently widely spread and frequently observed, combination of them are expected to complement spatial and temporal resolution each other. One of the prospective applications is traffic monitoring, where objects of interest, or vehicles, need to be recognized automatically. Techniques that employ object detection before object recognition can save a computational time and cost, and thus take a significant role. However, there is not enough knowledge whether object detection method can perform well on satellite and aerial imageries. In addition, it also has to be studied how characteristics of satellite and aerial imageries affect the object detection performance. This study employ binarized normed gradients (BING) method that runs significantly fast and is robust to rotation and noise. For our experiments, 11-bits BGR-IR satellite imageries from WorldView-3, and BGR-color aerial imageries are used respectively, and we create thousands of ground truth samples. We conducted several experiments to compare the performances with different images, to verify whether combination of different resolution images improved the performance, and to analyze the applicability of mixing satellite and aerial imageries. The results showed that infrared band had little effect on the detection rate, that 11-bit images performed less than 8-bit images and that the better spatial resolution brought the better performance. Another result might imply that mixing higher and lower resolution images for training dataset could help detection performance. Furthermore, we found that aerial images improved the detection performance on satellite images.

  12. Application of Digital Image Correlation Method to Improve the Accuracy of Aerial Photo Stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Heng; Jhou, You-Liang; Shih, Ming-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Wei; Sung, Wen-Pei

    2016-04-01

    Satellite images and traditional aerial photos have been used in remote sensing for a long time. However, there are some problems with these images. For example, the resolution of satellite image is insufficient, the cost to obtain traditional images is relatively high and there is also human safety risk in traditional flight. These result in the application limitation of these images. In recent years, the control technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is rapidly developed. This makes unmanned aerial vehicle widely used in obtaining aerial photos. Compared to satellite images and traditional aerial photos, these aerial photos obtained using UAV have the advantages of higher resolution, low cost. Because there is no crew in UAV, it is still possible to take aerial photos using UAV under unstable weather conditions. Images have to be orthorectified and their distortion must be corrected at first. Then, with the help of image matching technique and control points, these images can be stitched or used to establish DEM of ground surface. These images or DEM data can be used to monitor the landslide or estimate the volume of landslide. For the image matching, we can use such as Harris corner method, SIFT or SURF to extract and match feature points. However, the accuracy of these methods for matching is about pixel or sub-pixel level. The accuracy of digital image correlation method (DIC) during image matching can reach about 0.01pixel. Therefore, this study applies digital image correlation method to match extracted feature points. Then the stitched images are observed to judge the improvement situation. This study takes the aerial photos of a reservoir area. These images are stitched under the situations with and without the help of DIC. The results show that the misplacement situation in the stitched image using DIC to match feature points has been significantly improved. This shows that the use of DIC to match feature points can actually improve the accuracy of

  13. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  14. The effect of adjuvants at high spray pressures for aerial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling droplet size is a critical part of making any successful agrochemical spray application. This is particularly true for higher speed aerial applications where secondary atomization from air shear becomes the most dominate factor driving spray droplet size. Previous research has shown th...

  15. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  16. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  17. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations In Low-Altitude Airspace By Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet)There is urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  18. SPERTI/PBF. Contextual aerial view after PBF had begun operating, but ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I/PBF. Contextual aerial view after PBF had begun operating, but prior to expansion of southwest corner of Reactor Building (PER-620). Camera facing northeast. Reactor Building in center of view. Cooling Tower (PER-720) to its left. Warehouse (PER-625) at lower left was built in 1966. SPERT-I Reactor Building (PER-605) and Instrument Cell Building (PER-604) at right of view. Buried cables and piping proceed from PBF toward lower edge of view to Control Building further south and out of view. Photographer: Farmer. Date: March 26, 1976. INEEL negative no. 76-1344 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Current status and future directions of precision aerial application for site-specific crop management in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first variable-rate aerial application system was developed about a decade ago in the USA and since then, aerial application has benefitted from these technologies. Many areas of the United States rely on readily available agricultural airplanes or helicopters for pest management, and variable-...

  20. Aerial applications of insecticides for tsetse fly control in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C. W.

    1969-01-01

    Since 1948, research has progressed in East Africa on the control of tsetse flies by aeria, applications of insecticides. Initial experiments proved that residual spray treatments were ineffective while repeated applications of coarse aerosols gave promising fly mortalities. In recent years, with the development of more toxic insecticides used in conjunction with improved thermal exhaust equipment and modified rotary atomizers, sprays with fine aerosol characteristics have been produced at considerably reduced cost. Aerial applications of aerosols are confined to early morning and late afternoon when weather conditions are stable, but large areas can be treated during these short intervals, and the technique is efficient and economical. Control of tsetse flies has been good; where complete isolation of an area has been possible, eradication has been achieved. It would be economically worth while to assess the possibility of increasing spray swath widths, and also to continue with research into the biological effectiveness of pyrethrum, primarily because of its absolute safety in use. There is a need for a simple method for the determination of tsetse fly populations in woodland and savanna habitats. Finally, it is recommended that the results of research to date should be brought more forcefully to the attention of government bodies and commercial airspray operators so that the techniques be more fully exploited. PMID:5308701

  1. The application of unmanned aerial vehicle to precision agriculture: Chlorophyll, nitrogen, and evapotranspiration estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarab, Manal

    Precision agriculture (PA) is an integration of a set of technologies aiming to improve productivity and profitability while sustaining the quality of the surrounding environment. It is a process that vastly relies on high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. This dissertation explored the usage of multispectral high resolution aerial imagery acquired by an unmanned aerial systems (UAS) platform to serve precision agriculture application. The UAS acquired imagery in the visual, near infrared and thermal infrared spectra with a resolution of less than a meter (15--60 cm). This research focused on developing two models to estimate cm-scale chlorophyll content and leaf nitrogen. To achieve the estimations a well-established machine learning algorithm (relevance vector machine) was used. The two models were trained on a dataset of in situ collected leaf chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen measurements, and the machine learning algorithm intelligently selected the most appropriate bands and indices for building regressions with the highest prediction accuracy. In addition, this research explored the usage of the high resolution imagery to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) at 15 cm resolution. A comparison was also made between the high resolution ET and Landsat derived ET over two different crop cover (field crops and vineyards) to assess the advantages of UAS based high resolution ET. This research aimed to bridge the information embedded in the high resolution imagery with ground crop parameters to provide site specific information to assist farmers adopting precision agriculture. The framework of this dissertation consisted of three components that provide tools to support precision agriculture operational decisions. In general, the results for each of the methods developed were satisfactory, relevant, and encouraging.

  2. Computer discrimination procedures applicable to aerial and ERTS multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Torline, R. J.; Allen, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Two statistical models are compared in the classification of crops recorded on color aerial photographs. A theory of error ellipses is applied to the pattern recognition problem. An elliptical boundary condition classification model (EBC), useful for recognition of candidate patterns, evolves out of error ellipse theory. The EBC model is compared with the minimum distance to the mean (MDM) classification model in terms of pattern recognition ability. The pattern recognition results of both models are interpreted graphically using scatter diagrams to represent measurement space. Measurement space, for this report, is determined by optical density measurements collected from Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero Film 8443 (EIR). The EBC model is shown to be a significant improvement over the MDM model.

  3. Field scale evaluation of spray drift reduction technologies from ground and aerial application systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to evaluate a proposed Test Plan for the validation testing of pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops, focusing on the testing of ground and aerial application systems under full-scale field evaluations. The measure of performance for a gi...

  4. Improving Flow Response of a Variable-rate Aerial Application System by Interactive Refinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates and to improve its response at correspondingly varying system pressures. System improvements have been made by refinement of the control algorithms over time in collaboration with ...

  5. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  6. A low-cost single-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are available, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial applicators. The objective of this study was ...

  7. Development of a new modular aerial spray system and night application capability for the U.S. Air Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Air Force maintains a capability with the C130 aircraft to conduct aerial spray operations over large areas for controlling insects of medical importance. The current modular aerial spray system (MASS) is custom designed to support a variety of configurations from ultralow volume space spra...

  8. Accurate Optical Target Pose Determination for Applications in Aerial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new design for an optical coded target based on concentric circles and a position and orientation determination algorithm optimized for high distances compared to the target size. If two ellipses are fitted on the edge pixels corresponding to the outer and inner circles, quasi-analytical methods are known to obtain the coordinates of the projection of the circles center. We show the limits of these methods for quasi-frontal target orientations and in presence of noise and we propose an iterative refinement algorithm based on a geometric invariant. Next, we introduce a closed form, computationally inexpensive, solution to obtain the target position and orientation given the projected circle center and the parameters of the outer circle projection. The viability of the approach is demonstrated based on aerial pictures taken by an UAV from elevations between 10 to 100 m. We obtain a distance RMS below 0.25 % under 50 m and below 1 % under 100 m with a target size of 90 cm, part of which is a deterministic bias introduced by image exposure.

  9. Airspeed and orifice size affect spray droplet spectrum from an aerial electrostatic nozzle for fixed-wing applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerial electrostatic spraying system patented by the USDA ARS is a unique aerial application system which inductively charges spray particles for the purpose of increasing deposition and efficacy. While this system has many potential benefits, very little is known about how changes in airspeed o...

  10. Airspeed and orifice size affect spray droplet spectra from an aerial electrostatic nozzle for rotary-wing applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aerial electrostatic spraying system patented by the USDA-ARS is a unique aerial application system which inductively charges spray droplets for the purpose of increasing deposition and efficacy. While this system has many potential benefits, no published data exits which describe how changes i...

  11. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS

  12. Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic

  13. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  14. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  15. Combination ground and aerial adulticide applications against mosquitoes in an Arkansas riceland community.

    PubMed

    Weathersbee, A A; Meisch, M V; Sandoski, C A; Finch, M F; Dame, D A; Olson, J K; Inman, A

    1986-12-01

    Simultaneous ground and aerial adulticide applications were evaluated against riceland mosquitoes in Stuttgart, AR, during July 1985. Naled was aerially applied at 52.6 ml/ha over 10.4 km2 surrounding the city. Ground ULV applications of a mixture of malathion, HAN and resmethrin/PBO (1:1:0.0625) were applied within the city at a rate of 221.8 ml/min at 24 kph. Adult populations of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Psorophora columbiae were reduced at 24 hr but resurgence of Ps. columbiae was evident at 48 hr posttreatment. Posttreatment data indicated that movement of both mosquitoes occurred along the path of prevailing wind. PMID:2906984

  16. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  17. Aerocrane: A hybrid LTA aircraft for aerial crane applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. G., Jr.; Doolittle, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Aerocrane, a hybrid aircraft, combines rotor lift with buoyant lift to offer VTOL load capability greatly in excess of helicopter technology while eliminating the airship problem of ballast transfer. In addition, the Aerocrane concept sharply reduces the mooring problem of airships and provides 360 deg vectorable thrust to supply a relatively large force component for control of gust loads. Designed for use in short range, ultra heavy lift missions, the Aerocrane operates in a performance envelope unsuitable for either helicopters or airships. Basic design considerations and potential problem areas of the concept are addressed.

  18. Effects of aerial applications of naled on nontarget insects at Parris Island, South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, M S; de Szalay, F A

    2010-04-01

    Testing impacts of large-scale aerial spraying to control public health pests under realistic field conditions are needed to understand impacts on natural populations of nontarget insects. Responses of terrestrial insects to aerial applications of an organophosphate insecticide, naled, used for mosquito and biting midge control were studied on Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, SC. Aerial applications were made with C-130 aircraft at dusk in 2003 and in 2005. In 2003, we sampled two locations on Parris Island with Malaise traps before and after spraying, and used Before-After analyses to examine changes in terrestrial insect diversity and abundance. In 2005, we sampled insects with yellow pan traps at three locations on Parris Island and at an untreated control site. A Before-After Control-Impact analysis at each location was conducted to compare changes. In 2003, numbers of four of 12 common taxa (Dolichopodidae, Sarcophagidae, Syrphidae, Tachinidae) were lower after sprays. However, there were no significant changes in numbers of common taxa or total numbers in 2005. Shannon diversities (H') were not different in either year indicating that sprays had minimal impact on overall community biodiversity. In contrast, populations of pestiferous biting midges (Culicoides spp.) collected in CDC-style traps were reduced by 94-99% after spraying in both years; mosquito numbers declined by 88.2% in 2003 and 92.5% in 2005, after sprays. PMID:20388292

  19. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  20. Historical pesticide applications coincided with an altered diet of aerially foraging insectivorous chimney swifts

    PubMed Central

    Nocera, Joseph J.; Blais, Jules M.; Beresford, David V.; Finity, Leah K.; Grooms, Christopher; Kimpe, Lynda E.; Kyser, Kurt; Michelutti, Neal; Reudink, Matthew W.; Smol, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous environmental pressures have precipitated long-term population reductions of many insect species. Population declines in aerially foraging insectivorous birds have also been detected, but the cause remains unknown partly because of a dearth of long-term monitoring data on avian diets. Chimney swifts (Chaetura pelagica) are a model aerial insectivore to fill such information gaps because their roosting behaviour makes them easy to sample in large numbers over long time periods. We report a 48-year-long (1944–1992) dietary record for the chimney swift, determined from a well-preserved deposit of guano and egested insect remains in Ontario (Canada). This unique archive of palaeo-environmental data reflecting past chimney swift diets revealed a steep rise in dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, which were correlated with a decrease in Coleoptera remains and an increase in Hemiptera remains, indicating a significant change in chimney swift prey. We argue that DDT applications decimated Coleoptera populations and dramatically altered insect community structure by the 1960s, triggering nutritional consequences for swifts and other aerial insectivores. PMID:22513860

  1. Accuracy Assessment of Direct Georeferencing for Photogrammetric Applications on Small Unmanned Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, O.; Lutes, J.; Lipa, G.; Hutton, J. J.; Gavelle, E.; Borghini, S.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient mapping from unmanned aerial platforms cannot rely on aerial triangulation using known ground control points. The cost and time of setting ground control, added to the need for increased overlap between flight lines, severely limits the ability of small VTOL platforms, in particular, to handle mapping-grade missions of all but the very smallest survey areas. Applanix has brought its experience in manned photogrammetry applications to this challenge, setting out the requirements for increasing the efficiency of mapping operations from small UAVs, using survey-grade GNSS-Inertial technology to accomplish direct georeferencing of the platform and/or the imaging payload. The Direct Mapping Solution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (DMS-UAV) is a complete and ready-to-integrate OEM solution for Direct Georeferencing (DG) on unmanned aerial platforms. Designed as a solution for systems integrators to create mapping payloads for UAVs of all types and sizes, the DMS produces directly georeferenced products for any imaging payload (visual, LiDAR, infrared, multispectral imaging, even video). Additionally, DMS addresses the airframe's requirements for high-accuracy position and orientation for such tasks as precision RTK landing and Precision Orientation for Air Data Systems (ADS), Guidance and Control. This paper presents results using a DMS comprised of an Applanix APX-15 UAV with a Sony a7R camera to produce highly accurate orthorectified imagery without Ground Control Points on a Microdrones md4-1000 platform conducted by Applanix and Avyon. APX-15 UAV is a single-board, small-form-factor GNSS-Inertial system designed for use on small, lightweight platforms. The Sony a7R is a prosumer digital RGB camera sensor, with a 36MP, 4.9-micron CCD producing images at 7360 columns by 4912 rows. It was configured with a 50mm AF-S Nikkor f/1.8 lens and subsequently with a 35mm Zeiss Sonnar T* FE F2.8 lens. Both the camera/lens combinations and the APX-15 were mounted to a

  2. Accuracy Assessment of Direct Georeferencing for Photogrammetric Applications on Small Unmanned Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, O.; Lutes, J.; Lipa, G.; Hutton, J. J.; Gavelle, E.; Borghini, S.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient mapping from unmanned aerial platforms cannot rely on aerial triangulation using known ground control points. The cost and time of setting ground control, added to the need for increased overlap between flight lines, severely limits the ability of small VTOL platforms, in particular, to handle mapping-grade missions of all but the very smallest survey areas. Applanix has brought its experience in manned photogrammetry applications to this challenge, setting out the requirements for increasing the efficiency of mapping operations from small UAVs, using survey-grade GNSS-Inertial technology to accomplish direct georeferencing of the platform and/or the imaging payload. The Direct Mapping Solution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (DMS-UAV) is a complete and ready-to-integrate OEM solution for Direct Georeferencing (DG) on unmanned aerial platforms. Designed as a solution for systems integrators to create mapping payloads for UAVs of all types and sizes, the DMS produces directly georeferenced products for any imaging payload (visual, LiDAR, infrared, multispectral imaging, even video). Additionally, DMS addresses the airframe's requirements for high-accuracy position and orientation for such tasks as precision RTK landing and Precision Orientation for Air Data Systems (ADS), Guidance and Control. This paper presents results using a DMS comprised of an Applanix APX-15 UAV with a Sony a7R camera to produce highly accurate orthorectified imagery without Ground Control Points on a Microdrones md4-1000 platform conducted by Applanix and Avyon. APX-15 UAV is a single-board, small-form-factor GNSS-Inertial system designed for use on small, lightweight platforms. The Sony a7R is a prosumer digital RGB camera sensor, with a 36MP, 4.9-micron CCD producing images at 7360 columns by 4912 rows. It was configured with a 50mm AF-S Nikkor f/1.8 lens and subsequently with a 35mm Zeiss Sonnar T* FE F2.8 lens. Both the camera/lens combinations and the APX-15 were mounted to a

  3. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 × 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earth’s surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  4. Impact of low aerial application rates of Dibrom 14 on potential vectors.

    PubMed

    Brown, James R; Rutledge, Cynthia R; Reynolds, William; Dame, David A

    2006-03-01

    Aerial applications designed to assess the impact of low application rates of naled (Dibrom 14) on potential vector species were conducted in 2003 with caged adult Anopheles quadrimaculatus in open grassland at Cecil Airfield in Jacksonville, FL. Offset flight paths of 2,000-6,000 (calculated by the AgDisp aerial application model) and 1,000-ft swath widths were conducted with a Micronair AU4000 rotary atomizer, which provides a several-fold increase in droplets between 7 and 22 microm. Mean volume median diameters of 8.0, 7.8, and 9.4 microm and 290, 506, and 192 droplets per sq cm were observed in the target area with application rates of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 fl oz per acre, respectively. The observed mean mortality of caged mosquitoes 12 h posttreatment, corrected for mortality in untreated controls, was 14%, 80%, and 99% at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 fl oz per acre, respectively. These results indicate that applications at 0.25 fl oz per acre or less should be avoided and rates greater than 0.5 fl oz may be required for adequate control in canopied habitats and less-than-optimum terrains. PMID:16646327

  5. Research applications of night-time aerial photography, from local to global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, J.; Sadler, J.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial lighting of the earth's surface is changing at a global scale, with numerous social, economic and environmental implications. In many regions, the extent, brightness and spectral range of lighting is increasing, reflecting economic and technological development, population growth and urbanization. Its benefits include improving the perception of neighbourhood safety and increasing people's options for when activities can take place. Impacts range from the disruption of sleep patterns by a single street lamp to obscured views of the night sky for tens of kilometers surrounding an urban area. There is therefore a need to secure baseline maps of artificial lighting, and to detect changes in their extent and quality over time. Considerable success has been achieved in generating global lighting datasets from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) data, which have been used to support a broad range of research and policy applications. However, their coarse spatial and spectral resolution and difficulties in radiance calibration have been recognised as barriers to some potential applications. We present the first multi-spectral radiance calibrated lighting data for cities at a fine spatial resolution (10cm). We then illustrate how these data can be effective for exploring relationships between lighting and urban form, and that they can support the radiance calibration of lighting datasets with much greater spatial extents. Color night photography was collected for two major English cities - Birmingham and London. Ground photometry and radiometry surveys were undertaken, permitting the reclassification of the images to represent incident lux and the identification and classification of individual lamps. Total illuminated area and lamp density both correlated positively with percentage built surface cover, although the strength of these relationships differed between cities. This suggests that artificial lighting may

  6. Semantic Segmentation and Difference Extraction via Time Series Aerial Video Camera and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, S. N. K.; Saito, S.; Sasaki, S.; Kiyoki, Y.; Aoki, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Google earth with high-resolution imagery basically takes months to process new images before online updates. It is a time consuming and slow process especially for post-disaster application. The objective of this research is to develop a fast and effective method of updating maps by detecting local differences occurred over different time series; where only region with differences will be updated. In our system, aerial images from Massachusetts's road and building open datasets, Saitama district datasets are used as input images. Semantic segmentation is then applied to input images. Semantic segmentation is a pixel-wise classification of images by implementing deep neural network technique. Deep neural network technique is implemented due to being not only efficient in learning highly discriminative image features such as road, buildings etc., but also partially robust to incomplete and poorly registered target maps. Then, aerial images which contain semantic information are stored as database in 5D world map is set as ground truth images. This system is developed to visualise multimedia data in 5 dimensions; 3 dimensions as spatial dimensions, 1 dimension as temporal dimension, and 1 dimension as degenerated dimensions of semantic and colour combination dimension. Next, ground truth images chosen from database in 5D world map and a new aerial image with same spatial information but different time series are compared via difference extraction method. The map will only update where local changes had occurred. Hence, map updating will be cheaper, faster and more effective especially post-disaster application, by leaving unchanged region and only update changed region.

  7. Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the use of aerial photography and information system technology in the provision of information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the City of Lansing Vector Control Area. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps specifically focussed on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

  8. Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Aerial photography and information system technology were used to generate information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the city of Lansing; the inventory identified 35% more surface water areas than indicated on existing field maps. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County, were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps focusing on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

  9. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  10. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  11. Comparison of the strapdown and gimbaled seekers utilized in aerial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkan, Bülent; Uçar, Altuğ

    2012-06-01

    In order to orient aerial vehicles such as unmanned aerial vehicles and guided munitions toward intended target points, it often becomes vital to acquire the correct information about the states of the targets during the flight of the vehicles. One of the most widely-used ways to achieve this task is the utilization of seekers. Physically, the measurement capability of seekers is restricted due to some physical, optical, and electronic limitations such as limited field-of-view (FOV), atmospheric transmittance, and noise effects. Regarding these characteristics, basically two types of seekers are employed in the relevant applications: strapdown or body-fixed seekers and gimbaled seekers. The strapdown seekers are directly mounted on the considered vehicle body. Therefore, their measurements become relative to the body fixed reference frame of the missile. For relieving the FOV limitations of the strapdown seekers, the gimbaled seekers are preferred in some of the implementations. In this scheme, the seeker is mounted on a platform supported by two orthogonal gimbals and stabilized by means of rate gyro feedbacks. This way, the FOV range of the seeker is increased considerably. Also, the line of sight (LOS) angle and the LOS angular rate can be measured directly independently of the missile motion. This study deals with the comparison of these two kinds of seekers according to certain criteria involving mounting properties, FOV, angle and rate measurements, guidance method utilization, measurement methods, major sources of measurement errors, and cost. A general evaluation is submitted at the end of the work.

  12. Post-hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance and the efficacy of Air Force aerial applications for mosquito control in east Texas.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Walker, Wes W; Sanders, David M

    2008-06-01

    Post-Hurricane Rita mosquito surveillance was carried out in 4 east Texas counties to determine mosquito abundance, species composition, and need for mosquito control. Subsequently, aerial applications of naled (Dibrom) for mosquito control were made by the Air Force Aerial Spray Flight, while continued surveillance documented the efficacy of the applications. Psorophora columbiae was the predominant species in landing counts. Twenty-two mosquito species were represented in light trap collections with Aedes atlanitcus/tormentor, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. vexans, and Ps. columbiae making up 91% of the total. A total of 102,001 ha (252,052 acres) were aerially treated based on high mosquito abundance, exposure of first responders and residents to nuisance biting, and local interruption of electric utilities. A significant 90% decline in mosquito abundance was observed posttreatment. PMID:18666545

  13. Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications.

    PubMed

    Lingua, Andrea; Marenchino, Davide; Nex, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc.) and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model) generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A(2) SIFT) has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems. PMID:22412336

  14. Aerial photography: Applications in the study of coastal erosion and pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of aerial photography in the study of coastal shoreline problems such as erosion and pollution. Topics include ocean wave direction and measurement, oil pollution detection and direction forecasting, shoreline change measurements, coastal mapping, and coastal topographic features. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Cavolowsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  16. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation.

  17. Spaceborne application multiprocessor operating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisbeck, Gary S.; Webber, Wesley D.

    1992-03-01

    The Operational Kernel (OK) system for the Spaceborne Processor Array-1 (SPA-1) software development environment is described. The OK system demonstration featured fully autonomous onboard control of data movement, fault detection, fault isolation, hardware reconfiguration, application restart, and load balancing. Random nodal or processing hardware was caused to fail by selection of switches on a fault injection panel. The SPA-1 based on the OK written in Ada detected that a failure had occurred, isolated it, redistributed the processing load, and continued with the application processing.

  18. Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    UAS operations will be safer if a UTM system is available to support the functions associated with Airspace management and geo-fencing (reduce risk of accidents, impact to other operations, and community concerns); Weather and severe wind integration (avoid severe weather areas based on prediction); Predict and manage congestion (mission safety);Terrain and man-made objects database and avoidance; Maintain safe separation (mission safety and assurance of other assets); Allow only authenticated operations (avoid unauthorized airspace use).

  19. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations: Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years Long-term Goal Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  20. Progress on Platforms, Sensors and Applications with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in soil science and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Suomalainen, Juha; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia; Bartholomeus, Harm; Paron, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The recent increase of performance and endurance of electronically controlled flying platforms, such as multi-copters and fixed-wing airplanes, and decreasing size and weight of different sensors and batteries leads to increasing popularity of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for scientific purposes. Modern workflows that implement UAS include guided flight plan generation, 3D GPS navigation for fully automated piloting, and automated processing with new techniques such as "Structure from Motion" photogrammetry. UAS are often equipped with normal RGB cameras, multi- and hyperspectral sensors, radar, or other sensors, and provide a cheap and flexible solution for creating multi-temporal data sets. UAS revolutionized multi-temporal research allowing new applications related to change analysis and process monitoring. The EGU General Assembly 2014 is hosting a session on platforms, sensors and applications with UAS in soil science and geomorphology. This presentation briefly summarizes the outcome of this session, addressing the current state and future challenges of small-platform data acquisition in soil science and geomorphology.

  1. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  2. On the quality of prairie-pothole wetlands for adult and juvenile waterfowl following aerial application of insecticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Tome, M.W.; Swanson, G.A.; Borthwick, S.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987 the impact of aerial application of ethyl parathion to waterfowl on small prairie wetlands adjacent to sunflower fields in North Dakota was assessed by studying 5 fenced wetlands surrounded by sunflowers and 5 fenced controls. By 3 days post-spray, 4 of 104 ducklings released onto the wetlands were alive, compared to 52% of 105 control ducklings. Brain ChE activity was depressed > 50% in all but one of the 50 ducklings found dead post-spray. Survival of amphipods in enclosures within the contaminated wetlands was reduced for 25 days. Naturally-occurring broods on unfenced wetlands and free-living aquatic invertebrates in the fenced wetlands were also severely affected. The results suggest aerial application of insecticides may have significant direct and indirect impacts on the survival of adult and juvenile waterfowl within the prairie-pothole region.

  3. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives.

    PubMed

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research.

  4. An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

  5. The application of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology in the FAST project construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Boqin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing application in Five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) project is to dynamically record the construction process with high resolution image, monitor the environmental impact, and provide services for local environmental protection and the reserve immigrants. This paper introduces the use of UAV remote sensing system and the course design and implementation for the FAST site. Through the analysis of the time series data, we found that: (1) since the year 2012, the project has been widely carried out; (2) till 2013, the internal project begun to take shape;(3) engineering excavation scope was kept stable in 2014, and the initial scale of the FAST engineering construction has emerged as in the meantime, the vegetation recovery went well on the bare soil area; (4) in 2015, none environmental problems caused by engineering construction and other engineering geological disaster were found in the work area through the image interpretation of UAV images. This paper also suggested that the UAV technology need some improvements to fulfill the requirements of surveying and mapping specification., including a new data acquisition and processing measures assigned with the background of highly diverse elevation, usage of telephoto camera, hierarchical photography with different flying height, and adjustment with terrain using the joint empty three settlement method.

  6. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives.

    PubMed

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  7. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  8. Efficacy of aerial spray applications using fuselage booms on Air Force C-130H aircraft against mosquitoes and biting midges.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Wojcik, George M; De Szalay, Ferenc A

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of a novel fuselage boom configuration was tested with flat-fan nozzles on U.S. Air Force C-130H aircraft to create ultra-low volume sprays to control mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). The mortality of mosquitoes and biting midges in bioassay cages and natural populations, using the organophosphate adulticide, naled, was measured. Mosquitoes in bioassay cages had 100% mortality at 639 m downwind in all single-pass spray trials, and most trials had >90% mortality up to 1491 m downwind. Mosquito mortality was negatively correlated with distance from the spray release point (r2 = 0.38, P < 0.001). The volume median diam of droplets collected was 44 tm at 213 m and decreased to 11 microm at 2130 m downwind of the release point. Droplet density decreased from an average of 18.4 drops/cm2 at 213 m to 2 drops/cm2 at 2130 m. Droplet densities of 10-18 droplets/cm2 were recorded at sampling stations with high mosquito mortality rates (>90%). In wide-area operational applications, numbers of mosquitoes from natural populations 1 wk postspray were 83% (range 55%-95%), lower than prespray numbers (P < 0.05). Biting midge numbers were reduced by 86% (range 53%-97%) on average (P = 0.051) after 7 days. The results of these field trials indicate that the fuselage boom configuration on C-130H aircraft are an effective method to conduct large-scale aerial sprays during military operations and public health emergencies. PMID:20099594

  9. Three-dimensional imaging applications in Earth Sciences using video data acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Tara

    For three dimensional (3D) aerial images, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are cheaper to operate and easier to fly than the typical manned craft mounted with a laser scanner. This project explores the feasibility of using 2D video images acquired with a UAV and transforming them into 3D point clouds. The Aeryon Scout -- a quad-copter micro UAV -- flew two missions: the first at York University Keele campus and the second at the Canadian Wollastonite Mine Property. Neptec's ViDAR software was used to extract 3D information from the 2D video using structure from motion. The resulting point clouds were sparsely populated, yet captured vegetation well. They were used successfully to measure fracture orientation in rock walls. Any improvement in the video resolution would cascade through the processing and improve the overall results.

  10. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  11. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  12. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  13. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  14. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in monitoring applications and management of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Marco; Aicardi, Irene; Lingua, Andrea; Noardo, Francesca; Chiabrando, Filiberto

    2015-04-01

    In the last years following the damages derived by the climate change (such as flooding and so on) it is growing the necessity to monitor the watercourses with effective and quickly method, where low cost solutions are particularly interested. In some cases, it is essential to have information about the riverbed, the river banks and to analyze the springs and the way in which the water moves. For the terrestrial point of view this knowledge can be acquired through GNSS and topographic methods, but they are still too manually so that they are time-consuming with respect the acquisition of information about the entire area. Another possibility is to perform a laser scanner survey, but the most common instruments (economically sustainable) have some problems to acquire information of sub-water-layer. Moreover, terrestrial surveys from cameras (such as visible, thermic or hyperspectral sensors) can't always offer a useful view of the case study due to the fact that they have a limited range of possible points of acquisition. For these reasons, it can be more effective to have an aerial point of view of the river, for example using UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), which have been experimented in these last years for environmental investigations. The proposed studies include photogrammetric and thermographic applications in order to investigate a new post-flooding riverbed arrangement and to identify some sub-riverbed springs inside a stream in order to monitor the behavior of two studied watercourses. The tests have been carried out with a customized low-cost mini-UAV based on the Mikrokopter Hexakopter solution embedded with a navigation system for the autonomous flight (GNSS/IMU) and with the possibility to house different kind of sensors, such as a camera, a GNSS receiver, a LiDAR sensor, a thermographic camera and more other sensors, but with the limitation of a 1.2 Kg payload. The most significant innovation is the possibility to perform quickly and economical

  15. Comparison of drop size data from ground and aerial application nozzles at three testing laboratories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drop size is a critical factor in the performance of any agrochemical solution and is a function of spray solution, nozzle selection, and nozzle operation. Applicators generally base their selection of a particular nozzle based on the drop size reported by manufacturers and researchers. Like m...

  16. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.

    2014-12-01

    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  17. HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS application to investigate phenolic constituents from Ficus pandurata H. aerial roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Huiqing; Li, Zuguang; Jiang, Kezhi; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2015-06-01

    Ficus pandurata H. aerial roots are used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of uarthritis, indigestion and hyperuricemia. However, the bioactive constituents responsible for the pharmacological effects of F. pandurata H. are unclear. A simple and efficient HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS (high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry) method was established to detect and identify active constituents in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots. Chemical constituents were separated and investigated by HPLC/QTOF-MS/MS in the negative-ion mode. Thirty-seven compounds, including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives, hydroquinone glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, etc., were identified or tentatively characterized in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots by comparing the UV spectra, accurate mass spectra and fragmentation pathways and retrieving the reference literatures. Moreover, the flavonoid trisaccharides and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives were tentatively characterized in F. pandurata H. for the first time. The analytical tool used here is very valuable in the rapid separation and identification of the multiple and minor constituents in the n-butanol extract of F. pandurata H. aerial roots.

  18. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and range science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low fligh...

  19. A low-cost dual-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available remote sensing platform as low-cost and easy-to-use consumer-grade cameras are being increasingly used for aerial imaging. In this article, we report on a dual-camera imaging system we recently assembled that can capture RGB and near-infrared (NIR) i...

  20. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and rangeland science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Anderson, C. A.; Perini, N. A.; Saripalli, S.; Laliberte, A.

    2012-12-01

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low flight altitudes and velocities, UAVs are able to produce high resolution (5 cm) images as well as stereo coverage (with 75% forward overlap and 40% sidelap) to extract digital elevation models (DEM). Another advantage of flying at low altitude is that the potential problems of atmospheric haze obscuration are eliminated. Both small fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft have been used in our experiments over two rangeland areas in the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico and the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. The fixed-wing UAV has a digital camera in the wing and six-band multispectral camera in the nose, while the rotary-wing UAV carries a digital camera as payload. Because we have been acquiring imagery for several years, there are now > 31,000 photos at one of the study sites, and 177 mosaics over rangeland areas have been constructed. Using the DEM obtained from the imagery we have determined the actual catchment areas of three watersheds and compared these to previous estimates. At one site, the UAV-derived watershed area is 4.67 ha which is 22% smaller compared to a manual survey using a GPS unit obtained several years ago. This difference can be significant in constructing a watershed model of the site. From a vegetation species classification, we also determined that two of the shrub types in this small watershed(mesquite and creosote with 6.47 % and 5.82% cover, respectively) grow in similar locations(flat upland areas with deep soils), whereas the most predominant shrub(mariola with 11.9% cover) inhabits hillslopes near stream channels(with steep shallow soils). The positioning of these individual shrubs throughout the catchment using

  1. Application of DOAS Instruments for Trace Gas Measurements on Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horbanski, M.; Pöhler, D.; Mahr, T.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are a new powerful tool for observations in the atmospheric boundary layer. Recent developments in measuring technology allow the construction of compact and sensitive active and passive DOAS instruments which can fit the space and weight constraints on Unmanned Aircraft Systems. This opens new possibilities for trace gas measurements in the lower troposphere, especially in areas which are not accessible to manned aviation e.g. volcanic plumes or which should be monitored regularly (e.g. industrial emissions of a stack). Two DOAS instruments for the APAESO platform of the Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre (EEWRC) at the Cyprus Institute are presented. Our first system is a passive DOAS for remote sensing applications which measures scattered sunlight and light reflected by the surface. It is equipped with telescopes for observations in downward (nadir) and horizontal (limb) viewing direction. Thus it allows determining height profiles and the spatial distribution of trace gases. For this the light is analysed by a compact spectrometer which covers the UV-blue range allowing to measure a broad variety of atmospheric trace gases (e.g. NO2, SO2, BrO, IO, H2O ...) and aerosol properties via O4 absorption. Additionally, the nadir direction is equipped with a system for the observation of surface properties. It will be used to measure and analyse reflection of different types of vegetation. The spectra will serve as reference spectra for satellite measurements to create global maps. The instrumental setup and the results of first test flights are shown. The second instrument which is currently under development is a Cavity Enhanced (CE-) DOAS for in situ measurements of NO3. In contrast to the passive DOAS it is able to perform night time measurements as it uses an active LED light source. This is important for studies of NO3 since it plays an important role in night time chemistry while it is rapidly photolysed during daytime

  2. Selected reading in agricultural applications of small-format aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.; Kroeger, Kevin J.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of material has been assembled in response to a growing.interest in the use of low-cost, small-format aerial photography in the management of agricultural resources. Together, these articles serve to document the prevailing level of interest in the subject and provide an insight as to what can reasonably be expected from the use of this powerful agricultural management tool. 

  3. Application of machine learning for the evaluation of turfgrass plots using aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Raheja, Amar; Bhandari, Subodh; Green, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    Historically, investigation of turfgrass characteristics have been limited to visual ratings. Although relevant information may result from such evaluations, final inferences may be questionable because of the subjective nature in which the data is collected. Recent advances in computer vision techniques allow researchers to objectively measure turfgrass characteristics such as percent ground cover, turf color, and turf quality from the digital images. This paper focuses on developing a methodology for automated assessment of turfgrass quality from aerial images. Images of several turfgrass plots of varying quality were gathered using a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The quality of these plots were also evaluated based on visual ratings. The goal was to use the aerial images to generate quality evaluations on a regular basis for the optimization of water treatment. Aerial images are used to train a neural network so that appropriate features such as intensity, color, and texture of the turfgrass are extracted from these images. Neural network is a nonlinear classifier commonly used in machine learning. The output of the neural network trained model is the ratings of the grass, which is compared to the visual ratings. Currently, the quality and the color of turfgrass, measured as the greenness of the grass, are evaluated. The textures are calculated using the Gabor filter and co-occurrence matrix. Other classifiers such as support vector machines and simpler linear regression models such as Ridge regression and LARS regression are also used. The performance of each model is compared. The results show encouraging potential for using machine learning techniques for the evaluation of turfgrass quality and color.

  4. Application possibilities of aerial and terrain data evaluation in particulate pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma-Bognar, V.; Berke, J.; Martin, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, remote sensing has become a widely used technology in order to acquire information about our environment. Data collected using remote sensing technology indispensible criteria to recognise and monitor environmental problems caused by contamination from various human activities. According to great technological change and development in the previous decade high spectral and geometric resolution sensors are more often used. The higher resolution technology allows getting more accurate and reliable results in the research processes of the environmental pollution impacts. At University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty (Hungary) plant-soil-atmosphere system analyses are carried out for detecting the potential harmful effects of heavy metal pollution originated from vehicle industry. Related to this research at the Department of Meteorology and Water Management, black carbon and cadmium pollution effects are being analysed on maize crops. Testing area is situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely, where the first time in 2011 aerial imaging technology was used in parallel with field analyses. The experiment aims to analyses correlation of the field data with aerial data. During aerial photography were taken in different spectral bands (Visible, Near Infrared, Far Infrared). High intensity, spectral and spatial resolution data was an important part of the multitemporal imagine sensing and evaluating technology, therefore original technical solutions were applied. These resolutions served accurate plot-level evaluation. Fractal structure and intensity measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine black carbon and cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research also focused on the examination of potential negative or positive effects of irrigation so that differences between irrigated and non-irrigated maize was investigated. For the period of growing season of 2011 time-series analyses were carried out in

  5. Application of high-performance steel in mobile hydraulic cranes and aerial work platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    The market for mobile hydraulic cranes and aerial work platforms is highly competitive and customers continue to demand increased lift capacity and heights with decreased cost and vehicle weight. As Grove designers strive to optimize these parameters, the Materials and Welding Engineering Department must provide them with materials that surpass the capabilities of materials covered by established industry standards such as ASTM. These industry standards, due to their consensus nature, do not keep pace with the latest steel-making technology, which is often proprietary in nature. Therefore, Grove works with suppliers to support development of high performance steels by providing performance goals, fabrication testing, and a market for these new materials.

  6. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  7. Unsupervised and stable LBG algorithm for data classification: application to aerial multicomponent images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, A.; Chehdi, K.; Cariou, C.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a stable and unsupervised Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm named LBGO is presented. The originality of the proposed algorithm relies: i) on the utilization of an adaptive incremental technique to initialize the class centres that calls into question the intermediate initializations; this technique makes the algorithm stable and deterministic, and the classification results do not vary from a run to another, and ii) on the unsupervised evaluation criteria of the intermediate classification result to estimate the optimal number of classes; this makes the algorithm unsupervised. The efficiency of this optimized version of LBG is shown through some experimental results on synthetic and real aerial hyperspectral data. More precisely we have tested our proposed classification approach regarding three aspects: firstly for its stability, secondly for its correct classification rate, and thirdly for the correct estimation of number of classes.

  8. Understanding signal design during the pursuit of aerial insects by echolocating bats: tools and applications.

    PubMed

    Holderied, Marc W; Baker, Chris J; Vespe, Michele; Jones, Gareth

    2008-07-01

    Bats are among the few predators that can exploit the large quantities of aerial insects active at night. They do this by using echolocation to detect, localize, and classify targets in the dark. Echolocation calls are shaped by natural selection to match ecological challenges. For example, bats flying in open habitats typically emit calls of long duration, with long pulse intervals, shallow frequency modulation, and containing low frequencies-all these are adaptations for long-range detection. As obstacles or prey are approached, call structure changes in predictable ways for several reasons: calls become shorter, thereby reducing overlap between pulse and echo, and calls change in shape in ways that minimize localization errors. At the same time, such changes are believed to support recognition of objects. Echolocation and flight are closely synchronized: we have monitored both features simultaneously by using stereo photogrammetry and videogrammetry, and by acoustic tracking of flight paths. These methods have allowed us to quantify the intensity of signals used by free-living bats, and illustrate systematic changes in signal design in relation to obstacle proximity. We show how signals emitted by aerial feeding bats can be among the most intense airborne sounds in nature. Wideband ambiguity functions developed in the processing of signals produce two-dimensional functions showing trade-offs between resolution of time and velocity, and illustrate costs and benefits associated with Doppler sensitivity and range resolution in echolocation. Remarkably, bats that emit broadband calls can adjust signal design so that Doppler-related overestimation of range compensates for underestimation of range caused by the bat's movement in flight. We show the potential of our methods for understanding interactions between echolocating bats and those prey that have evolved ears that detect bat calls. PMID:21669774

  9. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  10. Applicability of Aerial Green LiDAR to a Large River in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, J. T.; Welcker, C. W.; Cooper, C.; Faux, R.; Butler, M.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2012, aerial green LiDAR data were collected in the Snake River (within Idaho and Oregon) to test this emerging technology in a large river with poor water clarity. Six study areas (total of 30 river miles spread out over 250 river miles) were chosen to represent a variety of depths, channel types, and surface conditions to test the accuracy, depth penetration, data density of aerial green LiDAR. These characteristics along with cost and speed of acquisition were compared to other bathymetric survey techniques including rod surveys (total station and RTK-GPS), single-beam sonar, and multibeam echosounder (MBES). The green LiDAR system typically measured returns from the riverbed through 1-2 meters of water, which was less than one Secchi depth. However, in areas with steep banks or aquatic macrophytes, LiDAR returns from the riverbed were less frequent or non-existent. In areas of good return density, depths measured from green LiDAR data corresponded well with previously collected data sets from traditional bathymetric survey techniques. In such areas, the green LiDAR point density was much higher than both rod and single beam sonar surveys, yet lower than MBES. The green LiDAR survey was also collected more efficiently than all other methods. In the Snake River, green LiDAR does not provide a method to map the entire riverbed as it only receives bottom returns in shallow water, typically at the channel margins. However, green LiDAR does provide survey data that is an excellent complement to MBES, which is more effective at surveying the deeper portions of the channel. In some cases, the green LiDAR was able to provide data in areas that the MBES could not, often due to issues with navigating the survey boat in shallow water. Even where both MBES and green LiDAR mapped the river bottom, green LiDAR often provides more accurate data through a better angle of incidence and less shadowing than the MBES survey. For one MBES survey in 2013, the green Li

  11. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone. PMID:27322264

  12. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-06-16

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people's safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone.

  13. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs).

    PubMed

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people's safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone. PMID:27322264

  14. Effects on wildlife of aerial applications of strobane, DDT, and BHC to tidal marshes in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, J.L.; Darsie, R.F.; Springer, P.F.

    1957-01-01

    The principal purpose of this study was to ascertain what effect on wildlife, if any, would result from the use of the new insecticide, Strobane, for mosquito control on tideland areas. Comparisons were made with DDT and BHC (43 per cent gamma isomer) commonly used in control operations. The investigation was carried out on the tidal marshes of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge near Smyrna, Delaware. Four areas, all similar in habitat, were chosen-three as test plots for Strobane, BHC, and DDT, respectively, and the fourth as an untreated check. The insecticides in oil solution were applied by airplane at the rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 pound per acre for gamma isomer of BHC, DDT, and Strobane, respectively. The first application was made on the morning of July 27; and the second, on the evening of August 23, 1955. To assay the results of spraying, 14 testing devices were set up in each area. They consisted of cages, traps, and microscope slides placed in the streams and ponds. The estuarine fishes, Fundulus heteroclitus, Cyprinodon variegatus, Leiostornus xanthurus, and Ailugil curemu; blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus; fiddler crabs, Uca pugnux, Uca minux, and Sesarma reticulaturn; and certain sessile organisms were included in the tests. Analyses of variance on fish and blue crabs showed no significant difference between deaths occurring in treated and control plots, nor among the three treatments. Differential mortalities were suffered by fish caged in streams and ponds. Greater numbers died in the BHC-treated streams and in the DDT-treated ponds. Local concentrations of insecticide appeared to be the cause, although the magnitude of kill was not significantly greater than in control areas. Field observations and crab-pot counts showed that both the fish and blue crabs avoided the sites of high insecticide concentration. Certainly the majority of the free-living individuals in the treated areas were able to survive the sprays, and at the level tested showed no

  15. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  16. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  17. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  18. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  19. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-06-12

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  20. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  1. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  2. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. III. Ecologic aspects.

    PubMed

    McLean, R G; Spillane, J T; Miles, J W

    1975-03-01

    The effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) malathion on selected species of nontarget animals in Haiti are reported. Mortality of certain groups of insects such as bees, flies, beetles, and butterflies was observed immediately following spray application. Minor fish mortality occurred only in shallow water exposed to direct spray. The brain acetylcholine esterase levels of living fish, tree lizards, birds and bats collected from treated areas were not significantly reduced. No ill or dead animals, besides the few fish, were seen even when maximum exposure occurred. Only minor changes in the feeding behavior of some insectivorous birds were observed. The relative bird density decreased substantially for only one species during the study, and other factors besides treatment were considered to be the reasons for the decline. Aerial applications of ULV malathion at dosages sufficient to dramatically reduce anopheline populations did not significantly affect nontarget vertebrates in this tropical environment.

  3. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  4. Site-specific Topguard application based on aerial imagery for effective management of cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a century-old cotton disease that can be controlled with Topguard Fungicide recently. As this disease tends to occur in the same general areas within fields in recurring years, site-specific application of the fungicide only to the infected areas can be more effective and economic...

  5. Results of Laboratory Testing for Diphacinone in Seawater, Fish, Invertebrates, and Soil Following Aerial Application of Rodenticide on Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, January 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; Tanner, Michael J.; Swenson, Chris; Herod, Jeffrey J.; Dunlevy, Peter; Gale, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, rodenticide bait (Ramik Green pellets) containing the active ingredient diphacinone was aerially applied to Lehua Island. Reported herein are the results of laboratory analyses to determine diphacinone concentrations in samples of seawater, fillet of fish, soft tissue of limpets (opihi), whole-body crabs, and soil collected from Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, after aerial application of the rodenticide bait. Diphacinone was specifically chosen because of its low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Its use on Lehua Island is the second time it has ever been used for an aerial application to eradicate rodents. Testing of the Lehua Island samples for diphacinone utilized high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. No detectable concentrations of diphacinone were found in any of the samples from Lehua Island. The limits of detection for diphacinone were 0.4 nanograms per milliliter (parts per billion) seawater, 15 nanograms per gram (dry weight) soil, 20 nanograms per gram (parts per billion) fish fillet, 13 nanograms per gram whole crab, and 34 nanograms per gram soft tissue limpet.

  6. Contamination and effects in freshwater ditches resulting from an aerial application of cypermethrin

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, S.W.; Bennett, D.

    1985-04-01

    Cypermethrin (Ripcord) was applied at 25 g ai ha-1 by fixed-wing aircraft to a large field (11.6 ha) of winter wheat bordered on three sides by drainage ditches. About 60% of the nominal application rate was deposited on the crop and about 6% (maximum) was deposited over the water surface. The amount of spray drift deposited upwind declined sharply with increasing distance from the treated field. Downwind, the spray drift was small but occurred over a much greater distance. Very low (0.03 micrograms liter-1 maximum) concentrations of cypermethrin were found in subsurface water samples and these declined rapidly after spraying. Bioassay tests, using a sensitive indicator species, confirmed that only a small amount of cypermethrin contamination had occurred in the ditch adjacent to the downwind perimeter of the field. Frequent sampling of the zooplankton and macroinvertebrate fauna of the ditches indicated that there were no marked biological effects resulting from the cypermethrin application. Only a few air-breathing corixids and the highly susceptible water mites showed minor short-term reductions in abundance after spraying. No effects were observed on either caged or indigenous fish stocks and no significant residues of cypermethrin were found in fish tissues.

  7. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  8. Fusion of Multi-View and Multi-Scale Aerial Imagery for Real-Time Situation Awareness Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, X.; Kurz, F.; Reinartz, P.

    2015-08-01

    Manned aircraft has long been used for capturing large-scale aerial images, yet the high costs and weather dependence restrict its availability in emergency situations. In recent years, MAV (Micro Aerial Vehicle) emerged as a novel modality for aerial image acquisition. Its maneuverability and flexibility enable a rapid awareness of the scene of interest. Since these two platforms deliver scene information from different scale and different view, it makes sense to fuse these two types of complimentary imagery to achieve a quick, accurate and detailed description of the scene, which is the main concern of real-time situation awareness. This paper proposes a method to fuse multi-view and multi-scale aerial imagery by establishing a common reference frame. In particular, common features among MAV images and geo-referenced airplane images can be extracted by a scale invariant feature detector like SIFT. From the tie point of geo-referenced images we derive the coordinate of corresponding ground points, which are then utilized as ground control points in global bundle adjustment of MAV images. In this way, the MAV block is aligned to the reference frame. Experiment results show that this method can achieve fully automatic geo-referencing of MAV images even if GPS/IMU acquisition has dropouts, and the orientation accuracy is improved compared to the GPS/IMU based georeferencing. The concept for a subsequent 3D classification method is also described in this paper.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  10. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  11. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  12. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  13. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  14. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  15. Demonstration of rapid-scan two-dimensional laser velocimetry in the Langley Vortex Research Facility for research in aerial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, L. R.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were conducted to demonstrate a rapid scan two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) measurement technique for aerial applications research. The LV system is capable of simultaneously measuring both vertical and axial flow velocity components in a near or far field vortex system. Velocity profiles were successfully measured in the wake vortex of a representative agricultural aircraft model, with the vortex system rapidly transporting in ground effect. Results indicate that the laser velocimetry technique can provide quantitative information of wake vortex characteristics in ground effect.

  16. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  17. Heuristic approach to the development of ratings and tactics applicable to the one-on-one aerial combat (dogfight) encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations of the one-on-one aerial combat encounter are generated under the control of specified guidance laws. Given an initial state, the vehicle and atmospheric characteristics, and the guidance laws, the aerial combat encounter is simulated by forward integration of the two vehicles' motions. The development of a combat guidance law which converts positional advantage into an improved firing opportunity is reported. A combination of lag, line of sight, and lead pursuit steering paths are followed in the guidance law. The law is based on steering error, target angle-off and the relative velocities. It readily is automated either as an onboard aid to manned aircraft pilots or as a combat guidance law for unmanned vehicles.

  18. 46 CFR 298.12 - Applicant and operator's qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicant and operator's qualifications. 298.12 Section 298.12 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION GUARANTEES Eligibility § 298.12 Applicant and operator's qualifications. (a) Operator's qualifications. We will not issue a Letter...

  19. Preliminary applications of Landsat images and aerial photography for determining land-use, geologic, and hydrologic characteristics, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimes, F.J.; Moore, G.K.; Steele, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    Expanded energy- and recreation-related activities in the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, have caused a rapid increase in economic development which will result in increased demand and competition for natural resources. In planning for efficient allocation of the basin 's natural resources, Landsat images and small-scale color and color-infrared photographs were used for selected geologic, hydrologic and land-use applications within the Yampa River basin. Applications of Landsat data included: (1) regional land-use classification and mapping, (2) lineament mapping, and (3) areal snow-cover mapping. Results from the Landsat investigations indicated that: (1) Landsat land-use classification maps, at a regional level, compared favorably with areal land-use patterns that were defined from available ground information, (2) lineaments were mapped in sufficient detail using recently developed techniques for interpreting aerial photographs, (3) snow cover generally could be mapped for large areas with the exception of some densely forested areas of the basin and areas having a large percentage of winter-season cloud cover. Aerial photographs were used for estimation of turbidity for eight stream locations in the basin. Spectral reflectance values obtained by digitizing photographs were compared with measured turbidity values. Results showed strong correlations (variances explained of greater than 90 percent) between spectral reflectance obtained from color photographs and measured turbidity values. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  1. A practical interpretation and use of the USDA aerial fixed-wing nozzle models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper selection and operation of spray nozzles associated with aerial applications is critical to insuring efficacy while mitigating off-target movement. Labels for most agrochemical products applied in the U.S. specifically define the droplet size or spray classification that can be used to apply...

  2. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries.

  3. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  4. Effects of aerial applications of esfenvalerate on small mammals and birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Rice, C.P.; Grove, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although no adverse effects were documented, this study did not provide data sufficient to adequately test for effects of aerial spraying of esfenvalerate on small mammal populations or nesting of birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Small mammal trapping data were too sparse to provide statistical testing with reasonable power. Residues of the R and S forms of fenvalerate were low with maxima of 0.56 and 1.72 ?g/g, respectively in pelage of a deer mouse. No diagnostic residue data are available to interpret our results.

  5. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  6. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  7. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  8. Space Operations Learning Center Facebook Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) Facebook module, initially code-named Spaceville, is intended to be an educational online game utilizing the latest social networking technology to reach a broad audience base and inspire young audiences to be interested in math, science, and engineering. Spaceville will be a Facebook application/ game with the goal of combining learning with a fun game and social environment. The mission of the game is to build a scientific outpost on the Moon or Mars and expand the colony. Game activities include collecting resources, trading resources, completing simple science experiments, and building architectures such as laboratories, habitats, greenhouses, machine shops, etc. The player is awarded with points and achievement levels. The player s ability increases as his/her points and levels increase. A player can interact with other players using multiplayer Facebook functionality. As a result, a player can discover unexpected treasures through scientific missions, engineering, and working with others. The player creates his/her own avatar with his/her selection of its unique appearance, and names the character. The player controls the avatar to perform activities such as collecting oxygen molecules or building a habitat. From observations of other successful social online games such as Farmville and Restaurant City, a common element of these games is having eye-catching and cartoonish characters, and interesting animations for all activities. This will create a fun, educational, and rewarding environment. The player needs to accumulate points in order to be awarded special items needed for advancing to higher levels. Trophies will be awarded to the player when certain goals are reached or tasks are completed. In order to acquire some special items needed for advancement in the game, the player will need to visit his/her neighboring towns to discover the items. This is the social aspect of the game that requires the

  9. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effects in muscle injury by transdermal application of gel with Lychnophora pinaster aerial parts using phonophoresis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lycnophora pinaster is used by the traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of inflammations. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lycnophora pinaster was investigated for extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds of their aerial parts. The hexane extract (HE) provided α-amyrin, lupeol, mixture of α-amyrin and lupeol, mixture of 3-O-acetyl-lupeol and 3-O-acetyl-pseudotaraxasterol, and mixture of the steroids stigmasterol and sitosterol. The aqueous extract (WE) provided a fraction containing alkaloids (AF) and another one containing phenolic compounds (PF). Methods The crude hexane extract obtained from aerial parts of L. pinaster was submitted to chromatographic fractionation. The fractionation of PF was performed by preparative HPLC analysis, providing the flavonoid quercetin. The extracts, fractions, and compounds isolated from L. pinaster were tested to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity by experimental model of impact injury, followed by transdermal application of gels with these samples. The application of the gels was performed using phonophoresis in rat paws after induction of muscle injury. Histological analysis was based on scores assigned by the capacity of decreasing the lesion. Results HE and WE exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. Some fractions, triterpenes, and steroids also reduced the inflammatory infiltrates caused by muscle injury. Lupeol promoted a significant reduction of inflammation. Quercetin also provided significant results, promoting the greatest decreases in muscle injury. Conclusion The results of this work suggest that topical application of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoid significantly decreases the inflammatory process generated by muscle injury. The transdermal application using phonophoresis in rat paws of gel with lupeol and quercetin attenuates the inflammation. PMID:24138803

  11. Characteristics of chlorophyll formation of the aerial microalga Coelastrella striolata var. multistriata and its application for environmental biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Abe, Katsuya; Takizawa, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Seiko; Hirano, Morio

    2004-01-01

    The growth and ammonium uptake of the aerial microalga Coelastrella striolata var. multistriata, which was isolated from the surface of rocks, were characterized in this study. The specific growth rate of the alga was mu=0.3 d(-1), as calculated in the growth logarithmic phase. The algal cells were able to remove almost 100% of the ammonium ions from medium in 5 d, with the removal rate of ammonium-N being 0.4 mg/l/h. It was shown that the alga has a unique ability to be a reddish orange to green color depending on the nitrogen source concentration in the medium. Astaxanthin, adonixanthin, canthaxanthin, and beta-carotene were found in the reddish orange cells of the alga. The assessment of water pollution was attempted using this aerial microalga. When the reddish orange alga was incubated in the experimental medium with added ammonium-, nitrate-, or urea-N as a nitrogen source, an approximately linear relationship existed between the nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll formation. Using the chlorophyll formation of the alga, for example, it was possible to estimate spectrophotometrically the total nitrogen content in water collected from aquatic systems. Biofunctional materials for environmental biomonitoring using photosynthetic microorganisms are called green devices in this study.

  12. PCOS - An operating system for modular applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, V. P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the PCOS operating system for the MC68000 family processors. Topics covered are: development history; development support; rational for development of PCOS and salient characteristics; architecture; and a brief comparison of PCOS to UNIX.

  13. Generalized polynomials, operational identities and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattoli, G.

    2000-06-01

    It is shown that an appropriate combination of methods, relevant to generalized operational calculus and to special functions, can be a very useful tool to treat a large body of problems both in physics and mathematics. We discuss operational methods associated with multivariable Hermite, Laguerre, Legendre, and other polynomials to derive a wealth of identities useful in quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, etc., or to derive new identities between special functions as, e.g., Mehler- or mixed-type generating functions.

  14. Dexterous Operations on ISS and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, P. Andrew; Read, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is a complex robotics system used extensively in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Its external components are comprised of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM or "Dextre"). Dexterous robotic maintenance operations on the ISS are now enabled with the launch and deployment of "Dextre" in March 2008 and the recently completed commissioning to support nominal operations. These operations include allowing for maintenance of the MSS capability to be executed uniquely via robotic means. Examples are detailed inspection and the removal and replacement of On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs) located outside the pressurized volume of the ISS, alleviating astronauts from performing numerous risky and time-consuming extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). In light of the proposed extension of the ISS to 2020 and beyond, "Dextre" can also be seen as a resource for the support and conduct of external ISS experiments. "Dextre" can be utilized to move experiments around ISS, as test bed for more elaborate experiments outside the original design intent, and as a unique platform for external experiments. This paper summarizes the status of "Dextre", its planned use, and future potential for dexterous operations on the ISS. Lessons learned from the planning and execution of SPDM commissioning are first introduced, and significant differences between "Dextre" and SSRMS operations are discussed. The use of ground control as the predominant method for operating "Dextre" is highlighted, along with the benefits and challenges that this poses. Finally, the latest plans for dexterous operations on ISS are summarized including visiting vehicle unloading, nominal maintenance, and operations of a more experimental flavor.

  15. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  16. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor); Peterson, R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history of remote sensing of snow cover is reviewed and the following topics are covered: various techniques for interpreting LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data; the status of future systems for continuing snow hydrology applications; the use of snow cover observations in streamflow forecasts by Applications Systems Verification and Transfer participants and selected foreign investigators; and the benefits of using satellite snow cover data in runoff prediction.

  17. Aerial-broadcast application of diphacinone bait for rodent control in Hawai`i: Efficacy and non-target species risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David; Spurr, Eric B.; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Forbes Perry, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rats (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, and R. norvegicus) have been implicated in the decline or extinction of numerous species of plants and animals in Hawai‘i. This study investigated the efficacy of aerial-broadcast application of Ramik® Green baits containing 50 ppm (0.005%) diphacinone in reducing rat and mouse populations and the risk to non-target species. The study was undertaken in paired 45.56-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. All 21 radio-collared rats in the treatment plot died within nine days of bait application, whereas none of the 18 radio-collared rats in the non-treatment plot died. There was a 99% drop in both the rat capture rate and percentage of non-toxic census bait blocks gnawed by rats in the treatment plot relative to the non-treatment plot three weeks after bait application. The only rat captured in the treatment plot three weeks after bait application was not ear-tagged (i.e., it was not a recapture), whereas 44% of the 52 rats captured in the non-treatment plot were ear-tagged. Most of the bait had disappeared from the forest floor within about one month of application. No birds likely to have eaten bait were found dead, although residues of diphacinone were found in the livers of three species of introduced seed-eating/omnivorous birds captured alive after bait application. No predatory birds were found dead one month or three months after bait application. The remains of a Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius) were found six months after bait application, but it was not possible to determine the cause of death. This study demonstrated the efficacy of aerially broadcast diphacinone bait for control of rats and mice in Hawaiian montane forests, and was part of the dataset submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the national registration of a diphacinone bait for the control of rat populations in conservation areas.

  18. 11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original aerial located in the U.S. Forest Service, Toiyabe National Forest, Carson District Office). AERIAL VIEW OF THE GENOA PEAK ROAD, SPUR. - Genoa Peak Road, Spur, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

  19. Integrated Launch Operations Applications Remote Display Developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Cedric M., II

    2014-01-01

    This internship provides the opportunity to support the creation and use of Firing Room Displays and Firing Room Applications that use an abstraction layer called the Application Control Language (ACL). Required training included video watching, reading assignments, face-to-face instruction and job shadowing other Firing Room software developers as they completed their daily duties. During the training period various computer and access rights needed for creating the applications were obtained. The specific ground subsystems supported are the Cryogenics Subsystems, Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) and Liquid Oxygen (LO2). The cryogenics team is given the task of finding the best way to handle these very volatile liquids that are used to fuel the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion flight vehicles safely.

  20. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection (< LOD). Only at the "postspray 6" time period, which corresponds to a time greater than 5 half-lives (> 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (< or = 0.05) in some participants that may have resulted in pesticide exposure by means other than the mosquito control operations. These data suggest that aerial spraying of naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  1. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  2. Application of adjoint operators to neural learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, J.; Toomarian, N.; Gulati, S.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for the efficient analytical computation of such parameters of the neural architecture as synaptic weights and neural gain is presented as a single solution of a set of adjoint equations. The learning model discussed concentrates on the adiabatic approximation only. A problem of interest is represented by a system of N coupled equations, and then adjoint operators are introduced. A neural network is formalized as an adaptive dynamical system whose temporal evolution is governed by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. An approach based on the minimization of a constrained neuromorphic energylike function is applied, and the complete learning dynamics are obtained as a result of the calculations.

  3. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  4. Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana María; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Juan Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Faniband, Moosa; Wesseling, Catharina; Ruepert, Clemens; Öberg, Mattias; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mergler, Donna; Lindh, Christian H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mancozeb and its main metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU) may alter thyroid function; thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development. In Costa Rica, mancozeb is aerially sprayed at large-scale banana plantations on a weekly basis. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate urinary ETU concentrations in pregnant women living near large-scale banana plantations, compare their estimated daily intake (EDI) with established reference doses (RfDs), and identify factors that predict their urinary ETU concentrations. Methods: We enrolled 451 pregnant women from Matina County, Costa Rica, which has large-scale banana production. We visited 445 women up to three times during pregnancy to obtain urine samples (n = 872) and information on factors that possibly influence exposure. We determined urinary ETU concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Pregnant women’s median urinary ETU concentrations were more than five times higher than those reported for other general populations. Seventy-two percent of the women had EDIs above the RfD. Women who lived closest (1st quartile, < 48 m) to banana plantations on average had a 45% (95% CI: 23, 72%) higher urinary ETU compared with women who lived farthest away (4th quartile, ≥ 565 m). Compared with the other women, ETU was also higher in women who washed agricultural work clothes on the day before sampling (11%; 95% CI: 4.9, 17%), women who worked in agriculture during pregnancy (19%; 95% CI: 9.3, 29%), and immigrant women (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.0, 13%). Conclusions: The pregnant women’s urinary ETU concentrations are of concern, and the principal source of exposure is likely to be aerial spraying of mancozeb. The factors predicting ETU provide insight into possibilities for exposure reduction. Citation: van Wendel de Joode B, Mora AM, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Quesada R, Faniband M, Wesseling C, Ruepert C, Öberg M, Eskenazi B, Mergler D, Lindh CH. 2014. Aerial application of mancozeb and

  5. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  6. Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

  7. HTGR Industrial Application Functional and Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    L. E. Demick

    2010-08-01

    This document specifies the functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the conceptual design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to a typical industrial facility. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers over the preceding three years to identify the energy needs of industrial processes for which the HTGR technology is technically and economically viable. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a conceptual design of the plant that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  8. The application of CRM to military operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Dale E.; Williams, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed content of the CRM training component of the C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS) was left to the discretion of the contractor. As a part of determining what the content should be, United Airlines Services Corporation has made an effort to understand how the needs of MAC crews compare with those of civilian airline crews. There are distinct similarities between the crew roles in the cockpits of civilian airliners and military air transports. Many of the attitudes and behaviors exhibited by civil and military crew members are comparable, hence much of the training in the field referred to as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is equally appropriate to civil or military aircrews. At the same time, there are significant differences which require assessment to determine if modifications to what might be termed generic CRM are necessary. The investigation enabled the definition and specification of CRM training which is believed to address the needs of the C-5 operational community. The study has concentrated largely on military airlift, but the training objectives and course content of the CRM training are readily adaptable to a wider range of military cockpits than are found in strategic airlift. For instance, CRM training focusing on communication, leadership, situational awareness, and crew coordination is just as appropriate, with some modification, to the pilots manning a flight to Tactical Airlift Command A-7's as it is to the pilots, flight engineers, and loadmasters crewing a C-5.

  9. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  10. Hypermedia and intelligent tutoring applications in a mission operations environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Baker, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    Hypermedia, hypertext and Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) applications to support all phases of mission operations are investigated. The application of hypermedia and ITS technology to improve system performance and safety in supervisory control is described - with an emphasis on modeling operator's intentions in the form of goals, plans, tasks, and actions. Review of hypermedia and ITS technology is presented as may be applied to the tutoring of command and control languages. Hypertext based ITS is developed to train flight operation teams and System Test and Operation Language (STOL). Specific hypermedia and ITS application areas are highlighted, including: computer aided instruction of flight operation teams (STOL ITS) and control center software development tools (CHIMES and STOL Certification Tool).

  11. Application of a wireless sensor node to health monitoring of operational wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Todd, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a developing field of research with a variety of applications including civil structures, industrial equipment, and energy infrastructure. An SHM system requires an integrated process of sensing, data interrogation and statistical assessment. The first and most important stage of any SHM system is the sensing system, which is traditionally composed of transducers and data acquisition hardware. However, such hardware is often heavy, bulky, and difficult to install in situ. Furthermore, physical access to the structure being monitored may be limited or restricted, as is the case for rotating wind turbine blades or unmanned aerial vehicles, requiring wireless transmission of sensor readings. This study applies a previously developed compact wireless sensor node to structural health monitoring of rotating small-scale wind turbine blades. The compact sensor node collects low-frequency structural vibration measurements to estimate natural frequencies and operational deflection shapes. The sensor node also has the capability to perform high-frequency impedance measurements to detect changes in local material properties or other physical characteristics. Operational measurements were collected using the wireless sensing system for both healthy and damaged blade conditions. Damage sensitive features were extracted from the collected data, and those features were used to classify the structural condition as healthy or damaged.

  12. Vision based control of unmanned aerial vehicles with applications to an autonomous four-rotor helicopter, quadrotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altug, Erdinc

    Our work proposes a vision-based stabilization and output tracking control method for a model helicopter. This is a part of our effort to produce a rotorcraft based autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Due to the desired maneuvering ability, a four-rotor helicopter has been chosen as the testbed. On previous research on flying vehicles, vision is usually used as a secondary sensor. Unlike previous research, our goal is to use visual feedback as the main sensor, which is not only responsible for detecting where the ground objects are but also for helicopter localization. A novel two-camera method has been introduced for estimating the full six degrees of freedom (DOF) pose of the helicopter. This two-camera system consists of a pan-tilt ground camera and an onboard camera. The pose estimation algorithm is compared through simulation to other methods, such as four-point, and stereo method and is shown to be less sensitive to feature detection errors. Helicopters are highly unstable flying vehicles; although this is good for agility, it makes the control harder. To build an autonomous helicopter, two methods of control are studied---one using a series of mode-based, feedback linearizing controllers and the other using a back-stepping control law. Various simulations with 2D and 3D models demonstrate the implementation of these controllers. We also show global convergence of the 3D quadrotor controller even with large calibration errors or presence of large errors on the image plane. Finally, we present initial flight experiments where the proposed pose estimation algorithm and non-linear control techniques have been implemented on a remote-controlled helicopter. The helicopter was restricted with a tether to vertical, yaw motions and limited x and y translations.

  13. IBM Applications and Techniques of Operations Research. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, NY. Data Processing Div.

    This bibliography on the tools and applications of operations research, management science, industrial engineering, and systems engineering lists many entries which appeared between 1961 and 1966 in 186 periodicals and trade journals. Twenty-six texts in operations research are also listed along with an indication as to which of 37 techniques or…

  14. Comparison of analysis techniques for aerial image metrology on advanced photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seolchong; Woo, Sungha; Jang, Heeyeon; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yang, Hyunjo; Schulz, Kristian; Garetto, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    The standard method for defect disposition and verification of repair success in the mask shop is through the utilization of the aerial imaging platform, AIMSTM. The CD (Critical Dimension) deviation of the defective or repaired region as well as the pattern shift can be calculated by comparing the measured aerial images of this region to that of a reference. Through this analysis it can be determined if the defect or repaired region will be printed on the wafer under the illumination conditions of the scanner. The analysis of the measured aerial images from the AIMSTM are commonly performed manually using the analysis software available on the system or with the help of an analysis software called RV (Repair Verification). Because the process is manual, it is not standardized and is subject to operator variations. This method of manual aerial image analysis is time consuming, dependent on the skill level of the operator and significantly contributes to the overall mask manufacturing process flow. AutoAnalysis (AA), the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, provides fully automated analysis of AIMSTM aerial images [1] and runs in parallel to the measurement of the aerial images. In this paper, we investigate the initial AutoAnalysis performance compared to the conventional method using RV and its application to a production environment. The evaluation is based on the defect CD of three pattern types: contact holes, dense line and spaces and peripheral structure. The defect analysis results for different patterns and illumination conditions will be correlated and challenges in transitioning to the new approach will be discussed.

  15. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  16. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Software applications and... Standards § 1194.21 Software applications and operating systems. (a) When software is designed to run on a...) Software shall not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or...

  17. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Software applications and... Standards § 1194.21 Software applications and operating systems. (a) When software is designed to run on a...) Software shall not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or...

  18. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Software applications and... Standards § 1194.21 Software applications and operating systems. (a) When software is designed to run on a...) Software shall not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or...

  19. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Software applications and... Standards § 1194.21 Software applications and operating systems. (a) When software is designed to run on a...) Software shall not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or...

  20. Operation and Applications of the Boron Cathodic Arc Ion Source

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J. M.; Freeman, J. H.; Klepper, C. C.; Chivers, D. J.; Hazelton, R. C.

    2008-11-03

    The boron cathodic arc ion source has been developed with a view to several applications, particularly the problem of shallow junction doping in semiconductors. Research has included not only development and operation of the boron cathode, but other cathode materials as well. Applications have included a large deposition directed toward development of a neutron detector and another deposition for an orthopedic coating, as well as the shallow ion implantation function. Operational experience is described and information pertinent to commercial operation, extracted from these experiments, is presented.

  1. Artificial intelligence program in a computer application supporting reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Town, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    Improving nuclear reactor power plant operability is an ever-present concern for the nuclear industry. The definition of plant operability involves a complex interaction of the ideas of reliability, safety, and efficiency. This paper presents observations concerning the issues involved and the benefits derived from the implementation of a computer application which combines traditional computer applications with artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies. A system, the Component Configuration Control System (CCCS), is being installed to support nuclear reactor operations at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II.

  2. Impact of naled on honey bee Apis mellifera L. survival and productivity: aerial ULV application using a flat-fan nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Latham, M; Hester, P G; Frommer, R L; Brock, C

    2003-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of naled on honey bees as a result of their exposure to aerial ULV applications of this insecticide during three routine mosquito spray missions by Manatee County Mosquito Control District in Florida during the summer of 1999. Naled deposits were collected on filter paper and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. Mortality of adult honey bees Apis mellifera L. was estimated based on numbers from dead bee collectors placed in front of the entrance of the beehives. We found that honey bees clustering outside of the beehives were subject to naled exposure. Bee mortality increased when higher naled residues were found around the hives. The highest average naled deposit was 6,227 +/- 696 microg/m2 at the site 1 forest area following the mosquito spray mission on July 15, 1999. The range of naled deposition for this application was 2,818-7,101 microg/m2. The range of dead bees per hive was 0-39 prior to spraying and 9-200 within 24 h following this spray mission. The average yield of honey per hive was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for naled-exposed hives compared with unexposed hives. Because reduction of honey yield also may be affected by other factors, such as location of the hives relative to a food source and vigor of the queen bee, the final assessment of honey yield was complicated. PMID:14565579

  3. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  4. Application of High-resolution Aerial LiDAR Data in Calibration of a Two-dimensional Urban Flood Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, J.; Goska, R.; Chen, B.; Krajewski, W. F.; Young, N.; Weber, L.

    2009-12-01

    In June 2008, the state of Iowa experienced an unprecedented flood event which resulted in an economic loss of approximately $2.88 billion. Flooding in the Iowa River corridor, which exceeded the previous flood of record by 3 feet, devastated several communities, including Coralville and Iowa City, home to the University of Iowa. Recognizing an opportunity to capture a unique dataset detailing the impacts of the historic flood, the investigators contacted the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM), which performed an aerial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) survey along the Iowa River. The survey, conducted immediately following the flood peak, provided coverage of a 60-mile reach. The goal of the present research is to develop a process by which flood extents and water surface elevations can be accurately extracted from the LiDAR data set and to evaluate the benefit of such data in calibrating one- and two-dimensional hydraulic models. Whereas data typically available for model calibration include sparsely distributed point observations and high water marks, the LiDAR data used in the present study provide broad-scale, detailed, and continuous information describing the spatial extent and depth of flooding. Initial efforts were focused on a 10-mile, primarily urban reach of the Iowa River extending from Coralville Reservoir, a United States Army Corps of Engineers flood control project, downstream through the Coralville and Iowa City. Spatial extent and depth of flooding were estimated from the LiDAR data. At a given cross-sectional location, river channel and floodplain measurements were compared. When differences between floodplain and river channel measurements were less than a standard deviation of the vertical uncertainty in the LiDAR survey, floodplain measurements were classified as flooded. A flood water surface DEM was created using measurements classified as flooded. A two-dimensional, depth-averaged numerical model of a 10-mile reach of

  5. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    PubMed

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  6. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  7. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based spray system for highly accurate site-specific application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of crop production and protection materials is a crucial component in the high productivity of American agriculture. Agricultural chemical application is frequently needed at a specific time and location for accurate site-specific management of crop pests. Piloted aircrafts that carry ...

  8. In-Swath Spray Deposition Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Low Volume Aerial Application - Preliminary Results.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CP flat-fan nozzles with selectable tips were evaluated for droplet spectra and coverage using water sensitive papers placed in the spray swath. This study used low application volumes (1, 2, and 3 GPA) at a certain spray application height as measured precisely by laser mounted in the aircraft. No...

  9. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

  10. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches.

  11. Application of System Operational Effectiveness Methodology to Space Launch Vehicle Development and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Kelley, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) defined System Operational Effectiveness (SOE) model provides an exceptional framework for an affordable approach to the development and operation of space launch vehicles and their supporting infrastructure. The SOE model provides a focal point from which to direct and measure technical effectiveness and process efficiencies of space launch vehicles. The application of the SOE model to a space launch vehicle's development and operation effort leads to very specific approaches and measures that require consideration during the design phase. This paper provides a mapping of the SOE model to the development of space launch vehicles for human exploration by addressing the SOE model key points of measurement including System Performance, System Availability, Technical Effectiveness, Process Efficiency, System Effectiveness, Life Cycle Cost, and Affordable Operational Effectiveness. In addition, the application of the SOE model to the launch vehicle development process is defined providing the unique aspects of space launch vehicle production and operations in lieu of the traditional broader SOE context that examines large quantities of fielded systems. The tailoring and application of the SOE model to space launch vehicles provides some key insights into the operational design drivers, capability phasing, and operational support systems.

  12. Aerial ultra-low-volume application of naled: impact on nontarget imperiled butterfly larvae (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) and efficacy against adult mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus).

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Hribar, L J; Daniels, J C; Feken, M A; Brock, C; Trager, M D

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the exposure and acute toxicity of naled, applied aerially as an ultra-low-volume spray for mosquito control, on late instar larvae of the Miami blue (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri) (Comstock and Huntington 1943) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), an imperiled South Florida butterfly. We concurrently evaluated the control efficacy against caged adult female salt-marsh mosquitoes (Aedes taeniorhynchus) (Wiedemann 1821) (Diptera: Culicidae). This 3-yr study was conducted in north Key Largo (Monroe County, FL) beginning in 2006. The field trials incorporated 15 sampling stations: nine in the target spray zone, three in the spray drift zone at varying distances from the target zone, and three in the control zone not subjected to naled spray drift. A total of six field spray trials were completed, three at an altitude of 30.5 m (100 feet), and three at 45.7 m (150 feet). For all trials, the ultra-low-volume application of Trumpet EC insecticide (78% naled) at a rate of 54.8 ml/ha (0.75 fl. oz/acre) was effective in killing caged adult mosquitoes in the target zone. Butterfly larvae survival was significantly reduced in the spray zone compared with drift and control zones. Analysis of insecticide residue data revealed that the mortality of the late instar butterfly larvae was a result of exposure to excess residues of naled. Additional research is needed to determine mitigation strategies that can limit exposure of sensitive butterflies to naled while maintaining mosquito control efficacy. PMID:22182563

  13. Efficacy of aerial ultra-low volume applications of two novel water-based formulations of unsynergized pyrethroids against riceland mosquitoes in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Latham, Mark D; Pereira, Roberto M; Connelly, Roxanne; Bonds, Jane A S; Koehler, Philip G

    2011-12-01

    We assessed the efficacy of ultra-low volume aerial adulticiding with 2 new water-based, unsynergized formulations of Aqua-K-Othrin (2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin) against the riceland mosquitoes of Greece. A helicopter with Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, real-time weather recording, and spray dispersal modeling (AgDISP) was utilized to accurately treat the experimental blocks by adjusting spray line positions to changing meteorological conditions. Two application rates were applied per formulation that corresponded to 0.75 and 1.00 g AI/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 and 10.00 g AI/ha of d-phenothrin. The mosquitoes used for the trials were the main nuisance species found in rice field areas of Thessaloniki, which were primarily Aedes caspius, followed by Culex modestus and Anopheles sacharovi. Overall mean mortality of caged mosquitoes was 69.2% and 64.8% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. Mean population decrease in wild mosquito populations within the treatment areas was 76.5% and 78% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. The AgDISP dispersal model, coupled with GPS navigation and real-time weather recording, enabled accurate placement of the spray cloud such that the majority of the treatment area received sufficiently high droplet densities to result in uniform caged-mosquito mortality across all sampling sites.

  14. Minimizing the impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): aerial ultra-low-volume application using a high-pressure nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, He; Latham, Mark; Payne, Steve; Brock, Cate

    2004-02-01

    The impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera L., was evaluated by exposing test beehives to nighttime aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications using a high-pressure nozzle system. The tests were conducted during routine mosquito control missions at Manatee County, Florida, in summer 2000. Two treatment sites were sprayed a total of four times over a 10-wk period. Honey bees, which clustered outside of the hive entrances, were subjected to naled exposure during these mosquito control sprays. The highest average naled ground deposition was 2,688 microg/m2 at the Port Manatee site, which resulted in statistically significant bee mortality (118) compared with the controls. At the Terra Ceia Road site, an intermediate level of naled deposition was found (1,435 microg/m2). For this spray mission, the range of dead bees per hive at Terra Ceia was 2 to 9 before spraying and 5 to 36 after naled application. Means of all other naled ground depositions were < 850 microl/m2. We concluded that substantial bee mortality (> 100 dead bees) resulted when naled residue levels were > 2,000 kg/m2 and honey bees were clustered outside of the hive entrances during mosquito adulticide applications. Compared with the flat-fan nozzle systems currently used by most of Florida's mosquito control programs, the high-pressure nozzle system used in this experiment substantially reduced environmental insecticide contamination and lead to decreased bee mortality. Statistical analysis also showed that average honey yield at the end of the season was not significantly reduced for those hives that were exposed to the insecticide. PMID:14998120

  15. InkTag: Secure Applications on an Untrusted Operating System

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Owen S.; Kim, Sangman; Dunn, Alan M.; Lee, Michael Z.; Witchel, Emmett

    2014-01-01

    InkTag is a virtualization-based architecture that gives strong safety guarantees to high-assurance processes even in the presence of a malicious operating system. InkTag advances the state of the art in untrusted operating systems in both the design of its hypervisor and in the ability to run useful applications without trusting the operating system. We introduce paraverification, a technique that simplifies the InkTag hypervisor by forcing the untrusted operating system to participate in its own verification. Attribute-based access control allows trusted applications to create decentralized access control policies. InkTag is also the first system of its kind to ensure consistency between secure data and metadata, ensuring recoverability in the face of system crashes. PMID:24429939

  16. Evaluation of the Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Sharon; Martin, Andrea; Bavinger, Bill

    1990-01-01

    The Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST) is a software development project under the auspices of the Mission Operations Directorate. Its purpose is to provide trajectory operation pre-mission and real-time support for the Space Shuttle program. As an Application Manager, TOAST provides an isolation layer between the underlying Unix operating system and the series of user programs. It provides two main services: a common interface to operating system functions with semantics appropriate for C or FORTRAN, and a structured input and output package that can be utilized by user application programs. In order to evaluate TOAST as an Application Manager, the task was to assess current and planned capabilities, compare capabilities to functions available in commercially-available off the shelf (COTS) and Flight Analysis Design System (FADS) users for TOAST implementation. As a result of the investigation, it was found that the current version of TOAST is well implemented and meets the needs of the real-time users. The plans for migrating TOAST to the X Window System are essentially sound; the Executive will port with minor changes, while Menu Handler will require a total rewrite. A series of recommendations for future TOAST directions are included.

  17. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  18. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  19. Web Application Software for Ground Operations Planning Database (GOPDb) Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanham, Clifton; Kallner, Shawn; Gernand, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Web application facilitates collaborative development of the ground operations planning document. This will reduce costs and development time for new programs by incorporating the data governance, access control, and revision tracking of the ground operations planning data. Ground Operations Planning requires the creation and maintenance of detailed timelines and documentation. The GOPDb Web application was created using state-of-the-art Web 2.0 technologies, and was deployed as SaaS (Software as a Service), with an emphasis on data governance and security needs. Application access is managed using two-factor authentication, with data write permissions tied to user roles and responsibilities. Multiple instances of the application can be deployed on a Web server to meet the robust needs for multiple, future programs with minimal additional cost. This innovation features high availability and scalability, with no additional software that needs to be bought or installed. For data governance and security (data quality, management, business process management, and risk management for data handling), the software uses NAMS. No local copy/cloning of data is permitted. Data change log/tracking is addressed, as well as collaboration, work flow, and process standardization. The software provides on-line documentation and detailed Web-based help. There are multiple ways that this software can be deployed on a Web server to meet ground operations planning needs for future programs. The software could be used to support commercial crew ground operations planning, as well as commercial payload/satellite ground operations planning. The application source code and database schema are owned by NASA.

  20. 30 CFR 778.11 - Providing applicant and operator information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organizational structure, up to and including the ultimate parent entity of the applicant and operator; for every... title and relationship to you, including percentage of ownership and location in the organizational structure. (3) The date the person began functioning in that position. (e) We need not make a finding...

  1. 30 CFR 778.11 - Providing applicant and operator information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organizational structure, up to and including the ultimate parent entity of the applicant and operator; for every... title and relationship to you, including percentage of ownership and location in the organizational structure. (3) The date the person began functioning in that position. (e) We need not make a finding...

  2. Arbitrarily Applicable Comparative Relations: Experimental Evidence for a Relational Operant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berens, Nicholas M.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Arbitrarily applicable derived relational responding has been argued by relational frame theorists to be a form of operant behavior. The present study examined this idea with 4 female participants, ages 4 to 5 years old, who could not perform a series of problem-solving tasks involving arbitrary more than and less than relations. In a combined…

  3. 77 FR 58822 - Alliant Techsystems Operations LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ..., Virginia 22209 filed an application in the above referenced docket pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) to construct and operate new pipeline to transport natural gas from an interconnection with Columbia Gas of Maryland, Inc. (CMD) at the Maryland/West Virginia border to a regulating...

  4. 49 CFR 392.2 - Applicable operating rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicable operating rules. 392.2 Section 392.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL...

  5. Interactive intelligent remote operations: application to space robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Erick; Gillett, G. R.; Boulanger, Pierre; Edwards, Eric; Lipsett, Michael G.

    1999-11-01

    A set of tolls addressing the problems specific to the control and monitoring of remote robotic systems from extreme distances has been developed. The tools include the capability to model and visualize the remote environment, to generate and edit complex task scripts, to execute the scripts to supervisory control mode and to monitor and diagnostic equipment from multiple remote locations. Two prototype systems are implemented for demonstration. The first demonstration, using a prototype joint design called Dexter, shows the applicability of the approach to space robotic operation in low Earth orbit. The second demonstration uses a remotely controlled excavator in an operational open-pit tar sand mine. This demonstrates that the tools developed can also be used for planetary exploration operations as well as for terrestrial mining applications.

  6. Statistical Scalability Analysis of Communication Operations in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J S; McCracken, M O

    2001-02-27

    Current trends in high performance computing suggest that users will soon have widespread access to clusters of multiprocessors with hundreds, if not thousands, of processors. This unprecedented degree of parallelism will undoubtedly expose scalability limitations in existing applications, where scalability is the ability of a parallel algorithm on a parallel architecture to effectively utilize an increasing number of processors. Users will need precise and automated techniques for detecting the cause of limited scalability. This paper addresses this dilemma. First, we argue that users face numerous challenges in understanding application scalability: managing substantial amounts of experiment data, extracting useful trends from this data, and reconciling performance information with their application's design. Second, we propose a solution to automate this data analysis problem by applying fundamental statistical techniques to scalability experiment data. Finally, we evaluate our operational prototype on several applications, and show that statistical techniques offer an effective strategy for assessing application scalability. In particular, we find that non-parametric correlation of the number of tasks to the ratio of the time for individual communication operations to overall communication time provides a reliable measure for identifying communication operations that scale poorly.

  7. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  8. Status of aerial applications research in the Langley vortex research facility and the Langley full-scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; Bragg, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    Small scale models of agricultural airplanes were tested and numerical methods were utilized to study interactions between the airplane wake and the dispersed spray and granular materials. Methods were developed to measure and predict dispersal transport and wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to obtain interactions more favorable to wide, uniform deposition patterns and reduced drift. In the full scale wind tunnel, full scale agricultural airplanes and dispersal systems for both liquid and solid applications were evaluated to improve aircraft aerodynamics and dispersal systems efficiency. The program status in these two facilities is reported with emphasis on wake interactions and dispersal systems research.

  9. LBB application in the US operating and advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wichman, K.; Tsao, J.; Mayfield, M.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory application of leak before break (LBB) for operating and advanced reactors in the U.S. is described. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved the application of LBB for six piping systems in operating reactors: reactor coolant system primary loop piping, pressurizer surge, safety injection accumulator, residual heat removal, safety injection, and reactor coolant loop bypass. The LBB concept has also been applied in the design of advanced light water reactors. LBB applications, and regulatory considerations, for pressurized water reactors and advanced light water reactors are summarized in this paper. Technology development for LBB performed by the NRC and the International Piping Integrity Research Group is also briefly summarized.

  10. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  11. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  12. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  13. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  14. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  15. Microcomputer applications for concurrent aggregate mine operation and reclamation planning

    SciTech Connect

    Culp, B.K.

    1990-02-01

    As ever increasing need exists for the planning of aggregate mine operations and reclamation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate microcomputer applications to assist in the development of a concurrent aggregate mine operation and reclamation plan. The thesis is divided into sections that encompassed three aspects. The first, Section 1 -- concurrent Aggregate Mine Operation and Reclamation Planning, examines the possibility of organizing the operation and reclamation of aggregate mining into a single plan or set of plans. The second section of the thesis, Section 2 -- Microcomputer Applications, describes the use of microcomputers within the mining industry and the landscape architecture profession. This section contains a review of the current types of programs and how they are used. The programs that were used for the case study and their applications and characteristics are also explored. The third and final section of the thesis, Section 3 -- Alden Quarry Case Study, applies the concepts of the first two sections to a practical situation. 35 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  17. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  18. Application of Absorbable Hemostatic Materials Observed in Thyroid Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Yan

    2016-05-01

    To observe the application effects of the absorbable hemostatic materials in thyroid operation. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2015, 100 patients with thyroid surgery in our university affiliated hospital were selected as the research object. Randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Application of absorbable hemostatic hemostatic materials in the experimental group during the operation, the control group using the traditional mechanical methods of hemostasis hemostasis to observe the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, complications and hospital stay of the two groups. Results: The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage and hospital stay in the experimental group were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05); The satisfaction of patients in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant in the two groups (P < 0.05); There was no significant difference in the incidence of wound bleeding complications between the study group and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Absorbable hemostatic materials can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the success rate of surgery and patient satisfaction, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical thyroid surgery.

  19. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  20. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  1. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  2. Underwater application of nasal decongestants: method for special operations.

    PubMed

    Mutzbauer, T S; Mueller, P H; Sigg, O; Tetzlaff, K; Neubauer, B

    2000-11-01

    A simple method of emergency underwater application of a nasal decongestant in divers to prevent diving-related accidents or even fatalities attributable to sequelae of middle-ear and sinus barotrauma of ascent was evaluated. Eleven military divers had to inject 1 mL of 0.02% methylene blue into a central venous catheter after having inserted the tip between their upper lip and the mask at 1 m depth in a pool. After injection, the head had to be reclined. Blue liquid flowing from a diver's nostril and a "bitter" taste sensation reported immediately after surfacing indicated successful application. All divers were observed to have had blue liquid flowing from the nostril of application, and one diver could not describe the taste. This method of underwater application of nasal decongestants may be useful for emergency prevention in divers, especially during covert operations. Underwater availability of the system in a special kit carried by divers would be required.

  3. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  4. Hydrologic ensemble prediction: enhancing science, operation and application through HEPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterhall, Fredrik; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Wang, Qj; Wood, Andy

    2016-04-01

    HEPEX (Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment) was established in March 2004 at a workshop hosted by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), co-sponsored by the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC). HEPEX and the community it represents has over its more than 10 years of existence continuously worked to promote and advance the science of hydrologic ensemble prediction as well as operational systems and water management applications. Through workshops and conference sessions, HEPEX has connected the research community, forecasters and forecast users and facilitated the exchange of ideas, data, methods and experience. In particular, the establishment of an online blog portal has greatly enhanced community interaction and knowledge sharing (www.hepex.org). HEPEX has now a strong and active community of nearly 400 researchers and practitioners around the world. In this poster, we present an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, and highlight opportunities to further progress ensemble prediction science, operation and application.

  5. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  6. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  7. Generalized complement operators and applications in some semirings

    SciTech Connect

    Bijev, G.

    2013-12-18

    Generalized complement operators on the semiring of all Boolean matrices as semilattice homomorphisms are considered. Some applications in solving equations on the set Bn of all binary relations are developed. In particular the structure of B3 is investigated by computer methods. Specific properties of the subsemigroup generated by all irregular relations in B3 are found. Stochastic experiments on the monoid Bn were made. The frequency of irregular elements as well as those of solvable equations depending on n is examined.

  8. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1999-12-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  9. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A.-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  10. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  11. Aerial networking communication solutions using Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Shyam; de Graaf, Maurits; Hoekstra, Gerard; Corporaal, Henk; Wijtvliet, Mark; Cuadros Linde, Javier

    2014-10-01

    The application of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) for wireless networking is slowly gaining significance in the field of network robotics. Aerial transport of data requires efficient network protocols along with accurate positional adjustment of the MAV to minimize transaction times. In our proof of concept, we develop an Aerial networking protocol for data transfer using the technology of Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN), a store-and-forward approach for environments that deals with disrupted connectivity. Our results show that close interaction between networking and flight behavior helps in efficient data exchange. Potential applications are in areas where network infrastructure is minimal or unavailable and distances may be large. For example, forwarding video recordings during search and rescue, agriculture, swarm communication, among several others. A practical implementation and validation, as described in this paper, presents the complex dynamics of wireless environments and poses new challenges that are not addressed in earlier work on this topic. Several tests are evaluated in a practical setup to display the networking MAV behavior during such an operation.

  12. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  13. Land cover mapping using aerial and VHR satellite images for distributed hydrological modelling of periurban catchments: Application to the Yzeron catchment (Lyon, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacqueminet, C.; Kermadi, S.; Michel, K.; Béal, D.; Gagnage, M.; Branger, F.; Jankowfsky, S.; Braud, I.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe rapid progression of urbanization in periurban areas affects the hydrological cycle of periurban rivers. To quantify these changes, distributed hydrological modelling tools able to simulate the hydrology of periurban catchments are being developed. Land cover information is one of the data sources used to define the model mesh and parameters. The land cover in periurban catchments is characterized by a very large heterogeneity, where the vegetated and the artificial surfaces are finely overlapping. The study is conducted in the Yzeron catchment (150 km2), close to the city of Lyon, France. We explore the potential of very high-resolution (VHR) optical images (0.50-2.50 m) for retrieving information useful for those distributed hydrological models at two scales. For detailed object-oriented models, applicable to catchments of a few km2, where hydrological units are based on the cadastral units, manual digitizing based on the 0.5 m resolution image, was found to be the most accurate to provide the required information. For larger catchments of about 100 km2, three semi-automated mapping procedures (pixel based and object-oriented classifications), applied to aerial images (BD-Ortho®IGN), and two satellite images (Quickbird and Spot 5) were compared. We showed that each image/processing provided some interesting and accurate information about some of the land cover classes. We proposed to combine them into a synthesis map, taking profit of the strength of each image/processing in identifying the land cover classes and their physical properties. This synthesis map was shown to be more accurate than each map separately. We illustrate the interest of the derived maps in terms of distributed hydrological modelling. The maps were used to propose a classification of the Yzeron sub-catchments in terms of dominant vegetation cover and imperviousness. We showed that according to the image processing and images characteristics, the calculated imperviousness rates

  14. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  15. Gloved hand as applicator of antiseptic to operation sites.

    PubMed

    Lowbury, E J; Lilly, H A

    1975-07-26

    A 95% ethanol solution containing 0-5% chlorhexidine digluconate caused a significantly greater mean reduction in skin bacteria (99-9% plus or minus 0-024) when rubbed by a gloved hand on to the skin of one hand for two minutes than when applied to the same area for the same time with the traditional gauze applicator for operation sites (90-7% plus or minus 2-12). The latter reduction, however, was greater than that reported in five previous experiments in which application of the same solution for the same time to two hands gave mean reductions varying from 79% to 84%. An aqueous solution and a 70% alcoholic solution of chlorhexidine also gave significantly greater reduction (and alcoholic povidone iodine almost significantly greater reduction) when applied by a gloved hand than on gauze. It is inferred that the effectiveness of skin disinfection depends both on the antiseptic used and on the manner of application, and varies with the amount of friction used in applying the antiseptic. Further studies on disinfection of the surgeon's hands with 0-5% chlorhexidine in 95% alcohol rubbed on and allowed to dry have supported its value and acceptability; the mean bacterial counts of washings from gloves of surgeons after operations were lower after the use of this method than after other preoperative preparations of the hands.

  16. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  17. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  18. Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.; Duncan, Courtney B.

    2013-01-01

    This software demonstrates use of the JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Operating Environment (OE), tests APIs (application programming interfaces) presented by JPL STRS OE, and allows for basic testing of the underlying hardware platform. This software uses the JPL STRS Operating Environment ["JPL Space Tele com - munications Rad io System Operating Environment,"(NPO-4776) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 2013), p. 47] to interact with the JPL-SDR Software Defined Radio developed for the CoNNeCT (COmmunications, Navigation, and Networking rEconfigurable Testbed) Project as part of the SCaN Testbed installed on the International Space Station (ISS). These are the first applications that are compliant with the new NASA STRS Architecture Standard. Several example waveform applications are provided to demonstrate use of the JPL STRS OE for the JPL-SDR platform used for the CoNNeCT Project. The waveforms provide a simple digitizer and playback capability for the SBand RF slice, and a simple digitizer for the GPS slice [CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module, (NPO-47764) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 2012), p. 36]. These waveforms may be used for hardware test, as well as for on-orbit or laboratory checkout. Additional example waveforms implement SpaceWire and timer modules, which can be used for time transfer and demonstration of communication between the two Xilinx FPGAs in the JPLSDR. The waveforms are also compatible with ground-based use of the JPL STRS OE on radio breadboards and Linux.

  19. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  20. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    SciTech Connect

    Faidy, C.

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  1. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  2. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  3. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  4. Operational and design aspects of accelerators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Seidel, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Originally, the typical particle accelerators as well as their associated beam transport equipment were designed for particle and nuclear physics research and applications in isotope production. In the past few decades, such accelerators and related equipment have also been applied for medical use. This can be in the original physics laboratory environment, but for the past 20 years also in hospital-based or purely clinical environments for particle therapy. The most important specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational, and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the technical requirements, safety aspects, and required reliability of the accelerated beam differ substantially from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. It will be shown that this difference has significant implications on the safety and interlock systems. The operation of such a medical facility should be possible by nonaccelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). The organization and role of the control and interlock systems can be considered as being the most crucially important issue, and therefore a special, dedicated design is absolutely necessary in a facility providing particle therapy.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  6. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E. L.; Welch, R.

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  7. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  8. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  9. Application of diagnostics to determine motor-operated valve operational readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor curent signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  10. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  11. Personal computer applications in DIII-D neutral beam operation

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, A.S.

    1986-08-01

    An IBM PC AT has been implemented to improve operation of the DIII-D neutral beams. The PC system provides centralization of all beam data with reasonable access for on-line shot-to-shot control and analysis. The PC hardware was configured to interface all four neutral beam host minicomputers, support multitasking, and provide storage for approximately one month's accumulation of beam data. The PC software is composed of commercial packages used for performance and statistical analysis (i.e., LOTUS 123, PC PLOT, etc.), host communications software (i.e., PCLink, KERMIT, etc.), and applications developed software utilizing f-smcapso-smcapsr-smcapst-smcapsr-smcapsa-smcapsn-smcaps and b-smcapsa-smcapss-smcapsIc-smcaps. The objectives of this paper are to describe the implementation of the PC system, the methods of integrating the various software packages, and the scenario for on-line control and analysis.

  12. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  13. An operational global ocean forecast system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, A.; Tolman, H. L.; Rivin, I.; Rajan, B.; Spindler, T.; Garraffo, Z. D.; Kim, H.

    2012-12-01

    A global Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) was implemented in operations at NCEP/NWS/NOAA on 10/25/2011. This system is based on an eddy resolving 1/12 degree global HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinates Ocean Model) and is part of a larger national backbone capability of ocean modeling at NWS in strong partnership with US Navy. The forecast system is run once a day and produces a 6 day long forecast using the daily initialization fields produced at NAVOCEANO using NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation), a 3D multi-variate data assimilation methodology. As configured within RTOFS, HYCOM has a horizontal equatorial resolution of 0.08 degrees or ~9 km. The HYCOM grid is on a Mercator projection from 78.64 S to 47 N and north of this it employs an Arctic dipole patch where the poles are shifted over land to avoid a singularity at the North Pole. This gives a mid-latitude (polar) horizontal resolution of approximately 7 km (3.5 km). The coastline is fixed at 10 m isobath with open Bering Straits. This version employs 32 hybrid vertical coordinate surfaces with potential density referenced to 2000 m. Vertical coordinates can be isopycnals, often best for resolving deep water masses, levels of equal pressure (fixed depths), best for the well mixed unstratified upper ocean and sigma-levels (terrain-following), often the best choice in shallow water. The dynamic ocean model is coupled to a thermodynamic energy loan ice model and uses a non-slab mixed layer formulation. The forecast system is forced with 3-hourly momentum, radiation and precipitation fluxes from the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) fields. Results include global sea surface height and three dimensional fields of temperature, salinity, density and velocity fields used for validation and evaluation against available observations. Several downstream applications of this forecast system will also be discussed which include search and rescue operations at US Coast Guard, navigation safety information

  14. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in atmospheric research and satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Efremov, Denis; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Popovicheva, Olga

    The perspectives of the development of methods and facilities based on UAV for atmospheric investigations are considered. Some aspects of these methods applications are discussed. Developments of the experimental samples of UAV onboard equipment for measurements of atmospheric parameters carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Hardware system for the UAV is developed. The results of measurements of the spatial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters and the concentrations of some gas species onboard of remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles obtained in field tests are presented. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes , etc.

  15. Optimal flights of unmanned aerial vehicles utilizing wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ying

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are attractive for a wide range of applications where human presence is dangerous or undesirable. Endurance is an important performance attribute in many UAV missions. While UAV flight endurance can be improved through advances in aerodynamics and engine design, it is equally important to examine operational strategies that can enhance UAV flight endurance and other performance. Wind energy may be used to greatly enhance the flight endurance and performances of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Glider pilots commonly use wind to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. Compared with a glider, UAVs have ad vantages in utilizing energy in atmosphere. By using proper strategies to extract wind energy in the long-duration flights, a UAV's fuel consumption can be reduced and the performance can be extended. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing wind energy and develop optimal wind energy efficient flight trajectories for UAVs. In this thesis, the potential benefits and features of the autonomous soaring flights are studied. UAVs are modelled with point-mass equations of motion. Practical constraints from UAV performance and operational constraints are considered. UAV flights through various wind patterns including wind gradients, thermals and downbursts are studied. Linear wind gradient models, two-dimensional thermal models and three-dimensional vortex ring downburst models are used for the calculation of optimal trajectories. UAV flights through wind fields are formulated as nonlinear optimal control problems that minimize the overall fuel consumption. These problems are converted into parameter optimizations and numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of wind conditions and UAV performance parameters. Basic features and special flight patterns needed for wind energy flights are discovered. Results indicate that significant improvements in UAV endurance can be achieved by

  16. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  17. Operational Applications from the Suomi Npp and Jpss Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.; Furgerson, J.; Sjoberg, W.; Weng, F.; Csiszar, I. A.; Kilcoyne, H.; Gleason, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    relay distress signals from aviators, mariners or land-based users in distress. This system assists in the rescue of hundreds on an annual basis. At the AGU conference, we will discuss in detail the operational applications of JPSS data and early demonstrations provided by SUOMI NPP. Examples will include improvements in weather forecasting, monitoring of coastal water quality (e.g. harmful algal blooms), marine resources, forest fires, volcanic eruptions and smoke/dust plumes, and monitoring of droughts, snow and ice cover. The quality of JPSS data for climate monitoring will also be discussed.

  18. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  19. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  20. The application of hydrometeorological data obtained by remote sensing techniques for multipurpose reservoir operations. [Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warskow, W. L.; Wilson, T. T., Jr.; Kirdar, K.

    1975-01-01

    Watershed snowpack and streamflow data obtained and transmitted by (ERTS) satellite were used in the operational and water management decisions in the Salt River Project. Located in central Arizona, the Project provides water and electric power for the more than 1.1 million residents of the Salt River Valley. The water supply source is a 33,670 square kilometer (13,000 square mile) watershed and 250 deep well pumps. Six storage reservoirs, four of which have hydroelectric capability, located on two river systems have a storage capacity of over 246,600 hectare-meters (2,000,000 AF.). Information from the watershed during the normal runoff period of December to May and more especially during critical periods of high runoff and minimum reservoir storage capacity is necessary for the reservoir operation regimen. Extent of the snowpack, depth of snow, and the condition of the pack were observed in aerial flights over the watershed.

  1. Mesh stability of formations of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Aniruddha G.

    Co-ordinated maneuvers are becoming more and more important in military as well as civilian applications. Advances in sensing, communication and computation are aiding in the design and development of advanced control technologies for these distributed, multi-vehicle systems. Some of the applications where coordinated control of a multi-vehicle system is required are, automated highway systems, formation flying of unmanned aerial vehicles for military surveillance and coordinated ocean floor mapping for autonomous underwater vehicles. For successful formation maneuvers of these vehicles we need to design the controller and communication structure so as to achieve classical stability of the formations. In addition to classical Lyapunov stability, one can imagine that these formations need to have the property of damping any disturbances which may and will arise in the course of operation. This thesis is concerned with the analysis and design of cluster controllers which achieve such disturbance damping. Roughly speaking, this property of disturbance damping and error attenuation is called mesh stability. The contributions of this thesis can be seen in three parts. The first part concerns analysis of a cluster of linear dynamical systems. It is shown that it is not possible to get scalable clusters if the cluster controllers focus only on the local information. The second part is analysis of a nonlinear look-ahead interconnected system. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing mesh stability have been presented. The results obtained using the Lyapunov theory based approach are compared with the input-output gain results for linear systems. Third part is the applications of the above theoretical results to a case of formation flying of unmanned aerial vehicles. A nonlinear helicopter model is used to test the results offered by previous theoretical work. As an initial step, a regulation layer controller based on differential flatness and dynamic surface control is designed

  2. 14 CFR 135.4 - Applicability of rules for eligible on-demand operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-demand operations. 135.4 Section 135.4 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.4 Applicability of rules for eligible on-demand operations. (a)...

  3. Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Lay, Norman; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2004-01-01

    mitigation in the traverse of the long-distance surface explorer/rover. The basic requirements of design and operation of BEES to implement the scenarios are discussed. Terrestrial applications of such concepts include distributed aerial/surface measurements of meteorological events, i.e., storm watch, seismic monitoring, reconnaissance, biological chemical sensing, search and rescue, surveillance, autonomous security/ protection agents, and/or delivery and lateral distribution of agents (sensors, surface/subsurface crawlers, clean-up agents). Figure 2 illustrates an Earth demonstration that is in development, and its implementation will illustrate the value of these biomorphic mission concepts.

  4. Operational forecast products and applications based on WRF/Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias; Mantovani, Simone; Olefs, Marc; Schellander-Gorgas, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities of the national weather service of Austria (ZAMG) include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. The mother domain expands over Europe, North Africa and parts of Russia. The nested domain includes the alpine region and has a horizontal resolution of 4 km. Local emissions (Austria) are used in combination with European inventories (TNO and EMEP) for the simulations. The modeling system is presented and the results from the evaluation of the assimilation of pollutants using the 3D-VAR software GSI is shown. Currently observational data (PM10 and O3) from the Austrian Air-Quality network and from European stations (EEA) are assimilated into the model on an operational basis. In addition PM maps are produced using Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS in combination with model data using machine learning techniques. The modeling system is operationally evaluated with different data sets. The emphasis of the application is on the forecast of pollutants which are compared to the hourly values (PM10, O3 and NO2) of the Austrian Air-Quality network. As the meteorological conditions are important for transport and chemical processes, some parameters like wind and precipitation are automatically evaluated (SAL diagrams, maps, …) with other models (e.g. ECMWF, AROME, …) and ground stations via web interface. The prediction of the AOT is also important for operators of solar power plants. In the past Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models were used to predict the AOT based on cloud forecasts at the ZAMG. These models do not consider the spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol distribution in the atmosphere with a consequent impact on the accuracy of forecasts especially during clear-sky days

  5. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  6. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  7. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  8. Overview of Uav Activities in Wageningen Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomalainen, J.; Anders, N.; Franke, J.; Bartholomeus, H.; Nolet, C.; van Puijenbroek, M.; Kramer, H.; Keesstra, S.; Mücher, S.; Kooistra, L.

    2015-08-01

    The WUR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility (UARSF) (www.wageningenur.nl/uarsf) is a co-operation organization of different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre to use UAVs in remote sensing applications. The facility was founded in 2012. Since then the facility has taken part in numerous of mapping campaigns exploiting UAVs with researchers with in WUR as well as external cooperating partners. In this paper/poster we present the facility, the UAV platforms, the camera systems, and demonstrate some highlights of our results.

  9. [The clinical application of Coblation in operations of the pharynx and larynx].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Li, Huijun; Liu, Jiangtao

    2014-12-01

    The aticle briefly introduced the working principle and clinical applicability of Coblation. The application of Coblation promoted the improvement of traditional surgery and the generation of new operation, it is the most important to hold the indication of the operation strictly. This review summarized that and discussed the advantages and the notes of Coblation in operations of the pharynx and larynx.

  10. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  11. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  12. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  13. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  14. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  15. 49 CFR 234.243 - Wire on pole line and aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.243 Wire on pole line and aerial cable. Wire... transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or more shall be placed not less than 4 feet above the... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire on pole line and aerial cable....

  16. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  17. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  18. 75 FR 39975 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... COMMISSION Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards... significant hazards consideration, notwithstanding the pendency before the Commission of a request for a... FR 37471). Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses,...

  19. Preparing the CAA Title V operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    Wyles, T.R. )

    1994-01-01

    The CAA amendments contain 11 new and amended titles, including enhanced non-attainment area provisions, additional conditions for controlling hazardous air pollutants, expanded monitoring and record keeping requirements, and increased enforcement authority. The cornerstone of the regulation is the operating permits program (Title V). In the past, permits have been issued to construct or modify sources, and some sources have been permitted in states with operating permit programs. Such programs will remain in effect. However, under the new CAA, most emissions sources will be required to have an operating permit. Title V's permit provision initially affects about 34,000 major facilities and may affect another 350,000 smaller sources in the future. The amendments also increase the number of regulated pollutants from 21 to about 200. Operating permits limit emissions from manufacturing operations, and place further restrictions on raw materials and products.

  20. RoboCon: Operator interface for robotic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schempf, H.; Warwick, J.; Fung, M.; Chemel, B.; Blackwell, M.

    1996-12-31

    Carnegie Mellon U. and ORNL`s Robotics and Process Systems Division are developing a state-of-the-art robot operator control station (RoboCon) with standardized hardware and software control interfaces to be adaptable to a variety of remote and robotic equipment currently funded by DOE`s Office of Science & Technology Robotics Technology Development Program. The human operation and telerobotic and supervisory control of sophisticated and remote and robotic systems is a complex, tiring, and non-intuitive activity. Since decontamination & decommissioning, selective equipment removal, mixed waste operations, and in-tank cleanup are going to be a major future activity in DOE environmental restoration and waste management cleanup agenda, it seems necessary to utilize an operator control station and interface which maximizes operator comfort and productivity.

  1. Favourable uranium-phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2016-02-01

    A scored lithological map including 10 radiometric units is established through applying factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-1, Syrian desert, which includes Ur, eU, eTh, K%, eU/eTh, eU/K%, and eTh/K%. A model of four rotated factors F1, F2, F3, and F4 is adapted for representing 234,829 data measured points in Area-1, where 86% of total data variance is interpreted. A geological scored pseudo-section derived from the lithological scored map is established and analyzed in order to show the possible stratigraphic and structural traps for uranium occurrences associated with phosphate deposits in the studied Area-1. These identified traps presented in this paper need detailed investigation and must be necessarily followed and checked by ground validations and subsurface well logging, in order to locate the anomalous uranium occurrences and explore with more confidence and certitude their characteristics as a function of depth.

  2. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  3. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species. PMID:25843102

  4. Department of Defense operational applications of wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Allan C.

    1985-01-01

    A stated objective for this symposium is to identify requirements for global wind measurements. This paper will draw from recent reports which considered the impact of over 100 environmental factors known to affect military operations. A conclusion that can be drawn from those analyses is that one environmental factor, atmospheric wind, has an operational impact on each of the 48 mission areas examined. This paper will characterize the impact of wind on the various mission areas and will define and summarize both 'technical' and 'operational' requirements for wind intelligence.

  5. The application of image enhancement techniques to remote manipulator operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of image enhancement which can be used by an operator who is not experienced with the mechanisms of enhancement to obtain satisfactory results were designed and implemented. Investigation of transformations which operate directly on the image domain resulted in a new technique of contrast enhancement. Transformations on the Fourier transform of the original image, including such techniques as homomorphic filtering, were also investigated. The methods of communication between the enhancement system and the computer operator were analyzed, and a language was developed for use in image enhancement. A working enhancement system was then created, and is included.

  6. Evaluation of efficacy and human health risk of aerial ultra-low volume applications of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for adult mosquito management in response to West Nile virus activity in Sacramento County, California.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Paula A; Schleier, Jerome J; Reed, Marcia; Kelley, Kara; Goodman, Gary W; Brown, David A; Peterson, Robert K D

    2010-03-01

    The Sacramento and Yolo Mosquito and Vector Control District (SYMVCD, also referred to as "the District") conducts surveillance and management of mosquitoes in Sacramento and Yolo counties in California. Following an increase in numbers and West Nile virus (WNV) infection rates of Culex tarsalis and Culex pipiens, the District decided on July 26, 2007, to conduct aerial applications of Evergreen EC 60-6 (60% pyrethrins: 6% piperonyl butoxide) over approximately 215 km2 in the north area of Sacramento County on the nights of July 30, July 31, and August 1, 2007. At the same time, the District received notification of the first human WNV case in the area. To evaluate the efficacy of the applications in decreasing mosquito abundance and infection rates, we conducted pre- and post-trapping inside and outside the spray zone and assessed human health risks from exposure to the insecticide applications. Results showed a significant decrease in abundance of both Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens, and in the minimum infection rate of Cx. tarsalis. Human-health risks from exposure to the insecticide were below thresholds set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:20402352

  7. Remapping algorithms: application to trimming operations in sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, D. M.; Diogo, C. M. A.; Neves, T. F.; Oliveira, M. C.; Alves, J. L.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-08-01

    Most of sheet metal forming processes comprise intermediate trimming operations to remove superfluous material. These operations are required for subsequent forming operations. On the other hand, the springback is strongly influenced by the trimming operations that change the part stiffness and the stress field. From the numerical point of view, this involves the geometrical trimming of the finite element mesh and subsequent remapping of the state variables. This study presents a remapping method based on Dual Kriging interpolation, specifically developed for hexahedral finite elements, which has been implemented in DD3TRIM in-house code. Its performance is compared with the one of the Incremental Volumetric Remapping method, using the split-ring test to highlight their advantages and limitations. The numerical simulation of the forming processes is performed with DD3IMP finite element solver.

  8. Residual energy applications program test and operations report

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, F.H.

    1980-10-01

    Objective of REAP in the recovery of waste heat at US gaseous diffusion plants by 1984. This report contains policy, objective, and guideline suggestions for utilizing the proposed Energy applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility and for managing EAST operations; preliminary design information on facility support equipment and physical plant; and estimates of initial construction costs and staffing requirements for a two-bay, three-shift operation. (DCL)

  9. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Preliminary assessment of aerial photography techniques for canvasback population analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munro, R.E.; Trauger, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent intensive research on the canvasback has focused attention on the need for more precise estimates of population parameters. During the 1972-75 period, various types of aerial photographing equipment were evaluated to determine the problems and potentials for employing these techniques in appraisals of canvasback populations. The equipment and procedures available for automated analysis of aerial photographic imagery were also investigated. Serious technical problems remain to be resolved, but some promising results were obtained. Final conclusions about the feasibility of operational implementation await a more rigorous analysis of the data collected.

  11. Grab a coffee: your aerial images are already analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Rademacher, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    For over 2 decades the AIMTM platform has been utilized in mask shops as the standard for actinic review of photomask sites in order to perform defect disposition and repair review. Throughout this time the measurement throughput of the systems has been improved in order to keep pace with the requirements demanded by a manufacturing environment, however the analysis of the sites captured has seen little improvement and remained a manual process. This manual analysis of aerial images is time consuming, subject to error and unreliability and contributes to holding up turn-around time (TAT) and slowing process flow in a manufacturing environment. AutoAnalysis, the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, offers a solution to these problems by providing fully automated data transfer and analysis of AIMTM aerial images. The data is automatically output in a customizable format that can be tailored to your internal needs and the requests of your customers. Savings in terms of operator time arise from the automated analysis which no longer needs to be performed. Reliability is improved as human error is eliminated making sure the most defective region is always and consistently captured. Finally the TAT is shortened and process flow for the back end of the line improved as the analysis is fast and runs in parallel to the measurements. In this paper the concept and approach of AutoAnalysis will be presented as well as an update to the status of the project. A look at the benefits arising from the automation and the customizable approach of the solution will be shown.

  12. Large-Scale Aerial Image Categorization Using a Multitask Topological Codebook.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Yin, Bao-Cai; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Fast and accurately categorizing the millions of aerial images on Google Maps is a useful technique in pattern recognition. Existing methods cannot handle this task successfully due to two reasons: 1) the aerial images' topologies are the key feature to distinguish their categories, but they cannot be effectively encoded by a conventional visual codebook and 2) it is challenging to build a realtime image categorization system, as some geo-aware Apps update over 20 aerial images per second. To solve these problems, we propose an efficient aerial image categorization algorithm. It focuses on learning a discriminative topological codebook of aerial images under a multitask learning framework. The pipeline can be summarized as follows. We first construct a region adjacency graph (RAG) that describes the topology of each aerial image. Naturally, aerial image categorization can be formulated as RAG-to-RAG matching. According to graph theory, RAG-to-RAG matching is conducted by enumeratively comparing all their respective graphlets (i.e., small subgraphs). To alleviate the high time consumption, we propose to learn a codebook containing topologies jointly discriminative to multiple categories. The learned topological codebook guides the extraction of the discriminative graphlets. Finally, these graphlets are integrated into an AdaBoost model for predicting aerial image categories. Experimental results show that our approach is competitive to several existing recognition models. Furthermore, over 24 aerial images are processed per second, demonstrating that our approach is ready for real-world applications. PMID:25794407

  13. Large-Scale Aerial Image Categorization Using a Multitask Topological Codebook.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Yin, Bao-Cai; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Fast and accurately categorizing the millions of aerial images on Google Maps is a useful technique in pattern recognition. Existing methods cannot handle this task successfully due to two reasons: 1) the aerial images' topologies are the key feature to distinguish their categories, but they cannot be effectively encoded by a conventional visual codebook and 2) it is challenging to build a realtime image categorization system, as some geo-aware Apps update over 20 aerial images per second. To solve these problems, we propose an efficient aerial image categorization algorithm. It focuses on learning a discriminative topological codebook of aerial images under a multitask learning framework. The pipeline can be summarized as follows. We first construct a region adjacency graph (RAG) that describes the topology of each aerial image. Naturally, aerial image categorization can be formulated as RAG-to-RAG matching. According to graph theory, RAG-to-RAG matching is conducted by enumeratively comparing all their respective graphlets (i.e., small subgraphs). To alleviate the high time consumption, we propose to learn a codebook containing topologies jointly discriminative to multiple categories. The learned topological codebook guides the extraction of the discriminative graphlets. Finally, these graphlets are integrated into an AdaBoost model for predicting aerial image categories. Experimental results show that our approach is competitive to several existing recognition models. Furthermore, over 24 aerial images are processed per second, demonstrating that our approach is ready for real-world applications.

  14. Research and operational applications in multi-center ensemble forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Toth, Z.

    2009-05-01

    The North American Ensemble Forecast System (NAEFS) was built up in 2004 by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC), the National Meteorological Service of Mexico (NMSM), and the US National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational multi-center ensemble forecast system. Currently it combines the 20-member MSC and NWS ensembles to form a joint ensemble of 40 members twice a day. The joint ensemble forecast, after bias correction and statistical downscaling, is used to generate a suite of products for CONUS, North America and for other regions of the globe. The THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) project has been established a few years ago to collect operational global ensemble forecasts from world centers, and distribute to the scientific community, to encourage research leading to the acceleration of improvements in the skill and utility of high impact weather forecasts. TIGGE research is expected to advise the development of the operational NAEFS system and eventually the two projects are expected to converge into a single operational system, the Global Interactive Forecast System (GIFS). This presentation will review recent developments, the current status, and plans related to the TIGGE research and NAEFS operational multi-center ensemble projects.

  15. The OCLC Network: Its Architecture, Application, and Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learn, Larry L.; Carpenter, George L.

    1988-01-01

    This overview of the OCLC telecommunications network discusses: its scope and applications, user demographics, the system architecture, access, costs, protocols, maintenance, vendor relationships, performance data, and network engineering. (13 references) (MES)

  16. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  17. 27 CFR 19.92 - Information required in application for operating permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information required in application for operating permit. 19.92 Section 19.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... § 19.92 Information required in application for operating permit. (a) In order to obtain an...

  18. The gas electron multiplier (GEM): Operating principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Introduced by the author in 1997, The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) constitutes a powerful addition to the family of fast radiation detectors; originally developed for particle physics experiments, the device and has spawned a large number of developments and applications; a web search yields more than 400 articles on the subject. This note is an attempt to summarize the status of the design, developments and applications of the new detector.

  19. Operator assistant systems - An experimental approach using a telerobotics application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a knowledge-based system methodology for developing operator assistant (OA) systems in dynamic and interactive environments. This is a problem both of training and design, which is the subject of this article. Design includes both design of the system to be controlled and design of procedures for operating this system. A specific knowledge representation is proposed for representing the corresponding system and operational knowledge. This representation is based on the situation recognition and analytical reasoning paradigm. It tries to make explicit common factors involved in both human and machine intelligence, including perception and reasoning. An OA system based on this representation has been developed for space telerobotics. Simulations have been carried out with astronauts and the resulting protocols have been analyzed. Results show the relevance of the approach and have been used for improving the knowledge representation and the OA architecture.

  20. MIL-H-8501B: Application to shipboard terminal operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappetta, A. N.; Johns, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy and structure of the proposed U.S. Military Specification for Handling Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft, MIL-H-8501B, are presented with emphasis on shipboard terminal operations. The impact of current and future naval operational requirements on the selection of appropriate combinations of basic vehicle dynamics and usable cue environments are identified. An example 'walk through' of MIL-H-8501B is conducted from task identification to determination of stability and control requirements. For selected basic vehicle dynamics, criteria as a function of input/response magnitude are presented. Additionally, rotorcraft design development implications are discussed.

  1. Operational approach to Bell inequalities: Application to qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsina, Daniel; Cervera, Alba; Goyeneche, Dardo; Latorre, José I.; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-09-01

    In this work we develop two methods to construct Bell inequalities for multipartite systems. By considering non-Hermitian operators we study Bell inequalities for the cases of three settings, three outcomes, and three to six parties. The maximal value achieved in the framework of quantum theory is computed for subsystems with three levels each. The other technique, based on a mapping from pure entangled states to Bell operators, allows us to construct further multipartite Bell inequalities. As a consequence, we reproduce some known results in a different way and find some multipartite Bell inequalities for systems having three settings and three outcomes per party.

  2. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  3. Application and Operation of Audiovisual Equipment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pula, Fred John

    Interest in audiovisual aids in education has been increased by the shortage of classrooms and good teachers and by the modern predisposition toward learning by visual concepts. Effective utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment depends most importantly, on adequate preparation of the teacher in operating equipment and in coordinating…

  4. Selected Mathematics Applications (Level A): Operating A Store.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented is one of a series of resource guides designed to provide students with an improved mathematics program. This guide emphasizes real-life situations focusing on the operation of a store. Classes are divided into grocery, meat, produce, drugs, and hardware sections at the beginning of the course. Students learn how to organize, collect,…

  5. The application of NAVSTAR Differential GPS to civil helicopter operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beser, J.; Parkinson, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Principles concerning the operation of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are discussed. Selective availability issues concerning NAVSTAR GPS and differential GPS concepts are analyzed. Civil support and market potential for differential GPS are outlined. It is concluded that differential GPS provides a variation on the baseline GPS system, and gives an assured, uninterrupted level of accuracy for the civilian community.

  6. Operational excellence (six sigma) philosophy: Application to software quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on operational excellence philosophy of six sigma applied to software quality assurance. This report outlines the following: goal of six sigma; six sigma tools; manufacturing vs administrative processes; Software quality assurance document inspections; map software quality assurance requirements document; failure mode effects analysis for requirements document; measuring the right response variables; and questions.

  7. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... elements as the input focus changes. The focus shall be programmatically exposed so that assistive technology can track focus and focus changes. (d) Sufficient information about a user interface element including the identity, operation and state of the element shall be available to assistive technology....

  8. Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Lai, Judy

    2011-04-01

    Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.

  9. 40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant... Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations. (a) Each owner or operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation subject to this subpart shall comply with the requirements specified...

  10. Application of generalized operator representation in the time evolution of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Liu, Xiangyuan; Song, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We have systematically explored the application of generalized operator representation including P-, W-, and Husimi representation in the time evolution of quantum systems. In particular, by using the method of differentiation within an ordered product of operators, we give the normally and antinormally ordered forms of the integral kernels of Husimi operator representations and its corresponding formulations. By making use of the generalized operator representation, we transform exponentially complex operator equations into tractable phase-space equations. As a simple application, the time evolution equation of Husimi function in the amplitude dissipative channel is clearly obtained.

  11. Application of generalized operator representation in the time evolution of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Rui; Liu, Xiangyuan; Song, Jun

    2016-07-01

    We have systematically explored the application of generalized operator representation including P-, W-, and Husimi representation in the time evolution of quantum systems. In particular, by using the method of differentiation within an ordered product of operators, we give the normally and antinormally ordered forms of the integral kernels of Husimi operator representations and its corresponding formulations. By making use of the generalized operator representation, we transform exponentially complex operator equations into tractable phase-space equations. As a simple application, the time evolution equation of Husimi function in the amplitude dissipative channel is clearly obtained.

  12. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  13. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  14. Biological response of soybean and cotton to aerial glyphosate drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial application drift study was conducted in 2009 to determine biological effects of glyphosate on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Glyphosate at 866 g ae/ha was applied using an Air Tractor 402B agricultural aircraft in an 18.3 m spray swath to crops at the...

  15. Design, fabrication, and operation of hybrid bionanodevices for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Robert Matthew

    Cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. Despite their simplicity, cells are extremely versatile, performing a variety of functions including detection, signaling, and repair. While current biomedical devices operate at the organ level, the next generation will operate at the cellular level, combining the nanoscale machinery of cells with the mechanical robustness of synthetic materials in the form of new hybrid devices. This thesis presents advances in four topics concerning the development of nanomedical devices: fabrication, stabilization, control, and operation. First, as feature sizes decrease from the milli- and microscale towards the nanoscale, new fabrication methods must be developed. A new rapid prototyping technique using confocal microscopy was used to produce freely-programmable high-resolution protein patterns of functional motor proteins on thermo-responsive polymer surfaces. Second, hybrid device operation should be temperature-independent, but most biological components have strong responses to temperature fluctuations. To counter operational fluctuations, the temperature-dependent enzymatic activity was characterized for two types of molecular motors with the goal of developing a bionanosystem which is stabilized against temperature fluctuations. Third, replacing electromechanical systems consisting of pumps and batteries with proteins that directly convert chemical potential into mechanical energy increases the efficiency and decreases the size of the bionanodevice, but requires new control methods. An enzymatic network was developed in which fuel was photolytically released to activate molecular shuttles, excess fuel was sequestered using an enzyme, and spatial and temporal control of the system was achieved. Finally, chemically powered bionanodevices will require high-precision nano- and microscale actuators. A two-part hybrid actuator was designed, which consists of a molecular motor-coated synthetic macroscale forcer and a

  16. Floating aerial LED signage based on aerial imaging by retro-reflection (AIRR).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Tomiyama, Yuka; Suyama, Shiro

    2014-11-01

    We propose a floating aerial LED signage technique by utilizing retro-reflection. The proposed display is composed of LEDs, a half mirror, and retro-reflective sheeting. Directivity of the aerial image formation and size of the aerial image have been investigated. Furthermore, a floating aerial LED sign has been successfully formed in free space.

  17. 1. COPY OF AERIAL PHOTO BY U.S. ARMY AIR CORPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COPY OF AERIAL PHOTO BY U.S. ARMY AIR CORPS OF LA-TEX INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY DREDGING OPERATIONS NEAR HIGH ISLAND, TEXAS, 1934 - Louisiana-Texas (LA-TEX) Intercoastal Waterway, Port Isabel, Cameron County, TX

  18. Securing Ground Data System Applications for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.; Tso, Kam S.; Johnson, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence and sophistication of cyber attacks has prompted the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) Program Office at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to initiate the Common Access Manager (CAM) effort to protect software applications used in Ground Data Systems (GDSs) at JPL and other NASA Centers. The CAM software provides centralized services and software components used by GDS subsystems to meet access control requirements and ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. In this paper we describe the CAM software; examples of its integration with spacecraft commanding software applications and an information management service; and measurements of its performance and reliability.

  19. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  20. Overview of meteorological measurements for aerial spray modeling.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, J E; Biltoft, C A; Bowers, J F

    1996-06-01

    The routine meteorological observations made by the National Weather Service have a spatial resolution on the order of 1,000 km, whereas the resolution needed to conduct or model aerial spray applications is on the order of 1-10 km. Routinely available observations also do not include the detailed information on the turbulence and thermal structure of the boundary layer that is needed to predict the transport, dispersion, and deposition of aerial spray releases. This paper provides an overview of the information needed to develop the meteorological inputs for an aerial spray model such as the FSCBG and discusses the different types of instruments that are available to make the necessary measurements.

  1. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cooperation. (1) To determine eligibility, the application form must be completed and signed, the household or... nonhousehold members under § 273.1(b)(2) as individuals outside the household. (2) Cooperation with QC Reviewer.... Where the Interim Guidance and the DOJ final rule conflict, the latter should control the...

  2. 46 CFR 298.12 - Applicant and operator's qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with all requirements of this part. (b) Identity and ownership of applicant. In order for us to assess... America, or is currently delinquent on any Federal debt, and if so, provide explanatory information. (7) A..., indicate the names of these entities and whether such entities have defaulted on any U.S. Government...

  3. 46 CFR 298.12 - Applicant and operator's qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with all requirements of this part. (b) Identity and ownership of applicant. In order for us to assess... America, or is currently delinquent on any Federal debt, and if so, provide explanatory information. (7) A..., indicate the names of these entities and whether such entities have defaulted on any U.S. Government...

  4. 46 CFR 298.12 - Applicant and operator's qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... company; (ii) Address of principal place of business; and (iii) Certified copy of certificate of... of business; and (iii) Certified copy of certificate of formation, partnership agreement or other... whether voting or non-voting). (c) Business and affiliations of applicants. You must include: (1) A...

  5. Options for organization and operation of space applications transfer centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, A. C.; Madigan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits of developing regional facilities for transfer of NASA developed technology are discussed. These centers are designed to inform, persuade, and serve users. Included will be equipment for applications and demonstrations of the processes, a library, training facilities, and meeting rooms. The staff will include experts in the various techniques, as well as personnel involved in finding and persuading potential users.

  6. Applications of Genetic Methods to NASA Design and Operations Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    We review four recent NASA-funded applications in which evolutionary/genetic methods are important. In the process we survey: the kinds of problems being solved today with these methods; techniques and tools used; problems encountered; and areas where research is needed. The presentation slides are annotated briefly at the top of each page.

  7. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  8. The application of automated operations at the Institutional Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    The JPL Institutional and Mission Computing Division, Communications, Computing and Network Services Section, with its mission contractor, OAO Corporation, have for some time been applying automation to the operation of JPL's Information Processing Center (IPC). Automation does not come in one easy to use package. Automation for a data processing center is made up of many different software and hardware products supported by trained personnel. The IPC automation effort formally began with console automation, and has since spiraled out to include production scheduling, data entry, report distribution, online reporting, failure reporting and resolution, documentation, library storage, and operator and user education, while requiring the interaction of multi-vendor and locally developed software. To begin the process, automation goals are determined. Then a team including operations personnel is formed to research and evaluate available options. By acquiring knowledge of current products and those in development, taking an active role in industry organizations, and learning of other data center's experiences, a forecast can be developed as to what direction technology is moving. With IPC management's approval, an implementation plan is developed and resources identified to test or implement new systems. As an example, IPC's new automated data entry system was researched by Data Entry, Production Control, and Advance Planning personnel. A proposal was then submitted to management for review. A determination to implement the new system was made and elements/personnel involved with the initial planning performed the implementation. The final steps of the implementation were educating data entry personnel in the areas effected and procedural changes necessary to the successful operation of the new system.

  9. Application of Mimetic Operators to Tetrahedral Mesh MHD Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklin, George; Jarboe, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Mimetic operators are numerical approximations to the grad, div and curl operators that 'mimic' the orthogonality properties of their analytic counterparts, div(curl)=0 and curl(grad)=0. They define different components of vector fields at different parts of the mesh and can be viewed as a special type of finite element basis and can be defined to arbitrarily high order. They have been used in electromagnetic simulation codes for many years. This poster will show how they can be defined to lowest order on a tetrahedral mesh and applied to Taylor state computations and to the induction equation in an MHD simulation. They have the advantage of being able to exactly maintain zero divergence in both the magnetic field and current density and to make an exact separation of static and inductive electric fields. Mimetic Operators can also be used in the momentum equation and the results will be compared to other commonly used methods like the finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods. The new code will be used to run simulations of the HIT-SI experiment with insulated conductor boundary conditions and different injector configurations and results compared to the experiment and to simulations done with the NIMROD code.

  10. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  11. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  12. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  13. 20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PLANT WAS COMPOSED OF FOUR WIDELY SEPARATED AREAS, EACH ONE PERFORMING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORK. PLANT A (44), SOUTHWEST, FABRICATED PARTS FROM DEPLETED URANIUM, PLANT B (81), SOUTH, WAS ENRICHED URANIUM OPERATIONS, PLANT C (71), NORTH, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS, AND PLANT D (91), EAST, WAS FINAL ASSEMBLY, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING (2/6/66). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Pipe line pigs have varied applications in operations. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vernooy, B.

    1980-10-01

    In the early days of pipelining, it was discovered that running a swab equipped with leather disks through the line removed paraffin deposited on the pipe wall increasing the flow without increasing the power input. Blades were added to the device later to improve the efficiency of wax removal, which also decreased the number of runs and the cost of pigging. Pig developers learned from their successes as well as their failures. Part 1 of this work focused on the construction and kaliper pigs, and the second part describes the general form and function of the different operational pigs, i.e., calipers, cleaners, and spheres.

  15. JSC Aerial View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This North-looking view shows some of the Johnson Space Center's central buildings and facilities neighboring its Project Management Facility (Building 1) from which this scene was photographed. The Houston-based Mission Control Center is in the center of the frame. Visible buildings surrounding the mall area include the Flight Operations Facility, Crew Systems Laboratory, Photographic Technology Laboratory, Technical Services shop, branch cafeteria, Mission Control Center office wing and the Central Data Office.

  16. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  17. Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System. [PCM telemetry unit for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giri, R. R.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System (MOMS) is a high-data-rate PCM telemetry unit capable of sampling and encoding 60 scanning radiometer and four vidicon channels at 250 kilosamples/second and 5 megasamples/second, respectively. This sampling capacity plus the seven-bit quantization requires a total throughput rate of 40 megasamples/second and 280 megabits/second. To produce these rates efficiently, the system was divided into a pair of identical 140-megabit blocks. A low-power 20-MHz analog multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter were developed together with a video sample-and-hold that features an aperture time error of less than 50 psec. Breadboard testing of these basic building blocks confirmed the design prediction that the total system would consume 27 watts of power. Two 140-megabit output parts are suitable for quadriphase modulation.

  18. MOCAGE-accident: From research to operational applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martet, M.; Josse, M.; Peuch, Mr.; Peuch, M.; Bonnardot, Mr.

    2009-09-01

    MOCAGE (Modèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle) is the multi-scale 3D Chemistry and Transport Model of Météo-France. From air quality forecasting to the study of interactions between climate and chemistry, MOCAGE is a flexible tool that is currently used for both research on atmospheric composition (over 35 publications in the international literature) and operations in Météo-France and at several collaborating institutes. In particular, MOCAGE products are used for the French operational Air Quality platform Prév'Air as well as in projects building up the GMES Atmospheric Service. Here, we present a new specific configuration "MOCAGE-accident”, currently used in pre-operations trial by Météo-France forecasters, in support of our international responsibilities as RSMC (Regional Meteorological Specialized Centre) and VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre). Briefly, a semi-lagrangian scheme is used for advection (Williamson and Rash, 1989), while turbulent diffusion, using the Louis scheme (Louis, 1979) and convection, using the Bechtold scheme (Kain and Fritsch, 1990 and Bechtold, 2001) are parameterized. In the specific "accident” configuration, no chemical reactions are considered and a module allows to specify the temporal and geometrical characteristics of the release. Three types of pollutants can be considered : - tracers: no interactions between this tracer and the other atmospheric components are considered ; only transport, wet and dry deposition are taken into account. - radionucleides: in this case, radioactive disintegration is treated following the type of radionuclide and its lifetime. - volcanic ashes: solid materials are considered and sedimentation of the particles is also considered. Concerning the current pre-operations trial, the horizontal resolution of MOCAGE-accident is 0,5° all over the globe, with 47 levels from surface to 5 hPa. This model is thus able to represent accidental emissions on every place of the world, in

  19. UTOPIA-User-Friendly Tools for Operating Informatics Applications.

    PubMed

    Pettifer, S R; Sinnott, J R; Attwood, T K

    2004-01-01

    Bioinformaticians routinely analyse vast amounts of information held both in large remote databases and in flat data files hosted on local machines. The contemporary toolkit available for this purpose consists of an ad hoc collection of data manipulation tools, scripting languages and visualization systems; these must often be combined in complex and bespoke ways, the result frequently being an unwieldy artefact capable of one specific task, which cannot easily be exploited or extended by other practitioners. Owing to the sizes of current databases and the scale of the analyses necessary, routine bioinformatics tasks are often automated, but many still require the unique experience and intuition of human researchers: this requires tools that support real-time interaction with complex datasets. Many existing tools have poor user interfaces and limited real-time performance when applied to realistically large datasets; much of the user's cognitive capacity is therefore focused on controlling the tool rather than on performing the research. The UTOPIA project is addressing some of these issues by building reusable software components that can be combined to make useful applications in the field of bioinformatics. Expertise in the fields of human computer interaction, high-performance rendering, and distributed systems is being guided by bioinformaticians and end-user biologists to create a toolkit that is both architecturally sound from a computing point of view, and directly addresses end-user and application-developer requirements.

  20. Military applications of hypoxic training for high-altitude operations.

    PubMed

    Muza, Stephen R

    2007-09-01

    Rapid deployment of unacclimatized soldiers to high mountainous environments causes debilitating effects on operational capabilities (physical work performance), and force health (altitude sickness). Most of these altitude-induced debilitations can be prevented or ameliorated by a wide range of physiological responses collectively referred to as altitude acclimatization. Acclimatization to a target altitude can be induced by slow progressive ascents or continuous sojourns at intermediate altitudes. However, this "altitude residency" requirement reduces their utilization in rapid response military missions that exploit the air mobility capability of modern military forces to quickly deploy to an area of operations on short notice. A more recent approach to induce altitude acclimatization is the use of daily intermittent hypoxic exposures (IHE) in lieu of continuous residence at high altitudes. IHE treatments consist of three elements: 1) IHE simulated altitude (inspired oxygen partial pressure: PIO2), 2) IHE session duration, and 3) total number of IHE sessions over the treatment period. This paper reviews and summarizes the results of 25 published IHE studies. This review finds that an IHE altitude>or=4000 m, and daily exposure duration of at least 1.5 h repeated over a week or more are required to have a high probability of developing altitude acclimatization. The efficacy of shorter duration (<1.5 h) hypoxic exposures at >or=4000 m simulated altitudes, and longer exposures (>4 h) at moderate altitudes (2500-3500 m) is not well documented. The predominate IHE-induced altitude acclimatization response appears to be increased arterial oxygen content through ventilatory acclimatization. Thus, IHE is a promising approach to provide the benefits of altitude acclimatization to low-altitude-based soldiers before their deployment to high mountainous regions.

  1. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    southeast leg and 300 m AGL on the northwest leg. Spatial resolution (pixel size or ground sample distance) is a few centimeters. Time and geographic coordinates of the aircraft were automatically written into the exchangeable image file format (EXIF) data within each jpeg photograph. A few hours after acquisition and validation, the photographs were uploaded to a publically accessible Web page. The goal was to obtain quick-turnaround, low-cost, high-resolution, overlapping, and contiguous imagery for use in planning field operations, and to provide imagery for a wide variety of land use and educational studies. This work was carried out in support of ongoing geological research on the San Andreas fault, but the technique is widely applicable beyond geology.

  2. Maximizing the probability an aerial anti-submarine torpedo detects its target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Jie

    2009-06-01

    As a result of the high speed of anti-submarine patrol aircraft as well as their wide range, high efficiency and other characteristics, aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft have become the key anti submarine tool. In order to improve operational efficiency, a deep study was made of the target detection probabilities for aerial torpedoes released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft. The operational modes of aerial torpedoes were analyzed and mathematical-simulation models were then established. The detection probabilities of three attacking modes were then calculated. Measures were developed for improving low probabilities of detection when attacking a probable target position. This study provides an important frame of reference for the operation of aerial torpedo released by anti-submarine patrol aircraft.

  3. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  4. Development of RGB Composite Imagery for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Oswald, Hayden, K; Knaff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, in collaboration with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), is providing red-green-blue (RGB) color composite imagery to several of NOAA s National Centers and National Weather Service forecast offices as a demonstration of future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be implemented aboard GOES-R. Forecasters rely upon geostationary satellite imagery to monitor conditions over their regions of responsibility. Since the ABI will provide nearly three times as many channels as the current GOES imager, the volume of data available for analysis will increase. RGB composite imagery can aid in the compression of large data volumes by combining information from multiple channels or paired channel differences into single products that communicate more information than provided by a single channel image. A standard suite of RGB imagery has been developed by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), based upon the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The SEVIRI instrument currently provides visible and infrared wavelengths comparable to the future GOES-R ABI. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to demonstrate future capabilities of GOES-R. This presentation will demonstrate an overview of the products currently disseminated to SPoRT partners within the GOES-R Proving Ground, and other National Weather Service forecast offices, along with examples of their application. For example, CIRA has used the channels of the current GOES sounder to produce an "air mass" RGB originally designed for SEVIRI. This provides hourly imagery over CONUS for looping applications while demonstrating capabilities similar to the future ABI instrument. SPoRT has developed similar "air mass" RGB imagery from MODIS, and through

  5. An assessment of nitrogen-based manure application rates on 39 U.S. swine operations.

    PubMed

    Lory, John A; Massey, Raymond E; Zulovich, Joseph M; Hoehne, John A; Schmidt, Amy M; Carlson, Marcia S; Fulhage, Charles D

    2004-01-01

    Water quality concerns and revised regulations are changing how confined animal feeding operations manage manure. Devising acceptable and feasible changes in manure practices requires a full understanding of the forces shaping current manure management decisions. Previous theoretical models have shown that a wide range of factors influence the lowest cost solution for manure management. We used a mechanistic model to characterize the manure management practices on 39 swine operations (20 unagitated lagoon and 19 slurry operations) in five states (Iowa, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania). Information was collected from each operation about animal numbers, feed and water use, manure handling and storage characteristics, field locations, crop rotation, fertilizer need, and equipment inventory and usage. Collected data were used as input and to validate results from a mechanistic model that determined acres required for manure application, manure application rate, time required for manure application, value of manure, and costs of manure management. The 39 farms had a mean of 984 animal units (AU) per operation, 18.2 AU ha(-1) (7.4 AU acre(-1)), and manure application costs of dollar 10.49 AU(-1) yr(-1). Significant factors affecting manure management included operation size, manure handling system, state, and ownership structure. Larger operations had lower manure management costs (r2 = 0.32). Manure value potentially exceeded manure application costs on 58% of slurry and 15% of lagoon operations. But 38% of slurry operations needed to apply manure off the farm whereas all lagoon operations had sufficient land for N-based manure management. Manure management was a higher percentage of gross income on contract operations compared with independents (P < 0.01). This research emphasized the importance of site-specific factors affecting manure management decisions and the economics of U.S. swine operations. PMID:15224950

  6. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  7. Verification of operating software for cooperative monitoring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.; Rembold, R.K.

    1997-08-01

    Monitoring agencies often use computer based equipment to control instruments and to collect data at sites that are being monitored under international safeguards or other cooperative monitoring agreements. In order for this data to be used as an independent verification of data supplied by the host at the facility, the software used must be trusted by the monitoring agency. The monitoring party must be sure that the software has not be altered to give results that could lead to erroneous conclusions about nuclear materials inventories or other operating conditions at the site. The host might also want to verify that the software being used is the software that has been previously inspected in order to be assured that only data that is allowed under the agreement is being collected. A description of a method to provide this verification using keyed has functions and how the proposed method overcomes possible vulnerabilities in methods currently in use such as loading the software from trusted disks is presented. The use of public key data authentication for this purpose is also discussed.

  8. Application of submarine extended operating cycle programs to the enhancement of commercial nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.H.; Livingston, B.K.; Clarke, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    During the past 10 yr, the US Navy has extended submarine operating cycles - the period between major ship overhauls - from 4 to > 15 yr. Major programs to extend submarine operating cycles have been the submarine extended operating cycle (SEOC) and the engineered SEOC programs. Currently, the navy is incorporating lessons learned from these programs, as well as new concepts, into its newest Seawolf (SSN-21) ship class. Major elements of these programs are a disciplined machinery condition assessment (MCA) program consisting of intrusive and nonintrusive elements, the use of rotatable equipment pools, and the engineering of maintenance periodicities to establish operating cycles. Many of the concepts and elements of these programs can be applied to two objectives for enhanced operation and maintenance: the increased availability of means of improved equipment performance and reduced outage durations and the extension of plant life. The objectives of this paper are to review the US Navy SEOC programs, to draw parallels between the US Navy programs and commercial nuclear power plant programs, and to suggest potential opportunities for application to commercial nuclear power plants.

  9. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  10. Large bearing operation without retainer. [high speed ball bearings for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, E.

    1978-01-01

    The design and testing of large high-speed ball bearings for space application is described. A well-defined lubrication system to provide oil to both race contacts in zero g allows stable operation without ball retainer.

  11. Identifying Contingency Requirements using Obstacle Analysis on an Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Nelson, Stacy; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Frost, Chad R.; Tal, Doron

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes experience using Obstacle Analysis to identify contingency requirements on an unpiloted aerial vehicle. A contingency is an operational anomaly, and may or may not involve component failure. The challenges to this effort were: ( I ) rapid evolution of the system while operational, (2) incremental autonomy as capabilities were transferred from ground control to software control and (3) the eventual safety-criticality of such systems as they begin to fly over populated areas. The results reported here are preliminary but show that Obstacle Analysis helped (1) identify new contingencies that appeared as autonomy increased; (2) identify new alternatives for handling both previously known and new contingencies; and (3) investigate the continued validity of existing software requirements for contingency handling. Since many mobile, intelligent systems are built using a development process that poses the same challenges, the results appear to have applicability to other similar systems.

  12. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the early morning, flocks of birds soar over the Banana River, whose waters reflect the Vehicle Assembly Building , bathed in a pink glow from post-dawn light. Next to the VAB, on the left, is the Launch Control Center. The rectangular building closer to the water at left is the Operations Support Building. At right is the Rotation/Processing Facility. The birds are a common sight at KSC since the Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  13. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  14. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  15. A Mission Management Application Suite for Airborne Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, H. M.; Meyer, P. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Regner, K.; Hall, J.; He, M.; Conover, H.; Garrett, M.; Harper, J.; Smith, T.; Grewe, A.; Real Time Mission Monitor Team

    2011-12-01

    Collection of data during airborne field campaigns is a critically important endeavor. It is imperative to observe the correct phenomena at the right time - at the right place to maximize the instrument observations. Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have developed an application suite known as the Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM). This suite is comprised of tools for mission design, flight planning, aircraft visualization and tracking. The mission design tool allows scientists to set mission parameters such as geographic boundaries and dates of the campaign. Based on these criteria, the tool intelligently selects potential data sets from a data resources catalog from which the scientist is able to choose the aircraft, instruments, and ancillary Earth science data sets to be provided for use in the remaining tool suite. The scientists can easily reconfigure and add data sets of their choosing for use during the campaign. The flight planning tool permits the scientist to assemble aircraft flight plans and to plan coincident observations with other aircraft, spacecraft or in situ observations. Satellite and ground-based remote sensing data and modeling data are used as background layers to aid the scientist in the flight planning process. Planning is crucial to successful collection of data and the ability to modify the plan and upload to aircraft navigators and pilots is essential for the agile collection of data. Most critical to successful and cost effective collection of data is the capability to visualize the Earth science data (airborne instruments, radiosondes, radar, dropsondes, etc.) and track the aircraft in real time. In some instances, aircraft instrument data is provided to ground support personnel in near-real time to visualize with the flight track. This visualization and tracking aspect of RTMM provides a decision support capability in conjunction with scientific collaboration portals to allow for scientists on the ground to communicate

  16. Acid-soluble magnesia cement; New applications in completion and workover operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatman, R.E.; Scoggins, W.C. )

    1990-11-01

    Acid-soluble magnesia cement (MC) was used in production zones to plug perforations temporarily to reduce brine losses during completion and workover operations. This has resulted in substantial savings for operators. The cement has also been used to reduce potential formation damage. This paper describes some of the characteristics of the cement, field applications, and results.

  17. 76 FR 50766 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Issuance of Amendment published in the Federal Register on December 28, 2010 (75 FR 81673). However, by... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (the licensee) to withdraw its September 22,...

  18. 75 FR 52786 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 26, 2010 (75 FR 4121). However, by letter dated August 10, 2010... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... granted the request of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (the licensee) to withdraw its...

  19. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  20. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  1. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  2. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  3. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  4. 76 FR 11822 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation...

  5. 76 FR 13241 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation...

  6. Wildlife Multispecies Remote Sensing Using Visible and Thermal Infrared Imagery Acquired from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, L.-P.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Wildlife aerial surveys require time and significant resources. Multispecies detection could reduce costs to a single census for species that coexist spatially. Traditional methods are demanding for observers in terms of concentration and are not adapted to multispecies censuses. The processing of multispectral aerial imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) represents a potential solution for multispecies detection. The method used in this study is based on a multicriteria object-based image analysis applied on visible and thermal infrared imagery acquired from a UAV. This project aimed to detect American bison, fallow deer, gray wolves, and elks located in separate enclosures with a known number of individuals. Results showed that all bison and elks were detected without errors, while for deer and wolves, 0-2 individuals per flight line were mistaken with ground elements or undetected. This approach also detected simultaneously and separately the four targeted species even in the presence of other untargeted ones. These results confirm the potential of multispectral imagery acquired from UAV for wildlife census. Its operational application remains limited to small areas related to the current regulations and available technology. Standardization of the workflow will help to reduce time and expertise requirements for such technology.

  7. Performance assessments of Android-powered military applications operating on tactical handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Brian A.; Fronczek, Lisa; Morse, Emile; Kootbally, Zeid; Schlenoff, Craig

    2013-05-01

    Transformative Apps (TransApps) is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded program whose goal is to develop a range of militarily-relevant software applications ("apps") to enhance the operational-effectiveness of military personnel on (and off) the battlefield. TransApps is also developing a military apps marketplace to facilitate rapid development and dissemination of applications to address user needs by connecting engaged communities of endusers with development groups. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) role in the TransApps program is to design and implement evaluation procedures to assess the performance of: 1) the various software applications, 2) software-hardware interactions, and 3) the supporting online application marketplace. Specifically, NIST is responsible for evaluating 50+ tactically-relevant applications operating on numerous Android™-powered platforms. NIST efforts include functional regression testing and quantitative performance testing. This paper discusses the evaluation methodologies employed to assess the performance of three key program elements: 1) handheld-based applications and their integration with various hardware platforms, 2) client-based applications and 3) network technologies operating on both the handheld and client systems along with their integration into the application marketplace. Handheld-based applications are assessed using a combination of utility and usability-based checklists and quantitative performance tests. Client-based applications are assessed to replicate current overseas disconnected (i.e. no network connectivity between handhelds) operations and to assess connected operations envisioned for later use. Finally, networked applications are assessed on handhelds to establish baselines of performance for when connectivity will be common usage.

  8. System Analysis Applied to Autonomy: Application to High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Maturation of intelligent systems technologies and their incorporation into aerial platforms are dictating the development of new analysis tools and incorporation of such tools into existing system analysis methodologies in order to fully capture the trade-offs of autonomy on vehicle and mission success. A first-order "system analysis of autonomy" methodology is outlined in this paper. Further, this analysis methodology is subsequently applied to notional high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aerial vehicle missions.

  9. Potential applications of expert systems and operations research to space station logistics functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippiatt, Thomas F.; Waterman, Donald

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of operations research, artificial intelligence, and expert systems to logistics problems for the space station were assessed. Promising application areas were identified for space station logistics. A needs assessment is presented and a specific course of action in each area is suggested.

  10. 27 CFR 71.49a - Applications for operating permits and industrial use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permits and industrial use permits. 71.49a Section 71.49a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... and industrial use permits. If, on examination of an application for an operating permit or an industrial use permit, the appropriate TTB officer has reason to believe: (a) In case of an application...

  11. 27 CFR 71.49a - Applications for operating permits and industrial use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... permits and industrial use permits. 71.49a Section 71.49a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... and industrial use permits. If, on examination of an application for an operating permit or an industrial use permit, the appropriate TTB officer has reason to believe: (a) In case of an application...

  12. 27 CFR 71.49a - Applications for operating permits and industrial use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... permits and industrial use permits. 71.49a Section 71.49a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... and industrial use permits. If, on examination of an application for an operating permit or an industrial use permit, the appropriate TTB officer has reason to believe: (a) In case of an application...

  13. 27 CFR 71.49a - Applications for operating permits and industrial use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... permits and industrial use permits. 71.49a Section 71.49a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... and industrial use permits. If, on examination of an application for an operating permit or an industrial use permit, the appropriate TTB officer has reason to believe: (a) In case of an application...

  14. 27 CFR 71.49a - Applications for operating permits and industrial use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... permits and industrial use permits. 71.49a Section 71.49a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... and industrial use permits. If, on examination of an application for an operating permit or an industrial use permit, the appropriate TTB officer has reason to believe: (a) In case of an application...

  15. 12 CFR 7.4009 - Applicability of state law to national bank operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal law, including conducting any activity that is part of, or incidental to, the business of banking... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of state law to national bank... BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Preemption § 7.4009 Applicability of state law to national...

  16. Meteorological and Aerosol Sensing with small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, J.; Möhler, O.; Haunold, W.; Schrod, J.; Brooks, I.; Norris, S.; Brooks, B.; Hill, M.; Leisner, T.

    2012-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) facilitate the monitoring of several meteorological and aerosol parameters with high resolution in space and time. They are small, easy to operate, cost efficient and allow for flexible application during field campaigns. We present two experimental payloads for measurement of relative humidity, temperature, aerosol size distribution and the collection of aerosol samples on board the small UAS SIRIUS II. The payload modules are light weight (<1kg) and can be easily switched between two flights. All sensors can be controlled from the ground and the measured data is recorded by the autopilot together with the position data. The first module contains a sensor package for measurement of relative humidity and temperature and the Compact Lightweight Aerosol Spectrometer Prope (CLASP) for acquisition of aerosol size distributions. CLASP measures aerosol particles with diameters from 0.12μm to 9.25μm in up to 32 channels at a frequency of 10 Hz. The second module also contains a humidity and temperature sensor package and the aerosol sample collection device. The aerosol sampler collects air samples at 2 l/min onto a sample holder. After the flight the ice nuclei on the sample holder are activated in the lab and counted. In August 2012 the complete setup will be used during a measurement campaign at mount "Kleiner Feldberg" close to Frankfurt. Until then we will perform test flights and additional laboratory tests.

  17. Coastline Extraction from Aerial Images Based on Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paravolidakis, V.; Moirogiorgou, K.; Ragia, L.; Zervakis, M.; Synolakis, C.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays coastline extraction and tracking of its changes become of high importance because of the climate change, global warming and rapid growth of human population. Coastal areas play a significant role for the economy of the entire region. In this paper we propose a new methodology for automatic extraction of the coastline using aerial images. A combination of a four step algorithm is used to extract the coastline in a robust and generalizable way. First, noise distortion is reduced in order to ameliorate the input data for the next processing steps. Then, the image is segmented into two regions, land and sea, through the application of a local threshold to create the binary image. The result is further processed by morphological operators with the aim that small objects are being eliminated and only the objects of interest are preserved. Finally, we perform edge detection and active contours fitting in order to extract and model the coastline. These algorithmic steps are illustrated through examples, which demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  18. Real time target allocation in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudleppanavar, Ganesh

    The prolific development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) in recent years has the potential to provide tremendous advantages in military, commercial and law enforcement applications. While safety and performance take precedence in the development lifecycle, autonomous operations and, in particular, cooperative missions have the ability to significantly enhance the usability of these vehicles. The success of cooperative missions relies on the optimal allocation of targets while taking into consideration the resource limitation of each vehicle. The task allocation process can be centralized or decentralized. This effort presents the development of a real time target allocation algorithm that considers available stored energy in each vehicle while minimizing the communication between each UAV. The algorithm utilizes a nearest neighbor search algorithm to locate new targets with respect to existing targets. Simulations show that this novel algorithm compares favorably to the mixed integer linear programming method, which is computationally more expensive. The implementation of this algorithm on Arduino and Xbee wireless modules shows the capability of the algorithm to execute efficiently on hardware with minimum computation complexity.

  19. Application of LBB to high energy piping systems in operating PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amendment to General Design Criterion 4 allows exclusion, from the design basis, of dynamic effects associated with high energy pipe rupture by application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology. This new approach has resulted in substantial financial savings to utilities when applied to the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary loop piping and auxiliary piping systems made of stainless steel material. To date majority of applications pertain to piping systems in operating plants. Various steps of evaluation associated with the LBB application to an operating plant are described in this paper.

  20. 77 FR 50541 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to Facility Operating License AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License amendment application... of STP Nuclear Operating Company (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated June 2, 2011...

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  2. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  3. Normal forms of an abstract Dirac operator and applications to scattering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Bernd

    1988-01-01

    The unitary transformations which convert an abstract Dirac operator into an ``even'' (resp. ``odd'') operator are determined. The problem is formulated and solved completely within the general setup of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. This leads to some apparently new applications in relativistic quantum mechanics, where the transformations are known as the Foldy-Wouthuysen (resp. Cini-Touschek) transformations. The scattering theory for abstract Dirac operators is discussed and the utility of the general theory is illustrated by proving existence of relativistic Mo/ller operators for scattering from long-range magnetic fields.

  4. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  5. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & RELOCATED ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This is an aerial view of KSC's Visitors Information Center, origination point of guided bus tours of KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. More than one million visitors a year take advantage of the public bus tours. In left midground are the new Hall of History and food services building. The bus tours will remain in operation during the U. S. Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology to be held here from May 30 through September 7.

  6. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  7. Application of a Very-Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Consumer Grade Camera for the Collection of Research Grade Data: Preliminary Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, P.; Davis, J. D.; Blesius, L.

    2013-12-01

    The use of UAV technology in the field of geoscience research has grown almost exponentially in the last decade. UAVs have been utilized as a sensor platform in many fields including geology, biology, climatology, geomorphology and archaeology. A UAV's ability to fly frequently, at very low altitude, and at relatively little cost makes them a perfect compromise between free, low temporal and spatial resolution satellite data and terrestrial based survey when there are insufficient funds to purchase custom satellite or manned aircraft data. Unfortunately, many available UAVs for research are still relatively expensive and often have predetermined imaging systems. However, the proliferation of hobbyist grade UAVs and consumer point and shoot cameras may provide many research projects with an alternative that is both cost-effective and efficient in data collection. This study therefore seeks to answer the question, can these very low cost, hobby-grade UAVs be used to produce research grade data. To achieve this end, in December of 2012 a small grant was obtained (<$6500) to set up a complete UAV system and to employ it in a diverse range of research. The system is comprised of a 3D Robotics hexacopter, Ardupilot automated flight hardware and software, spare parts and tool kit, two Canon point-and-shoot cameras including one modified for near infrared imagery, and a field laptop. To date, successful research flights have been flown for geomorphic research in degraded and restored montane meadows to study stream channel formation using both visible and near infrared imagery as well as for the creation of digital elevation models of large hillslope gullies using structure from motion (SFM). Other applications for the hexacopter, in progress or planned, include landslide monitoring, vegetation monitoring and mapping using the normalized difference vegetation index, archaeological survey, and bird nest identification on small rock islands. An analysis of the results

  8. Aerial surveillance based on hierarchical object classification for ground target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Cervantes, Alberto; García-Huerta, Juan-Manuel; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Soto-Cajiga, J. A.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have turned important in surveillance application due to the flexibility and ability to inspect and displace in different regions of interest. The instrumentation and autonomy of these vehicles have been increased; i.e. the camera sensor is now integrated. Mounted cameras allow flexibility to monitor several regions of interest, displacing and changing the camera view. A well common task performed by this kind of vehicles correspond to object localization and tracking. This work presents a hierarchical novel algorithm to detect and locate objects. The algorithm is based on a detection-by-example approach; this is, the target evidence is provided at the beginning of the vehicle's route. Afterwards, the vehicle inspects the scenario, detecting all similar objects through UTM-GPS coordinate references. Detection process consists on a sampling information process of the target object. Sampling process encode in a hierarchical tree with different sampling's densities. Coding space correspond to a huge binary space dimension. Properties such as independence and associative operators are defined in this space to construct a relation between the target object and a set of selected features. Different densities of sampling are used to discriminate from general to particular features that correspond to the target. The hierarchy is used as a way to adapt the complexity of the algorithm due to optimized battery duty cycle of the aerial device. Finally, this approach is tested in several outdoors scenarios, proving that the hierarchical algorithm works efficiently under several conditions.

  9. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  10. Biologically Inspired Behavioral Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Explorers on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg; Lau, Benton; Young, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural world is a rich source of problem- solving approaches. This paper discusses the feasibility and technical challenges underlying mimicking, or analogously adapting, biological behavioral strategies to mission/flight planning for aerial vehicles engaged in planetary exploration. Two candidate concepts based on natural resource utilization and searching behaviors are adapted io technological applications. Prototypes and test missions addressing the difficulties of implementation and their solutions are also described.

  11. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1995-11-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy we analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. in extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  12. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1996-10-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy analyzed uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  13. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1996-11-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up, and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy the authors analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  14. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology1

    PubMed Central

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Weinstein, Ben G.; Grasty, Monica R.; Kohrn, Brendan F.; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C.; Arredondo, Tina M.; Thompson, Pamela G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro–unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Methods: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. Results: We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. Discussion: The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology. PMID:27672518

  15. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology1

    PubMed Central

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Weinstein, Ben G.; Grasty, Monica R.; Kohrn, Brendan F.; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C.; Arredondo, Tina M.; Thompson, Pamela G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro–unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Methods: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. Results: We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. Discussion: The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology.

  16. Measurement Capabilities of the DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Kluzek, C. D.; Chand, D.; Pekour, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites in three important climatic regimes that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties. ARM also operates mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months) to investigate understudied climate regimes around the globe. Finally, airborne observations by ARM's Aerial Facility (AAF) enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval algorithm development, and model evaluation that is not possible using ground-based techniques. AAF started out in 2007 as a "virtual hangar" with no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments owned by ARM. In this mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, the Battelle owned G-1 aircraft was included in the ARM facility. The G-1 is a large twin turboprop aircraft, capable of measurements up to altitudes of 7.5 km and a range of 2,800 kilometers. Furthermore the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of seventeen new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also heavily engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments. In the presentation we will showcase science applications based on measurements from recent field campaigns such as CARES, CALWATER and TCAP.

  17. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  1. Aerial shaking performance of wet Anna's hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-05-01

    External wetting poses problems of immediate heat loss and long-term pathogen growth for vertebrates. Beyond these risks, the locomotor ability of smaller animals, and particularly of fliers, may be impaired by water adhering to the body. Here, we report on the remarkable ability of hummingbirds to perform rapid shakes in order to expel water from their plumage even while in flight. Kinematic performance of aerial versus non-aerial shakes (i.e. those performed while perching) was compared. Oscillation frequencies of the head, body and tail were lower in aerial shakes. Tangential speeds and accelerations of the trunk and tail were roughly similar in aerial and non-aerial shakes, but values for head motions while perching were twice as high when compared with aerial shakes [corrected] . Azimuthal angular amplitudes for both aerial and non-aerial shakes reached values greater than 180° for the head, greater than 45° for the body trunk and slightly greater than 90° for the tail and wings. Using a feather on an oscillating disc to mimic shaking motions, we found that bending increased average speeds by up to 36 per cent and accelerations of the feather tip up to fourfold relative to a hypothetical rigid feather. Feather flexibility may help to enhance shedding of water and reduce body oscillations during shaking.

  2. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  3. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire....

  4. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  5. Operator Reflection Positivity Inequalities and their Applications to Interacting Quantum Rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkiewicz, Jacek; Pusz, Wiesław; Stachura, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In the Reflection Positivity theory and its application to statistical mechanical systems, certain matrix inequalities play a central role. The Dyson-Lieb-Simon [1] and Kennedy-Lieb-Shastry [2] inequalities constitute prominent examples. In this paper we extend the KLS inequality to the case where matrices are replaced by certain operators. As an application, we prove the occurrence of the long-range order in the ground state of two-dimensional quantum rotors.

  6. Catalytic pressurization of liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachman, Jacob; Street, Melissa Jean; Graham, Teira

    2012-06-01

    As the use and applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) expand, the need for a lighter weight fuel allowing for longer duration flights has become the primary limiting factor in the advancement of these vehicles. To extend the operational envelope of UAV, onboard condensed hydrogen storage for missions exceeding one week is necessary. Currently, large spherical liquid hydrogen tanks that are pressurized with external helium tanks or electronic heating elements are utilized for this purpose. However, the mass, size, and power consumption of the fuel storage tank and fuel pressurization system significantly limit the flight envelope of UAV. In an effort to alleviate these issues, this paper investigates the technological feasibility of orthohydrogen-parahydrogen catalysis as a method of fuel pressurization. Typical pressurization requirements for takeoff, cruise, and landing are reviewed. Calculations of the catalyst system mass and response time are presented.

  7. Studies on an aerial propellant transfer space plane (APTSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayan, N.; Biju Kumar, K. S.; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Kashyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Venkatraman, Kartik; Mathew, Joseph; Mukunda, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a study of a fully reusable earth-to-orbit launch vehicle concept with horizontal take-off and landing, employing a turbojet engine for low speed, and a rocket for high-speed acceleration and space operations. This concept uses existing technology to the maximum possible extent, thereby reducing development time, cost and effort. It uses the experience in aerial filling of military aircrafts for propellant filling at an altitude of 13 km at a flight speed of M=0.85. Aerial filling of propellant reduces the take-off weight significantly thereby minimizing the structural weight of the vehicle. The vehicle takes off horizontally and uses turbojet engines till the end of the propellant filling operation. The rocket engines provide thrust for the next phase till the injection of a satellite at LEO. A sensitivity analysis of the mission with respect to rocket engine specific impulse and overall vehicle structural factor is also presented in this paper. A conceptual design of space plane with a payload capability of 10 ton to LEO is carried out. The study shows that the realization of an aerial propellant transfer space plane is possible with limited development of new technology thus reducing the demands on the finances required for achieving the objectives.

  8. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  9. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  10. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  11. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  12. A Comparison of Platforms for the Aerial Exploration of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Levine, Joel S.

    2005-01-01

    Exploration of Titan, envisioned as a follow-on to the highly successful Cassini-Huygens mission, is described in this paper. A mission blending measurements from a dedicated orbiter and an in-situ aerial explorer is discussed. Summary description of the science rationale and the mission architecture, including the orbiter, is provided. The mission has been sized to ensure it can be accommodated on an existing expendable heavy-lift launch vehicle. A launch to Titan in 2018 with a 6-year time of flight to Titan using a combination of Solar Electric Propulsion and aeroassist (direct entry and aerocapture) forms the basic mission architecture. A detailed assessment of different platforms for aerial exploration of Titan has been performed. A rationale for the selection of the airship as the baseline platform is provided. Detailed description of the airship, its subsystems, and its operational strategies are provided.

  13. Space Environments and Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Spann, James; Burns, Howard D.; Schumacher, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous offices specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline offices, a concept focusing on the development of space environment and effects application is presented. This includes space climate, space weather, and natural and induced space environments. This space environment and effects application is composed of 4 topic areas; characterization and modeling, engineering effects, prediction and operation, and mitigation and avoidance. These topic areas are briefly described below. Characterization and modeling of space environments will primarily focus on utilization during Program mission concept, planning, and design phases. Engineering effects includes materials testing and flight experiments producing data to be used in mission planning and design phases. Prediction and operation pulls data from existing sources into decision-making tools and empirical data sets to be used during the operational phase of a mission. Mitigation and avoidance will develop techniques and strategies used in the design and operations phases of the mission. The goal of this space environment and effects application is to develop decision-making tools and engineering products to support the mission phases of mission concept through operations by focusing on transitioning research to operations. Products generated by this space environments and effects application are suitable for use in anomaly investigations. This paper will outline the four topic areas, describe the need, and discuss an organizational structure for this space environments and effects

  14. Dermal & inhalation exposure of operators during fungicide application in vineyards. Evaluation of coverall performance.

    PubMed

    Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Charistou, Agathi N; Arapaki, Niki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Tsakalof, Andreas; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-02-01

    In the present study the dermal and the inhalation exposure of five operators during fungicide applications in vineyards were determined. The produced exposure datasets can be used as surrogate for the estimation of the actual and the potential dermal as well as inhalation operator exposure levels for this application scenario. The dermal exposure was measured using the whole body dosimetry method while the inhalation exposure with the use of personal air sampling devices with XAD tubes located on the operator's breathing zone. Ten field trials were carried out by 5 different operators using a tractor assisted hand-held lance with spray gun at the Tanagra region of Viotia, Greece. An in-house GC-ECD analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of penconazole, which was the active substance (a.s.) of the fungicide formulation used in field trials. The mean recovery of field-fortified samples was 81%. The operator exposure results showed expected variability and were compared to those derived from the German model for prediction of operator exposure. The comparison of the 75th percentile values for an operator wearing personal protection equipment has shown that the measured levels were 2.2 times lower than those estimated by the German model. The levels of actual dermal exposure ranged from 2 to 19 mg/kg a.s. applied. The protection provided by the two types of coveralls was evaluated and in comparison to the existing reduction factors used for other types of PPE (coveralls) was found satisfactory for the operator under the conditions of the specific applications. PMID:24140699

  15. Dermal & inhalation exposure of operators during fungicide application in vineyards. Evaluation of coverall performance.

    PubMed

    Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Charistou, Agathi N; Arapaki, Niki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Tsakalof, Andreas; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-02-01

    In the present study the dermal and the inhalation exposure of five operators during fungicide applications in vineyards were determined. The produced exposure datasets can be used as surrogate for the estimation of the actual and the potential dermal as well as inhalation operator exposure levels for this application scenario. The dermal exposure was measured using the whole body dosimetry method while the inhalation exposure with the use of personal air sampling devices with XAD tubes located on the operator's breathing zone. Ten field trials were carried out by 5 different operators using a tractor assisted hand-held lance with spray gun at the Tanagra region of Viotia, Greece. An in-house GC-ECD analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of penconazole, which was the active substance (a.s.) of the fungicide formulation used in field trials. The mean recovery of field-fortified samples was 81%. The operator exposure results showed expected variability and were compared to those derived from the German model for prediction of operator exposure. The comparison of the 75th percentile values for an operator wearing personal protection equipment has shown that the measured levels were 2.2 times lower than those estimated by the German model. The levels of actual dermal exposure ranged from 2 to 19 mg/kg a.s. applied. The protection provided by the two types of coveralls was evaluated and in comparison to the existing reduction factors used for other types of PPE (coveralls) was found satisfactory for the operator under the conditions of the specific applications.

  16. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    PubMed

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots. PMID:24615533

  17. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    PubMed

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots.

  18. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  19. 24. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN 1974. BY 1968, BUILDING 771 WAS OUTMODED AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES HAD BEEN DEVELOPED FOR PLUTONIUM RECOVERY. AS A RESULT, A NEW RECOVERY BUILDING, BUILDING 371 WAS PLANNED. BUILDING 371 SUFFERED FROM VARIOUS DESIGN PROBLEMS, WHICH PREVENTED ITS OPENING UNTIL 1981 AND CAUSED TERMINATION OF RECOVERY OPERATIONS IN 1986. IT NEVER BECAME FULLY OPERATIONAL. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 371, IS THE 700 BUILDING COMPLEX (4/74). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. An Operational Safety and Certification Assessment of a TASAR EFB Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Stefan; Wing, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Electronic Flight Bag application intended to inform the pilot of trajectory improvement opportunities while en route that result in operational benefits. The results of safety analyses and a detailed review of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulatory documents that establish certification and operational approval requirements are presented for TASAR. The safety analyses indicate that TASAR has a likely Failure Effects Classification of “No Effect,” and at most, is no worse than “Minor Effect.” Based on this safety assessment and the detailed review of FAA regulatory documents that determine certification and operational approval requirements, this study concludes that TASAR can be implemented in the flight deck as a Type B software application hosted on a Class 2 Portable Electronic Device (PED) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). This implementation approach would provide a relatively low-cost path to certification and operational approval for both retrofit and forward fit implementation, while at the same time facilitating the business case for early ADS-B IN equipage. A preliminary review by FAA certification and operational approvers of the analyses presented here confirmed that the conclusions are appropriate and that TASAR will be considered a Type B application.

  1. The Application of Operant Principles to Mentally Retarded Children. (RIEEC Research Bulletin 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru

    Presented are six case studies demonstrating the application of operant conditioning principles to teaching self-care skills and modifying deviant behavior in six moderately to profoundly retarded children 5- to 15-years-old in Japan. Included in the case histories, such as that of a moderately retarded 12-year-old who was toilet trained, are…

  2. Fifth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1991), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers given at the Space Operations and Applications Symposium, host by the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 9-11, 1991 are given. The technical areas covered included intelligent systems, automation and robotics, human factors and life sciences, and environmental interactions.

  3. 14 CFR 331.25 - To what address must operators or providers send their applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false To what address must operators or providers send their applications? 331.25 Section 331.25 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... Transportation, Office of Aviation Analysis (X-50)Aviation Relief Desk, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE.,...

  4. 76 FR 37309 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Application for Exemption From the Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ...)(6) as currently written could impede the interstate transport of natural gas transit buses and place... Operation; Application for Exemption From the Natural Gas Vehicles for America AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... natural gas vehicles that do not restrict the location of such fuel systems. NGVAmerica plans to file...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance test. 2. Carbon adsorber (regenerative) to which puncture sealant application spray booth emissions are ducted a. Maintain the total regeneration mass, volumetric flow, and carbon bed temperature at the operating range established during the performance test.b. Reestablish the carbon bed...

  6. An investigation of potential applications of OP-SAPS: Operational Sampled Analog Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, E. A.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    The application of OP-SAP's (operational sampled analog processors) in pattern recognition system is summarized. Areas investigated include: (1) human face recognition; (2) a high-speed programmable transversal filter system; (3) discrete word (speech) recognition; and (4) a resolution enhancement system.

  7. 20 CFR 726.104 - Action by the Office upon application of operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action by the Office upon application of operator. 726.104 Section 726.104 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  8. 20 CFR 726.104 - Action by the Office upon application of operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Action by the Office upon application of operator. 726.104 Section 726.104 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  9. 20 CFR 726.104 - Action by the Office upon application of operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Action by the Office upon application of operator. 726.104 Section 726.104 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  10. 75 FR 30440 - Biweekly Notice: Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... (75 FR 27825). Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses... that a genuine dispute exists with the applicant on a material issue of law or fact. Contentions shall... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process...

  11. 75 FR 37471 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 33839). Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses... include sufficient information to show that a genuine dispute exists with the applicant on a material... be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The...

  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test. 2. Carbon adsorber (regenerative) to which puncture sealant application spray booth emissions are ducted a. Maintain the total regeneration mass, volumetric flow, and carbon bed temperature at the operating range established during the performance test.b. Reestablish the carbon bed...

  13. 75 FR 57299 - First Energy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Reactor designed by Babcock & Wilcox that is located near Toledo, Ohio. The acceptability of the tendered... addition, the application is available at http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/licensing/renewal... Commission. Louise Lund, (A) Deputy Director, Division of License Renewal, Office of Nuclear...

  14. Learning Scene Categories from High Resolution Satellite Image for Aerial Video Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic scene categorization can benefit various aerial video processing applications. This paper addresses the problem of predicting the scene category from aerial video frames using a prior model learned from satellite imagery. We show that local and global features in the form of line statistics and 2-D power spectrum parameters respectively can characterize the aerial scene well. The line feature statistics and spatial frequency parameters are useful cues to distinguish between different urban scene categories. We learn the scene prediction model from highresolution satellite imagery to test the model on the Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (CSUAV) dataset ollected by high-altitude wide area UAV sensor platform. e compare the proposed features with the popular Scale nvariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features. Our experimental results show that proposed approach outperforms te SIFT model when the training and testing are conducted n disparate data sources.

  15. The future of structural fieldwork - UAV assisted aerial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, are opening new and low cost possibilities to acquire high-resolution aerial images and digital surface models (DSM) for applications in structural geology. UAVs can be programmed to fly autonomously along a user defined grid to systematically capture high-resolution photographs, even in difficult to access areas. The photographs are subsequently processed using software that employ SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) and SFM (structure from motion) algorithms. These photogrammetric routines allow the extraction of spatial information (3D point clouds, digital elevation models, 3D meshes, orthophotos) from 2D images. Depending on flight altitude and camera setup, sub-centimeter spatial resolutions can be achieved. By "digitally mapping" georeferenced 3D models and images, orientation data can be extracted directly and used to analyse the structural framework of the mapped object or area. We present UAV assisted aerial mapping results from a coastal platform near Cape Liptrap (Victoria, Australia), where deformed metasediments of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt are exposed. We also show how orientation and spatial information of brittle and ductile structures extracted from the photogrammetric model can be linked to the progressive development of folds and faults in the region. Even though there are both technical and legislative limitations, which might prohibit the use of UAVs without prior commercial licensing and training, the benefits that arise from the resulting high-resolution, photorealistic models can substantially contribute to the collection of new data and insights for applications in structural geology.

  16. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot.

    PubMed

    Clotet, Eduard; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Palacín, Jordi

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot.

  17. Rationale, Scenarios, and Profiles for the Application of the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS) in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benbenek, Daniel B.; Walsh, William

    2010-01-01

    This greenbook captures some of the current, planned and possible future uses of the Internet Protocol (IP) as part of Space Operations. It attempts to describe how the Internet Protocol is used in specific scenarios. Of primary focus is low-earth-orbit space operations, which is referred to here as the design reference mission (DRM). This is because most of the program experience drawn upon derives from this type of mission. Application profiles are provided. This includes parameter settings programs have proposed for sending IP datagrams over CCSDS links, the minimal subsets and features of the IP protocol suite and applications expected for interoperability between projects, and the configuration, operations and maintenance of these IP functions. Of special interest is capturing the lessons learned from the Constellation Program in this area, since that program included a fairly ambitious use of the Internet Protocol.

  18. GIS for mapping waterfowl density and distribution from aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Stehn, R.A.; Balogh, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  19. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  20. Whitecap coverage from aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    A program for determining the feasibility of deriving sea surface wind speeds by remotely sensing ocean surface radiances in the nonglitter regions is discussed. With a knowledge of the duration and geographical extent of the wind field, information about the conventional sea state may be derived. The use of optical techniques for determining sea state has obvious limitations. For example, such means can be used only in daylight and only when a clear path of sight is available between the sensor and the surface. However, sensors and vehicles capable of providing the data needed for such techniques are planned for the near future; therefore, a secondary or backup capability can be provided with little added effort. The information currently being sought regarding white water coverage is also of direct interest to those working with passive microwave systems, the study of energy transfer between winds and ocean currents, the aerial estimation of wind speeds, and many others.

  1. General Purpose Data-Driven Online System Health Monitoring with Applications to Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Schwabacher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Modern space transportation and ground support system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using traditional parameter limit checking, or model-based or rule-based methods is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grows. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults, failures, or precursors of significant failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a general purpose, data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications and is under evaluation for anomaly detection in vehicle and ground equipment for next generation launch systems. After an introduction to IMS application development, we discuss these NASA online monitoring applications, including the integration of IMS with complementary model-based and rule-based methods. Although the examples presented in this paper are from space operations applications, IMS is a general-purpose health-monitoring tool that is also applicable to power generation and transmission system monitoring.

  2. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  3. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  4. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  5. Low-cost Tools for Aerial Video Geolocation and Air Traffic Analysis for Delay Reduction Using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterlind, V.; Pledgie, S.

    2009-12-01

    Low-cost, low-latency, robust geolocation and display of aerial video is a common need for a wide range of earth observing as well as emergency response and security applications. While hardware costs for aerial video collection systems, GPS, and inertial sensors have been decreasing, software costs for geolocation algorithms and reference imagery/DTED remain expensive and highly proprietary. As part of a Federal Small Business Innovative Research project, MosaicATM and EarthNC, Inc have developed a simple geolocation system based on the Google Earth API and Google's 'built-in' DTED and reference imagery libraries. This system geolocates aerial video based on platform and camera position, attitude, and field-of-view metadata using geometric photogrammetric principles of ray-intersection with DTED. Geolocated video can be directly rectified and viewed in the Google Earth API during processing. Work is underway to extend our geolocation code to NASA World Wind for additional flexibility and a fully open-source platform. In addition to our airborne remote sensing work, MosaicATM has developed the Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool, funded by NASA Ames, which supports analysis of airport surface operations to optimize aircraft movements and reduce fuel burn and delays. As part of SODAA, MosaicATM and EarthNC, Inc have developed powerful tools to display national airspace data and time-animated 3D flight tracks in Google Earth for 4D analysis. The SODAA tool can convert raw format flight track data, FAA National Flight Data (NFD), and FAA 'Adaptation' airport surface data to a spatial database representation and then to Google Earth KML. The SODAA client provides users with a simple graphical interface through which to generate queries with a wide range of predefined and custom filters, plot results, and export for playback in Google Earth in conjunction with NFD and Adaptation overlays.

  6. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  7. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  8. Automated Aerial Refueling Hitches a Ride on AFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Bever, Glenn; Campos, Norma V.; Schkolnik, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of uninhabited aerial vehicles [UAVs (basically, remotely piloted or autonomous aircraft)] has spawned new developments in autonomous operation and posed new challenges. Automated aerial refueling (AAR) is a capability that will enable UAVs to travel greater distances and loiter longer over targets. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR), the Naval Air Force Pacific Fleet, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, rapidly conceived and accomplished an AAR flight research project focused on collecting a unique, high-quality database on the dynamics of the hose and drogue of an aerial refueling system. This flight-derived database would be used to validate mathematical models of the dynamics in support of design and analysis of AAR systems for future UAVs. The project involved the use of two Dryden F/A-18 airplanes and an S-3 hose-drogue refueling store on loan from the Navy. In this year-long project, which was started on October 1, 2002, 583 research maneuvers were completed during 23 flights.

  9. Neural dynamic optimization for autonomous aerial vehicle trajectory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Verma, Ajay; Mayer, Richard J.

    2007-04-01

    Online aerial vehicle trajectory design and reshaping are crucial for a class of autonomous aerial vehicles such as reusable launch vehicles in order to achieve flexibility in real-time flying operations. An aerial vehicle is modeled as a nonlinear multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system. The inputs include the control parameters and current system states that include velocity and position coordinates of the vehicle. The outputs are the new system states. An ideal trajectory control design system generates a series of control commands to achieve a desired trajectory under various disturbances and vehicle model uncertainties including aerodynamic perturbations caused by geometric damage to the vehicle. Conventional approaches suffer from the nonlinearity of the MIMO system, and the high-dimensionality of the system state space. In this paper, we apply a Neural Dynamic Optimization (NDO) based approach to overcome these difficulties. The core of an NDO model is a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network, which generates the control parameters online. The inputs of the MLP are the time-variant states of the MIMO systems. The outputs of the MLP and the control parameters will be used by the MIMO to generate new system states. By such a formulation, an NDO model approximates the time-varying optimal feedback solution.

  10. Geometric Calibration and Validation of Ultracam Aerial Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Michael; Schachinger, Bernhard; Muick, Marc; Neuner, Christian; Tschemmernegg, Helfried

    2016-03-01

    We present details of the calibration and validation procedure of UltraCam Aerial Camera systems. Results from the laboratory calibration and from validation flights are presented for both, the large format nadir cameras and the oblique cameras as well. Thus in this contribution we show results from the UltraCam Eagle and the UltraCam Falcon, both nadir mapping cameras, and the UltraCam Osprey, our oblique camera system. This sensor offers a mapping grade nadir component together with the four oblique camera heads. The geometric processing after the flight mission is being covered by the UltraMap software product. Thus we present details about the workflow as well. The first part consists of the initial post-processing which combines image information as well as camera parameters derived from the laboratory calibration. The second part, the traditional automated aerial triangulation (AAT) is the step from single images to blocks and enables an additional optimization process. We also present some special features of our software, which are designed to better support the operator to analyze large blocks of aerial images and to judge the quality of the photogrammetric set-up.

  11. Chemical fingerprint and simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum indigenous to China based on HPLC-UV: application of analysis on secondary metabolites accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Cheng, Xuemei; Liu, Wei; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Shan, Meng; Li, Yan; Teng, Liang; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-12-01

    The aerial parts of genus Peganum are officially used in traditional Chinese medicine. The paper aims to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of three alkaloids and two flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum, and to analyze accumulative difference of secondary metabolites in inter-species, individuals of plants, inter-/intra-population and from different growing seasons. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% trifloroacetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase and detected at 265 nm, by conventional methodology validation. For fingerprint analysis, the RSDs of relative retention time and relative peak area of the characteristic peaks were within 0.07-0.78 and 0.94-9.09%, respectively. For simultaneous determination of vasicine, harmaline, harmine, deacetylpeganetin and peganetin, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.9990) within the test range. The relative standard deviations of precision, repeatability and stability test did not exceed 2.37, 2.68 and 2.67%, respectively. The average recoveries for the five analytes were between 96.47 and 101.20%. HPLC fingerprints play a minor role in authenticating and differentiating the herbs of different species of genus Peganum. However, the secondary metabolites levels of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum rely on species-, habitat-, and growth season-dependent accumulation.

  12. In situ applications of a new diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler.

    PubMed

    Weber, Miriam; Faerber, Paul; Meyer, Volker; Lott, Christian; Eickert, Gabriele; Fabricius, Katharina E; De Beer, Dirk

    2007-09-01

    Microsensors are powerful tools for microenvironment studies, however their use has often been restricted to laboratory applications due to the lack of adequate equipment for in situ deployments. Here we report on new features, construction details, and examples of applications of an improved diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler for underwater field operation to a water depth of 25 m. The new motorized profiler has a final precision of 5 microm, and can accommodate amperometric Clark-type microsensors for oxygen and hydrogen sulfide, potentiometric microsensors (e.g., for pH, Ca2+), and fiber-optic irradiance microsensors. The profiler is interfaced by a logger with a signal display, and has pushbuttons for underwater operation. The system can be pre-programmed to autonomous operation or interactively operated by divers. Internal batteries supply power for up to 24 h of measurements and 36 h of data storage (max. 64 million data points). Two flexible stands were developed for deployment on uneven or fragile surfaces, such as coral reefs. Three experimental pilot studies are presented, where (1) the oxygen distribution in a sand ripple was 3-D-mapped, (2) the microenvironment of sediment accumulated on a stony coral was studied, and (3) oxygen dynamics during an experimental sedimentation were investigated. This system allows SCUBA divers to perform a wide array of in situ measurements, with deployment precision and duration similar to those possible in the laboratory.

  13. In situ applications of a new diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler.

    PubMed

    Weber, Miriam; Faerber, Paul; Meyer, Volker; Lott, Christian; Eickert, Gabriele; Fabricius, Katharina E; De Beer, Dirk

    2007-09-01

    Microsensors are powerful tools for microenvironment studies, however their use has often been restricted to laboratory applications due to the lack of adequate equipment for in situ deployments. Here we report on new features, construction details, and examples of applications of an improved diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler for underwater field operation to a water depth of 25 m. The new motorized profiler has a final precision of 5 microm, and can accommodate amperometric Clark-type microsensors for oxygen and hydrogen sulfide, potentiometric microsensors (e.g., for pH, Ca2+), and fiber-optic irradiance microsensors. The profiler is interfaced by a logger with a signal display, and has pushbuttons for underwater operation. The system can be pre-programmed to autonomous operation or interactively operated by divers. Internal batteries supply power for up to 24 h of measurements and 36 h of data storage (max. 64 million data points). Two flexible stands were developed for deployment on uneven or fragile surfaces, such as coral reefs. Three experimental pilot studies are presented, where (1) the oxygen distribution in a sand ripple was 3-D-mapped, (2) the microenvironment of sediment accumulated on a stony coral was studied, and (3) oxygen dynamics during an experimental sedimentation were investigated. This system allows SCUBA divers to perform a wide array of in situ measurements, with deployment precision and duration similar to those possible in the laboratory. PMID:17937304

  14. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  15. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  16. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  17. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  18. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  19. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion. PMID:26548019

  20. Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1993), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications and Research Symposium (SOAR) Symposium hosted by NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) and cosponsored by NASA/JSC and U.S. Air Force Materiel Command. SOAR included NASA and USAF programmatic overviews, plenary session, panel discussions, panel sessions, and exhibits. It invited technical papers in support of U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, Department of Energy, NASA, and USAF programs in the following areas: robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life support, and space maintenance and servicing. SOAR was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations.

  1. Sixth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1992), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications, and Research Symposium (SOAR) hosted by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) on 4-6 Aug. 1992. The symposium was cosponsored by the Air Force Material Command and by NASA/JSC. Key technical areas covered during the symposium were robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life sciences, and space maintenance and servicing. The SOAR differed from most other conferences in that it was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations. Symposium proceedings include papers covering various disciplines presented by experts from NASA, the USAF, universities, and industry.

  2. Using reactor operating experience to improve the design of a new Broad Application Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Drexler, R.L.; Leyse, C.F.

    1993-07-01

    Increasing regulatory demands and effects of plant aging are limiting the operation of existing test reactors. Additionally, these reactors have limited capacities and capabilities for supporting future testing missions. A multidisciplinary team of experts developed sets of preliminary safety requirements, facility user needs, and reactor design concepts for a new Broad Application Test Reactor (BATR). Anticipated missions for the new reactor include fuels and materials irradiation testing, isotope production, space testing, medical research, fusion testing, intense positron research, and transmutation doping. The early BATR design decisions have benefited from operating experiences with existing reactors. This paper discusses these experiences and highlights their significance for the design of a new BATR.

  3. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, J.; Arnold, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States` Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV`s whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, the authors have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible they modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  4. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  5. 14 CFR 91.501 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Ferry or training flights; (2) Aerial work operations such as aerial photography or survey, or pipeline... airplane of an athletic team, sports group, choral group, or similar group having a common purpose...

  6. Implementation of an Error-Reporting Module Within a Biorepository IT Application to Enhance Operations

    PubMed Central

    Washington, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The Collaborative (formerly the Cooperative) Human Tissue Network (CHTN) is a federally funded service oriented grant that provides high-quality biospecimens and services to the research community. The CHTN consists of six institutions located throughout the United States to assist investigators in obtaining research specimens required for basic research. The CHTN divisions have similar operating goals: however, each division is responsible for maintaining operations at their local institutions. This requires the divisions to identify ways to maintain and sustain operations in a challenging federally funded environment, especially when the number of investigators requesting services drives the operation. Sustainability plans and goals are often times patched together out of necessity rather than taking a thoughtful approach by clearly defining and aligning activities with business strategy and priorities. The CHTN Western Division at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (CHTN-WD) has responded to this challenge of biospecimen resource sustainability in the face of diminished funding by continually identifying ways to innovate our processes through IT enhancements and requiring that the innovation produce measurable and relevant criteria for credibly reporting our operations progress and performance issues. With these overarching goals in mind, CHTN-WD underwent a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) series to identify operational inefficiencies that could be addressed with redesigning workflow and innovating the processes using IT solutions. The result of this internal collaborative innovation process was the implementation of an error-reporting module (ERM) hosted within our biorepository donor IT application, which allowed staff to report errors immediately; determine the operational area responsible; assess the severity of the error; determine course of action; determine if standard operating procedure (SOPs) revisions were required; and through automated e-mails, alert the

  7. Implementation of an error-reporting module within a biorepository IT application to enhance operations.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Kerry R; Washington, M K

    2014-12-01

    The Collaborative (formerly the Cooperative) Human Tissue Network (CHTN) is a federally funded service oriented grant that provides high-quality biospecimens and services to the research community. The CHTN consists of six institutions located throughout the United States to assist investigators in obtaining research specimens required for basic research. The CHTN divisions have similar operating goals: however, each division is responsible for maintaining operations at their local institutions. This requires the divisions to identify ways to maintain and sustain operations in a challenging federally funded environment, especially when the number of investigators requesting services drives the operation. Sustainability plans and goals are often times patched together out of necessity rather than taking a thoughtful approach by clearly defining and aligning activities with business strategy and priorities. The CHTN Western Division at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (CHTN-WD) has responded to this challenge of biospecimen resource sustainability in the face of diminished funding by continually identifying ways to innovate our processes through IT enhancements and requiring that the innovation produce measurable and relevant criteria for credibly reporting our operations progress and performance issues. With these overarching goals in mind, CHTN-WD underwent a Lean Six Sigma (LSS) series to identify operational inefficiencies that could be addressed with redesigning workflow and innovating the processes using IT solutions. The result of this internal collaborative innovation process was the implementation of an error-reporting module (ERM) hosted within our biorepository donor IT application, which allowed staff to report errors immediately; determine the operational area responsible; assess the severity of the error; determine course of action; determine if standard operating procedure (SOPs) revisions were required; and through automated e-mails, alert the

  8. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  9. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  10. Oblique Aerial Photography Tool for Building Inspection and Damage Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.

  11. Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.

    2016-06-01

    Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.

  12. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  13. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  14. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-02-11

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology.

  15. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    PubMed Central

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  16. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  17. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W.; Colozza, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  18. Directed aerial robot explorers for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, A. A.; Aaron, K. M.; Heun, M. K.; Nock, K. T.; Schlaifer, R. S.; Wyszkowski, C. J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. The balloons will serve a dual purpose as independent explorers and as microprobe delivery systems for targeted observations. Trajectory control capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons once over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. We report here results of the preliminary analysis of the trajectory control capabilities and potential applications for DARE platforms at Venus, Mars, Titan and Jupiter.

  19. Mars Exploration with Directed Aerial Robot Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankine, Alexey A.; Aaron, Kim M.; Heun, Matthew K.; Nock, Kerry T.; Schlaifer, R. Stephen; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2004-02-01

    Global Aerospace Corporation (GAC) is developing a revolutionary system architecture for exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces from atmospheric altitudes. The work is supported by the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC). The innovative system architecture relies upon the use of Directed Aerial Robot Explorers (DAREs), which essentially are long-duration-flight autonomous balloons with trajectory control capabilities that can deploy swarms of miniature probes over multiple target areas. Balloon guidance capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities in high-resolution, targeted observations of both atmospheric and surface phenomena. Multifunctional microprobes will be deployed from the balloons when over the target areas, and perform a multitude of functions, such as atmospheric profiling or surface exploration, relaying data back to the balloons or an orbiter. This architecture will enable low-cost, low-energy, long-term global exploration of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. A conceptual analysis of DARE capabilities and science applications for Mars is presented. Initial results of simulations indicate that a relatively small trajectory control wing can significantly change planetary balloon flight paths, especially during summer seasons in Polar Regions. This opens new possibilities for high-resolution observations of crustal magnetic anomalies, polar layered terrain, polar clouds, dust storms at the edges of the Polar caps and of seasonal variability of volatiles in the atmosphere.

  20. An application of timed Petri nets to S/C operations analysis: The Aristoteles autonomy concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barro, E.; Rossi, F.

    1990-10-01

    Petri nets as a methodology for the study and analysis of systems behavior are discussed. They can be tailored to timed approaches, to highlight all the system possible timing critical and deadlock conditions. As a consequence, it is valuable to apply a Petri nets-based methodology in the space environment. Spacecraft operations analysis during system definition is one area of possible application. The application of Petri nets, as a basis for an investigation methodology in the Aristoteles spacecraft autonomy concept definition is described. Significant results are obtained allowing the production of a consistent, formally clean and self explaining system description, to be used as an aid to design and a tool for system evaluation. Such positive achievements support the exploitation of Petri nets-based methodologies in spacecraft operations to describe and analyze the overall space system behavior.