Science.gov

Sample records for aerial application operations

  1. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, Heikki; Pellikka, Ismo; Pesonen, Liisa; Tuominen, Sakari; Heikkilä, Jan; Holmlund, Christer; Mäkynen, Jussi; Ojala, Kai; Antila, Tapani

    2011-11-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) based hyperspectral imager compatible with the light weight UAV platforms. The concept of the hyperspectral imager has been published in the SPIE Proc. 7474 and 7668. In forest and agriculture applications the recording of multispectral images at a few wavelength bands is in most cases adequate. The possibility to calculate a digital elevation model of the forest area and crop fields provides means to estimate the biomass and perform forest inventory. The full UAS multispectral imaging system will consist of a high resolution false color imager and a FPI based hyperspectral imager which can be used at resolutions from VGA (480 x 640 pixels) up to 5 Mpix at wavelength range 500 - 900 nm at user selectable spectral resolutions in the range 10...40 nm @ FWHM. The resolution is determined by the order at which the Fabry- Perot interferometer is used. The overlap between successive images of the false color camera is 70...80% which makes it possible to calculate the digital elevation model of the target area. The field of view of the false color camera is typically 80 degrees and the ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 5 cm. The field of view of the hyperspectral imager is presently is 26 x 36 degrees and ground pixel size at 150 m flying altitude is around 3.5 cm. The UAS system has been tried in summer 2011 in Southern Finland for the forest and agricultural areas. During the first test campaigns the false color camera and hyperspectral imager were flown over the target areas at separate flights. The design and calibration of the hyperspectral imager will be shortly explained. The test flight campaigns on forest and crop fields and their preliminary results are also presented in this paper.

  3. Human Operator Modeling for Aerial Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    HUMAN OPERATOR MODELING FOR AERIAL TRACKING JONA THAN KORN ARTER. EPHRATH DA VLD L. KLEINMAN DBCXMBt 19MDTICSELECTE APR 3 1981.j B Approwd for pVA& u...8217the "Guid 8en th Cart end Use of laboratory Animals, "Inatitate of Laboratory Animl ReaNuWAes, National Rtesarch CouncL The voluntary Infomed consent...Continue. on reverse aide If necessary and identify hc block numbrh) ._Modern Optimal Control techniques are e:iployed to investigate and model human

  4. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  5. The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art A Monograph by Major Joel E Pauls USAF School of Advanced Military Studies...Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel E. Pauls Major, United States Air Force 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) by the United States

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  7. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  8. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  9. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS (BOTTOM LEFT AND CENTER), COKE BY-PRODUCT PLANT (CENTER), AND THE FORMER THOMAS FURNACE COMMUNITY, NOW THE THOMAS NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT (CENTER RIGHT). - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, AL 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Development of Air Force aerial spray night operations: High altitude swath characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVG). Higher altitude application of pesticide (>400 feet above ground level [AGL]) suggested that effective vector control mi...

  11. The US Air Force Aerial Spray Unit: a history of large area disease vector control operations, WWII through Katrina.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark; Haagsma, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The US Air Force has had a long history of aerial applications of pesticides to fulfill a variety of missions, the most important being the protection of troops through the minimization of arthropod vectors capable of disease transmission. Beginning in World War II, aerial application of pesticides by the military has effectively controlled vector and nuisance pest populations in a variety of environments. Currently, the military aerial spray capability resides in the US Air Force Reserve (USAFR), which operates and maintains C-130 airplanes capable of a variety of missions, including ultra low volume applications for vector and nuisance pests, as well as higher volume aerial applications of herbicides and oil-spill dispersants. The USAFR aerial spray assets are the only such fixed-wing aerial spray assets within the Department of Defense. In addition to troop protection, the USAFR Aerial Spray Unit has participated in a number of humanitarian/relief missions, most recently in the response to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, which heavily damaged the Gulf Coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. This article provides historical background on the Air Force Aerial Spray Unit and describes the operations in Louisiana in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.

  12. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  13. Special Operations Aerial Mobility Vehicle Training Syllabus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    failure. For instance, on 6 August 2011, a U.S. Boeing CH-47 Chinook helicopter , call sign Extortion 17, was shot down in Afghanistan, resulting in...of Federal Regulations using the following language. Light-sport aircraft means an aircraft, other than a helicopter or powered- lift that, since...Hours Yes NVG Landings 90 Days 3 No Swarm Procedures 180 Days 2 Hours Yes Landing Zone Operations 180 Days 5 Landings No Formation Flight

  14. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  15. Aerial applications dispersal systems control requirements study. [agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Cleary, W. L.; Rogers, W. F.; Simpson, W.; Sanders, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Performance deficiencies in aerial liquid and dry dispersal systems are identified. Five control system concepts are explored: (1) end of field on/off control; (2) manual control of particle size and application rate from the aircraft; (3) manual control of deposit rate on the field; (4) automatic alarm and shut-off control; and (5) fully automatic control. Operational aspects of the concepts and specifications for improved control configurations are discussed in detail. A research plan to provide the technology needed to develop the proposed improvements is presented along with a flight program to verify the benefits achieved.

  16. Development of Air Force Aerial Spray Night Operations: High Altitude Swath Characterizations.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Karl A; Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C

    2015-01-01

    Multiple trials were conducted from 2006 to 2014 in an attempt to validate aerial spray efficacy at altitudes conducive to night spray operations using night vision goggles (NVGs). Higher altitude application of pesticide (more than 400 ft (121.9 m) above ground level (AGL)) suggested that effective vector control might be possible under ideal meteorological conditions. A series of lower altitude daytime applications (300 ft (91.4 m) AGL) demonstrated effective and repeatable mortality of target sentinel insects more than 5,000 ft (1,524 m) downwind, and control of natural vector populations. From these results we believe further pursuit of aerial night applications of pesticide using NVGs at 300 ft (91.4 m) AGL by this group is warranted.

  17. 23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE PLUTONIUM OPERATION BUILDINGS 771, 776/777, AND 707. BUILDING 771, IN THE FOREGROUND, WAS BUILT IN 1952 TO HOUSE ALL PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS. BY 1956, BUILDING 771 WAS NO LONGER ADEQUATE FOR PRODUCTION DEMANDS. BUILDING 776/777, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 771, WAS CONSTRUCTED TO HOUSE PLUTONIUM FABRICATION AND FOUNDRY OPERATIONS. PLUTONIUM RECOVERY REMAINED IN BUILDING 771. BY 1967, CONSTRUCTION ON BUILDING 707, TO THE SOUTH OF BUILDING 776/777, BEGAN AS PRODUCTION LEVELS CONTINUED TO EXPAND NECESSITATING THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL PLUTONIUM FABRICATION SPACE (7/1/69). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  19. Aerial ULV application of Dibrom against Aedes aegypti in simulated urban and rural residences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reaching endophilic Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors of dengue located in human residences with aerial ULV pesticide applications is a prominent complication in operational wide area public health mosquito control activities. We conducted separate trials with a military C-130 fixed wing aircraft fitte...

  20. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  1. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  2. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs): a new tool in counterterrorism operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörtbudak, Mehmet F.

    2015-05-01

    Terrorism is not a new phenomenon to the world, yet it remains difficult to define and counter. Countering terrorism requires several measures that must be taken simultaneously; however, counterterrorism strategies of many countries mostly depend on military measures. In the aftermath of the 2001 terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center, the United States (U.S.) has started and led the campaign of Global War on Terrorism. They have invaded Afghanistan and Iraq and have encountered insurgencies run by terrorist organizations, such as al-Qaeda and its affiliates. The U.S. made the utilization of Air and Space Power very intensively during these operations. In order to implement operations; Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets were used to collect the necessary information. Before the successful insertion of a small number of U.S. Special Operation Force (SOF) teams into Afghanistan, the U.S. Air Force attacked al-Qaeda and Taliban's targets such as infrastructure, airfields, ground forces, command-control facilities etc. As soon as the U.S. troops got on the ground and started to marshal to Kabul, the Air Force supported them by attacking jointly determined targets. The Air Force continued to carry out the missions and played a significant role to achieve the objective of operation during all the time. This is not the only example of utilization of Air and Space Power in counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. All around the world, many countries have also made the utilization of Air Power in different missions ranging from ISR to attacking. Thinking that terrorism has a psychological dimension and losing a pilot during operations may result in decreasing the population support to operations, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) started to be used by practitioners and took priority over other assets. Although UAVs have been on the theatre for a long time used for ISR mission in conventional conflicts, with the advent

  4. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, B. M.; Chebil, J.; Albatsh, F.; Faris, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment.

  5. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  6. A Low-Cost Imaging System for Aerial Applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are being used for research and commercial applications, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial app...

  7. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  8. Human dynamics scaling characteristics for aerial inbound logistics operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, the study of power-law scaling characteristics of real-life networks has attracted much interest from scholars; it deviates from the Poisson process. In this paper, we take the whole process of aerial inbound operation in a logistics company as the empirical object. The main aim of this work is to study the statistical scaling characteristics of the task-restricted work patterns. We found that the statistical variables have the scaling characteristics of unimodal distribution with a power-law tail in five statistical distributions - that is to say, there obviously exists a peak in each distribution, the shape of the left part closes to a Poisson distribution, and the right part has a heavy-tailed scaling statistics. Furthermore, to our surprise, there is only one distribution where the right parts can be approximated by the power-law form with exponent α=1.50. Others are bigger than 1.50 (three of four are about 2.50, one of four is about 3.00). We then obtain two inferences based on these empirical results: first, the human behaviors probably both close to the Poisson statistics and power-law distributions on certain levels, and the human-computer interaction behaviors may be the most common in the logistics operational areas, even in the whole task-restricted work pattern areas. Second, the hypothesis in Vázquez et al. (2006) [A. Vázquez, J. G. Oliveira, Z. Dezsö, K.-I. Goh, I. Kondor, A.-L. Barabási. Modeling burst and heavy tails in human dynamics, Phys. Rev. E 73 (2006) 036127] is probably not sufficient; it claimed that human dynamics can be classified as two discrete university classes. There may be a new human dynamics mechanism that is different from the classical Barabási models.

  9. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  10. Probe And Drogue Aerial Refueling Requirements: How Will Air Force Special Operations Command Meet Future Demands?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Agency turned mountains of data into useable information on the history of special operations and helicopter aerial refueling. Also a great thanks...thoughts on helicopter refueling into a cogent argument. Last, and surely not least, my greatest thanks goes out to my loving and supportive wife Laura... helicopter aerial refueling in the 2007 to 2012 timeframe?” In order to place this question in context a short history of USSOCOM, AFSOC, and

  11. Spread Spectrum Applications in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    oeltuflnel Servicelt. Otrecloref in mo t mnf•e , n Ogerations, and K.ion$. 12 IS Jiflernao D0rn feliMqhwoV. SU•it 1204. Arlin•lnf. VA 2220-4302. la•d to the...scene if communications failed, perhaps not all would be lost. Of course , specific operational plans established before the battle began would soon be...of what the state of the environment should be). Based upon this comparison, the decide function chooses among available courses of action to move the

  12. Advances in applications and methodology for aerial infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Gregory R.

    2004-04-01

    Most aerial infrared (IR) is performed by the military, but there are commercial uses. Some of these non-military applications are the focus of this paper. Generally speaking, the farther away one can get from the object of an infrared survey, while maintaining the needed spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity, the more usable the data is. Wide areas and large objects can be effectively imaged from the air. In fact, the use of high-resolution aerial infrared imagery is often the only way that one can see slight nuances of temperature differences and trace the patterns of heat. In order to produce an easy to understand, high quality and useable report, the data must be acquired, recorded and processed in an efficient and effective way. This paper discusses the ongoing advances in methodology, platform and equipment required to produce high quality usable data for the end-user.

  13. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  14. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  15. An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to Control Micro Aerial Vehicles Ming Hou...Report DRDC Toronto TR 2010-075 October 2010 An Empirical Study on Operator Interface Design for Handheld Devices to...drives the need for a small and light controller which will not hinder a soldier carrying it. This requirement brings an issue of designing an

  16. Ethyl parathion in wetlands following aerial application to sunflowers in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tome, M.W.; Grue, C.E.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    An operational aerial application of parathion to sunflower fields resulted in greater or equal spray deposit in wetlands adjacent to or surrounded by sunflower fields than in the sunflower fields. In another application, when the applicator attempted to avoid contamination of the wetlands, parathion still drifted into wetlands in detectable amounts; in 2 of 4 comparisons, spray deposit in wetlands and sunflower fields did not differ. Weather during both spray operations was ideal for North Dakota, Le., wind speeds <16 km/ hour, excellent visibility, and temperature <24 C. We review how spray droplet size, weather, terrain, and type of application equipment interact to determine the amount of drift from any application of pesticide. With this information, wildlife managers should be able to make decisions pertaining to insecticide applications that will minimize drift and reduce negative impacts to nontarget organisms

  17. An Optimal Moving Horizon Estimation for Aerial Vehicular Navigation Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubaid Gul, Haris; Kai, Yang Dong

    2017-03-01

    In this article, an optimal state is estimated using the moving horizon estimation technique (MHE), based on the minimizing the deterministic cost function defined for moving window with a finite number of samples at specific time interval. The optimal moving horizon observer was designed and implemented for the non-linear dynamic problem of aerial vehicle integrated navigation. The low grade commercial inertial measuring instrument (IMU) equipped with accelerometers and gyros sensors instrumented on-board in the strapdown configuration, is employed for collection of the real time experimental data. The data fusion algorithm of moving horizon estimation is realized and the results are collected from the offline algorithm testing on the Matlab software platform. Essential data processing and cleaning of data processing was conducted before algorithm application i.e. solving the multi rate sensors data synching and removing high frequency unwanted contents. Finally, the aerial vehicle dead reckoning integrated navigation was performed with recursive observer using IMU/GPS avionics. Contrary to the widely practiced extended Kalman filter results, recursive observer of MHE exhibited performance enhancement in the response and precision aspect, regardless of environmental noise and failure scenarios.

  18. Aerial ULV application of permethrin against adult mosquitoes in an extreme hot-arid zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial ULV insecticide application is an established strategy for adult mosquito control in tropical, hot-humid, or temperate environments. However, not enough is known regarding the efficacy of aerial applications in hot-arid environments similar to those encountered by US military personnel, where...

  19. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  20. Wind-tunnel tests and modeling indicate that aerial dispersant delivery operations are highly accurate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture’s high-speed wind tunnel facility in College Station, Texas, USA was used to determine droplet size distributions generated by dispersant delivery nozzles at wind speeds comparable to those used in aerial dispersant application. A laser particle size anal...

  1. Meteorological and Remote Sensing Applications of High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenung, S. M.; Wegener, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are maturing in performance and becoming available for routine use in environmental applications including weather reconnaissance and remote sensing. This paper presents a discussion of UAV characteristics and unique features compared with other measurement platforms. A summary of potential remote sensing applications is provided, along with details for four types of tropical cyclone missions. Capabilities of platforms developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program are reviewed, including the Altus, Perseus, and solar- powered Pathfinder, all of which have flown to over 57,000 ft (17 km). In many scientific missions, the science objectives drive the experimental design, thus defining the sensor payload, aircraft performance, and operational requirements. Some examples of science missions and the requisite UAV / payload system are given. A discussion of technology developments needed to fully mature UAV systems for routine operational use is included, along with remarks on future science and commercial UAV business opportunities.

  2. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

  3. Effects on birds of fenthion aerial application for mosquito control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWeese, L.R.; McEwen, L.C.; Settimi, L.A.; Deblinger, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Effects on birds of an aerial application of fenthion, a potent organophosphorus cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting insecticide, were assessed on four study sites 1.8 to 3.6 km2 in size. These sites were located within 121.5 km2 of wet meadows treated with 47 g of fenthion (AI) per ha in ultralow- volume formulation. Assessment methods were searches for sick or dead birds, measurements of brain ChE activity in specimens found dead or collected alive at different time intervals, and counts of bird populations. After treatment, 99 birds and 15 mammals were found sick or dead; 106 of these were on one site. Brain ChE activity in dead birds was depressed sufficiently to indicate that death was caused by an anti-ChE substance. Brain ChE activity in three common bird species collected alive showed the greatest reduction 2 days postspray. Two of these species had ChE activity that was still significantly (P<0.05) depressed 15 days postspray. Bird populations declined most where mortality was heaviest. Fenthion sprayed for mosquito control was life threatening to many birds inhabiting treated meadows.

  4. A framework for autonomous and continuous aerial intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korpela, Christopher; Root, Philip; Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We propose a framework for intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance using an aerial vehicle with multiple sensor payloads to provide autonomous and continuous security operations at a fixed location. A control scheme and a graphical user interface between the vehicle and operator is strictly mandated for tasks requiring remote and unattended inspection. By leveraging existing navigation and path planning algorithms, the system can autonomously patrol large areas, automatically recharge when required, and relay on-demand data back to the user. This paper presents recent validation results of the system and its sensors using the proposed framework.

  5. Multidimensional analysis of autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) for scientific, civil, and defense applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Mark A.; Hamill, Doris L.; Harrison, F. W.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.; Lawrence, Roland W.; Healy, Edward A.; Wright, Henry S.

    2004-12-01

    Better knowledge of the atmosphere, ocean and land are needed by a wide range of users spanning the scientific, civil and defense communities. Observations to provide this knowledge will require aerial systems with greater operational flexibility and lower life-cycle costs than are currently available. Persistent monitoring of severe storms, sampling and measurements of the Earth"s carbon cycle, wildfire monitoring/management, crop assessments, ozone and polar ice changes, and natural disaster response (communications and surveillance) are but a few applications where autonomous aerial observations can effectively augment existing measurement systems. User driven capabilities include high altitude, long range, long-loiter (days/weeks), smaller deployable sensor-ships for in-situ sampling, and sensors providing data with spectral bandwidth and high temporal and three-dimensional spatial resolution. Starting with user needs and considering all elements and activities required to acquire the needed observations leads to the definition of autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) that can significantly complement and extend the current Earth observation capability. In this approach, UAVs are viewed as only one, albeit important, element in a mission system and overall cost and performance for the user are the critical success factors. To better understand and meet the challenges of developing such AAOSs, a systems oriented multi-dimensional analysis has been performed that illuminates the enabling and high payoff investments that best address the needs of scientific, civil, and defense users of Earth observations. The analysis further identifies technology gaps and serves to illustrate how investments in a range of mission subsystems together can enable a new class of Earth observations.

  6. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  7. Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  8. Characterization of spray deposition and drift from a low drift nozzle for aerial application at different application altitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  9. Spray Deposition and Drift Characteristics of a Low Drift Nozzle for Aerial Application at Different Application Altitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A complex interaction of controllable and uncontrollable factors is involved in aerial application of crop production and protection materials. Although it is difficult to completely characterize spray deposition and drift, these important factors can be estimated with appropriate sampling protocol ...

  10. Rangeland remote sensing applications with unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace: challenges and experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, civilian applications of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have increased considerably due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors, GPS, inertial measurement units, and other hardware. UAS are well suited for rangeland remote sensing applications, because of the...

  11. The effect of adjuvants at high spray pressures for aerial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling droplet size is a critical part of making any successful agrochemical spray application. This is particularly true for higher speed aerial applications where secondary atomization from air shear becomes the most dominate factor driving spray droplet size. Previous research has shown th...

  12. Applicability of New Approaches of Sensor Orientation to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    This study highlights the benefits of precise aerial position and attitude control in the context of mapping with Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs). Accurate mapping with MAVs is gaining importance in applications such as corridor mapping, road and pipeline inspections or mapping of large areas with homogeneous surface structure, e.g. forests or agricultural fields. There, accurate aerial control plays a major role in successful terrain reconstruction and artifact-free ortophoto generation. The presented experiments focus on new approaches of aerial control. We confirm practically that the relative aerial position and attitude control can improve accuracy in difficult mapping scenarios. Indeed, the relative orientation method represents an attractive alternative in the context of MAVs for two reasons. First, the procedure is somewhat simplified, e.g. the angular misalignment, so called boresight, between the camera and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) does not have to be determined and, second, the effect of possible systematic errors in satellite positioning (e.g. due to multipath and/or incorrect recovery of differential carrier-phase ambiguities) is mitigated. First, we present a typical mapping project over an agricultural field and second, we perform a corridor road mapping. We evaluate the proposed methods in scenarios with and without automated image observations. We investigate a recently proposed concept where adjustment is performed using image observations limited to ground control and check points, so called fast aerial triangulation (Fast AT). In this context we show that accurate aerial control (absolute or relative) together with a few image observations can deliver accurate results comparable to classical aerial triangulation with thousands of image measurements. This procedure in turns reduces the demands on processing time and the requirements on the existence of surface texture. Finally, we compare the above mentioned procedures with direct sensor

  13. Application of Digital Image Correlation Method to Improve the Accuracy of Aerial Photo Stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Shih-Heng; Jhou, You-Liang; Shih, Ming-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Wei; Sung, Wen-Pei

    2016-04-01

    Satellite images and traditional aerial photos have been used in remote sensing for a long time. However, there are some problems with these images. For example, the resolution of satellite image is insufficient, the cost to obtain traditional images is relatively high and there is also human safety risk in traditional flight. These result in the application limitation of these images. In recent years, the control technology of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is rapidly developed. This makes unmanned aerial vehicle widely used in obtaining aerial photos. Compared to satellite images and traditional aerial photos, these aerial photos obtained using UAV have the advantages of higher resolution, low cost. Because there is no crew in UAV, it is still possible to take aerial photos using UAV under unstable weather conditions. Images have to be orthorectified and their distortion must be corrected at first. Then, with the help of image matching technique and control points, these images can be stitched or used to establish DEM of ground surface. These images or DEM data can be used to monitor the landslide or estimate the volume of landslide. For the image matching, we can use such as Harris corner method, SIFT or SURF to extract and match feature points. However, the accuracy of these methods for matching is about pixel or sub-pixel level. The accuracy of digital image correlation method (DIC) during image matching can reach about 0.01pixel. Therefore, this study applies digital image correlation method to match extracted feature points. Then the stitched images are observed to judge the improvement situation. This study takes the aerial photos of a reservoir area. These images are stitched under the situations with and without the help of DIC. The results show that the misplacement situation in the stitched image using DIC to match feature points has been significantly improved. This shows that the use of DIC to match feature points can actually improve the accuracy of

  14. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  15. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations In Low-Altitude Airspace By Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet)There is urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  16. SPERTI/PBF. Contextual aerial view after PBF had begun operating, but ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SPERT-I/PBF. Contextual aerial view after PBF had begun operating, but prior to expansion of southwest corner of Reactor Building (PER-620). Camera facing northeast. Reactor Building in center of view. Cooling Tower (PER-720) to its left. Warehouse (PER-625) at lower left was built in 1966. SPERT-I Reactor Building (PER-605) and Instrument Cell Building (PER-604) at right of view. Buried cables and piping proceed from PBF toward lower edge of view to Control Building further south and out of view. Photographer: Farmer. Date: March 26, 1976. INEEL negative no. 76-1344 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  18. Wind tunnel and field evaluation of drift from aerial spray applications with multiple spray formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of different spray tank modifiers into an active ingredient spray mixture on spray atomization and in-field behavior under aerial application conditions were examined. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that active ingredient solutions potentially results in significantly different atomizati...

  19. Determination of differences in crop injury from aerial application of glyphosate using vegetation indices and geostatistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury to crops caused by off-target drift of glyphosate can seriously reduce growth and yield, and is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. Determining an indirect method for assessing the levels and extent of crop injury could support management decisions. The objectives of this stud...

  20. Progress and Field Evaluation of Aerial Variable-Rate Systems for Liquid Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow control systems for aerial spraying have been evaluated at the USDA, ARS, CPSRU over the past 12 years. Early experiments were designed to evaluate the ability of flow controllers to provide a desired application rate regardless of changes in ground speed. More recent testing has focused on var...

  1. Atmospheric stability intervals influencing the potential for off-target movement of spray in aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine atmospheric conditions favorable for long-distance movement of spray from aerial application that can have deleterious consequences to susceptible crops. A tall meteorological monitoring tower was equipped with six precision thermistors at six heights to 27.4 m a...

  2. A low-cost single-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available and versatile platform for airborne remote sensing. Although various airborne imaging systems are available, most of these systems are either too expensive or too complex to be of practical use for aerial applicators. The objective of this study was ...

  3. A two-camera imaging system for pest detection and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation reports on the design and testing of an airborne two-camera imaging system for pest detection and aerial application assessment. The system consists of two digital cameras with 5616 x 3744 effective pixels. One camera captures normal color images with blue, green and red bands, whi...

  4. Computer discrimination procedures applicable to aerial and ERTS multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Torline, R. J.; Allen, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Two statistical models are compared in the classification of crops recorded on color aerial photographs. A theory of error ellipses is applied to the pattern recognition problem. An elliptical boundary condition classification model (EBC), useful for recognition of candidate patterns, evolves out of error ellipse theory. The EBC model is compared with the minimum distance to the mean (MDM) classification model in terms of pattern recognition ability. The pattern recognition results of both models are interpreted graphically using scatter diagrams to represent measurement space. Measurement space, for this report, is determined by optical density measurements collected from Kodak Ektachrome Infrared Aero Film 8443 (EIR). The EBC model is shown to be a significant improvement over the MDM model.

  5. Development of a new modular aerial spray system and night application capability for the U.S. Air Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Air Force maintains a capability with the C130 aircraft to conduct aerial spray operations over large areas for controlling insects of medical importance. The current modular aerial spray system (MASS) is custom designed to support a variety of configurations from ultralow volume space spra...

  6. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS

  7. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  8. A comparative study of four change detection methods for aerial photography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Brooksby, Glen; Bush, Stephen F.; Manickam, Swaminathan; Ozcanli, Ozge; Garrett, Benjamin D.

    2010-04-01

    We present four new change detection methods that create an automated change map from a probability map. In this case, the probability map was derived from a 3D model. The primary application of interest is aerial photographic applications, where the appearance, disappearance or change in position of small objects of a selectable class (e.g., cars) must be detected at a high success rate in spite of variations in magnification, lighting and background across the image. The methods rely on an earlier derivation of a probability map. We describe the theory of the four methods, namely Bernoulli variables, Markov Random Fields, connected change, and relaxation-based segmentation, evaluate and compare their performance experimentally on a set probability maps derived from aerial photographs.

  9. Effects of Spray Mixtures on Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions and Implications on Drift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    PowerMax solution was selected due to several glyphosate ‐ based herbicide drift incidences. The Water + NIS and EC Blank solutions were selected based on...of downwind deposition at similar airspeeds from the different formulations. Downwind deposition modeling based on a simulated multi‐pass spray...Keywords. Aerial application, Glyphosate , Spray adjuvant, Droplet size, Spray drift, AGDISP. pray drift, which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  10. Aerial Application of Malathion: Information for Mosquito Control Professionals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA recently completed the malathion draft human health risk assessment for all uses. This letter to mosquito control professionals provides modifications to application directions that can reduce malathion deposition while maintaining effectiveness.

  11. Soil fixative study progress report aerial application test:

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, A.C.

    1988-03-01

    A soil fixative has been developed (a simple wheat flour paste mixture) and tested in the laboratory that appears suitable for the temporary fixation of radioactive dusts in case of an accidental spill. A limited field test was made and the feasibility of aircraft delivery examined. A videotape was made of the operations. 3 figs.

  12. Aerial Application of Pheromones for Mating Disruption of an Invasive Moth as a Potential Eradication Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Suckling, David M.; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L.; Cowan, David M.; Lance, David R.; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, ‘false trail following’ could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, ‘sensory impairment’ and ‘masking of females’ are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

  13. Moving Target Indicator (MTI) Applications For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-14

    nicknamed STINGRAY for the mari- time MTI applications, was successfully completed in two phases. Phase I consisted of a risk mitigation phase where...3. Fig. 3 STINGRAY Situational Awareness Display bjectives and Results s mentioned above, the overall objectives associated this initiative...roviding wide field of view cues to the Predator’s R sensor was clearly demonstrated in both the RS – UAV Cross cueing and STINGRAY initia- . hile

  14. Multiplier operator algebras and applications

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, David P.; Zarikian, Vrej

    2004-01-01

    The one-sided multipliers of an operator space X are a key to “latent operator algebraic structure” in X. We begin with a survey of these multipliers, together with several of the applications that they have had to operator algebras. We then describe several new results on one-sided multipliers, and new applications, mostly to one-sided M-ideals. PMID:14711990

  15. The development of design requirements and application of guided hard-launch munitions on aerial platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Matthew David

    This thesis outlines the potential and need for a paradigm shift that will fundamentally alter the way aerial engagement is carried out in the coming decades. The implementation of guided hard-launch munitions on aerial platforms will effectively allow for greater target versatility while providing a defense system for the aircraft in question. A rearward facing gun barrel equipped with several smaller caliber guided rounds can effectively mitigate air-to-air and surface-to-air missiles from hostile forces, while larger caliber rounds in a traditional forward or side mounted barrel can engage both surface and airborne targets at close and medium-ranges. This study outlines the concept of operations for various mission types implementing these guided munitions from short-range direct fire encounters to long-range indirect fire. A computational model was then established to outline the design requirements for this particular type of munition family. The aerodynamics, structures, and guidance, navigation and controls were considered for each engagement type. A sample guided projectile concept was then applied to three airframes, the F-35A, AC-130U, and A-10, in order to demonstrate basic capability as a retrofit on exiting gunnery systems. The modified system capability was then juxtaposed with existing aerial combat potential.

  16. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  17. Accuracy Assessment of Direct Georeferencing for Photogrammetric Applications on Small Unmanned Aerial Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mian, O.; Lutes, J.; Lipa, G.; Hutton, J. J.; Gavelle, E.; Borghini, S.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient mapping from unmanned aerial platforms cannot rely on aerial triangulation using known ground control points. The cost and time of setting ground control, added to the need for increased overlap between flight lines, severely limits the ability of small VTOL platforms, in particular, to handle mapping-grade missions of all but the very smallest survey areas. Applanix has brought its experience in manned photogrammetry applications to this challenge, setting out the requirements for increasing the efficiency of mapping operations from small UAVs, using survey-grade GNSS-Inertial technology to accomplish direct georeferencing of the platform and/or the imaging payload. The Direct Mapping Solution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (DMS-UAV) is a complete and ready-to-integrate OEM solution for Direct Georeferencing (DG) on unmanned aerial platforms. Designed as a solution for systems integrators to create mapping payloads for UAVs of all types and sizes, the DMS produces directly georeferenced products for any imaging payload (visual, LiDAR, infrared, multispectral imaging, even video). Additionally, DMS addresses the airframe's requirements for high-accuracy position and orientation for such tasks as precision RTK landing and Precision Orientation for Air Data Systems (ADS), Guidance and Control. This paper presents results using a DMS comprised of an Applanix APX-15 UAV with a Sony a7R camera to produce highly accurate orthorectified imagery without Ground Control Points on a Microdrones md4-1000 platform conducted by Applanix and Avyon. APX-15 UAV is a single-board, small-form-factor GNSS-Inertial system designed for use on small, lightweight platforms. The Sony a7R is a prosumer digital RGB camera sensor, with a 36MP, 4.9-micron CCD producing images at 7360 columns by 4912 rows. It was configured with a 50mm AF-S Nikkor f/1.8 lens and subsequently with a 35mm Zeiss Sonnar T* FE F2.8 lens. Both the camera/lens combinations and the APX-15 were mounted to a

  18. Surrogate Joint Aerial Layer Network (JALN) Experiment: Applications of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf Technologies for Researching Future JALN Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    SURROGATE JOINT AERIAL LAYER NETWORK (JALN) EXPERIMENT: APPLICATIONS OF COMMERCIAL-OFF-THE- SHELF TECHNOLOGIES FOR RESEARCHING FUTURE JALN...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) DECEMBER 2014 2. REPORT TYPE TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) MAY 2012 – JAN 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SURROGATE ...networking technology as a surrogate for military-grade networking equipment in the investigation of Joint Aerial Layer Network (JALN) concepts. Field

  19. Aerial Neutron Detection: Neutron Signatures for Nonproliferation and Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, Richard J.; Stampahar, Thomas G.; Smith, Ethan X.; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wolff, Ronald S.; Rourke, Timothy J.; LeDonne, Jeffrey P.; Avaro, Emanuele; Butler, D. Andre; Borders, Kevin L.; Stampahar, Jezabel; Schuck, William H.; Selfridge, Thomas L.; McKissack, Thomas M.; Duncan, William W.; Hendricks, Thane J.

    2012-10-17

    From 2007 to the present, the Remote Sensing Laboratory has been conducting a series of studies designed to expand our fundamental understanding of aerial neutron detection with the goal of designing an enhanced sensitivity detection system for long range neutron detection. Over 35 hours of aerial measurements in a helicopter were conducted for a variety of neutron emitters such as neutron point sources, a commercial nuclear power reactor, nuclear reactor spent fuel in dry cask storage, depleted uranium hexafluoride and depleted uranium metal. The goals of the project were to increase the detection sensitivity of our instruments such that a 5.4 × 104 neutron/second source could be detected at 100 feet above ground level at a speed of 70 knots and to enhance the long-range detection sensitivity for larger neutron sources, i.e., detection ranges above 1000 feet. In order to increase the sensitivity of aerial neutron detection instruments, it is important to understand the dynamics of the neutron background as a function of altitude. For aerial neutron detection, studies have shown that the neutron background primarily originates from above the aircraft, being produced in the upper atmosphere by galactic cosmic-ray interactions with air molecules. These interactions produce energetic neutrons and charged particles that cascade to the earth’s surface, producing additional neutrons in secondary collisions. Hence, the neutron background increases as a function of altitude which is an impediment to long-range neutron detection. In order to increase the sensitivity for long range detection, it is necessary to maintain a low neutron background as a function of altitude. Initial investigations show the variation in the neutron background can be decreased with the application of a cosmic-ray shield. The results of the studies along with a representative data set are presented.

  20. Research applications of night-time aerial photography, from local to global scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, J.; Sadler, J.

    2012-12-01

    Artificial lighting of the earth's surface is changing at a global scale, with numerous social, economic and environmental implications. In many regions, the extent, brightness and spectral range of lighting is increasing, reflecting economic and technological development, population growth and urbanization. Its benefits include improving the perception of neighbourhood safety and increasing people's options for when activities can take place. Impacts range from the disruption of sleep patterns by a single street lamp to obscured views of the night sky for tens of kilometers surrounding an urban area. There is therefore a need to secure baseline maps of artificial lighting, and to detect changes in their extent and quality over time. Considerable success has been achieved in generating global lighting datasets from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) data, which have been used to support a broad range of research and policy applications. However, their coarse spatial and spectral resolution and difficulties in radiance calibration have been recognised as barriers to some potential applications. We present the first multi-spectral radiance calibrated lighting data for cities at a fine spatial resolution (10cm). We then illustrate how these data can be effective for exploring relationships between lighting and urban form, and that they can support the radiance calibration of lighting datasets with much greater spatial extents. Color night photography was collected for two major English cities - Birmingham and London. Ground photometry and radiometry surveys were undertaken, permitting the reclassification of the images to represent incident lux and the identification and classification of individual lamps. Total illuminated area and lamp density both correlated positively with percentage built surface cover, although the strength of these relationships differed between cities. This suggests that artificial lighting may

  1. HPRR operating experience and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Sims, C.S.; Swaja, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) is a small, unmoderated fast pulse reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HPRR is the principal research tool of ORNL's Dosimetry Applications Research (DOSAR) Group. The reactor is described, its operating experience is presented, and its major applications are discussed.

  2. An Information Requirements Analysis of Military Airlift Command (MAC) Aerial Port Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    16:19 (January 1985). Office of Public Affairs. Military Airlift Command Aerial Ports. United States Air Force Fact Sheet. Scott AFB IL: August 1986...the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the School of Systems and Logistics, the Air University, the United States Air Force, or the...intertheater ports are in the continental United States and are located at Travis AFB and Norton AFB, California; McChord AFB, Washington; McGuire AFB, New

  3. Semantic Segmentation and Difference Extraction via Time Series Aerial Video Camera and its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, S. N. K.; Saito, S.; Sasaki, S.; Kiyoki, Y.; Aoki, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Google earth with high-resolution imagery basically takes months to process new images before online updates. It is a time consuming and slow process especially for post-disaster application. The objective of this research is to develop a fast and effective method of updating maps by detecting local differences occurred over different time series; where only region with differences will be updated. In our system, aerial images from Massachusetts's road and building open datasets, Saitama district datasets are used as input images. Semantic segmentation is then applied to input images. Semantic segmentation is a pixel-wise classification of images by implementing deep neural network technique. Deep neural network technique is implemented due to being not only efficient in learning highly discriminative image features such as road, buildings etc., but also partially robust to incomplete and poorly registered target maps. Then, aerial images which contain semantic information are stored as database in 5D world map is set as ground truth images. This system is developed to visualise multimedia data in 5 dimensions; 3 dimensions as spatial dimensions, 1 dimension as temporal dimension, and 1 dimension as degenerated dimensions of semantic and colour combination dimension. Next, ground truth images chosen from database in 5D world map and a new aerial image with same spatial information but different time series are compared via difference extraction method. The map will only update where local changes had occurred. Hence, map updating will be cheaper, faster and more effective especially post-disaster application, by leaving unchanged region and only update changed region.

  4. Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications.

    PubMed

    Lingua, Andrea; Marenchino, Davide; Nex, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc.) and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model) generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A(2) SIFT) has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems.

  5. Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lingua, Andrea; Marenchino, Davide; Nex, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc.) and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model) generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A2 SIFT) has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems. PMID:22412336

  6. Integrating Spray Plane-Based Remote Sensing and Rapid Image Processing with Variable-Rate Aerial Application.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A remote sensing and variable rate application system was configured for agricultural aircraft. This combination system has the potential of providing a completely integrated solution for all aspects of aerial site-specific application and includes remote sensing, image processing and georegistratio...

  7. Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the use of aerial photography and information system technology in the provision of information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the City of Lansing Vector Control Area. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps specifically focussed on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

  8. Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    Aerial photography and information system technology were used to generate information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the city of Lansing; the inventory identified 35% more surface water areas than indicated on existing field maps. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County, were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps focusing on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

  9. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  10. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  11. Comparison of the strapdown and gimbaled seekers utilized in aerial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkan, Bülent; Uçar, Altuğ

    2012-06-01

    In order to orient aerial vehicles such as unmanned aerial vehicles and guided munitions toward intended target points, it often becomes vital to acquire the correct information about the states of the targets during the flight of the vehicles. One of the most widely-used ways to achieve this task is the utilization of seekers. Physically, the measurement capability of seekers is restricted due to some physical, optical, and electronic limitations such as limited field-of-view (FOV), atmospheric transmittance, and noise effects. Regarding these characteristics, basically two types of seekers are employed in the relevant applications: strapdown or body-fixed seekers and gimbaled seekers. The strapdown seekers are directly mounted on the considered vehicle body. Therefore, their measurements become relative to the body fixed reference frame of the missile. For relieving the FOV limitations of the strapdown seekers, the gimbaled seekers are preferred in some of the implementations. In this scheme, the seeker is mounted on a platform supported by two orthogonal gimbals and stabilized by means of rate gyro feedbacks. This way, the FOV range of the seeker is increased considerably. Also, the line of sight (LOS) angle and the LOS angular rate can be measured directly independently of the missile motion. This study deals with the comparison of these two kinds of seekers according to certain criteria involving mounting properties, FOV, angle and rate measurements, guidance method utilization, measurement methods, major sources of measurement errors, and cost. A general evaluation is submitted at the end of the work.

  12. Aerial photography: Applications in the study of coastal erosion and pollution. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the applications of aerial photography in the study of coastal shoreline problems such as erosion and pollution. Topics include ocean wave direction and measurement, oil pollution detection and direction forecasting, shoreline change measurements, coastal mapping, and coastal topographic features. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Cavolowsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  15. Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2014-01-01

    UAS operations will be safer if a UTM system is available to support the functions associated with Airspace management and geo-fencing (reduce risk of accidents, impact to other operations, and community concerns); Weather and severe wind integration (avoid severe weather areas based on prediction); Predict and manage congestion (mission safety);Terrain and man-made objects database and avoidance; Maintain safe separation (mission safety and assurance of other assets); Allow only authenticated operations (avoid unauthorized airspace use).

  16. Operational Planning for Multiple Heterogeneous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Three Dimensions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    2.1.3 The Role of the UAV Planner 24 2.1.4 Human Collaboration 24 2.2 Operational Scenarios 25 2.2.1 Current Studies and Operations 25 2.2.2 Projected...Balakrishnan Assistant Professor, Aeronautics and Astronautics and Engineering Systems Thesis Advisor Accepted by: / Cynthia Barnhart Professor, Civil and...Environmental Engineering Co-Director, Operations Research Center Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  17. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations: Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years Long-term Goal Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  18. Path planning for persistent surveillance applications using fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, James F.

    This thesis addresses coordinated path planning for fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) engaged in persistent surveillance missions. While uniquely suited to this mission, fixed wing vehicles have maneuver constraints that can limit their performance in this role. Current technology vehicles are capable of long duration flight with a minimal acoustic footprint while carrying an array of cameras and sensors. Both military tactical and civilian safety applications can benefit from this technology. We make three main contributions: C1 A sequential path planner that generates a C 2 flight plan to persistently acquire a covering set of data over a user designated area of interest. The planner features the following innovations: • A path length abstraction that embeds kino-dynamic motion constraints to estimate feasible path length. • A Traveling Salesman-type planner to generate a covering set route based on the path length abstraction. • A smooth path generator that provides C 2 routes that satisfy user specified curvature constraints. C2 A set of algorithms to coordinate multiple UAVs, including mission commencement from arbitrary locations to the start of a coordinated mission and de-confliction of paths to avoid collisions with other vehicles and fixed obstacles. C3 A numerically robust toolbox of spline-based algorithms tailored for vehicle routing validated through flight test experiments on multiple platforms. A variety of tests and platforms are discussed. The algorithms presented are based on a technical approach with approximately equal emphasis on analysis, computation, dynamic simulation, and flight test experimentation. Our planner (C1) directly takes into account vehicle maneuverability and agility constraints that could otherwise render simple solutions infeasible. This is especially important when surveillance objectives elevate the importance of optimized paths. Researchers have developed a diverse range of solutions for persistent

  19. Effect of Auditory Peripheral Displays On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operator Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    indicators of course&# 8208 ;deviations or late&# 8208 ;arrivals to targets for UAV missions with single and multiple UAVs. In particular, this thesis addresses...enhances a single operator?s performance in monitoring single and multiple, semi&# 8208 ;autonomous vehicles. The results also emphasize the necessity to...Veltman, & vanBreda, 1996; Flanagan,  McAnally, Martin, Meehan, & Oldfield, 1998; Nelson et al., 1998),  collision  avoidance  (Begault  &  Pittman

  20. Low altitude aerial photogrammetry application to braided river systems. Example of the Buech River, Alps, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jules Fleury, Thomas; Pothin, Virginie; Vella, Claude; Dussouillez, Philippe; Izem, Abdelkoddouss

    2015-04-01

    Low-altitude aerial photogrammetry offers new opportunities for geomorphology and other fields requiring very high-resolution topographic data. It combines the advantages of the reproducibility of GPS topographic surveys with the high accuracy of LIDAR, but at relatively low-cost, easy-to-deploy and with the synaptic advantage of remote sensing. In order to evaluate the potential of photogrammetry on river systems and to assess river-bed changes and erosion-accretion processes, we conducted several surveys over the period of one year on the Buech river, a gravel-bed braided river located in the French Southern Alps. The study area is located directly upstream of a gravel pit and there is an interest in evaluating its effects on the riverbed. Our field protocol was comprised of vertical aerial photographs taken from a microlight aircraft flying approximately 300 ft above the ground. The equipment used was a full-frame DSLR with a wide angle lense, synchronised with a DGPS onboard. Fourty 40cm wide targets were placed on the ground and georeferenced by RTK DGPS with an accuracy of 2cm. In addition, close to one thousand Ground Control Points (GCPs) were measured within the different types of ground surfaces (vegetated, water, gravels) in order to assess the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) accuracy. We operated the production of the 3D model and its derived products: Digital Surface Model (DSM) and orthophotography, with user-friendly Agisoft (c) Photoscan Professional software. The processing of several hundred pictures with 2.5 cm ground resolution resulted in a DSM with a resolution of 10 cm and a vertical accuracy within 5 cm. As is expected, accuracy was best on bare bars and decreased with increasing vegetation density. To complement the DSM in the wetted channels, we used the orthophotos to establish a relationship between water color and flow depth using statistical multivariate regressions. Merging the bathymetric model and the DSM produced a DTM with a vertical

  1. On the quality of prairie-pothole wetlands for adult and juvenile waterfowl following aerial application of insecticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grue, C.E.; Tome, M.W.; Swanson, G.A.; Borthwick, S.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987 the impact of aerial application of ethyl parathion to waterfowl on small prairie wetlands adjacent to sunflower fields in North Dakota was assessed by studying 5 fenced wetlands surrounded by sunflowers and 5 fenced controls. By 3 days post-spray, 4 of 104 ducklings released onto the wetlands were alive, compared to 52% of 105 control ducklings. Brain ChE activity was depressed > 50% in all but one of the 50 ducklings found dead post-spray. Survival of amphipods in enclosures within the contaminated wetlands was reduced for 25 days. Naturally-occurring broods on unfenced wetlands and free-living aquatic invertebrates in the fenced wetlands were also severely affected. The results suggest aerial application of insecticides may have significant direct and indirect impacts on the survival of adult and juvenile waterfowl within the prairie-pothole region.

  2. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives.

    PubMed

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-07-12

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research.

  3. An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

  4. An Overview of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Air Quality Measurements: Present Applications and Future Prospectives

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Tommaso Francesco; Gonzalez, Felipe; Miljievic, Branka; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of air quality has been traditionally conducted by ground based monitoring, and more recently by manned aircrafts and satellites. However, performing fast, comprehensive data collection near pollution sources is not always feasible due to the complexity of sites, moving sources or physical barriers. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with different sensors have been introduced for in-situ air quality monitoring, as they can offer new approaches and research opportunities in air pollution and emission monitoring, as well as for studying atmospheric trends, such as climate change, while ensuring urban and industrial air safety. The aims of this review were to: (1) compile information on the use of UAVs for air quality studies; and (2) assess their benefits and range of applications. An extensive literature review was conducted using three bibliographic databases (Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar) and a total of 60 papers was found. This relatively small number of papers implies that the field is still in its early stages of development. We concluded that, while the potential of UAVs for air quality research has been established, several challenges still need to be addressed, including: the flight endurance, payload capacity, sensor dimensions/accuracy, and sensitivity. However, the challenges are not simply technological, in fact, policy and regulations, which differ between countries, represent the greatest challenge to facilitating the wider use of UAVs in atmospheric research. PMID:27420065

  5. The application of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing technology in the FAST project construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Boqin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing application in Five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) project is to dynamically record the construction process with high resolution image, monitor the environmental impact, and provide services for local environmental protection and the reserve immigrants. This paper introduces the use of UAV remote sensing system and the course design and implementation for the FAST site. Through the analysis of the time series data, we found that: (1) since the year 2012, the project has been widely carried out; (2) till 2013, the internal project begun to take shape;(3) engineering excavation scope was kept stable in 2014, and the initial scale of the FAST engineering construction has emerged as in the meantime, the vegetation recovery went well on the bare soil area; (4) in 2015, none environmental problems caused by engineering construction and other engineering geological disaster were found in the work area through the image interpretation of UAV images. This paper also suggested that the UAV technology need some improvements to fulfill the requirements of surveying and mapping specification., including a new data acquisition and processing measures assigned with the background of highly diverse elevation, usage of telephoto camera, hierarchical photography with different flying height, and adjustment with terrain using the joint empty three settlement method.

  6. UAVs for the Operational Commander: Don’t Ground MAV (Manned Aerial Vehicles)!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    start, taxi, launch, recover and park aircraft on the deck. 78 Studies highlight many gesture recognition difficulties associated with dynamic...American Helicopter Society, 2007). 78 --. CV NATOPS Manual. (Lakehurst, NJ: Naval Air Systems Command, 2007). 79 Venetsky, Larry. Gesture Recognition for...Venetsky, Larry, Mark Husni and Mark Yager. Gesture Recognition for UCAV-N Flight Deck Operations. Problem Definition Final Report. Lakehurst, NJ

  7. Efficacy of aerial spray applications using fuselage booms on Air Force C-130H aircraft against mosquitoes and biting midges.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Wojcik, George M; De Szalay, Ferenc A

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of a novel fuselage boom configuration was tested with flat-fan nozzles on U.S. Air Force C-130H aircraft to create ultra-low volume sprays to control mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). The mortality of mosquitoes and biting midges in bioassay cages and natural populations, using the organophosphate adulticide, naled, was measured. Mosquitoes in bioassay cages had 100% mortality at 639 m downwind in all single-pass spray trials, and most trials had >90% mortality up to 1491 m downwind. Mosquito mortality was negatively correlated with distance from the spray release point (r2 = 0.38, P < 0.001). The volume median diam of droplets collected was 44 tm at 213 m and decreased to 11 microm at 2130 m downwind of the release point. Droplet density decreased from an average of 18.4 drops/cm2 at 213 m to 2 drops/cm2 at 2130 m. Droplet densities of 10-18 droplets/cm2 were recorded at sampling stations with high mosquito mortality rates (>90%). In wide-area operational applications, numbers of mosquitoes from natural populations 1 wk postspray were 83% (range 55%-95%), lower than prespray numbers (P < 0.05). Biting midge numbers were reduced by 86% (range 53%-97%) on average (P = 0.051) after 7 days. The results of these field trials indicate that the fuselage boom configuration on C-130H aircraft are an effective method to conduct large-scale aerial sprays during military operations and public health emergencies.

  8. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  9. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  10. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  11. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  12. A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadman, Jason Markos

    Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated

  13. Comparison of drop size data from ground and aerial application nozzles at three testing laboratories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray drop size is a critical factor in the performance of any agrochemical solution and is a function of spray solution, nozzle selection, and nozzle operation. Applicators generally base their selection of a particular nozzle based on the drop size reported by manufacturers and researchers. Like m...

  14. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.

    2014-12-01

    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  15. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in monitoring applications and management of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Marco; Aicardi, Irene; Lingua, Andrea; Noardo, Francesca; Chiabrando, Filiberto

    2015-04-01

    In the last years following the damages derived by the climate change (such as flooding and so on) it is growing the necessity to monitor the watercourses with effective and quickly method, where low cost solutions are particularly interested. In some cases, it is essential to have information about the riverbed, the river banks and to analyze the springs and the way in which the water moves. For the terrestrial point of view this knowledge can be acquired through GNSS and topographic methods, but they are still too manually so that they are time-consuming with respect the acquisition of information about the entire area. Another possibility is to perform a laser scanner survey, but the most common instruments (economically sustainable) have some problems to acquire information of sub-water-layer. Moreover, terrestrial surveys from cameras (such as visible, thermic or hyperspectral sensors) can't always offer a useful view of the case study due to the fact that they have a limited range of possible points of acquisition. For these reasons, it can be more effective to have an aerial point of view of the river, for example using UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), which have been experimented in these last years for environmental investigations. The proposed studies include photogrammetric and thermographic applications in order to investigate a new post-flooding riverbed arrangement and to identify some sub-riverbed springs inside a stream in order to monitor the behavior of two studied watercourses. The tests have been carried out with a customized low-cost mini-UAV based on the Mikrokopter Hexakopter solution embedded with a navigation system for the autonomous flight (GNSS/IMU) and with the possibility to house different kind of sensors, such as a camera, a GNSS receiver, a LiDAR sensor, a thermographic camera and more other sensors, but with the limitation of a 1.2 Kg payload. The most significant innovation is the possibility to perform quickly and economical

  16. 7 CFR 1755.704 - Requirements applicable to both CCSR and NMR aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... service wires. 1755.704 Section 1755.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... aerial service wires. (a) Acceptance testing. (1) The tests described in §§ 1755.700 through 1755.704 are intended for acceptance of wire designs and major modifications of accepted designs. What constitutes...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.704 - Requirements applicable to both CCSR and NMR aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... service wires. 1755.704 Section 1755.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... aerial service wires. (a) Acceptance testing. (1) The tests described in §§ 1755.700 through 1755.704 are intended for acceptance of wire designs and major modifications of accepted designs. What constitutes...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.704 - Requirements applicable to both CCSR and NMR aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... service wires. 1755.704 Section 1755.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... aerial service wires. (a) Acceptance testing. (1) The tests described in §§ 1755.700 through 1755.704 are intended for acceptance of wire designs and major modifications of accepted designs. What constitutes...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.704 - Requirements applicable to both CCSR and NMR aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... service wires. 1755.704 Section 1755.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... aerial service wires. (a) Acceptance testing. (1) The tests described in §§ 1755.700 through 1755.704 are intended for acceptance of wire designs and major modifications of accepted designs. What constitutes...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.704 - Requirements applicable to both CCSR and NMR aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... service wires. 1755.704 Section 1755.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... aerial service wires. (a) Acceptance testing. (1) The tests described in §§ 1755.700 through 1755.704 are intended for acceptance of wire designs and major modifications of accepted designs. What constitutes...

  1. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and range science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low fligh...

  2. AGDRIFT: A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING NEAR-FIELD SPRAY DRIFT FROM AERIAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aerial spray prediction model AgDRIFT(R) embodies the computational engine found in the near-wake Lagrangian model AGricultural DISPersal (AGDISP) but with several important features added that improve the speed and accuracy of its predictions. This article summarizes those c...

  3. A low-cost dual-camera imaging system for aerial applicators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural aircraft provide a readily available remote sensing platform as low-cost and easy-to-use consumer-grade cameras are being increasingly used for aerial imaging. In this article, we report on a dual-camera imaging system we recently assembled that can capture RGB and near-infrared (NIR) i...

  4. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and rangeland science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Anderson, C. A.; Perini, N. A.; Saripalli, S.; Laliberte, A.

    2012-12-01

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low flight altitudes and velocities, UAVs are able to produce high resolution (5 cm) images as well as stereo coverage (with 75% forward overlap and 40% sidelap) to extract digital elevation models (DEM). Another advantage of flying at low altitude is that the potential problems of atmospheric haze obscuration are eliminated. Both small fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft have been used in our experiments over two rangeland areas in the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico and the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. The fixed-wing UAV has a digital camera in the wing and six-band multispectral camera in the nose, while the rotary-wing UAV carries a digital camera as payload. Because we have been acquiring imagery for several years, there are now > 31,000 photos at one of the study sites, and 177 mosaics over rangeland areas have been constructed. Using the DEM obtained from the imagery we have determined the actual catchment areas of three watersheds and compared these to previous estimates. At one site, the UAV-derived watershed area is 4.67 ha which is 22% smaller compared to a manual survey using a GPS unit obtained several years ago. This difference can be significant in constructing a watershed model of the site. From a vegetation species classification, we also determined that two of the shrub types in this small watershed(mesquite and creosote with 6.47 % and 5.82% cover, respectively) grow in similar locations(flat upland areas with deep soils), whereas the most predominant shrub(mariola with 11.9% cover) inhabits hillslopes near stream channels(with steep shallow soils). The positioning of these individual shrubs throughout the catchment using

  5. Application of machine learning for the evaluation of turfgrass plots using aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Raheja, Amar; Bhandari, Subodh; Green, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    Historically, investigation of turfgrass characteristics have been limited to visual ratings. Although relevant information may result from such evaluations, final inferences may be questionable because of the subjective nature in which the data is collected. Recent advances in computer vision techniques allow researchers to objectively measure turfgrass characteristics such as percent ground cover, turf color, and turf quality from the digital images. This paper focuses on developing a methodology for automated assessment of turfgrass quality from aerial images. Images of several turfgrass plots of varying quality were gathered using a camera mounted on an unmanned aerial vehicle. The quality of these plots were also evaluated based on visual ratings. The goal was to use the aerial images to generate quality evaluations on a regular basis for the optimization of water treatment. Aerial images are used to train a neural network so that appropriate features such as intensity, color, and texture of the turfgrass are extracted from these images. Neural network is a nonlinear classifier commonly used in machine learning. The output of the neural network trained model is the ratings of the grass, which is compared to the visual ratings. Currently, the quality and the color of turfgrass, measured as the greenness of the grass, are evaluated. The textures are calculated using the Gabor filter and co-occurrence matrix. Other classifiers such as support vector machines and simpler linear regression models such as Ridge regression and LARS regression are also used. The performance of each model is compared. The results show encouraging potential for using machine learning techniques for the evaluation of turfgrass quality and color.

  6. Aerial ULV application of permethrin against adult mosquitoes over open field and medium density canopy habitat in a hot-temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although aerial ULV application of adulticides is a common adult mosquito control strategy, not enough is known about the fate of the pesticide or its efficacy over different habitats. Dye labeling of droplets is used to evaluate ULV applications, and, by inference, their efficacy. Placement of cage...

  7. Effects of Formulated Glyphosate and Adjuvant Tank Mixes on Atomization from Aerial Application Flat Fan Nozzles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    and Siddiqui, H. A., “Measurement of Drop Spectra from Rotary Cage Aerial Atomizers,” Crop Protect., Vol. 9, No. 1, 1990, pp. 33–38. [9] Teske , M. E...piled from Wind Tunnel Tests,” Report No. FPM 90-9, USDA Forest Service, Washington, D.C., 1991. [20] Teske , M. E., Skyler, P. J., and Barry, J. W., “A...International Conference, NIST Special Publication 813, National Institute of Standard and Tech- nology, Gaithersburg, MD, 1991, pp. 325–332. [21] Teske , M. E

  8. Application possibilities of aerial and terrain data evaluation in particulate pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma-Bognar, V.; Berke, J.; Martin, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, remote sensing has become a widely used technology in order to acquire information about our environment. Data collected using remote sensing technology indispensible criteria to recognise and monitor environmental problems caused by contamination from various human activities. According to great technological change and development in the previous decade high spectral and geometric resolution sensors are more often used. The higher resolution technology allows getting more accurate and reliable results in the research processes of the environmental pollution impacts. At University of Pannonia, Georgikon Faculty (Hungary) plant-soil-atmosphere system analyses are carried out for detecting the potential harmful effects of heavy metal pollution originated from vehicle industry. Related to this research at the Department of Meteorology and Water Management, black carbon and cadmium pollution effects are being analysed on maize crops. Testing area is situated at Agro-meteorological Research Station in Keszthely, where the first time in 2011 aerial imaging technology was used in parallel with field analyses. The experiment aims to analyses correlation of the field data with aerial data. During aerial photography were taken in different spectral bands (Visible, Near Infrared, Far Infrared). High intensity, spectral and spatial resolution data was an important part of the multitemporal imagine sensing and evaluating technology, therefore original technical solutions were applied. These resolutions served accurate plot-level evaluation. Fractal structure and intensity measurement evaluation methods were applied to examine black carbon and cadmium polluted and control maize canopy after data pre-processing. Research also focused on the examination of potential negative or positive effects of irrigation so that differences between irrigated and non-irrigated maize was investigated. For the period of growing season of 2011 time-series analyses were carried out in

  9. Dry borax applicator operator's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Karsky, Richard, J.

    1999-01-01

    Annosum root rot affects conifers throughout the Northern Hemisphere, infecting their roots and eventually killing the trees. The fungus Heterobasidion annosum causes annosum root rot. The fungus colonizes readily on freshly cut stumps. Partially cut stands have a high risk of infestation because the fungus can colonize on each of the stumps and potentially infect the neighboring trees. Wind and rain carry the annosum spores. Spores that land on freshly cut stumps grow down the stump's root system where they can infect living trees through root grafts or root contacts. Once annosum becomes established, it can remain active for many years in the Southern United States and for several decades in the north. About 7% of the trees that become infected die. When thinning, stumps can be treated successfully using a competing fungus, Phlebia gigantea, and with ''Tim-Bor'' in liquid formulations. These liquid products are no longer approved in the United States. Only the dry powder form is registered and approved by the EPA. Stumps can be treated with a dry formula of borax, (Sporax), significantly reducing one of the primary routes by which Heterobasidion annosum infects a stand of trees. Sporax is used by the USDA Forest Service to control annosum root rot. Sporax is now applied by hand, but once the felled trees are skidded it becomes very hard to locate the stumps. A stump applicator will reduce error, labor costs, and hazards to workers.

  10. Application of close-range aerial infrared thermography to detect landfill gas emissions: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanda, G.; Migliazzi, M.; Chiarabini, V.; Cinquetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring waste disposal sites is important to check that the produced biogas, potentially explosive, is properly collected by the biogas extraction system of the landfill site and to evaluate the residual biogas flow escaping from upper surface of the landfill. As the biogas migrates to the surface, the soil through which it flows is expected to reach a higher temperature than the surrounding environment; thus, measuring the thermal footprint of the landfill soil surface could allow the detection of biogas leakages and spots suitable for the gas extraction. Close-range aerial infrared thermography is an innovative approach able to identify thermal anomalies with a good resolution over a large region of the landfill surface. A simple procedure to deduce the biogas flow rate emerging from the soil into the atmosphere, based on infrared thermography measurements, is presented. The approach has been applied to a case study concerning a large landfill located in Genoa (Italy). Aerial infrared photographs taken during different days and seasons showed the presence of thermal anomalies over regions along the peripheral boundary of the landfill still not interested in biogas extraction.

  11. Operator Trainer (OpTrain): The United States (U.S.) Army Aerial Targets Simulator and Trainer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    MissileLab Produced 3-D Model The moments of inertia were determined through pendulum testing in the Aerial Targets Laboratory. The tow was balanced...on a knife edge stand to determine the CG, and a pendulum system was clamped to the tow at the CG. Clamping at θ = 180 degrees is used for IZZ and...IYY; clamping at 90 degrees is used for IXX measurements. The pendulum and tow assembly were hung on a frame, as shown in Figure 5. Swinging the

  12. Calibration and Extension of a Discrete Event Operations Simulation Modeling Multiple Un-Manned Aerial Vehicles Controlled by a Single Operator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    single Raven or $250,000 for a total system including a ground control station with applicable software and four Ravens[4]. The experimental...communications from the rover to the ground station (the relay). The operational concept (OV-1 diagram) on the following page is a visual overview of how...observe a convoy of trucks moving out of the direct line-of-sight from the ground station . In the past, this has been impossible. Using rover

  13. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  14. Applicability of Aerial Green LiDAR to a Large River in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, J. T.; Welcker, C. W.; Cooper, C.; Faux, R.; Butler, M.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2012, aerial green LiDAR data were collected in the Snake River (within Idaho and Oregon) to test this emerging technology in a large river with poor water clarity. Six study areas (total of 30 river miles spread out over 250 river miles) were chosen to represent a variety of depths, channel types, and surface conditions to test the accuracy, depth penetration, data density of aerial green LiDAR. These characteristics along with cost and speed of acquisition were compared to other bathymetric survey techniques including rod surveys (total station and RTK-GPS), single-beam sonar, and multibeam echosounder (MBES). The green LiDAR system typically measured returns from the riverbed through 1-2 meters of water, which was less than one Secchi depth. However, in areas with steep banks or aquatic macrophytes, LiDAR returns from the riverbed were less frequent or non-existent. In areas of good return density, depths measured from green LiDAR data corresponded well with previously collected data sets from traditional bathymetric survey techniques. In such areas, the green LiDAR point density was much higher than both rod and single beam sonar surveys, yet lower than MBES. The green LiDAR survey was also collected more efficiently than all other methods. In the Snake River, green LiDAR does not provide a method to map the entire riverbed as it only receives bottom returns in shallow water, typically at the channel margins. However, green LiDAR does provide survey data that is an excellent complement to MBES, which is more effective at surveying the deeper portions of the channel. In some cases, the green LiDAR was able to provide data in areas that the MBES could not, often due to issues with navigating the survey boat in shallow water. Even where both MBES and green LiDAR mapped the river bottom, green LiDAR often provides more accurate data through a better angle of incidence and less shadowing than the MBES survey. For one MBES survey in 2013, the green Li

  15. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Henry; Eckert, Martina; Meneses, Juan; Martínez, José-Fernán

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI), developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs) with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs), with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone. PMID:27322264

  16. Effects on wildlife of aerial applications of strobane, DDT, and BHC to tidal marshes in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, J.L.; Darsie, R.F.; Springer, P.F.

    1957-01-01

    The principal purpose of this study was to ascertain what effect on wildlife, if any, would result from the use of the new insecticide, Strobane, for mosquito control on tideland areas. Comparisons were made with DDT and BHC (43 per cent gamma isomer) commonly used in control operations. The investigation was carried out on the tidal marshes of Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge near Smyrna, Delaware. Four areas, all similar in habitat, were chosen-three as test plots for Strobane, BHC, and DDT, respectively, and the fourth as an untreated check. The insecticides in oil solution were applied by airplane at the rates of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 pound per acre for gamma isomer of BHC, DDT, and Strobane, respectively. The first application was made on the morning of July 27; and the second, on the evening of August 23, 1955. To assay the results of spraying, 14 testing devices were set up in each area. They consisted of cages, traps, and microscope slides placed in the streams and ponds. The estuarine fishes, Fundulus heteroclitus, Cyprinodon variegatus, Leiostornus xanthurus, and Ailugil curemu; blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus; fiddler crabs, Uca pugnux, Uca minux, and Sesarma reticulaturn; and certain sessile organisms were included in the tests. Analyses of variance on fish and blue crabs showed no significant difference between deaths occurring in treated and control plots, nor among the three treatments. Differential mortalities were suffered by fish caged in streams and ponds. Greater numbers died in the BHC-treated streams and in the DDT-treated ponds. Local concentrations of insecticide appeared to be the cause, although the magnitude of kill was not significantly greater than in control areas. Field observations and crab-pot counts showed that both the fish and blue crabs avoided the sites of high insecticide concentration. Certainly the majority of the free-living individuals in the treated areas were able to survive the sprays, and at the level tested showed no

  17. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  18. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  19. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  20. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  1. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  2. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-06-12

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  3. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  4. Site-specific Topguard application based on aerial imagery for effective management of cotton root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton root rot is a century-old cotton disease that can be controlled with Topguard Fungicide recently. As this disease tends to occur in the same general areas within fields in recurring years, site-specific application of the fungicide only to the infected areas can be more effective and economic...

  5. Results of Laboratory Testing for Diphacinone in Seawater, Fish, Invertebrates, and Soil Following Aerial Application of Rodenticide on Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, January 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; Tanner, Michael J.; Swenson, Chris; Herod, Jeffrey J.; Dunlevy, Peter; Gale, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2009, rodenticide bait (Ramik Green pellets) containing the active ingredient diphacinone was aerially applied to Lehua Island. Reported herein are the results of laboratory analyses to determine diphacinone concentrations in samples of seawater, fillet of fish, soft tissue of limpets (opihi), whole-body crabs, and soil collected from Lehua Island, Kauai County, Hawaii, after aerial application of the rodenticide bait. Diphacinone was specifically chosen because of its low toxicity to nontarget organisms. Its use on Lehua Island is the second time it has ever been used for an aerial application to eradicate rodents. Testing of the Lehua Island samples for diphacinone utilized high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. No detectable concentrations of diphacinone were found in any of the samples from Lehua Island. The limits of detection for diphacinone were 0.4 nanograms per milliliter (parts per billion) seawater, 15 nanograms per gram (dry weight) soil, 20 nanograms per gram (parts per billion) fish fillet, 13 nanograms per gram whole crab, and 34 nanograms per gram soft tissue limpet.

  6. Architecting Human Operator Trust in Automation to Improve System Effectiveness in Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    like to extend our appreciation to our research sponsor Dr. Janet Miller from the Air Force Research Labs, and her colleague Dr. Cheryl Batchelor, for...for single-operator control of multiple UAVs. Drs. Brian Tsou, Lamar Warfield , Justin Estepp and Benjamin Knott , meanwhile, contributed to our

  7. Aerial image databases for pipeline rights-of-way management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadkowski, Mark A.

    1996-03-01

    Pipeline companies that own and manage extensive rights-of-way corridors are faced with ever-increasing regulatory pressures, operating issues, and the need to remain competitive in today's marketplace. Automation has long been an answer to the problem of having to do more work with less people, and Automated Mapping/Facilities Management/Geographic Information Systems (AM/FM/GIS) solutions have been implemented at several pipeline companies. Until recently, the ability to cost-effectively acquire and incorporate up-to-date aerial imagery into these computerized systems has been out of the reach of most users. NASA's Earth Observations Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) is providing a means by which pipeline companies can bridge this gap. The EOCAP project described in this paper includes a unique partnership with NASA and James W. Sewall Company to develop an aircraft-mounted digital camera system and a ground-based computer system to geometrically correct and efficiently store and handle the digital aerial images in an AM/FM/GIS environment. This paper provides a synopsis of the project, including details on (1) the need for aerial imagery, (2) NASA's interest and role in the project, (3) the design of a Digital Aerial Rights-of-Way Monitoring System, (4) image georeferencing strategies for pipeline applications, and (5) commercialization of the EOCAP technology through a prototype project at Algonquin Gas Transmission Company which operates major gas pipelines in New England, New York, and New Jersey.

  8. Maritime Tactical Unmanned Aerial Systems (TUAS) in Navy Strike Groups Can Improve Maritime Domain Awareness for the Operational Commander

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    failures and the inability to protect the homeland, resulting in sweeping changes to correct both.4 As part of these corrective actions, President...years ( 2017 ). This MDA Concept acknowledges the Navy’s growing operational focus beyond traditional blue water threats and activities to a more non...shortfalls are at the heart of the Navy’s challenges in achieving MDA. NAVY’S MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS CHALLENGES MDA requirements have

  9. 30 CFR 778.11 - Providing applicant and operator information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... are corporations, partnerships, associations, sole proprietorships, or other business entities; (2... operator, if different from the applicant. (4) Each business entity in the applicant's and operator's... such business entity, you must also provide the required information for every president,...

  10. Contamination and effects in freshwater ditches resulting from an aerial application of cypermethrin

    SciTech Connect

    Shires, S.W.; Bennett, D.

    1985-04-01

    Cypermethrin (Ripcord) was applied at 25 g ai ha-1 by fixed-wing aircraft to a large field (11.6 ha) of winter wheat bordered on three sides by drainage ditches. About 60% of the nominal application rate was deposited on the crop and about 6% (maximum) was deposited over the water surface. The amount of spray drift deposited upwind declined sharply with increasing distance from the treated field. Downwind, the spray drift was small but occurred over a much greater distance. Very low (0.03 micrograms liter-1 maximum) concentrations of cypermethrin were found in subsurface water samples and these declined rapidly after spraying. Bioassay tests, using a sensitive indicator species, confirmed that only a small amount of cypermethrin contamination had occurred in the ditch adjacent to the downwind perimeter of the field. Frequent sampling of the zooplankton and macroinvertebrate fauna of the ditches indicated that there were no marked biological effects resulting from the cypermethrin application. Only a few air-breathing corixids and the highly susceptible water mites showed minor short-term reductions in abundance after spraying. No effects were observed on either caged or indigenous fish stocks and no significant residues of cypermethrin were found in fish tissues.

  11. The Influence of Atmospheric Stability on Wind Drift from Ultra-Low-volume Aerial Forest Spray Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabbe, R. S.; McCooeye, M.; Mickle, R. E.

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of drift cloud mass from 11 cases selected from a study of wind-borne droplet drift from ultra low-volume aerial spray applications over northern Ontario forests are presented as a function of atmospheric stability. Six swaths were overlaid onto a flight line in 30 min to obtain ensemble-averaged data from rotary atomizer emissions from an agricultural spray plane flying at about 21 and 26 m above ground level. The estimated volume median diameters of the spray were 100 µm for the 21-m height and 70 µm for the 26-m height. The mass of spray material in the drift cloud was measured at 400, 1200, and 2200 m downwind of the (crosswind) flight line using Rotorods' suspended from tethered blimps. Wind speed at aircraft height varied from 2 to 5 m s1 and meteorological conditions varied from moderately stable to moderately unstable.Analysis of the data revealed that 35% more drift occurred in stable than in unstable conditions. The lowest drift was measured when the aircraft was flown in the morning mixing layer beneath a low capping inversion. Under thee conditions, only 18% of the emission drifted put 400 m downwind and 10% past 1200 m. The highest drift occurred in moderately stable flow, 71% past 400 m and 50% past 2200 m in 3 m s1 wind speeds and, in slightly stable flow, 77% past 400 m and 27% past 2200 m in 5 m s1 wind speeds.Within experimental error, little difference was observed between wind drift of the 100-µm-diameter droplets and the 70-µm-diameter droplets past 400 m downwind although farther downwind, drift from the larger-droplet emission was less. This difference is discussed in terms of the descent rate of the aircraft vortex wake in stable conditions.

  12. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  13. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  14. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  15. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  16. 47 CFR 1.83 - Applications for radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for radio operator licenses. 1.83... Rules of Practice and Procedure Miscellaneous Proceedings § 1.83 Applications for radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97...

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  18. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  19. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  20. Novaluron as an ovicide for bollworm on cotton: Deposition and efficacy of field-scale aerial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novaluron, Diamond 0.83 EC, was evaluated for deposition on cotton and ovicidal efficacy against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), because of the need to use insecticides with modes of action different than synthetic pyrethroids. Novaluron at the lowest label recommended rate was aerially-applied...

  1. Are Special Operations Imperatives Applicable to Counterdrug Operations?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-04

    interdiction has forced the cartels’operations to transfer to the southwestern United States. 2. La Cosa Nostra (LCN) and the Sicilian Mafia. There are 25...descending order: OPIUM - Burma - Mexico - Pakistan - Thailand COCAINE - Bolivia - Colombia - Ecuador - Peru MARIJUANA - Belize - Columbia 9 - Costa...Rica - Mexico - Panama - Jamaica Methods of Infiltration Border penetrations are not limited to any specific geographical area. Methods of

  2. Demonstration of rapid-scan two-dimensional laser velocimetry in the Langley Vortex Research Facility for research in aerial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, L. R.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Tests were conducted to demonstrate a rapid scan two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) measurement technique for aerial applications research. The LV system is capable of simultaneously measuring both vertical and axial flow velocity components in a near or far field vortex system. Velocity profiles were successfully measured in the wake vortex of a representative agricultural aircraft model, with the vortex system rapidly transporting in ground effect. Results indicate that the laser velocimetry technique can provide quantitative information of wake vortex characteristics in ground effect.

  3. Operation JUST CAUSE: An Application of Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-14

    Wright, Jr., Fort Bragg, North Carolina, March 15, 1990, 1; Thomas M. Donnelly , et. al., Operation Just Cause: The Storming of Panama (New York: Lexington... Donnelly , 55; Huntoon interview, 4; McMahon interview, i; Roosma interview, 3; and Yates, "Joint Task Force Panama," 69. 68. Summarized from Yates...composite summary of the following sources: Donnelly , 75; Crowell article in Watson, 70; Roosma interview, 14; and U.S. Congress, Post Invasion Panama

  4. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  5. A practical interpretation and use of the USDA aerial fixed-wing nozzle models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper selection and operation of spray nozzles associated with aerial applications is critical to insuring efficacy while mitigating off-target movement. Labels for most agrochemical products applied in the U.S. specifically define the droplet size or spray classification that can be used to apply...

  6. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  7. Preliminary applications of Landsat images and aerial photography for determining land-use, geologic, and hydrologic characteristics, Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimes, F.J.; Moore, G.K.; Steele, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    Expanded energy- and recreation-related activities in the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, have caused a rapid increase in economic development which will result in increased demand and competition for natural resources. In planning for efficient allocation of the basin 's natural resources, Landsat images and small-scale color and color-infrared photographs were used for selected geologic, hydrologic and land-use applications within the Yampa River basin. Applications of Landsat data included: (1) regional land-use classification and mapping, (2) lineament mapping, and (3) areal snow-cover mapping. Results from the Landsat investigations indicated that: (1) Landsat land-use classification maps, at a regional level, compared favorably with areal land-use patterns that were defined from available ground information, (2) lineaments were mapped in sufficient detail using recently developed techniques for interpreting aerial photographs, (3) snow cover generally could be mapped for large areas with the exception of some densely forested areas of the basin and areas having a large percentage of winter-season cloud cover. Aerial photographs were used for estimation of turbidity for eight stream locations in the basin. Spectral reflectance values obtained by digitizing photographs were compared with measured turbidity values. Results showed strong correlations (variances explained of greater than 90 percent) between spectral reflectance obtained from color photographs and measured turbidity values. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  9. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  10. Magnet operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents a review of magnet operating experiences for normal-conducting and superconducting magnets from fusion, particle accelerator, medical technology, and magnetohydrodynamics research areas. Safety relevant magnet operating experiences are presented to provide feedback on field performance of existing designs and to point out the operational safety concerns. Quantitative estimates of magnet component failure rates and accident event frequencies are also presented, based on field experience and on performance of similar components in other industries.

  11. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  12. Autonomous Operations System: Development and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.; Wilkins, Kim N.; Walker, Mark; Stahl, Gerald M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous control systems provides the ability of self-governance beyond the conventional control system. As the complexity of mechanical and electrical systems increases, there develops a natural drive for developing robust control systems to manage complicated operations. By closing the bridge between conventional automated systems to knowledge based self-awareness systems, nominal control of operations can evolve into relying on safe critical mitigation processes to support any off-nominal behavior. Current research and development efforts lead by the Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) group at NASA Kennedy Space Center aims to improve cryogenic propellant transfer operations by developing an automated control and health monitoring system. As an integrated systems, the center aims to produce an Autonomous Operations System (AOS) capable of integrating health management operations with automated control to produce a fully autonomous system.

  13. Space Operations Learning Center Facebook Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, Ben; Milner, Barbara; Binebrink, Dan; Kuok, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Space Operations Learning Center (SOLC) Facebook module, initially code-named Spaceville, is intended to be an educational online game utilizing the latest social networking technology to reach a broad audience base and inspire young audiences to be interested in math, science, and engineering. Spaceville will be a Facebook application/ game with the goal of combining learning with a fun game and social environment. The mission of the game is to build a scientific outpost on the Moon or Mars and expand the colony. Game activities include collecting resources, trading resources, completing simple science experiments, and building architectures such as laboratories, habitats, greenhouses, machine shops, etc. The player is awarded with points and achievement levels. The player s ability increases as his/her points and levels increase. A player can interact with other players using multiplayer Facebook functionality. As a result, a player can discover unexpected treasures through scientific missions, engineering, and working with others. The player creates his/her own avatar with his/her selection of its unique appearance, and names the character. The player controls the avatar to perform activities such as collecting oxygen molecules or building a habitat. From observations of other successful social online games such as Farmville and Restaurant City, a common element of these games is having eye-catching and cartoonish characters, and interesting animations for all activities. This will create a fun, educational, and rewarding environment. The player needs to accumulate points in order to be awarded special items needed for advancing to higher levels. Trophies will be awarded to the player when certain goals are reached or tasks are completed. In order to acquire some special items needed for advancement in the game, the player will need to visit his/her neighboring towns to discover the items. This is the social aspect of the game that requires the

  14. A prospective study of the effects of ultralow volume (ULV) aerial application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. I. Study design and perspective.

    PubMed

    Eliason, D A; Joseph, V R; Karam, J

    1975-03-01

    A large-scale prospective study was designed to test the effects of aerial ultralow volume (ULV) application of malathion on epidemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The study was conducted during 1972 to 1973, in the Miragoane Valley of Haiti, an area having annual anticipated outbreaks of malaria, which allowed prospective assessment. Spraying of malathion at a dosage of 4.5 fluid ounces per acre reduced populations of adult Anopheles albimanus to less than 1% of prespray levels and interrupted epidemic transmission of P. falciparum malaria. No change was measured in susceptibility of the vector mosquito to malathion after six applications of spray during a period of 50 days. Ecologic study revealed no significant impact on nontarget vertebrates. Factors that contributed to the success of this method in Haiti were: 1) a susceptible population of mosquitoes; 2) suitable topography and climate conditions for spraying; and 3) treatment of an area sufficiently large to minimize the influence of immigration of mosquitoes from unsprayed areas.

  15. Effects of aerial applications of esfenvalerate on small mammals and birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Rice, C.P.; Grove, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although no adverse effects were documented, this study did not provide data sufficient to adequately test for effects of aerial spraying of esfenvalerate on small mammal populations or nesting of birds in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Small mammal trapping data were too sparse to provide statistical testing with reasonable power. Residues of the R and S forms of fenvalerate were low with maxima of 0.56 and 1.72 ?g/g, respectively in pelage of a deer mouse. No diagnostic residue data are available to interpret our results.

  16. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  17. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    PubMed

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  18. PCOS - An operating system for modular applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tharp, V. P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the PCOS operating system for the MC68000 family processors. Topics covered are: development history; development support; rational for development of PCOS and salient characteristics; architecture; and a brief comparison of PCOS to UNIX.

  19. Dexterous Operations on ISS and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, P. Andrew; Read, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is a complex robotics system used extensively in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Its external components are comprised of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM or "Dextre"). Dexterous robotic maintenance operations on the ISS are now enabled with the launch and deployment of "Dextre" in March 2008 and the recently completed commissioning to support nominal operations. These operations include allowing for maintenance of the MSS capability to be executed uniquely via robotic means. Examples are detailed inspection and the removal and replacement of On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs) located outside the pressurized volume of the ISS, alleviating astronauts from performing numerous risky and time-consuming extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). In light of the proposed extension of the ISS to 2020 and beyond, "Dextre" can also be seen as a resource for the support and conduct of external ISS experiments. "Dextre" can be utilized to move experiments around ISS, as test bed for more elaborate experiments outside the original design intent, and as a unique platform for external experiments. This paper summarizes the status of "Dextre", its planned use, and future potential for dexterous operations on the ISS. Lessons learned from the planning and execution of SPDM commissioning are first introduced, and significant differences between "Dextre" and SSRMS operations are discussed. The use of ground control as the predominant method for operating "Dextre" is highlighted, along with the benefits and challenges that this poses. Finally, the latest plans for dexterous operations on ISS are summarized including visiting vehicle unloading, nominal maintenance, and operations of a more experimental flavor.

  20. Space System Applications to Tactical Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    have computers in your offices -- or even at home. Over the past 25 years, we have witnessed an explosion in computer technology with processing speeds... process of placing small computers at operational units to aid in routine tasks such as mission planning. These capabilities exist today largely because of...Programs to develop very high speed integrated circuits, of VHSIC, will push computer processing speeds beyond 30 million operations per second, will

  1. Operating System Support for Mobile Interactive Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    resource management, history- based demand prediction, augmented reality , machine learning Abstract Mobile interactive applications are becoming...increasingly important. One such application alone — augmented reality — has enormous potential in fields ranging from entertainment to aircraft maintenance...Figure 1: Size of this dissertation over time Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Scenario — augmented reality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

  2. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operating systems. 1194.21 Section 1194.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... Standards § 1194.21 Software applications and operating systems. (a) When software is designed to run on a... shall not disrupt or disable activated features of any operating system that are identified...

  3. A minicomputer interface for realtime operations: an application to operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Mayor, S J; Wilson, J

    1975-09-01

    A PDP-12 interface was designed, constructed, and tested for realtime imput and output of binary information. Within limits this interface can be used with any peripheral device which operates in the binary mode. In addition to its generality of application the interface features include ease of expansion and low cost. A description of its design and operation is give here is terms of a typical application: the control of behavioral equipment (i.e. "Skinner Boxes") for operant conditioning.

  4. Vision-Based Corrosion Detection Assisted by a Micro-Aerial Vehicle in a Vessel Inspection Application

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alberto; Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco; Garcia-Fidalgo, Emilio; Company-Corcoles, Joan P.

    2016-01-01

    Vessel maintenance requires periodic visual inspection of the hull in order to detect typical defective situations of steel structures such as, among others, coating breakdown and corrosion. These inspections are typically performed by well-trained surveyors at great cost because of the need for providing access means (e.g., scaffolding and/or cherry pickers) that allow the inspector to be at arm’s reach from the structure under inspection. This paper describes a defect detection approach comprising a micro-aerial vehicle which is used to collect images from the surfaces under inspection, particularly focusing on remote areas where the surveyor has no visual access, and a coating breakdown/corrosion detector based on a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network. As it is discussed in the paper, the success of the inspection process depends not only on the defect detection software but also on a number of assistance functions provided by the control architecture of the aerial platform, whose aim is to improve picture quality. Both aspects of the work are described along the different sections of the paper, as well as the classification performance attained. PMID:27983627

  5. Vision-Based Corrosion Detection Assisted by a Micro-Aerial Vehicle in a Vessel Inspection Application.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alberto; Bonnin-Pascual, Francisco; Garcia-Fidalgo, Emilio; Company-Corcoles, Joan P

    2016-12-14

    Vessel maintenance requires periodic visual inspection of the hull in order to detect typical defective situations of steel structures such as, among others, coating breakdown and corrosion. These inspections are typically performed by well-trained surveyors at great cost because of the need for providing access means (e.g., scaffolding and/or cherry pickers) that allow the inspector to be at arm's reach from the structure under inspection. This paper describes a defect detection approach comprising a micro-aerial vehicle which is used to collect images from the surfaces under inspection, particularly focusing on remote areas where the surveyor has no visual access, and a coating breakdown/corrosion detector based on a three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network. As it is discussed in the paper, the success of the inspection process depends not only on the defect detection software but also on a number of assistance functions provided by the control architecture of the aerial platform, whose aim is to improve picture quality. Both aspects of the work are described along the different sections of the paper, as well as the classification performance attained.

  6. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  7. Operational Applications of Satellite Snowcover Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor); Peterson, R. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The history of remote sensing of snow cover is reviewed and the following topics are covered: various techniques for interpreting LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data; the status of future systems for continuing snow hydrology applications; the use of snow cover observations in streamflow forecasts by Applications Systems Verification and Transfer participants and selected foreign investigators; and the benefits of using satellite snow cover data in runoff prediction.

  8. 30 CFR 778.11 - Providing applicant and operator information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... are corporations, partnerships, associations, sole proprietorships, or other business entities; (2... telephone number for— (1) The applicant. (2) Your resident agent who will accept service of process. (3) Any operator, if different from the applicant. (4) Each business entity in the applicant's and...

  9. Aerial-broadcast application of diphacinone bait for rodent control in Hawai`i: Efficacy and non-target species risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David; Spurr, Eric B.; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Forbes Perry, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rats (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, and R. norvegicus) have been implicated in the decline or extinction of numerous species of plants and animals in Hawai‘i. This study investigated the efficacy of aerial-broadcast application of Ramik® Green baits containing 50 ppm (0.005%) diphacinone in reducing rat and mouse populations and the risk to non-target species. The study was undertaken in paired 45.56-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. All 21 radio-collared rats in the treatment plot died within nine days of bait application, whereas none of the 18 radio-collared rats in the non-treatment plot died. There was a 99% drop in both the rat capture rate and percentage of non-toxic census bait blocks gnawed by rats in the treatment plot relative to the non-treatment plot three weeks after bait application. The only rat captured in the treatment plot three weeks after bait application was not ear-tagged (i.e., it was not a recapture), whereas 44% of the 52 rats captured in the non-treatment plot were ear-tagged. Most of the bait had disappeared from the forest floor within about one month of application. No birds likely to have eaten bait were found dead, although residues of diphacinone were found in the livers of three species of introduced seed-eating/omnivorous birds captured alive after bait application. No predatory birds were found dead one month or three months after bait application. The remains of a Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius) were found six months after bait application, but it was not possible to determine the cause of death. This study demonstrated the efficacy of aerially broadcast diphacinone bait for control of rats and mice in Hawaiian montane forests, and was part of the dataset submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the national registration of a diphacinone bait for the control of rat populations in conservation areas.

  10. Integrated Launch Operations Applications Remote Display Developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, Cedric M., II

    2014-01-01

    This internship provides the opportunity to support the creation and use of Firing Room Displays and Firing Room Applications that use an abstraction layer called the Application Control Language (ACL). Required training included video watching, reading assignments, face-to-face instruction and job shadowing other Firing Room software developers as they completed their daily duties. During the training period various computer and access rights needed for creating the applications were obtained. The specific ground subsystems supported are the Cryogenics Subsystems, Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) and Liquid Oxygen (LO2). The cryogenics team is given the task of finding the best way to handle these very volatile liquids that are used to fuel the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Orion flight vehicles safely.

  11. Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

  12. Hypermedia and intelligent tutoring applications in a mission operations environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Baker, Clifford

    1990-01-01

    Hypermedia, hypertext and Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) applications to support all phases of mission operations are investigated. The application of hypermedia and ITS technology to improve system performance and safety in supervisory control is described - with an emphasis on modeling operator's intentions in the form of goals, plans, tasks, and actions. Review of hypermedia and ITS technology is presented as may be applied to the tutoring of command and control languages. Hypertext based ITS is developed to train flight operation teams and System Test and Operation Language (STOL). Specific hypermedia and ITS application areas are highlighted, including: computer aided instruction of flight operation teams (STOL ITS) and control center software development tools (CHIMES and STOL Certification Tool).

  13. Mapping bare soil in South West Wales, UK, using high resolution colour infra-red aerial photography for water quality and flood risk management applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to

  14. Application of a wireless sensor node to health monitoring of operational wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Stuart G; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Farrar, Charles R; Todd, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is a developing field of research with a variety of applications including civil structures, industrial equipment, and energy infrastructure. An SHM system requires an integrated process of sensing, data interrogation and statistical assessment. The first and most important stage of any SHM system is the sensing system, which is traditionally composed of transducers and data acquisition hardware. However, such hardware is often heavy, bulky, and difficult to install in situ. Furthermore, physical access to the structure being monitored may be limited or restricted, as is the case for rotating wind turbine blades or unmanned aerial vehicles, requiring wireless transmission of sensor readings. This study applies a previously developed compact wireless sensor node to structural health monitoring of rotating small-scale wind turbine blades. The compact sensor node collects low-frequency structural vibration measurements to estimate natural frequencies and operational deflection shapes. The sensor node also has the capability to perform high-frequency impedance measurements to detect changes in local material properties or other physical characteristics. Operational measurements were collected using the wireless sensing system for both healthy and damaged blade conditions. Damage sensitive features were extracted from the collected data, and those features were used to classify the structural condition as healthy or damaged.

  15. Aerial Application of Mancozeb and Urinary Ethylene Thiourea (ETU) Concentrations among Pregnant Women in Costa Rica: The Infants’ Environmental Health Study (ISA)

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Ana María; Córdoba, Leonel; Cano, Juan Camilo; Quesada, Rosario; Faniband, Moosa; Wesseling, Catharina; Ruepert, Clemens; Öberg, Mattias; Eskenazi, Brenda; Mergler, Donna; Lindh, Christian H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mancozeb and its main metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU) may alter thyroid function; thyroid hormones are essential for fetal brain development. In Costa Rica, mancozeb is aerially sprayed at large-scale banana plantations on a weekly basis. Objectives: Our goals were to evaluate urinary ETU concentrations in pregnant women living near large-scale banana plantations, compare their estimated daily intake (EDI) with established reference doses (RfDs), and identify factors that predict their urinary ETU concentrations. Methods: We enrolled 451 pregnant women from Matina County, Costa Rica, which has large-scale banana production. We visited 445 women up to three times during pregnancy to obtain urine samples (n = 872) and information on factors that possibly influence exposure. We determined urinary ETU concentrations using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Results: Pregnant women’s median urinary ETU concentrations were more than five times higher than those reported for other general populations. Seventy-two percent of the women had EDIs above the RfD. Women who lived closest (1st quartile, < 48 m) to banana plantations on average had a 45% (95% CI: 23, 72%) higher urinary ETU compared with women who lived farthest away (4th quartile, ≥ 565 m). Compared with the other women, ETU was also higher in women who washed agricultural work clothes on the day before sampling (11%; 95% CI: 4.9, 17%), women who worked in agriculture during pregnancy (19%; 95% CI: 9.3, 29%), and immigrant women (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.0, 13%). Conclusions: The pregnant women’s urinary ETU concentrations are of concern, and the principal source of exposure is likely to be aerial spraying of mancozeb. The factors predicting ETU provide insight into possibilities for exposure reduction. Citation: van Wendel de Joode B, Mora AM, Córdoba L, Cano JC, Quesada R, Faniband M, Wesseling C, Ruepert C, Öberg M, Eskenazi B, Mergler D, Lindh CH. 2014. Aerial application of mancozeb and

  16. Growth conditions, compact perturbations and operator subdecomposability, with applications to generalized Cesàro operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. L.; Miller, V. G.; Neumann, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    We adapt recent results of Albrecht and Ricker to obtain conditions under which growth constraints on the left resolvent of a Banach space operator are preserved under suitable perturbations. As an application, we establish Bishop's property ([beta]) for certain generalized Cesàro operators on the classical Hardy spaces Hp, 1operators.

  17. IBM Applications and Techniques of Operations Research. A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, NY. Data Processing Div.

    This bibliography on the tools and applications of operations research, management science, industrial engineering, and systems engineering lists many entries which appeared between 1961 and 1966 in 186 periodicals and trade journals. Twenty-six texts in operations research are also listed along with an indication as to which of 37 techniques or…

  18. The application of CRM to military operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Dale E.; Williams, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed content of the CRM training component of the C-5 Aircrew Training System (ATS) was left to the discretion of the contractor. As a part of determining what the content should be, United Airlines Services Corporation has made an effort to understand how the needs of MAC crews compare with those of civilian airline crews. There are distinct similarities between the crew roles in the cockpits of civilian airliners and military air transports. Many of the attitudes and behaviors exhibited by civil and military crew members are comparable, hence much of the training in the field referred to as Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is equally appropriate to civil or military aircrews. At the same time, there are significant differences which require assessment to determine if modifications to what might be termed generic CRM are necessary. The investigation enabled the definition and specification of CRM training which is believed to address the needs of the C-5 operational community. The study has concentrated largely on military airlift, but the training objectives and course content of the CRM training are readily adaptable to a wider range of military cockpits than are found in strategic airlift. For instance, CRM training focusing on communication, leadership, situational awareness, and crew coordination is just as appropriate, with some modification, to the pilots manning a flight to Tactical Airlift Command A-7's as it is to the pilots, flight engineers, and loadmasters crewing a C-5.

  19. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  20. Comparison of analysis techniques for aerial image metrology on advanced photomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seolchong; Woo, Sungha; Jang, Heeyeon; Lee, Youngmo; Kim, Sangpyo; Yang, Hyunjo; Schulz, Kristian; Garetto, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    The standard method for defect disposition and verification of repair success in the mask shop is through the utilization of the aerial imaging platform, AIMSTM. The CD (Critical Dimension) deviation of the defective or repaired region as well as the pattern shift can be calculated by comparing the measured aerial images of this region to that of a reference. Through this analysis it can be determined if the defect or repaired region will be printed on the wafer under the illumination conditions of the scanner. The analysis of the measured aerial images from the AIMSTM are commonly performed manually using the analysis software available on the system or with the help of an analysis software called RV (Repair Verification). Because the process is manual, it is not standardized and is subject to operator variations. This method of manual aerial image analysis is time consuming, dependent on the skill level of the operator and significantly contributes to the overall mask manufacturing process flow. AutoAnalysis (AA), the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, provides fully automated analysis of AIMSTM aerial images [1] and runs in parallel to the measurement of the aerial images. In this paper, we investigate the initial AutoAnalysis performance compared to the conventional method using RV and its application to a production environment. The evaluation is based on the defect CD of three pattern types: contact holes, dense line and spaces and peripheral structure. The defect analysis results for different patterns and illumination conditions will be correlated and challenges in transitioning to the new approach will be discussed.

  1. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Software applications and... Standards § 1194.21 Software applications and operating systems. (a) When software is designed to run on a...) Software shall not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or...

  2. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Software applications and... Standards § 1194.21 Software applications and operating systems. (a) When software is designed to run on a...) Software shall not use flashing or blinking text, objects, or other elements having a flash or...

  3. 30 CFR 778.11 - Providing applicant and operator information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR LEGAL, FINANCIAL... applicant, must provide in the permit application— (1) A statement indicating whether you and your operator... executive officer, and director (or persons in similar positions), and every person who owns, of record,...

  4. Artificial intelligence program in a computer application supporting reactor operations

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Town, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    Improving nuclear reactor power plant operability is an ever-present concern for the nuclear industry. The definition of plant operability involves a complex interaction of the ideas of reliability, safety, and efficiency. This paper presents observations concerning the issues involved and the benefits derived from the implementation of a computer application which combines traditional computer applications with artificial intelligence (AI) methodologies. A system, the Component Configuration Control System (CCCS), is being installed to support nuclear reactor operations at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II.

  5. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend the Endurance and Capabilities of the Raven RQ-11B Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle 6. AUTHOR( S ) Javier V. Coba 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate...School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Unmanned Aerial...73 D. ENERGY CALCULATIONS ...............................75 1. Fully Charged Battery ........................75 2. Raven’s Energy

  6. A review of droplet resonators: Operation method and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Hanyang; Zhao, Liyuan; Wu, Bing; Liu, Shuangqiang; Liu, Yongjun; Yang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Droplet resonators hold promise as a special class of optical cavities for numerous applications in micro-optical. Owing to liquid surface tension, droplet resonators possess nearly perfect spherical geometry and exceptionally smooth surfaces that prompt more and more meritorious applications to be exploit. Herein, we survey two typical operation methods of the droplet resonators, passive and active droplet resonator. Besides, droplet applications as high-performance lasers and sensors have been discussed. Although these applications have brought us tremendous value, the research for droplet resonators are still in its infancy, added potential application and intrinsic investigation of the droplet resonators should be developed in the future work.

  7. Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  8. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    PubMed

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

  9. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Sorghum Plant Height Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Its Application to Genomic Prediction Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kakeru; Guo, Wei; Arai, Keigo; Takanashi, Hideki; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Yano, Kentaro; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Toru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Genomics-assisted breeding methods have been rapidly developed with novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing, genomic selection and genome-wide association study. However, phenotyping is still time consuming and is a serious bottleneck in genomics-assisted breeding. In this study, we established a high-throughput phenotyping system for sorghum plant height and its response to nitrogen availability; this system relies on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with either an RGB or near-infrared, green and blue (NIR-GB) camera. We evaluated the potential of remote sensing to provide phenotype training data in a genomic prediction model. UAV remote sensing with the NIR-GB camera and the 50th percentile of digital surface model, which is an indicator of height, performed well. The correlation coefficient between plant height measured by UAV remote sensing (PHUAV) and plant height measured with a ruler (PHR) was 0.523. Because PHUAV was overestimated (probably because of the presence of taller plants on adjacent plots), the correlation coefficient between PHUAV and PHR was increased to 0.678 by using one of the two replications (that with the lower PHUAV value). Genomic prediction modeling performed well under the low-fertilization condition, probably because PHUAV overestimation was smaller under this condition due to a lower plant height. The predicted values of PHUAV and PHR were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.842). This result suggests that the genomic prediction models generated with PHUAV were almost identical and that the performance of UAV remote sensing was similar to that of traditional measurements in genomic prediction modeling. UAV remote sensing has a high potential to increase the throughput of phenotyping and decrease its cost. UAV remote sensing will be an important and indispensable tool for high-throughput genomics-assisted plant breeding.

  10. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Sorghum Plant Height Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Its Application to Genomic Prediction Modeling.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kakeru; Guo, Wei; Arai, Keigo; Takanashi, Hideki; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Yano, Kentaro; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Toru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Genomics-assisted breeding methods have been rapidly developed with novel technologies such as next-generation sequencing, genomic selection and genome-wide association study. However, phenotyping is still time consuming and is a serious bottleneck in genomics-assisted breeding. In this study, we established a high-throughput phenotyping system for sorghum plant height and its response to nitrogen availability; this system relies on the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with either an RGB or near-infrared, green and blue (NIR-GB) camera. We evaluated the potential of remote sensing to provide phenotype training data in a genomic prediction model. UAV remote sensing with the NIR-GB camera and the 50th percentile of digital surface model, which is an indicator of height, performed well. The correlation coefficient between plant height measured by UAV remote sensing (PHUAV) and plant height measured with a ruler (PHR) was 0.523. Because PHUAV was overestimated (probably because of the presence of taller plants on adjacent plots), the correlation coefficient between PHUAV and PHR was increased to 0.678 by using one of the two replications (that with the lower PHUAV value). Genomic prediction modeling performed well under the low-fertilization condition, probably because PHUAV overestimation was smaller under this condition due to a lower plant height. The predicted values of PHUAV and PHR were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.842). This result suggests that the genomic prediction models generated with PHUAV were almost identical and that the performance of UAV remote sensing was similar to that of traditional measurements in genomic prediction modeling. UAV remote sensing has a high potential to increase the throughput of phenotyping and decrease its cost. UAV remote sensing will be an important and indispensable tool for high-throughput genomics-assisted plant breeding.

  11. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  12. Application of System Operational Effectiveness Methodology to Space Launch Vehicle Development and Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Kelley, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) defined System Operational Effectiveness (SOE) model provides an exceptional framework for an affordable approach to the development and operation of space launch vehicles and their supporting infrastructure. The SOE model provides a focal point from which to direct and measure technical effectiveness and process efficiencies of space launch vehicles. The application of the SOE model to a space launch vehicle's development and operation effort leads to very specific approaches and measures that require consideration during the design phase. This paper provides a mapping of the SOE model to the development of space launch vehicles for human exploration by addressing the SOE model key points of measurement including System Performance, System Availability, Technical Effectiveness, Process Efficiency, System Effectiveness, Life Cycle Cost, and Affordable Operational Effectiveness. In addition, the application of the SOE model to the launch vehicle development process is defined providing the unique aspects of space launch vehicle production and operations in lieu of the traditional broader SOE context that examines large quantities of fielded systems. The tailoring and application of the SOE model to space launch vehicles provides some key insights into the operational design drivers, capability phasing, and operational support systems.

  13. Impact of naled on honey bee Apis mellifera L. survival and productivity: aerial ULV application using a flat-fan nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Latham, M; Hester, P G; Frommer, R L; Brock, C

    2003-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of naled on honey bees as a result of their exposure to aerial ULV applications of this insecticide during three routine mosquito spray missions by Manatee County Mosquito Control District in Florida during the summer of 1999. Naled deposits were collected on filter paper and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. Mortality of adult honey bees Apis mellifera L. was estimated based on numbers from dead bee collectors placed in front of the entrance of the beehives. We found that honey bees clustering outside of the beehives were subject to naled exposure. Bee mortality increased when higher naled residues were found around the hives. The highest average naled deposit was 6,227 +/- 696 microg/m2 at the site 1 forest area following the mosquito spray mission on July 15, 1999. The range of naled deposition for this application was 2,818-7,101 microg/m2. The range of dead bees per hive was 0-39 prior to spraying and 9-200 within 24 h following this spray mission. The average yield of honey per hive was significantly lower (p < 0.05) for naled-exposed hives compared with unexposed hives. Because reduction of honey yield also may be affected by other factors, such as location of the hives relative to a food source and vigor of the queen bee, the final assessment of honey yield was complicated.

  14. The Application of Architecture Frameworks to Modelling Exploration Operations Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Developments in architectural frameworks and system-of-systems thinking have provided useful constructs for systems engineering. DoDAF concepts, language, and formalisms, in particular, provide a natural way of conceptualizing an operations cost model applicable to NASA's space exploration vision. Not all DoDAF products have meaning or apply to a DoDAF inspired operations cost model, but this paper describes how such DoDAF concepts as nodes, systems, and operational activities relate to the development of a model to estimate exploration operations costs. The paper discusses the specific implementation to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) operational functions/activities currently being developed and presents an overview of how this powerful representation can apply to robotic space missions as well.

  15. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches.

  16. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  17. Evaluation of the Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Sharon; Martin, Andrea; Bavinger, Bill

    1990-01-01

    The Trajectory Operations Applications Software Task (TOAST) is a software development project under the auspices of the Mission Operations Directorate. Its purpose is to provide trajectory operation pre-mission and real-time support for the Space Shuttle program. As an Application Manager, TOAST provides an isolation layer between the underlying Unix operating system and the series of user programs. It provides two main services: a common interface to operating system functions with semantics appropriate for C or FORTRAN, and a structured input and output package that can be utilized by user application programs. In order to evaluate TOAST as an Application Manager, the task was to assess current and planned capabilities, compare capabilities to functions available in commercially-available off the shelf (COTS) and Flight Analysis Design System (FADS) users for TOAST implementation. As a result of the investigation, it was found that the current version of TOAST is well implemented and meets the needs of the real-time users. The plans for migrating TOAST to the X Window System are essentially sound; the Executive will port with minor changes, while Menu Handler will require a total rewrite. A series of recommendations for future TOAST directions are included.

  18. A Study of the Effects of Large Scale Gust Generation in a Small Scale Atmospheric Wind Tunnel: Application to Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roadman, Jason; Mohseni, Kamran

    2009-11-01

    Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer could benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the turbulence of the atmospheric boundary layer at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an ``atmospheric wind tunnel'' is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including that of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and other unmanned aircraft, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicles, and the study of bird and insect fight. The construction of an active ``gust generator'' for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to days ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using oil flow visualization.

  19. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based spray system for highly accurate site-specific application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of crop production and protection materials is a crucial component in the high productivity of American agriculture. Agricultural chemical application is frequently needed at a specific time and location for accurate site-specific management of crop pests. Piloted aircrafts that carry ...

  20. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  1. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    decades for crop dusting and other agricultural purposes.84 Historically, UAS were predominately operated by DoD in support of combat operations in...advocates state that in order for UAS to take an active role in homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveying, crop dusting, and other...isn’t ready for.93 The issue of when and how UAS will be allowed to operate in U.S. airspace continues to evolve, and continues to be of interest

  2. Aerially released spray penetration of a tall coniferous canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial spray deposition project was designed to evaluate aerial application to an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) canopy to combat Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). This adelgid offers a difficult target residing in the forest canopy at the nodes of branchlets. The study collected 1680 ...

  3. Web Application Software for Ground Operations Planning Database (GOPDb) Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanham, Clifton; Kallner, Shawn; Gernand, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Web application facilitates collaborative development of the ground operations planning document. This will reduce costs and development time for new programs by incorporating the data governance, access control, and revision tracking of the ground operations planning data. Ground Operations Planning requires the creation and maintenance of detailed timelines and documentation. The GOPDb Web application was created using state-of-the-art Web 2.0 technologies, and was deployed as SaaS (Software as a Service), with an emphasis on data governance and security needs. Application access is managed using two-factor authentication, with data write permissions tied to user roles and responsibilities. Multiple instances of the application can be deployed on a Web server to meet the robust needs for multiple, future programs with minimal additional cost. This innovation features high availability and scalability, with no additional software that needs to be bought or installed. For data governance and security (data quality, management, business process management, and risk management for data handling), the software uses NAMS. No local copy/cloning of data is permitted. Data change log/tracking is addressed, as well as collaboration, work flow, and process standardization. The software provides on-line documentation and detailed Web-based help. There are multiple ways that this software can be deployed on a Web server to meet ground operations planning needs for future programs. The software could be used to support commercial crew ground operations planning, as well as commercial payload/satellite ground operations planning. The application source code and database schema are owned by NASA.

  4. Minimizing the impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae): aerial ultra-low-volume application using a high-pressure nozzle system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, He; Latham, Mark; Payne, Steve; Brock, Cate

    2004-02-01

    The impact of the mosquito adulticide naled on honey bees, Apis mellifera L., was evaluated by exposing test beehives to nighttime aerial ultra-low-volume (ULV) applications using a high-pressure nozzle system. The tests were conducted during routine mosquito control missions at Manatee County, Florida, in summer 2000. Two treatment sites were sprayed a total of four times over a 10-wk period. Honey bees, which clustered outside of the hive entrances, were subjected to naled exposure during these mosquito control sprays. The highest average naled ground deposition was 2,688 microg/m2 at the Port Manatee site, which resulted in statistically significant bee mortality (118) compared with the controls. At the Terra Ceia Road site, an intermediate level of naled deposition was found (1,435 microg/m2). For this spray mission, the range of dead bees per hive at Terra Ceia was 2 to 9 before spraying and 5 to 36 after naled application. Means of all other naled ground depositions were < 850 microl/m2. We concluded that substantial bee mortality (> 100 dead bees) resulted when naled residue levels were > 2,000 kg/m2 and honey bees were clustered outside of the hive entrances during mosquito adulticide applications. Compared with the flat-fan nozzle systems currently used by most of Florida's mosquito control programs, the high-pressure nozzle system used in this experiment substantially reduced environmental insecticide contamination and lead to decreased bee mortality. Statistical analysis also showed that average honey yield at the end of the season was not significantly reduced for those hives that were exposed to the insecticide.

  5. Efficacy of aerial ultra-low volume applications of two novel water-based formulations of unsynergized pyrethroids against riceland mosquitoes in Greece.

    PubMed

    Chaskopoulou, Alexandra; Latham, Mark D; Pereira, Roberto M; Connelly, Roxanne; Bonds, Jane A S; Koehler, Philip G

    2011-12-01

    We assessed the efficacy of ultra-low volume aerial adulticiding with 2 new water-based, unsynergized formulations of Aqua-K-Othrin (2% deltamethrin) and Pesguard S102 (10% d-phenothrin) against the riceland mosquitoes of Greece. A helicopter with Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, real-time weather recording, and spray dispersal modeling (AgDISP) was utilized to accurately treat the experimental blocks by adjusting spray line positions to changing meteorological conditions. Two application rates were applied per formulation that corresponded to 0.75 and 1.00 g AI/ha of deltamethrin and 7.50 and 10.00 g AI/ha of d-phenothrin. The mosquitoes used for the trials were the main nuisance species found in rice field areas of Thessaloniki, which were primarily Aedes caspius, followed by Culex modestus and Anopheles sacharovi. Overall mean mortality of caged mosquitoes was 69.2% and 64.8% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. Mean population decrease in wild mosquito populations within the treatment areas was 76.5% and 78% for deltamethrin and d-phenothrin, respectively. The AgDISP dispersal model, coupled with GPS navigation and real-time weather recording, enabled accurate placement of the spray cloud such that the majority of the treatment area received sufficiently high droplet densities to result in uniform caged-mosquito mortality across all sampling sites.

  6. Application of extracellular lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by endophytic Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan (Ficus benghalensis) in microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).

    PubMed

    Pathak, Khyati V; Keharia, Hareshkumar

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus subtilis K1 isolated from aerial roots of banyan tree secreted mixture of surfactins, iturins and fengycins with high degree of heterogeneity. The extracellular extract consisting of mixture of these cyclic lipopeptides exhibited very good emulsification activity as well as excellent emulsion stability. The culture accumulated maximum surfactant up to 48 h of growth during batch fermentation in Luria broth. The emulsion of hexane, heptane and octane prepared using 48-h-old culture supernatant of B. subtilis K1 remained stable up to 2 days while emulsion of four stroke engine oil remained stable for more than a year. The critical micelle concentration of crude lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted by acid precipitation from 48-h-old fermentation broth of B. subtilis K1 was found to be 20.5 μg/mL. The biosurfactant activity was found to be stable at 100 °C for 2 h, over a pH range of 6-12 h and over an NaCl concentration up to 10 % (w/v). The application of biosurfactant on laboratory scale sand pack column saturated with four stroke engine oil resulted in ~43 % enhanced oil recovery, suggesting its suitability in microbially enhanced oil recovery.

  7. 49 CFR 392.2 - Applicable operating rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicable operating rules. 392.2 Section 392.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL...

  8. Equi-surjective systems of linear operators and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luc, D. T.; Minh, N. B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study a system of linear operators between finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. Emphasis is made on unbounded systems and sufficient conditions are established for their equi-surjectivity. An application is presented in which a system of approximate Jacobian matrices is used to obtain a parametric interior mapping theorem. A multiplier rule for vector problems is also derived.

  9. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  10. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  11. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  12. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office operations and application processing. 273.2..., age, religion, political beliefs, or disability. “To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA..., D.C. 20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider...

  13. Interactive intelligent remote operations: application to space robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Erick; Gillett, G. R.; Boulanger, Pierre; Edwards, Eric; Lipsett, Michael G.

    1999-11-01

    A set of tolls addressing the problems specific to the control and monitoring of remote robotic systems from extreme distances has been developed. The tools include the capability to model and visualize the remote environment, to generate and edit complex task scripts, to execute the scripts to supervisory control mode and to monitor and diagnostic equipment from multiple remote locations. Two prototype systems are implemented for demonstration. The first demonstration, using a prototype joint design called Dexter, shows the applicability of the approach to space robotic operation in low Earth orbit. The second demonstration uses a remotely controlled excavator in an operational open-pit tar sand mine. This demonstrates that the tools developed can also be used for planetary exploration operations as well as for terrestrial mining applications.

  14. Statistical Scalability Analysis of Communication Operations in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J S; McCracken, M O

    2001-02-27

    Current trends in high performance computing suggest that users will soon have widespread access to clusters of multiprocessors with hundreds, if not thousands, of processors. This unprecedented degree of parallelism will undoubtedly expose scalability limitations in existing applications, where scalability is the ability of a parallel algorithm on a parallel architecture to effectively utilize an increasing number of processors. Users will need precise and automated techniques for detecting the cause of limited scalability. This paper addresses this dilemma. First, we argue that users face numerous challenges in understanding application scalability: managing substantial amounts of experiment data, extracting useful trends from this data, and reconciling performance information with their application's design. Second, we propose a solution to automate this data analysis problem by applying fundamental statistical techniques to scalability experiment data. Finally, we evaluate our operational prototype on several applications, and show that statistical techniques offer an effective strategy for assessing application scalability. In particular, we find that non-parametric correlation of the number of tasks to the ratio of the time for individual communication operations to overall communication time provides a reliable measure for identifying communication operations that scale poorly.

  15. LBB application in the US operating and advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wichman, K.; Tsao, J.; Mayfield, M.

    1997-04-01

    The regulatory application of leak before break (LBB) for operating and advanced reactors in the U.S. is described. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has approved the application of LBB for six piping systems in operating reactors: reactor coolant system primary loop piping, pressurizer surge, safety injection accumulator, residual heat removal, safety injection, and reactor coolant loop bypass. The LBB concept has also been applied in the design of advanced light water reactors. LBB applications, and regulatory considerations, for pressurized water reactors and advanced light water reactors are summarized in this paper. Technology development for LBB performed by the NRC and the International Piping Integrity Research Group is also briefly summarized.

  16. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  17. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for efficacy evaluation of aerially applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set u...

  18. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for evaluating the efficacy of aerially-applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set...

  19. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  20. Operating principles of an electrothermal vibrometer for optical switching applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Min-fan; Tien, Norman C.

    1999-09-01

    A compact polysilicon surface-micromachined microactuator designed for optical switching applications is described. This actuator is fabricated using the foundry MUMPs process provided by Cronos Integrated Microsystems Inc. Actuated electrothermally, the microactuator allows fast switching speeds and can be operated with a low voltage square-wave signal. The design, operation mechanisms for this long-range and high frequency thermal actuation are described. A vertical micromirror integrated with this actuator can be operated with a 10.5 V, 20 kHz 15% duty-cycle pulse signal, achieving a lateral moving speed higher than 15.6 mm/sec. The optical switch has been operated to frequencies as high as 30 kHz.

  1. An application of intertwining operators in functional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtepin, V. V.; Shtepina, T. V.

    2009-12-01

    We consider classes of integral operators on the spaces of square-integrable functions on the sphere and of locally integrable functions on Lobachevsky space. The kernels of these operators depend only on the distance between points in the spherical and hyperbolic geometry, respectively. These operators are intertwining for the quasi-regular representation of the corresponding Lie group, and this enables us to evaluate their spectra and diagonalize the operators themselves. As applications, we take the Minkowski problem and the Funk-Hecke theorem for Euclidean space \\mathbb R^n. A generalization is obtained of the Funk-Hecke theorem in the case of hyperbolic space \\mathbb R^{n-1,1} with indefinite inner product.

  2. Collection and Analysis of Crowd Data with Aerial, Rooftop, and Ground Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-10

    and cost, as well as a brief description of the projects on which they were used. We have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight...have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight control systems and used them different projects that will be discussed in the following...servos Aerial Platform Long flight-time aerial paltform for imaging applications UavFactory Ltd $15,885.00 80W Onboard Generator upgrade Power

  3. Comparison of operator exposure for five different greenhouse spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Sonck, B

    2004-08-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and the Agricultural Research Center (CLO-DVL) joined forces in a project to stimulate the safe use of pesticides in southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimized a method using mineral chelates as tracers on collectors. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits was used to compare operator exposure from several greenhouse spraying techniques. Operator exposure measurements were of a comparative nature. Five application methods were investigated: a standard spray gun with an operator walking forwards, a spray lance with an operator walking forwards and backwards, a trolley, and a vehicle, both with vertical spray booms. The exposure was measured with patches at 15 places on operators' coveralls and gloves, using mineral chelates as tracer elements. The difference in exposure of the patches between the different techniques was very high. Walking backwards reduced exposure by a factor of 7. The exposures with the trolley and the vehicle, two innovative spraying techniques, were respectively 25 and 100 times lower compared to exposure with the standard spray gun. Operator exposure while walking forward with the spray lance was about two times higher than with the spray gun. Besides very large differences in exposure among the five techniques, there were also large differences in exposure among various parts of the body. All of this is important in consideration of operator safety and for the parts of the body that need to be protected most.

  4. Application of AI techniques to blast furnace operations

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Osamu; Ushijima, Yuichi; Sawada, Toshiro

    1995-10-01

    It was during the first stages of application of artificial intelligence (AI) to industrial fields, that the ironmaking division of Mizushima works at Kawasaki Steel recognized its potential. Since that time, the division has sought applications for these techniques to solve various problems. AI techniques applied to control the No. 3 blast furnace operations at the Mizushima works include: Blast furnace control by a diagnostic type of expert system that gives guidance to the actions required for blast furnace operation as well as control of furnace heat by automatically setting blast temperature; Hot stove combustion control by a combination of fuzzy inference and a physical model to insure good thermal efficiency of the stove; and blast furnace burden control using neural networks makes it possible to connect the pattern of gas flow distribution with the condition of the furnace. Experience of AI to control the blast furnace and other ironmaking operations has proved its capability for achieving automation and increased operating efficiency. The benefits are very high. For these reasons, the applications of AI techniques will be extended in the future and new techniques studied to further improve the power of AI.

  5. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  6. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  7. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  8. Application of Absorbable Hemostatic Materials Observed in Thyroid Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Ming; Liang, Zhen-Zhen; Song, Yan

    2016-05-01

    To observe the application effects of the absorbable hemostatic materials in thyroid operation. Methods: From May 2014 to January 2015, 100 patients with thyroid surgery in our university affiliated hospital were selected as the research object. Randomly divided into experimental group and control group, 50 cases in each group. Application of absorbable hemostatic hemostatic materials in the experimental group during the operation, the control group using the traditional mechanical methods of hemostasis hemostasis to observe the operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage volume, complications and hospital stay of the two groups. Results: The operation time, bleeding volume, postoperative drainage and hospital stay in the experimental group were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P< 0.05); The satisfaction of patients in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group, the difference was statistically significant in the two groups (P < 0.05); There was no significant difference in the incidence of wound bleeding complications between the study group and the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Absorbable hemostatic materials can effectively shorten the operation time, reduce intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage, reduce the length of hospital stay and improve the success rate of surgery and patient satisfaction, which is worthy to be popularized in clinical thyroid surgery.

  9. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  10. Detection of linear features in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rui

    Over the past decades, considerable progress had been made to develop automatic image interpretation tools in remote sensing. However, there is still a gap between the results and the requirements for accuracy and robustness. Noisy aerial image interpretation, especially for low resolution images, is still difficult. In this thesis, we propose a fully automatic system for linear feature detection in aerial images. We present how the system works on the application of extraction and reconstruction of road and pipeline networks. The work in this thesis is divided by three parts: line detection, feature interpretation, and feature tracking. An improved Hough transform based on orientation information is introduced for the line detection. We explore the Markov random field model and Bayesian filtering for feature interpretation and tracking. Experimental results show that our proposed system is robust and effective to deal with low resolution aerial images.

  11. Status of aerial applications research in the Langley vortex research facility and the Langley full-scale wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; Bragg, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    Small scale models of agricultural airplanes were tested and numerical methods were utilized to study interactions between the airplane wake and the dispersed spray and granular materials. Methods were developed to measure and predict dispersal transport and wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to obtain interactions more favorable to wide, uniform deposition patterns and reduced drift. In the full scale wind tunnel, full scale agricultural airplanes and dispersal systems for both liquid and solid applications were evaluated to improve aircraft aerodynamics and dispersal systems efficiency. The program status in these two facilities is reported with emphasis on wake interactions and dispersal systems research.

  12. Coiled-tubing applications for blowout-control operations

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, N.J.; Mack, S.K.; Fannin, V.R.; Rocchi, T.

    1996-05-01

    Coiled-tubing drilling is now being used in various operations. Its complete field of applications is not currently established. Coiled tubing used for well control while drilling is a new field where its limits are being explored. This paper provides guidelines on topics to be considered in determining the applicability of coiled tubing for well-control problems. The information provided is based on recent field experiences with several well-control problems when drilling vent and relief wells. In some cases, coiled-tubing drilling capabilities, by necessity, were significantly extended beyond levels the industry considered to be upper limits. Well control cannot always be handled by coiled tubing. It is a special-application tool that can handle many situations and is, in some cases, clearly the optimum choice for the application. This paper presents guidelines for selecting coiled tubing for each application and discusses economics. It also describes coiled-tubing operations for regaining control of blowout wells in certain situations and gives technical requirements for planning and executing these types of jobs. Case histories where coiled-tubing units (CTU`s) have been used to regain control of drilling and producing wells are provided for illustration.

  13. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  14. Application of trajectory optimization principles to minimize aircraft operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Morello, S. A.; Erzberger, H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes various applications of trajectory optimization principles that have been or are being devised by both government and industrial researchers to minimize aircraft direct operating costs (DOC). These costs (time and fuel) are computed for aircraft constrained to fly over a fixed range. Optimization theory is briefly outlined, and specific algorithms which have resulted from application of this theory are described. Typical results which demonstrate use of these algorithms and the potential savings which they can produce are given. Finally, need for further trajectory optimization research is presented.

  15. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  16. Hydrologic ensemble prediction: enhancing science, operation and application through HEPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterhall, Fredrik; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Wang, Qj; Wood, Andy

    2016-04-01

    HEPEX (Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment) was established in March 2004 at a workshop hosted by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), co-sponsored by the US National Weather Service (NWS) and the European Commission (EC). HEPEX and the community it represents has over its more than 10 years of existence continuously worked to promote and advance the science of hydrologic ensemble prediction as well as operational systems and water management applications. Through workshops and conference sessions, HEPEX has connected the research community, forecasters and forecast users and facilitated the exchange of ideas, data, methods and experience. In particular, the establishment of an online blog portal has greatly enhanced community interaction and knowledge sharing (www.hepex.org). HEPEX has now a strong and active community of nearly 400 researchers and practitioners around the world. In this poster, we present an overview of recent and planned HEPEX activities, and highlight opportunities to further progress ensemble prediction science, operation and application.

  17. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-07

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  18. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    1999-12-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  19. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  20. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  1. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  2. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Construction on poles shall comply with applicable construction drawings for regular line construction. Aerial... strand shall be permitted in this situation. The bail of the automatic clamp shall be protected by a...

  3. SMES application for frequency control during islanded microgrid operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A.-Rong; Kim, Gyeong-Hun; Heo, Serim; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Kim, Hak-Man

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) for the frequency control of an islanded microgrid operation. In the grid-connected mode of a microgrid, an imbalance between power supply and demand is solved by a power trade with the upstream power grid. The difference in the islanded mode is a critical problem because the microgrid is isolated from any power grid. For this reason, the frequency control during islanded microgrid operation is a challenging issue. A test microgrid in this paper consisted of a wind power generator, a PV generation system, a diesel generator and a load to test the feasibility of the SMES for controlling frequency during islanded operation as well as the transient state varying from the grid-connected mode to the islanded mode. The results show that the SMES contributes well for frequency control in the islanded operation. In addition, a dual and a single magnet type of SMES have been compared to demonstrate the control performance. The dual magnet has the same energy capacity as the single magnet, but there are two superconducting coils and each coil has half inductance of the single magnet. The effectiveness of the SMES application with the simulation results is discussed in detail.

  4. A Tool to Maintain Spatial Orientation and Situation Awareness for Operators of Manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Other Military Motion Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Consequences and Cures [Desorientation spaiale dans les vehicules militaires: causes, consequences et remedes] To order the complete compilation report, use...SPIE): Information Systems for Navy Divers and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Operating in Very Shallow Water and Surf Zone Regions. Vol. 3711, pp

  5. MIRIADS: miniature infrared imaging applications development system description and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, Christopher R.; Massie, Mark A.; McCarley, Paul L.; Couture, Michael E.

    2001-10-01

    A cooperative effort between the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Nova Research, Inc., the Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO) and Optics 1, Inc. has successfully produced a miniature infrared camera system that offers significant real-time signal and image processing capabilities by virtue of its modular design. This paper will present an operational overview of the system as well as results from initial testing of the 'Modular Infrared Imaging Applications Development System' (MIRIADS) configured as a missile early-warning detection system. The MIRIADS device can operate virtually any infrared focal plane array (FPA) that currently exists. Programmable on-board logic applies user-defined processing functions to the real-time digital image data for a variety of functions. Daughterboards may be plugged onto the system to expand the digital and analog processing capabilities of the system. A unique full hemispherical infrared fisheye optical system designed and produced by Optics 1, Inc. is utilized by the MIRIADS in a missile warning application to demonstrate the flexibility of the overall system to be applied to a variety of current and future AFRL missions.

  6. 47 CFR 90.137 - Applications for operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.137 Applications for operation at temporary locations. (a) An application for authority to operate a base or a... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for operation at...

  7. 47 CFR 90.137 - Applications for operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.137 Applications for operation at temporary locations. (a) An application for authority to operate a base or a... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for operation at...

  8. Comonotonicity and Choquet integrals of Hermitian operators and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourdas, A.

    2016-04-01

    In a quantum system with d-dimensional Hilbert space, the Q-function of a Hermitian positive semidefinite operator θ, is defined in terms of the d 2 coherent states in this system. The Choquet integral {{ C }}Q(θ ) of the Q-function of θ, is introduced using a ranking of the values of the Q-function, and Möbius transforms which remove the overlaps between coherent states. It is a figure of merit of the quantum properties of Hermitian operators, and it provides upper and lower bounds to various physical quantities in terms of the Q-function. Comonotonicity is an important concept in the formalism, which is used to formalize the vague concept of physically similar operators. Comonotonic operators are shown to be bounded, with respect to an order based on Choquet integrals. Applications of the formalism to the study of the ground state of a physical system, are discussed. Bounds for partition functions, are also derived.

  9. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  10. Arbitrarily Applicable Comparative Relations: Experimental Evidence for a Relational Operant

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Nicholas M; Hayes, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    Arbitrarily applicable derived relational responding has been argued by relational frame theorists to be a form of operant behavior. The present study examined this idea with 4 female participants, ages 4 to 5 years old, who could not perform a series of problem-solving tasks involving arbitrary more than and less than relations. In a combined multiple baseline (across responses and participants) and multiple probe design (with trained and untrained stimuli), it was shown that reinforced multiple-exemplar training facilitated the development of arbitrary comparative relations, and that these skills generalized not just across stimuli but also across trial types. The sequence of training identified potential prerequisites in the development of comparative relations (e.g., nonarbitrary comparative relations). Taken as a whole, the present data, along with previous work by others in this area, suggest that relating arbitrary events comparatively is an operant. The implications of this conclusion for the analysis of complex behavior are discussed. PMID:17471793

  11. Aerial infrared surveys in the investigation of geothermal and volcanic heat sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1995-01-01

    This factsheet briefly summarizes and clarifies the application of aerial infrared surveys in geophysical exploration for geothermal energy sources and environmental monitoring for potential volcanic hazards.

  12. Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Lang, Minh; Stern, Ryan A.; Duncan, Courtney B.

    2013-01-01

    This software demonstrates use of the JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Operating Environment (OE), tests APIs (application programming interfaces) presented by JPL STRS OE, and allows for basic testing of the underlying hardware platform. This software uses the JPL STRS Operating Environment ["JPL Space Tele com - munications Rad io System Operating Environment,"(NPO-4776) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 37, No. 1 (January 2013), p. 47] to interact with the JPL-SDR Software Defined Radio developed for the CoNNeCT (COmmunications, Navigation, and Networking rEconfigurable Testbed) Project as part of the SCaN Testbed installed on the International Space Station (ISS). These are the first applications that are compliant with the new NASA STRS Architecture Standard. Several example waveform applications are provided to demonstrate use of the JPL STRS OE for the JPL-SDR platform used for the CoNNeCT Project. The waveforms provide a simple digitizer and playback capability for the SBand RF slice, and a simple digitizer for the GPS slice [CoNNeCT Global Positioning System RF Module, (NPO-47764) NASA Tech Briefs, commercial edition, Vol. 36, No. 3 (March 2012), p. 36]. These waveforms may be used for hardware test, as well as for on-orbit or laboratory checkout. Additional example waveforms implement SpaceWire and timer modules, which can be used for time transfer and demonstration of communication between the two Xilinx FPGAs in the JPLSDR. The waveforms are also compatible with ground-based use of the JPL STRS OE on radio breadboards and Linux.

  13. Application of human error analysis to aviation and space operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-03-01

    For the past several years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) the authors have been working to apply methods of human error analysis to the design of complex systems. They have focused on adapting human reliability analysis (HRA) methods that were developed for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for application to system design. They are developing methods so that human errors can be systematically identified during system design, the potential consequences of each error can be assessed, and potential corrective actions (e.g. changes to system design or procedures) can be identified. The primary vehicle the authors have used to develop and apply these methods has been a series of projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to apply human error analysis to aviation operations. They are currently adapting their methods and tools of human error analysis to the domain of air traffic management (ATM) systems. Under the NASA-sponsored Advanced Air Traffic Technologies (AATT) program they are working to address issues of human reliability in the design of ATM systems to support the development of a free flight environment for commercial air traffic in the US. They are also currently testing the application of their human error analysis approach for space flight operations. They have developed a simplified model of the critical habitability functions for the space station Mir, and have used this model to assess the affects of system failures and human errors that have occurred in the wake of the collision incident last year. They are developing an approach so that lessons learned from Mir operations can be systematically applied to design and operation of long-term space missions such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the manned Mars mission.

  14. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    SciTech Connect

    Faidy, C.

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  15. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 5: Application Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL) was designed to be used by test oriented personnel to write procedures which would be executed in a test environment. A series of discussions between NASA LV-CAP personnel and IBM resulted in some peripheral tasks which would aid in evaluating the applicability of the language in this environment, and provide enhancement for future applications. The results of these tasks are contained within this volume. The GOAL vocabulary provides a high degree of readability and retainability. To achieve these benefits, however, the procedure writer utilizes words and phrases of considerable length. Brief form study was undertaken to determine a means of relieving this burden. The study resulted in a version of GOAL which enables the writer to develop a dialect suitable to his needs and satisfy the syntax equations. The output of the compiler would continue to provide readability by printing out the standard GOAL language. This task is described.

  16. Magnetic thrust bearing operation and industrial pump application

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire, P.E.; Maslen, E.H.; Lewis, D.W.; Flack, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic bearings represent a new bearing technology, which has some advantages over conventional fluid film and rolling element bearings for some applications. The paper describes the basic concepts of magnetic thrust bearing operation involving the magnetic actuator, electronic controls, power amplifier, and sensor. The magnetic actuator is a magnetic circuit, which generates attractive forces. These support the rotating shaft. While it is often thought that magnetic bearings are highly nonlinear devices, this paper demonstrates that they are linear in both the perturbation flux and current when used in a double acting configuration. Electronic feedback controls are used to stabilize the bearing. Example design parameters are presented for an application to an industrial canned motor pump.

  17. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  18. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  19. Land cover mapping using aerial and VHR satellite images for distributed hydrological modelling of periurban catchments: Application to the Yzeron catchment (Lyon, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacqueminet, C.; Kermadi, S.; Michel, K.; Béal, D.; Gagnage, M.; Branger, F.; Jankowfsky, S.; Braud, I.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe rapid progression of urbanization in periurban areas affects the hydrological cycle of periurban rivers. To quantify these changes, distributed hydrological modelling tools able to simulate the hydrology of periurban catchments are being developed. Land cover information is one of the data sources used to define the model mesh and parameters. The land cover in periurban catchments is characterized by a very large heterogeneity, where the vegetated and the artificial surfaces are finely overlapping. The study is conducted in the Yzeron catchment (150 km2), close to the city of Lyon, France. We explore the potential of very high-resolution (VHR) optical images (0.50-2.50 m) for retrieving information useful for those distributed hydrological models at two scales. For detailed object-oriented models, applicable to catchments of a few km2, where hydrological units are based on the cadastral units, manual digitizing based on the 0.5 m resolution image, was found to be the most accurate to provide the required information. For larger catchments of about 100 km2, three semi-automated mapping procedures (pixel based and object-oriented classifications), applied to aerial images (BD-Ortho®IGN), and two satellite images (Quickbird and Spot 5) were compared. We showed that each image/processing provided some interesting and accurate information about some of the land cover classes. We proposed to combine them into a synthesis map, taking profit of the strength of each image/processing in identifying the land cover classes and their physical properties. This synthesis map was shown to be more accurate than each map separately. We illustrate the interest of the derived maps in terms of distributed hydrological modelling. The maps were used to propose a classification of the Yzeron sub-catchments in terms of dominant vegetation cover and imperviousness. We showed that according to the image processing and images characteristics, the calculated imperviousness rates

  20. Remote sensing and aerial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing need for global food production in the presence of dwindling productive acres, the business of modern agriculture needs to use all possible information available to maximize production. One tool that is being used to obtain this information is remote sensing. Any crop disease o...

  1. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  2. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  3. Operational and design aspects of accelerators for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Seidel, Mike

    2015-03-01

    Originally, the typical particle accelerators as well as their associated beam transport equipment were designed for particle and nuclear physics research and applications in isotope production. In the past few decades, such accelerators and related equipment have also been applied for medical use. This can be in the original physics laboratory environment, but for the past 20 years also in hospital-based or purely clinical environments for particle therapy. The most important specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational, and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the technical requirements, safety aspects, and required reliability of the accelerated beam differ substantially from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. It will be shown that this difference has significant implications on the safety and interlock systems. The operation of such a medical facility should be possible by nonaccelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). The organization and role of the control and interlock systems can be considered as being the most crucially important issue, and therefore a special, dedicated design is absolutely necessary in a facility providing particle therapy.

  4. Application of Technical Measures and Software in Constructing Photorealistic 3D Models of Historical Building Using Ground-Based and Aerial (UAV) Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarnowski, Aleksander; Banaszek, Anna; Banaszek, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Preparing digital documentation of historical buildings is a form of protecting cultural heritage. Recently there have been several intensive studies using non-metric digital images to construct realistic 3D models of historical buildings. Increasingly often, non-metric digital images are obtained with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Technologies and methods of UAV flights are quite different from traditional photogrammetric approaches. The lack of technical guidelines for using drones inhibits the process of implementing new methods of data acquisition. This paper presents the results of experiments in the use of digital images in the construction of photo-realistic 3D model of a historical building (Raphaelsohns' Sawmill in Olsztyn). The aim of the study at the first stage was to determine the meteorological and technical conditions for the acquisition of aerial and ground-based photographs. At the next stage, the technology of 3D modelling was developed using only ground-based or only aerial non-metric digital images. At the last stage of the study, an experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of 3D modelling with the comprehensive use of aerial (UAV) and ground-based digital photographs in terms of their labour intensity and precision of development. Data integration and automatic photo-realistic 3D construction of the models was done with Pix4Dmapper and Agisoft PhotoScan software Analyses have shown that when certain parameters established in an experiment are kept, the process of developing the stock-taking documentation for a historical building moves from the standards of analogue to digital technology with considerably reduced cost.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  6. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  7. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  8. Application of diagnostics to determine operational readiness of aged motor-operated valves

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-06-29

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor current signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  9. Application of diagnostics to determine motor-operated valve operational readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor curent signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  10. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  11. An operational global ocean forecast system and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, A.; Tolman, H. L.; Rivin, I.; Rajan, B.; Spindler, T.; Garraffo, Z. D.; Kim, H.

    2012-12-01

    A global Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (RTOFS) was implemented in operations at NCEP/NWS/NOAA on 10/25/2011. This system is based on an eddy resolving 1/12 degree global HYCOM (HYbrid Coordinates Ocean Model) and is part of a larger national backbone capability of ocean modeling at NWS in strong partnership with US Navy. The forecast system is run once a day and produces a 6 day long forecast using the daily initialization fields produced at NAVOCEANO using NCODA (Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation), a 3D multi-variate data assimilation methodology. As configured within RTOFS, HYCOM has a horizontal equatorial resolution of 0.08 degrees or ~9 km. The HYCOM grid is on a Mercator projection from 78.64 S to 47 N and north of this it employs an Arctic dipole patch where the poles are shifted over land to avoid a singularity at the North Pole. This gives a mid-latitude (polar) horizontal resolution of approximately 7 km (3.5 km). The coastline is fixed at 10 m isobath with open Bering Straits. This version employs 32 hybrid vertical coordinate surfaces with potential density referenced to 2000 m. Vertical coordinates can be isopycnals, often best for resolving deep water masses, levels of equal pressure (fixed depths), best for the well mixed unstratified upper ocean and sigma-levels (terrain-following), often the best choice in shallow water. The dynamic ocean model is coupled to a thermodynamic energy loan ice model and uses a non-slab mixed layer formulation. The forecast system is forced with 3-hourly momentum, radiation and precipitation fluxes from the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) fields. Results include global sea surface height and three dimensional fields of temperature, salinity, density and velocity fields used for validation and evaluation against available observations. Several downstream applications of this forecast system will also be discussed which include search and rescue operations at US Coast Guard, navigation safety information

  12. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in atmospheric research and satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Efremov, Denis; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Popovicheva, Olga

    The perspectives of the development of methods and facilities based on UAV for atmospheric investigations are considered. Some aspects of these methods applications are discussed. Developments of the experimental samples of UAV onboard equipment for measurements of atmospheric parameters carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Hardware system for the UAV is developed. The results of measurements of the spatial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters and the concentrations of some gas species onboard of remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles obtained in field tests are presented. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes , etc.

  14. Autonomous aerial observations to extend and complement the Earth Observing System: a science-driven systems-oriented approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford, Stephen P.; Harrison, F. W.; Langford, John; Johnson, James W.; Qualls, Garry; Emmitt, David; Jones, W. Linwood; Shugart, Herman H., Jr.

    2004-12-01

    The current Earth observing capability depends primarily on spacecraft missions and ground-based networks to provide the critical on-going observations necessary for improved understanding of the Earth system. Aircraft missions play an important role in process studies but are limited to relatively short-duration flights. Suborbital observations have contributed to global environmental knowledge by providing in-depth, high-resolution observations that space-based and in-situ systems are challenged to provide; however, the limitations of aerial platforms - e.g., limited observing envelope, restrictions associated with crew safety and high cost of operations have restricted the suborbital program to a supporting role. For over a decade, it has been recognized that autonomous aerial observations could potentially be important. Advances in several technologies now enable autonomous aerial observation systems (AAOS) that can provide fundamentally new observational capability for Earth science and applications and thus lead scientists and engineers to rethink how suborbital assets can best contribute to Earth system science. Properly developed and integrated, these technologies will enable new Earth science and operational mission scenarios with long term persistence, higher-spatial and higher-temporal resolution at lower cost than space or ground based approaches. This paper presents the results of a science driven, systems oriented study of broad Earth science measurement needs. These needs identify aerial mission scenarios that complement and extend the current Earth Observing System. These aerial missions are analogous to space missions in their complexity and potential for providing significant data sets for Earth scientists. Mission classes are identified and presented based on science driven measurement needs in atmospheric, ocean and land studies. Also presented is a nominal concept of operations for an AAOS: an innovative set of suborbital assets that

  15. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  16. GIS applications for military operations in coastal zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, S.; Jordan, T.; Madden, M.; Usery, E.L.; Welch, R.

    2009-01-01

    In order to successfully support current and future US military operations in coastal zones, geospatial information must be rapidly integrated and analyzed to meet ongoing force structure evolution and new mission directives. Coastal zones in a military-operational environment are complex regions that include sea, land and air features that demand high-volume databases of extreme detail within relatively narrow geographic corridors. Static products in the form of analog maps at varying scales traditionally have been used by military commanders and their operational planners. The rapidly changing battlefield of 21st Century warfare, however, demands dynamic mapping solutions. Commercial geographic information system (GIS) software for military-specific applications is now being developed and employed with digital databases to provide customized digital maps of variable scale, content and symbolization tailored to unique demands of military units. Research conducted by the Center for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science at the University of Georgia demonstrated the utility of GIS-based analysis and digital map creation when developing large-scale (1:10,000) products from littoral warfare databases. The methodology employed-selection of data sources (including high resolution commercial images and Lidar), establishment of analysis/modeling parameters, conduct of vehicle mobility analysis, development of models and generation of products (such as a continuous sea-land DEM and geo-visualization of changing shorelines with tidal levels)-is discussed. Based on observations and identified needs from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, formerly the National Imagery and Mapping Agency, and the Department of Defense, prototype GIS models for military operations in sea, land and air environments were created from multiple data sets of a study area at US Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Results of these models, along with methodologies for developing large

  17. Operational Applications from the Suomi Npp and Jpss Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.; Furgerson, J.; Sjoberg, W.; Weng, F.; Csiszar, I. A.; Kilcoyne, H.; Gleason, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    relay distress signals from aviators, mariners or land-based users in distress. This system assists in the rescue of hundreds on an annual basis. At the AGU conference, we will discuss in detail the operational applications of JPSS data and early demonstrations provided by SUOMI NPP. Examples will include improvements in weather forecasting, monitoring of coastal water quality (e.g. harmful algal blooms), marine resources, forest fires, volcanic eruptions and smoke/dust plumes, and monitoring of droughts, snow and ice cover. The quality of JPSS data for climate monitoring will also be discussed.

  18. The application of hydrometeorological data obtained by remote sensing techniques for multipurpose reservoir operations. [Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warskow, W. L.; Wilson, T. T., Jr.; Kirdar, K.

    1975-01-01

    Watershed snowpack and streamflow data obtained and transmitted by (ERTS) satellite were used in the operational and water management decisions in the Salt River Project. Located in central Arizona, the Project provides water and electric power for the more than 1.1 million residents of the Salt River Valley. The water supply source is a 33,670 square kilometer (13,000 square mile) watershed and 250 deep well pumps. Six storage reservoirs, four of which have hydroelectric capability, located on two river systems have a storage capacity of over 246,600 hectare-meters (2,000,000 AF.). Information from the watershed during the normal runoff period of December to May and more especially during critical periods of high runoff and minimum reservoir storage capacity is necessary for the reservoir operation regimen. Extent of the snowpack, depth of snow, and the condition of the pack were observed in aerial flights over the watershed.

  19. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  20. Operational Protection from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    Information Warfare and Security (ECIW) (Tallin, Estonia : 2011), 24. 17 Matthew Neuenswander, “Wargaming the Enemy Unmanned Aircraft System Threat...ECIW) (Tallin, Estonia : 2011), 24. 21 Wim Zwijnenburg, “Drone-tocracy? Mapping the Proliferation of Unmanned Systems,” Sustainable Security, 8...European Conference on Information Warfare and Security (ECIW). Tallin, Estonia : 2011. Beidel, Eric. “Uncertainty, Challenges Mark Future for

  1. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  2. Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Lay, Norman; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2004-01-01

    mitigation in the traverse of the long-distance surface explorer/rover. The basic requirements of design and operation of BEES to implement the scenarios are discussed. Terrestrial applications of such concepts include distributed aerial/surface measurements of meteorological events, i.e., storm watch, seismic monitoring, reconnaissance, biological chemical sensing, search and rescue, surveillance, autonomous security/ protection agents, and/or delivery and lateral distribution of agents (sensors, surface/subsurface crawlers, clean-up agents). Figure 2 illustrates an Earth demonstration that is in development, and its implementation will illustrate the value of these biomorphic mission concepts.

  3. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  4. Operational forecast products and applications based on WRF/Chem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias; Mantovani, Simone; Olefs, Marc; Schellander-Gorgas, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities of the national weather service of Austria (ZAMG) include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. The mother domain expands over Europe, North Africa and parts of Russia. The nested domain includes the alpine region and has a horizontal resolution of 4 km. Local emissions (Austria) are used in combination with European inventories (TNO and EMEP) for the simulations. The modeling system is presented and the results from the evaluation of the assimilation of pollutants using the 3D-VAR software GSI is shown. Currently observational data (PM10 and O3) from the Austrian Air-Quality network and from European stations (EEA) are assimilated into the model on an operational basis. In addition PM maps are produced using Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS in combination with model data using machine learning techniques. The modeling system is operationally evaluated with different data sets. The emphasis of the application is on the forecast of pollutants which are compared to the hourly values (PM10, O3 and NO2) of the Austrian Air-Quality network. As the meteorological conditions are important for transport and chemical processes, some parameters like wind and precipitation are automatically evaluated (SAL diagrams, maps, …) with other models (e.g. ECMWF, AROME, …) and ground stations via web interface. The prediction of the AOT is also important for operators of solar power plants. In the past Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models were used to predict the AOT based on cloud forecasts at the ZAMG. These models do not consider the spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol distribution in the atmosphere with a consequent impact on the accuracy of forecasts especially during clear-sky days

  5. Application of symmetry operation measures in structural inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Jorge; Alvarez, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an application of the recently proposed symmetry operation measures to the determination of the effective symmetry point group of coordination polyhedra in inorganic solids. Several structure types based on octahedra are found to present distinct distortion patterns each, not strictly attached to the crystallographic site symmetry. These include the (NH4)2[CuCl4], CdI2 (brucite), FeS2 (pyrite), TiO2 (rutile), CaCl2, GdFeO3, PbTiO3,LiNbO3, BiI3, CrCl3, Al2O3, and NiWO4 structures. It is shown that a similar analysis can be applied to the Bailar and tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortions of molecular transition metal complexes, as well as to solids based on tetrahedra, such as the ZnCl2, FeS, BeCl2, SiS2, and KFeS2 structure types.

  6. Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

  7. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  8. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  9. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  10. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  11. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  12. 7 CFR 273.2 - Office operations and application processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Food Stamp application form—(1) Content. Each application form shall contain: (i) In prominent... and prominent language on or near the front page of the application, notification of the household's... prominent language on or near the front page of the application, a description of the expedited...

  13. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  14. Pilot’s Handbook for the Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle XV-8A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-03-01

    H. Kredit , January 1964, 144, pages AD B252433, Pilot’s Handbook for ’he Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle XV-8A, Match 1964, 52 pp AD B200629...H. Kredit , Feb. 1965, 100 pages .- AD 460405. XV-8A Flexible Wing Aerial Utility Vehicle. Final Report. Feb. 1965, 113 page- -AD 431128, Operational

  15. Weakly-Supervised Multimodal Kernel for Categorizing Aerial Photographs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yingjie; Zhang, Luming; Liu, Zhenguang; Nie, Liqiang; Li, Xuelong

    2016-12-14

    Accurately distinguishing aerial photographs from different categories is a promising technique in computer vision. It can facilitate a series of applications such as video surveillance and vehicle navigation. In the paper, a new image kernel is proposed for effectively recognizing aerial photographs. The key is to encode high-level semantic cues into local image patches in a weakly-supervised way, and integrate multimodal visual features using a newly-developed hashing algorithm. The flowchart can be elaborated as follows. Given an aerial photo, we first extract a number of graphlets to describe its topological structure. For each graphlet, we utilize color and texture to capture its appearance, and a weakly-supervised algorithm to capture its semantics. Thereafter, aerial photo categorization can be naturally formulated as graphlet-to-graphlet matching. As the number of graphlets from each aerial photo is huge, to accelerate matching, we present a hashing algorithm to seamlessly fuze the multiple visual features into binary codes. Finally, an image kernel is calculated by fast matching the binary codes corresponding to each graphlet. And a multi-class SVM is learned for aerial photo categorization. We demonstrate the advantage of our proposed model by comparing it with state-of-the-art image descriptors. Moreover, an in-depth study of the descriptiveness of the hash-based graphlet is presented.

  16. 75 FR 80544 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ..., Plant Licensing Branch I-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

  17. 78 FR 40519 - Cooper Nuclear Station; Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Cooper Nuclear Station; Application and Amendment to Facility Operating License Involving Proposed... No. DPR-46, issued to Nebraska Public Power District (the licensee), for operation of the...

  18. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  19. Application of Human-Autonomy Teaming (HAT) Patterns to Reduced Crew Operations (RCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel; Matessa, Mike; Sadler, Garrett; Battiste, Henri

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Air Force - NASA Bi-Annual Research Council Meeting, slides will be presented on recent Reduced Crew Operations (RCO) work. Unmanned aerial systems, robotics, advanced cockpits, and air traffic management are all examples of domains that are seeing dramatic increases in automation. While automation may take on some tasks previously performed by humans, humans will still be required, for the foreseeable future, to remain in the system. The collaboration with humans and these increasingly autonomous systems will begin to resemble cooperation between teammates, rather than simple task allocation. It is critical to understand this human-autonomy teaming (HAT) to optimize these systems in the future. One methodology to understand HAT is by identifying recurring patterns of HAT that have similar characteristics and solutions. A methodology for identifying HAT patterns to an advanced cockpit project is discussed.

  20. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  1. Development of simple operation crane system for the real application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Masaomi; Mori, Yoshihito; Tagawa, Yasutaka; Kawajiri, Eisaku; Nouzuka, Kazuma

    2016-09-01

    In each industry, the weight of the transportation work and quantity of the load has increased. Thus, now the crane equipment is introduced than ever. For overhead crane used in factories and warehouses, efficient operation which suppresses the swaying of the suspended load during transport is strongly demanded. In particular, it is necessary to suppress the initial shaking or disturbance due to the shift of the center of gravity and the hanging point position at the time of raising the suspended load. Therefore, we need to develop the simple operation crane system that enables the operation of the same level as the person skilled in the crane operation in order to improve the safety and efficiency. The author have investigated the control using Dual Model Matching method based on characteristic transfer function matrix to a configuration of the controller. By implementing feedback control on an actual overhead crane in practical use, the efficacy and operability of the system and the method were discussed. The purpose of this study, by developing the simple operation crane system that allows the same operation as the skilled operator, is to improve the safety and efficiency of the crane operation.

  2. 14 CFR 331.25 - To what address must operators or providers send their applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL AVIATION OPERATORS AND SERVICE PROVIDERS IN THE WASHINGTON, DC AREA Application Procedures § 331..., DC 20590. (b) Your application must be submitted via courier or an express package service, such...

  3. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  4. Potential type operators in PDEs and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Evgeniya; Lundberg, Staffan; Persson, Lars-Erik; Samko, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    We prove the boundedness of Potential operator in weighted generalized Morrey space in terms of Matuszewska-Orlicz indices of weights and apply this result to the Hemholtz equation in ℝ3 with a free term in such a space. We also give a short overview of some typical situations when Potential type operators arise when solving PDEs.

  5. Evaluation of orthomosics and digital surface models derived from aerial imagery for crop mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orthomosics derived from aerial imagery acquired by consumer-grade cameras have been used for crop mapping. However, digital surface models (DSM) derived from aerial imagery have not been evaluated for this application. In this study, a novel method was proposed to extract crop height from DSM and t...

  6. Identification of Provisions of EPA's Part 70 Operating Permits Regulation Applicable to Tribal Operating Permits Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynell, Jon

    2010-04-01

    Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.

  8. EnerVest San Juan Operations, Title V Applicability Determination

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Department of Defense operational applications of wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Allan C.

    1985-01-01

    A stated objective for this symposium is to identify requirements for global wind measurements. This paper will draw from recent reports which considered the impact of over 100 environmental factors known to affect military operations. A conclusion that can be drawn from those analyses is that one environmental factor, atmospheric wind, has an operational impact on each of the 48 mission areas examined. This paper will characterize the impact of wind on the various mission areas and will define and summarize both 'technical' and 'operational' requirements for wind intelligence.

  10. The application of image enhancement techniques to remote manipulator operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Methods of image enhancement which can be used by an operator who is not experienced with the mechanisms of enhancement to obtain satisfactory results were designed and implemented. Investigation of transformations which operate directly on the image domain resulted in a new technique of contrast enhancement. Transformations on the Fourier transform of the original image, including such techniques as homomorphic filtering, were also investigated. The methods of communication between the enhancement system and the computer operator were analyzed, and a language was developed for use in image enhancement. A working enhancement system was then created, and is included.

  11. Applicability of NSPS for Coal Preparation to Coal Unloading Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. A mobile app for military operational entomology pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Yans, Matthew W; Hill, David W; Obenauer, Peter J; Hoffman, Eric R

    2014-09-01

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War-Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated more than 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treatments in 6 ecological regions against a range of mosquito, sand fly, and filth fly nuisance and disease-vector threats. To synthesize and operationalize these DWFP field and laboratory efficacy data we developed an interactive iOS and Android mobile software application, the Pesticide App, consisting of specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species.

  13. Remapping algorithms: application to trimming operations in sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, D. M.; Diogo, C. M. A.; Neves, T. F.; Oliveira, M. C.; Alves, J. L.; Menezes, L. F.

    2016-08-01

    Most of sheet metal forming processes comprise intermediate trimming operations to remove superfluous material. These operations are required for subsequent forming operations. On the other hand, the springback is strongly influenced by the trimming operations that change the part stiffness and the stress field. From the numerical point of view, this involves the geometrical trimming of the finite element mesh and subsequent remapping of the state variables. This study presents a remapping method based on Dual Kriging interpolation, specifically developed for hexahedral finite elements, which has been implemented in DD3TRIM in-house code. Its performance is compared with the one of the Incremental Volumetric Remapping method, using the split-ring test to highlight their advantages and limitations. The numerical simulation of the forming processes is performed with DD3IMP finite element solver.

  14. Residual energy applications program test and operations report

    SciTech Connect

    Zander, F.H.

    1980-10-01

    Objective of REAP in the recovery of waste heat at US gaseous diffusion plants by 1984. This report contains policy, objective, and guideline suggestions for utilizing the proposed Energy applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility and for managing EAST operations; preliminary design information on facility support equipment and physical plant; and estimates of initial construction costs and staffing requirements for a two-bay, three-shift operation. (DCL)

  15. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  16. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  18. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  19. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  20. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...

  1. The Applicability of the Army Physical Fitness Test in the Contemporary Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    THE APPLICABILITY OF THE ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST IN THE CONTEMPORARY OPERATING ENVIRONMENT A thesis presented to the Faculty...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE APPLICABILITY OF THE ARMY PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST IN THE CONTEMPORARY OPERATING...

  2. Favourable uranium-phosphate exploration trends guided by the application of statistical factor analysis technique on the aerial gamma spectrometric data in Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2016-02-01

    A scored lithological map including 10 radiometric units is established through applying factor analysis approach to aerial spectrometric data of Area-1, Syrian desert, which includes Ur, eU, eTh, K%, eU/eTh, eU/K%, and eTh/K%. A model of four rotated factors F1, F2, F3, and F4 is adapted for representing 234,829 data measured points in Area-1, where 86% of total data variance is interpreted. A geological scored pseudo-section derived from the lithological scored map is established and analyzed in order to show the possible stratigraphic and structural traps for uranium occurrences associated with phosphate deposits in the studied Area-1. These identified traps presented in this paper need detailed investigation and must be necessarily followed and checked by ground validations and subsurface well logging, in order to locate the anomalous uranium occurrences and explore with more confidence and certitude their characteristics as a function of depth.

  3. Grab a coffee: your aerial images are already analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Rademacher, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    For over 2 decades the AIMTM platform has been utilized in mask shops as the standard for actinic review of photomask sites in order to perform defect disposition and repair review. Throughout this time the measurement throughput of the systems has been improved in order to keep pace with the requirements demanded by a manufacturing environment, however the analysis of the sites captured has seen little improvement and remained a manual process. This manual analysis of aerial images is time consuming, subject to error and unreliability and contributes to holding up turn-around time (TAT) and slowing process flow in a manufacturing environment. AutoAnalysis, the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, offers a solution to these problems by providing fully automated data transfer and analysis of AIMTM aerial images. The data is automatically output in a customizable format that can be tailored to your internal needs and the requests of your customers. Savings in terms of operator time arise from the automated analysis which no longer needs to be performed. Reliability is improved as human error is eliminated making sure the most defective region is always and consistently captured. Finally the TAT is shortened and process flow for the back end of the line improved as the analysis is fast and runs in parallel to the measurements. In this paper the concept and approach of AutoAnalysis will be presented as well as an update to the status of the project. A look at the benefits arising from the automation and the customizable approach of the solution will be shown.

  4. 77 FR 27533 - Application for Presidential Permit To Construct, Operate and Maintain Pipeline Facilities on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Application for Presidential Permit To Construct, Operate and Maintain Pipeline Facilities on the Border of... Presidential Permit to Construct, Operate and Maintain Pipeline Facilities on the Border of the United States... construct, operate and maintain pipeline facilities on the border of the United States from...

  5. 40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant... Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations. (a) Each owner or operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation subject to this subpart shall comply with the requirements specified...

  6. Research and operational applications in multi-center ensemble forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.; Toth, Z.

    2009-05-01

    The North American Ensemble Forecast System (NAEFS) was built up in 2004 by the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC), the National Meteorological Service of Mexico (NMSM), and the US National Weather Service (NWS) as an operational multi-center ensemble forecast system. Currently it combines the 20-member MSC and NWS ensembles to form a joint ensemble of 40 members twice a day. The joint ensemble forecast, after bias correction and statistical downscaling, is used to generate a suite of products for CONUS, North America and for other regions of the globe. The THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) project has been established a few years ago to collect operational global ensemble forecasts from world centers, and distribute to the scientific community, to encourage research leading to the acceleration of improvements in the skill and utility of high impact weather forecasts. TIGGE research is expected to advise the development of the operational NAEFS system and eventually the two projects are expected to converge into a single operational system, the Global Interactive Forecast System (GIFS). This presentation will review recent developments, the current status, and plans related to the TIGGE research and NAEFS operational multi-center ensemble projects.

  7. Large-Scale Aerial Image Categorization Using a Multitask Topological Codebook.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luming; Wang, Meng; Hong, Richang; Yin, Bao-Cai; Li, Xuelong

    2016-02-01

    Fast and accurately categorizing the millions of aerial images on Google Maps is a useful technique in pattern recognition. Existing methods cannot handle this task successfully due to two reasons: 1) the aerial images' topologies are the key feature to distinguish their categories, but they cannot be effectively encoded by a conventional visual codebook and 2) it is challenging to build a realtime image categorization system, as some geo-aware Apps update over 20 aerial images per second. To solve these problems, we propose an efficient aerial image categorization algorithm. It focuses on learning a discriminative topological codebook of aerial images under a multitask learning framework. The pipeline can be summarized as follows. We first construct a region adjacency graph (RAG) that describes the topology of each aerial image. Naturally, aerial image categorization can be formulated as RAG-to-RAG matching. According to graph theory, RAG-to-RAG matching is conducted by enumeratively comparing all their respective graphlets (i.e., small subgraphs). To alleviate the high time consumption, we propose to learn a codebook containing topologies jointly discriminative to multiple categories. The learned topological codebook guides the extraction of the discriminative graphlets. Finally, these graphlets are integrated into an AdaBoost model for predicting aerial image categories. Experimental results show that our approach is competitive to several existing recognition models. Furthermore, over 24 aerial images are processed per second, demonstrating that our approach is ready for real-world applications.

  8. Operator assistant systems - An experimental approach using a telerobotics application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a knowledge-based system methodology for developing operator assistant (OA) systems in dynamic and interactive environments. This is a problem both of training and design, which is the subject of this article. Design includes both design of the system to be controlled and design of procedures for operating this system. A specific knowledge representation is proposed for representing the corresponding system and operational knowledge. This representation is based on the situation recognition and analytical reasoning paradigm. It tries to make explicit common factors involved in both human and machine intelligence, including perception and reasoning. An OA system based on this representation has been developed for space telerobotics. Simulations have been carried out with astronauts and the resulting protocols have been analyzed. Results show the relevance of the approach and have been used for improving the knowledge representation and the OA architecture.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  10. MIL-H-8501B: Application to shipboard terminal operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappetta, A. N.; Johns, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The philosophy and structure of the proposed U.S. Military Specification for Handling Qualities Requirements for Military Rotorcraft, MIL-H-8501B, are presented with emphasis on shipboard terminal operations. The impact of current and future naval operational requirements on the selection of appropriate combinations of basic vehicle dynamics and usable cue environments are identified. An example 'walk through' of MIL-H-8501B is conducted from task identification to determination of stability and control requirements. For selected basic vehicle dynamics, criteria as a function of input/response magnitude are presented. Additionally, rotorcraft design development implications are discussed.

  11. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  12. Application of quadratures and operator splitting to partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Bernabe, Francisco J.; Salcedo, J.

    2013-02-01

    In this work we study the stability of a method for the numerical solution of initial value problems, that combines finite differences with Simpson's rule. This method is applied to a one spatial dimension, convection-dominated transport problem. To solve the same problem in two spatial dimensions, the proposed method was used in combination with Strang's operator decomposition method.

  13. The application of NAVSTAR Differential GPS to civil helicopter operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beser, J.; Parkinson, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Principles concerning the operation of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are discussed. Selective availability issues concerning NAVSTAR GPS and differential GPS concepts are analyzed. Civil support and market potential for differential GPS are outlined. It is concluded that differential GPS provides a variation on the baseline GPS system, and gives an assured, uninterrupted level of accuracy for the civilian community.

  14. Application and Operation of Audiovisual Equipment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pula, Fred John

    Interest in audiovisual aids in education has been increased by the shortage of classrooms and good teachers and by the modern predisposition toward learning by visual concepts. Effective utilization of audiovisual materials and equipment depends most importantly, on adequate preparation of the teacher in operating equipment and in coordinating…

  15. Applications of Optimal Building Energy System Selection and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; DeForest, Nicholas; Donadee, Jon; Bhattacharya, Prajesh; Lai, Judy

    2011-04-01

    Berkeley Lab has been developing the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) for several years. Given load curves for energy services requirements in a building microgrid (u grid), fuel costs and other economic inputs, and a menu of available technologies, DER-CAM finds the optimum equipment fleet and its optimum operating schedule using a mixed integer linear programming approach. This capability is being applied using a software as a service (SaaS) model. Optimisation problems are set up on a Berkeley Lab server and clients can execute their jobs as needed, typically daily. The evolution of this approach is demonstrated by description of three ongoing projects. The first is a public access web site focused on solar photovoltaic generation and battery viability at large commercial and industrial customer sites. The second is a building CO2 emissions reduction operations problem for a University of California, Davis student dining hall for which potential investments are also considered. And the third, is both a battery selection problem and a rolling operating schedule problem for a large County Jail. Together these examples show that optimization of building u grid design and operation can be effectively achieved using SaaS.

  16. Operational excellence (six sigma) philosophy: Application to software quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Lackner, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on operational excellence philosophy of six sigma applied to software quality assurance. This report outlines the following: goal of six sigma; six sigma tools; manufacturing vs administrative processes; Software quality assurance document inspections; map software quality assurance requirements document; failure mode effects analysis for requirements document; measuring the right response variables; and questions.

  17. Design, fabrication, and operation of hybrid bionanodevices for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Robert Matthew

    Cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. Despite their simplicity, cells are extremely versatile, performing a variety of functions including detection, signaling, and repair. While current biomedical devices operate at the organ level, the next generation will operate at the cellular level, combining the nanoscale machinery of cells with the mechanical robustness of synthetic materials in the form of new hybrid devices. This thesis presents advances in four topics concerning the development of nanomedical devices: fabrication, stabilization, control, and operation. First, as feature sizes decrease from the milli- and microscale towards the nanoscale, new fabrication methods must be developed. A new rapid prototyping technique using confocal microscopy was used to produce freely-programmable high-resolution protein patterns of functional motor proteins on thermo-responsive polymer surfaces. Second, hybrid device operation should be temperature-independent, but most biological components have strong responses to temperature fluctuations. To counter operational fluctuations, the temperature-dependent enzymatic activity was characterized for two types of molecular motors with the goal of developing a bionanosystem which is stabilized against temperature fluctuations. Third, replacing electromechanical systems consisting of pumps and batteries with proteins that directly convert chemical potential into mechanical energy increases the efficiency and decreases the size of the bionanodevice, but requires new control methods. An enzymatic network was developed in which fuel was photolytically released to activate molecular shuttles, excess fuel was sequestered using an enzyme, and spatial and temporal control of the system was achieved. Finally, chemically powered bionanodevices will require high-precision nano- and microscale actuators. A two-part hybrid actuator was designed, which consists of a molecular motor-coated synthetic macroscale forcer and a

  18. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  19. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  20. Securing Ground Data System Applications for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.; Tso, Kam S.; Johnson, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence and sophistication of cyber attacks has prompted the Multimission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) Program Office at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to initiate the Common Access Manager (CAM) effort to protect software applications used in Ground Data Systems (GDSs) at JPL and other NASA Centers. The CAM software provides centralized services and software components used by GDS subsystems to meet access control requirements and ensure data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. In this paper we describe the CAM software; examples of its integration with spacecraft commanding software applications and an information management service; and measurements of its performance and reliability.

  1. Research on informational operation application of tactical loitering platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanhuan; Zhang, Jun; Li, Guoshu; Song, Jinxing; Zhang, Yunhao

    2016-11-01

    The tactical loitering platform, as a multifunctional precision guided weapon, is an important part of constitution of information warfare. Using the combined propulsion system, the flying mode of platform includes supersonic cruise and subsonic loiter. With different loads, the platform is information warfare equipments with functions of region spying, communication control, electronic jamming, target tracking, accurate attack and damage assessment. Also the ability of platform can be enforced by using data link system in the informational operation.

  2. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  3. Applications of triggered lightning to space vehicle operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, William; Sanicandro, Rocco; Rompalla, John; Wohlman, Richard

    1992-11-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the USAF Eastern Space Missile Center (ESMC) covering an area of 25 x 40 km are frequently called America's Spaceport. This title is earned through the integration, by labor and management, of many skills in a wide variety of engineering fields to solve many technical problems that occur during the launch processing of space vehicles. Weather is one of these problems, and although less frequent in time and duration when compared to engineering type problems, has caused costly and life threatening situations. This sensitivity to weather, especially lightning, was recognized in the very early pioneer days of space operations. The need to protect the many v\\facilities, space flight hardware, and personnel from electrified clouds capable of producing lightning was a critical element in improving launch operations. A KSC lightning committee was formed and directed to improve lightning protection, detection, and measuring systems and required that all theoretical studies be confirmed by KSC field data. Over the years, there have been several lightning incidents involving flight vehicles during ground processing as well as launch. Subsequent investigations revealed the need to improve these systems as well as the knowledge of the electrical atmosphere and its effects on operations in regard to cost and safety. Presented here is how, KSC Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory (AFSL), in particular Rocket Triggered Lightning, is being used to solve these problems.

  4. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accessibility features where the application programming interface for those accessibility features has been...-defined on-screen indication of the current focus shall be provided that moves among interactive interface... technology can track focus and focus changes. (d) Sufficient information about a user interface...

  5. 36 CFR 1194.21 - Software applications and operating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accessibility features where the application programming interface for those accessibility features has been...-defined on-screen indication of the current focus shall be provided that moves among interactive interface... technology can track focus and focus changes. (d) Sufficient information about a user interface...

  6. Applications of Genetic Methods to NASA Design and Operations Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Philip D.

    1996-01-01

    We review four recent NASA-funded applications in which evolutionary/genetic methods are important. In the process we survey: the kinds of problems being solved today with these methods; techniques and tools used; problems encountered; and areas where research is needed. The presentation slides are annotated briefly at the top of each page.

  7. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  8. Options for organization and operation of space applications transfer centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, A. C.; Madigan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The benefits of developing regional facilities for transfer of NASA developed technology are discussed. These centers are designed to inform, persuade, and serve users. Included will be equipment for applications and demonstrations of the processes, a library, training facilities, and meeting rooms. The staff will include experts in the various techniques, as well as personnel involved in finding and persuading potential users.

  9. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  10. 20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PLANT WAS COMPOSED OF FOUR WIDELY SEPARATED AREAS, EACH ONE PERFORMING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORK. PLANT A (44), SOUTHWEST, FABRICATED PARTS FROM DEPLETED URANIUM, PLANT B (81), SOUTH, WAS ENRICHED URANIUM OPERATIONS, PLANT C (71), NORTH, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS, AND PLANT D (91), EAST, WAS FINAL ASSEMBLY, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING (2/6/66). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  12. Optical turbulence forecast: ready for an operational application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciadri, E.; Lascaux, F.; Turchi, A.; Fini, L.

    2017-04-01

    One of the main goals of the feasibility study MOSE (MOdelling ESO Sites) is to evaluate the performances of a method conceived to forecast the optical turbulence (OT) above the European Southern Observatory (ESO) sites of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) in Chile. The method implied the use of a dedicated code conceived for the OT called ASTRO-MESO-NH. In this paper, we present results we obtained at conclusion of this project concerning the performances of this method in forecasting the most relevant parameters related to the OT (CN^2, seeing ε, isoplanatic angle θ0 and wavefront coherence time τ0). Numerical predictions related to a very rich statistical sample of nights uniformly distributed along a solar year and belonging to different years have been compared to observations, and different statistical operators have been analysed such as the classical bias, root-mean-squared error, σ and more sophisticated statistical operators derived by the contingency tables that are able to quantify the score of success of a predictive method such as the percentage of correct detection (PC) and the probability to detect a parameter within a specific range of values (POD). The main conclusions of the study tell us that the ASTRO-MESO-NH model provides performances that are already very good to definitely guarantee a not negligible positive impact on the service mode of top-class telescopes and ELTs. A demonstrator for an automatic and operational version of the ASTRO-MESO-NH model will be soon implemented on the sites of VLT and E-ELT.

  13. International Conference on Operator Theory: Advances and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    depending boundary conditions" 4:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m. Invited paper: A. Dijksma, University of Groningen, Netherlands - "Unitary colligations and...mappine" 2:30 p.m.-3:00 p.m. Invited paper: E.M. Semenov, University of Voronezh, U.S.S.R. - "The Geometrical Properties of Operators Acting on L " P...10:30 a.m. Contributed paper: Q. Ye, University of Calgary - "Variational Properties and Rayleigh Ouotient Algorithms for ffermitian Matrzix Pencils

  14. A Mobile App for Military Operational Entomology Pesticide Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    environment and target insect vector species. KEY WORDS iOS, Android, pesticides, vector control, Deployed War-Fighter Protection research program The...targeting a limited variety of species of colony insects , and tested in limited field trials in a single ecological region, the southeast USA, with...specific pesticide application guidance organized by environment and target insect vector species. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  15. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  16. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  17. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  18. The Application of Range Space Operations to Color Images

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C; Duchaineau, M

    2002-03-26

    The knowledge gained from scientific observation, experiment, and simulation is linked to the ability to analyze, understand, and manage the generated results. These abilities are increasingly at odds with the current, and future, capabilities to generate enormous quantities of raw scientific and engineering data from instruments, sensors, and computers. Many researchers are currently engaged in activities that seek to create new and novel methods for analyzing, understanding, and managing these vast collections of data. In this work, we present some of our research in addressing a particular type of problem in this broad undertaking. Much the scientific data of interest is in the form of observed, measured, or computed multivariate or multi-component vector field data--with either as physical or color data values. We are currently researching methods and techniques for working with this type of vector data through the use of a novel analysis technique. Our basic approach is to work with the vector field data in its natural physical or color space. When the data is viewed as a functional mapping of a domain, usually an index space, to a range, the physical or color values, potentially interesting characteristics of the data present themselves. These characteristics are useful in analyzing the vector fields based on quantities and qualities of the physical or color data values themselves. We will present the basic development of the idea of range space operations and detail the information we are interested in and some of the issues involved in its computation. The data we are first interested in, and discuss exclusively in this work, is color image data from scientific observations and simulations. Some of the operations on the range space representation that are of interest to this color image data are colormap construction, segmentation, color modeling, and compression. We will show some how some of the operations can be implemented in range space, what analysis

  19. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    southeast leg and 300 m AGL on the northwest leg. Spatial resolution (pixel size or ground sample distance) is a few centimeters. Time and geographic coordinates of the aircraft were automatically written into the exchangeable image file format (EXIF) data within each jpeg photograph. A few hours after acquisition and validation, the photographs were uploaded to a publically accessible Web page. The goal was to obtain quick-turnaround, low-cost, high-resolution, overlapping, and contiguous imagery for use in planning field operations, and to provide imagery for a wide variety of land use and educational studies. This work was carried out in support of ongoing geological research on the San Andreas fault, but the technique is widely applicable beyond geology.

  20. Solar cells: Operating principles, technology, and system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, M. A.

    Solar cell theory, materials, fabrication, design, modules, and systems are discussed. The solar source of light energy is described and quantified, along with a review of semiconductor properties and the generation, recombination, and the basic equations of photovoltaic device physics. Particular attention is given to p-n junction diodes, including efficiency limits, losses, and measurements. Si solar cell technology is described for the production of solar-quality crystals and wafers, and design, improvements, and device structures are examined. Consideration is given to alternate semiconductor materials and applications in concentrating systems, storage, and the design and construction of stand-alone systems and systems for residential and centralized power generation.

  1. Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System. [PCM telemetry unit for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giri, R. R.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System (MOMS) is a high-data-rate PCM telemetry unit capable of sampling and encoding 60 scanning radiometer and four vidicon channels at 250 kilosamples/second and 5 megasamples/second, respectively. This sampling capacity plus the seven-bit quantization requires a total throughput rate of 40 megasamples/second and 280 megabits/second. To produce these rates efficiently, the system was divided into a pair of identical 140-megabit blocks. A low-power 20-MHz analog multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter were developed together with a video sample-and-hold that features an aperture time error of less than 50 psec. Breadboard testing of these basic building blocks confirmed the design prediction that the total system would consume 27 watts of power. Two 140-megabit output parts are suitable for quadriphase modulation.

  2. MOCAGE-accident: From research to operational applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martet, M.; Josse, M.; Peuch, Mr.; Peuch, M.; Bonnardot, Mr.

    2009-09-01

    MOCAGE (Modèle de Chimie Atmosphérique à Grande Echelle) is the multi-scale 3D Chemistry and Transport Model of Météo-France. From air quality forecasting to the study of interactions between climate and chemistry, MOCAGE is a flexible tool that is currently used for both research on atmospheric composition (over 35 publications in the international literature) and operations in Météo-France and at several collaborating institutes. In particular, MOCAGE products are used for the French operational Air Quality platform Prév'Air as well as in projects building up the GMES Atmospheric Service. Here, we present a new specific configuration "MOCAGE-accident”, currently used in pre-operations trial by Météo-France forecasters, in support of our international responsibilities as RSMC (Regional Meteorological Specialized Centre) and VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre). Briefly, a semi-lagrangian scheme is used for advection (Williamson and Rash, 1989), while turbulent diffusion, using the Louis scheme (Louis, 1979) and convection, using the Bechtold scheme (Kain and Fritsch, 1990 and Bechtold, 2001) are parameterized. In the specific "accident” configuration, no chemical reactions are considered and a module allows to specify the temporal and geometrical characteristics of the release. Three types of pollutants can be considered : - tracers: no interactions between this tracer and the other atmospheric components are considered ; only transport, wet and dry deposition are taken into account. - radionucleides: in this case, radioactive disintegration is treated following the type of radionuclide and its lifetime. - volcanic ashes: solid materials are considered and sedimentation of the particles is also considered. Concerning the current pre-operations trial, the horizontal resolution of MOCAGE-accident is 0,5° all over the globe, with 47 levels from surface to 5 hPa. This model is thus able to represent accidental emissions on every place of the world, in

  3. Large bearing operation without retainer. [high speed ball bearings for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsbury, E.

    1978-01-01

    The design and testing of large high-speed ball bearings for space application is described. A well-defined lubrication system to provide oil to both race contacts in zero g allows stable operation without ball retainer.

  4. Development of RGB Composite Imagery for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Oswald, Hayden, K; Knaff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, in collaboration with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), is providing red-green-blue (RGB) color composite imagery to several of NOAA s National Centers and National Weather Service forecast offices as a demonstration of future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) to be implemented aboard GOES-R. Forecasters rely upon geostationary satellite imagery to monitor conditions over their regions of responsibility. Since the ABI will provide nearly three times as many channels as the current GOES imager, the volume of data available for analysis will increase. RGB composite imagery can aid in the compression of large data volumes by combining information from multiple channels or paired channel differences into single products that communicate more information than provided by a single channel image. A standard suite of RGB imagery has been developed by the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), based upon the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). The SEVIRI instrument currently provides visible and infrared wavelengths comparable to the future GOES-R ABI. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites can be used to demonstrate future capabilities of GOES-R. This presentation will demonstrate an overview of the products currently disseminated to SPoRT partners within the GOES-R Proving Ground, and other National Weather Service forecast offices, along with examples of their application. For example, CIRA has used the channels of the current GOES sounder to produce an "air mass" RGB originally designed for SEVIRI. This provides hourly imagery over CONUS for looping applications while demonstrating capabilities similar to the future ABI instrument. SPoRT has developed similar "air mass" RGB imagery from MODIS, and through

  5. Enhanced operation of femtosecond lasers and applications in cell transfection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christian T A; Stevenson, David J; Tsampoula, Xanthi; McDougall, Craig; Lagatsky, Alexander A; Sibbett, Wilson; Gunn-Moore, Frank J; Dholakia, Kishan

    2008-08-01

    In this work we present a review and discussion on the enhancement of femtosecond (fs) lasers for use within biophotonics with a particular focus on their use in optical transfection techniques. We describe the broad range of source options now available for the generation of femtosecond pulses before briefly reviewing the application of fs laser in optical transfection studies. We show that major performance enhancements may be obtained by optimising the spatial and temporal performance of the laser source before considering possible future directions in this field. In relation to optical transfection we describe how such laser sources initiate a multiphoton process to permeate the cell membrane in a transient fashion. We look at aspects of this technique including the ability to combine transfection with optical trapping. For future implementation of such transfection we explore the role of new sources and "nondiffracting" light fields.

  6. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  7. Acid-soluble magnesia cement; New applications in completion and workover operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatman, R.E.; Scoggins, W.C. )

    1990-11-01

    Acid-soluble magnesia cement (MC) was used in production zones to plug perforations temporarily to reduce brine losses during completion and workover operations. This has resulted in substantial savings for operators. The cement has also been used to reduce potential formation damage. This paper describes some of the characteristics of the cement, field applications, and results.

  8. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located...

  9. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  10. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  11. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  12. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  13. 13 CFR 120.835 - Application to expand an Area of Operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Extending A Cdc's Area of Operations § 120.835 Application to expand an Area of Operations. (a) General. A CDC that has been certified to participate in the 504... Program (ALP) CDC, as set forth in § 120.840(c), and demonstrates that it can competently fulfill its...

  14. 76 FR 12140 - Clinton Power Station Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Clinton Power Station Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. NPF-62 for the Clinton Power Station, Unit 1, located in DeWitt County, Illinois....

  15. Application of the operator spline technique to nonlinear estimation and control of moving elastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karray, Fakhreddine; Dwyer, Thomas A. W., III

    1990-01-01

    A bilinear model of the vibrational dynamics of a deformable maneuvering body is described. Estimates of the deformation state are generated through a low dimensional operator spline interpolator of bilinear systems combined with a feedback linearized based observer. Upper bounds on error estimates are also generated through the operator spline, and potential application to shaping control purposes is highlighted.

  16. 75 FR 57299 - First Energy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION First Energy Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Receipt and Availability of Application for Renewal of Davis Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, Facility Operating License No. NPF-003 for an Additional 20-Year Period The U.S. Nuclear...

  17. 10 CFR 71.81 - Applicability of operating controls and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 71.81 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.81 Applicability of operating controls and procedures. A licensee subject to this part, who, under a general or specific license, transports licensed material...

  18. 76 FR 13241 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation...

  19. 76 FR 11822 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Availability of Application for a Combined License On March 28, 2008, Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC), acting on behalf of itself and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation...

  20. 75 FR 52557 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to Facility... proposed amendment to Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-26 and DPR-64 for the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in Westchester County, New York. The proposed amendment would...

  1. Efficient pedestrian detection from aerial vehicles with object proposals and deep convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    As Unmanned Aerial Systems grow in numbers, pedestrian detection from aerial platforms is becoming a topic of increasing importance. By providing greater contextual information and a reduced potential for occlusion, the aerial vantage point provided by Unmanned Aerial Systems is highly advantageous for many surveillance applications, such as target detection, tracking, and action recognition. However, due to the greater distance between the camera and scene, targets of interest in aerial imagery are generally smaller and have less detail. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN's) have demonstrated excellent object classification performance and in this paper we adopt them to the problem of pedestrian detection from aerial platforms. We train a CNN with five layers consisting of three convolution-pooling layers and two fully connected layers. We also address the computational inefficiencies of the sliding window method for object detection. In the sliding window configuration, a very large number of candidate patches are generated from each frame, while only a small number of them contain pedestrians. We utilize the Edge Box object proposal generation method to screen candidate patches based on an "objectness" criterion, so that only regions that are likely to contain objects are processed. This method significantly reduces the number of image patches processed by the neural network and makes our classification method very efficient. The resulting two-stage system is a good candidate for real-time implementation onboard modern aerial vehicles. Furthermore, testing on three datasets confirmed that our system offers high detection accuracy for terrestrial pedestrian detection in aerial imagery.

  2. Research of aerial imaging spectrometer data acquisition technology based on USB 3.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junze; Wang, Yueming; He, Daogang; Yu, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    With the emergence of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) platform for aerial imaging spectrometer, research of aerial imaging spectrometer DAS(data acquisition system) faces new challenges. Due to the limitation of platform and other factors, the aerial imaging spectrometer DAS requires small-light, low-cost and universal. Traditional aerial imaging spectrometer DAS system is expensive, bulky, non-universal and unsupported plug-and-play based on PCIe. So that has been unable to meet promotion and application of the aerial imaging spectrometer. In order to solve these problems, the new data acquisition scheme bases on USB3.0 interface.USB3.0 can provide guarantee of small-light, low-cost and universal relying on the forward-looking technology advantage. USB3.0 transmission theory is up to 5Gbps.And the GPIF programming interface achieves 3.2Gbps of the effective theoretical data bandwidth.USB3.0 can fully meet the needs of the aerial imaging spectrometer data transmission rate. The scheme uses the slave FIFO asynchronous data transmission mode between FPGA and USB3014 interface chip. Firstly system collects spectral data from TLK2711 of high-speed serial interface chip. Then FPGA receives data in DDR2 cache after ping-pong data processing. Finally USB3014 interface chip transmits data via automatic-dma approach and uploads to PC by USB3.0 cable. During the manufacture of aerial imaging spectrometer, the DAS can achieve image acquisition, transmission, storage and display. All functions can provide the necessary test detection for aerial imaging spectrometer. The test shows that system performs stable and no data lose. Average transmission speed and storage speed of writing SSD can stabilize at 1.28Gbps. Consequently ,this data acquisition system can meet application requirements for aerial imaging spectrometer.

  3. Verification of operating software for cooperative monitoring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.; Rembold, R.K.

    1997-08-01

    Monitoring agencies often use computer based equipment to control instruments and to collect data at sites that are being monitored under international safeguards or other cooperative monitoring agreements. In order for this data to be used as an independent verification of data supplied by the host at the facility, the software used must be trusted by the monitoring agency. The monitoring party must be sure that the software has not be altered to give results that could lead to erroneous conclusions about nuclear materials inventories or other operating conditions at the site. The host might also want to verify that the software being used is the software that has been previously inspected in order to be assured that only data that is allowed under the agreement is being collected. A description of a method to provide this verification using keyed has functions and how the proposed method overcomes possible vulnerabilities in methods currently in use such as loading the software from trusted disks is presented. The use of public key data authentication for this purpose is also discussed.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-31

    Command and Control MOA Memorandum of Agreement C3 1 C2 . Communications & Intelligence MPCS Mission Planning and Control Station C4 1 C3 , Computers...8217 microproces- portantcomponent of its intelligence sys- station ( MPCS ) sors wil! be upgraded from 16 bit to 32 bit tern and is committed to fielding a UAV...will host Hunter UAV soft- evaluated by the ship’s crew throughout would achieve operational interoperabil- ware. A prototype MPCS and the scheduled

  5. JSC Aerial View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This North-looking view shows some of the Johnson Space Center's central buildings and facilities neighboring its Project Management Facility (Building 1) from which this scene was photographed. The Houston-based Mission Control Center is in the center of the frame. Visible buildings surrounding the mall area include the Flight Operations Facility, Crew Systems Laboratory, Photographic Technology Laboratory, Technical Services shop, branch cafeteria, Mission Control Center office wing and the Central Data Office.

  6. Aerial video mosaicking using binary feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are becoming an increasingly attractive platform for many applications, as their cost decreases and their capabilities increase. Creating detailed maps from aerial data requires fast and accurate video mosaicking methods. Traditional mosaicking techniques rely on inter-frame homography estimations that are cascaded through the video sequence. Computationally expensive keypoint matching algorithms are often used to determine the correspondence of keypoints between frames. This paper presents a video mosaicking method that uses an object tracking approach for matching keypoints between frames to improve both efficiency and robustness. The proposed tracking method matches local binary descriptors between frames and leverages the spatial locality of the keypoints to simplify the matching process. Our method is robust to cascaded errors by determining the homography between each frame and the ground plane rather than the prior frame. The frame-to-ground homography is calculated based on the relationship of each point's image coordinates and its estimated location on the ground plane. Robustness to moving objects is integrated into the homography estimation step through detecting anomalies in the motion of keypoints and eliminating the influence of outliers. The resulting mosaics are of high accuracy and can be computed in real time.

  7. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  8. Performance assessments of Android-powered military applications operating on tactical handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Brian A.; Fronczek, Lisa; Morse, Emile; Kootbally, Zeid; Schlenoff, Craig

    2013-05-01

    Transformative Apps (TransApps) is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded program whose goal is to develop a range of militarily-relevant software applications ("apps") to enhance the operational-effectiveness of military personnel on (and off) the battlefield. TransApps is also developing a military apps marketplace to facilitate rapid development and dissemination of applications to address user needs by connecting engaged communities of endusers with development groups. The National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) role in the TransApps program is to design and implement evaluation procedures to assess the performance of: 1) the various software applications, 2) software-hardware interactions, and 3) the supporting online application marketplace. Specifically, NIST is responsible for evaluating 50+ tactically-relevant applications operating on numerous Android™-powered platforms. NIST efforts include functional regression testing and quantitative performance testing. This paper discusses the evaluation methodologies employed to assess the performance of three key program elements: 1) handheld-based applications and their integration with various hardware platforms, 2) client-based applications and 3) network technologies operating on both the handheld and client systems along with their integration into the application marketplace. Handheld-based applications are assessed using a combination of utility and usability-based checklists and quantitative performance tests. Client-based applications are assessed to replicate current overseas disconnected (i.e. no network connectivity between handhelds) operations and to assess connected operations envisioned for later use. Finally, networked applications are assessed on handhelds to establish baselines of performance for when connectivity will be common usage.

  9. Wildlife Multispecies Remote Sensing Using Visible and Thermal Infrared Imagery Acquired from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrétien, L.-P.; Théau, J.; Ménard, P.

    2015-08-01

    Wildlife aerial surveys require time and significant resources. Multispecies detection could reduce costs to a single census for species that coexist spatially. Traditional methods are demanding for observers in terms of concentration and are not adapted to multispecies censuses. The processing of multispectral aerial imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) represents a potential solution for multispecies detection. The method used in this study is based on a multicriteria object-based image analysis applied on visible and thermal infrared imagery acquired from a UAV. This project aimed to detect American bison, fallow deer, gray wolves, and elks located in separate enclosures with a known number of individuals. Results showed that all bison and elks were detected without errors, while for deer and wolves, 0-2 individuals per flight line were mistaken with ground elements or undetected. This approach also detected simultaneously and separately the four targeted species even in the presence of other untargeted ones. These results confirm the potential of multispectral imagery acquired from UAV for wildlife census. Its operational application remains limited to small areas related to the current regulations and available technology. Standardization of the workflow will help to reduce time and expertise requirements for such technology.

  10. 12 CFR 7.4009 - Applicability of state law to national bank operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Criminal law 8 8 8 Id. (iv) Rights to collect debts; (v) Acquisition and transfer of property; (vi... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of state law to national bank... BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Preemption § 7.4009 Applicability of state law to national...

  11. 47 CFR 90.137 - Applications for operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for operation at temporary locations. 90.137 Section 90.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations §...

  12. 47 CFR 90.137 - Applications for operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for operation at temporary locations. 90.137 Section 90.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations §...

  13. 47 CFR 90.137 - Applications for operation at temporary locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for operation at temporary locations. 90.137 Section 90.137 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations §...

  14. Potential applications of expert systems and operations research to space station logistics functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippiatt, Thomas F.; Waterman, Donald

    1985-01-01

    The applicability of operations research, artificial intelligence, and expert systems to logistics problems for the space station were assessed. Promising application areas were identified for space station logistics. A needs assessment is presented and a specific course of action in each area is suggested.

  15. A Mission Management Application Suite for Airborne Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, H. M.; Meyer, P. J.; Blakeslee, R.; Regner, K.; Hall, J.; He, M.; Conover, H.; Garrett, M.; Harper, J.; Smith, T.; Grewe, A.; Real Time Mission Monitor Team

    2011-12-01

    Collection of data during airborne field campaigns is a critically important endeavor. It is imperative to observe the correct phenomena at the right time - at the right place to maximize the instrument observations. Researchers at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have developed an application suite known as the Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM). This suite is comprised of tools for mission design, flight planning, aircraft visualization and tracking. The mission design tool allows scientists to set mission parameters such as geographic boundaries and dates of the campaign. Based on these criteria, the tool intelligently selects potential data sets from a data resources catalog from which the scientist is able to choose the aircraft, instruments, and ancillary Earth science data sets to be provided for use in the remaining tool suite. The scientists can easily reconfigure and add data sets of their choosing for use during the campaign. The flight planning tool permits the scientist to assemble aircraft flight plans and to plan coincident observations with other aircraft, spacecraft or in situ observations. Satellite and ground-based remote sensing data and modeling data are used as background layers to aid the scientist in the flight planning process. Planning is crucial to successful collection of data and the ability to modify the plan and upload to aircraft navigators and pilots is essential for the agile collection of data. Most critical to successful and cost effective collection of data is the capability to visualize the Earth science data (airborne instruments, radiosondes, radar, dropsondes, etc.) and track the aircraft in real time. In some instances, aircraft instrument data is provided to ground support personnel in near-real time to visualize with the flight track. This visualization and tracking aspect of RTMM provides a decision support capability in conjunction with scientific collaboration portals to allow for scientists on the ground to communicate

  16. USGS aerial resolution targets.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salamonowicz, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems. The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. -from Author

  17. Application of LBB to high energy piping systems in operating PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amendment to General Design Criterion 4 allows exclusion, from the design basis, of dynamic effects associated with high energy pipe rupture by application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology. This new approach has resulted in substantial financial savings to utilities when applied to the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary loop piping and auxiliary piping systems made of stainless steel material. To date majority of applications pertain to piping systems in operating plants. Various steps of evaluation associated with the LBB application to an operating plant are described in this paper.

  18. Development of operator requested control system applications: Experience with the SLC control system at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Stanek, M.

    1995-12-01

    The SLC Control system at SLAC has evolved into a powerful tool for operation of the accelerator and for troubleshooting the unique problems encountered in extracting maximum performance from the SLC. The evolution has included the development of many custom applications and user interface features generated from accelerator operator and accelerator physicist requests. These applications are written and maintained primarily by the Controls Software Engineering group, and not by the users themselves. The process of developing and supporting user requested control systems applications at SLAC is described, including the effects of organizational structure, formal and informal procedures, and control system architecture.

  19. Application of Hierarchical Goal Analysis to the Halifax Class Frigate Operations Room: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Application of hierarchical goal analysis to the Halifax Class frigate operations room: A case study Renee Chow DRDC Toronto Jacquelyn M.Crebolder...Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada DEFENCE DÉFENSE & Application of hierarchical goal...This paper reports on the first application of Hierarchical Goal Analysis (HGA) [1], a relatively new approach to requirements analysis for

  20. System Analysis Applied to Autonomy: Application to High-Altitude Long-Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Maturation of intelligent systems technologies and their incorporation into aerial platforms are dictating the development of new analysis tools and incorporation of such tools into existing system analysis methodologies in order to fully capture the trade-offs of autonomy on vehicle and mission success. A first-order "system analysis of autonomy" methodology is outlined in this paper. Further, this analysis methodology is subsequently applied to notional high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aerial vehicle missions.

  1. Environmental Concentrations, Fate, and Risk Assessment of Pyrethrins and Piperonyl Butoxide After Aerial Ultralow-Volume Applications for Adult Mosquito Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    end point) for PBO samples taken 1 h before the appli- cation for Daphnia magna , rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus my- kiss), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis...after application in Princeton for D. magna , rainbow trout, and bluegill sunfish were 0.0003, less than 0.0001, and less than 0.0001, respectively

  2. Normal forms of an abstract Dirac operator and applications to scattering theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Bernd

    1988-01-01

    The unitary transformations which convert an abstract Dirac operator into an ``even'' (resp. ``odd'') operator are determined. The problem is formulated and solved completely within the general setup of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. This leads to some apparently new applications in relativistic quantum mechanics, where the transformations are known as the Foldy-Wouthuysen (resp. Cini-Touschek) transformations. The scattering theory for abstract Dirac operators is discussed and the utility of the general theory is illustrated by proving existence of relativistic Mo/ller operators for scattering from long-range magnetic fields.

  3. Coastline Extraction from Aerial Images Based on Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paravolidakis, V.; Moirogiorgou, K.; Ragia, L.; Zervakis, M.; Synolakis, C.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays coastline extraction and tracking of its changes become of high importance because of the climate change, global warming and rapid growth of human population. Coastal areas play a significant role for the economy of the entire region. In this paper we propose a new methodology for automatic extraction of the coastline using aerial images. A combination of a four step algorithm is used to extract the coastline in a robust and generalizable way. First, noise distortion is reduced in order to ameliorate the input data for the next processing steps. Then, the image is segmented into two regions, land and sea, through the application of a local threshold to create the binary image. The result is further processed by morphological operators with the aim that small objects are being eliminated and only the objects of interest are preserved. Finally, we perform edge detection and active contours fitting in order to extract and model the coastline. These algorithmic steps are illustrated through examples, which demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  4. Real time target allocation in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudleppanavar, Ganesh

    The prolific development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) in recent years has the potential to provide tremendous advantages in military, commercial and law enforcement applications. While safety and performance take precedence in the development lifecycle, autonomous operations and, in particular, cooperative missions have the ability to significantly enhance the usability of these vehicles. The success of cooperative missions relies on the optimal allocation of targets while taking into consideration the resource limitation of each vehicle. The task allocation process can be centralized or decentralized. This effort presents the development of a real time target allocation algorithm that considers available stored energy in each vehicle while minimizing the communication between each UAV. The algorithm utilizes a nearest neighbor search algorithm to locate new targets with respect to existing targets. Simulations show that this novel algorithm compares favorably to the mixed integer linear programming method, which is computationally more expensive. The implementation of this algorithm on Arduino and Xbee wireless modules shows the capability of the algorithm to execute efficiently on hardware with minimum computation complexity.

  5. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  6. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the early morning, flocks of birds soar over the Banana River, whose waters reflect the Vehicle Assembly Building , bathed in a pink glow from post-dawn light. Next to the VAB, on the left, is the Launch Control Center. The rectangular building closer to the water at left is the Operations Support Building. At right is the Rotation/Processing Facility. The birds are a common sight at KSC since the Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  7. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  8. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  9. The application of digital medical 3D printing technology on tumor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Jiang, Yijian; Li, Yangsheng

    2016-04-01

    Digital medical 3D printing technology is a new hi-tech which combines traditional medical and digital design, computer science, bio technology and 3D print technology. At the present time there are four levels application: The printed 3D model is the first and simple application. The surgery makes use of the model to plan the processing before operation. The second is customized operation tools such as implant guide. It helps doctor to operate with special tools rather than the normal medical tools. The third level application of 3D printing in medical area is to print artificial bones or teeth to implant into human body. The big challenge is the fourth level which is to print organs with 3D printing technology. In this paper we introduced an application of 3D printing technology in tumor operation. We use 3D printing to print guide for invasion operation. Puncture needles were guided by printed guide in face tumors operation. It is concluded that this new type guide is dominantly advantageous.

  10. Energy evaluation of steam-water cycle operation with mathematical modelling application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Szapajko, Grzegorz

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, we can observe the development of the thermal diagnosis and operating control systems based on measuring techniques and mathematical modelling of processes improvement. Evaluation of the actual operating state is insufficient to make an optimal operating decisions. Thus, information about the influence of the operating parameters' deviations from the reference state on indicators describing energy consumption of the process (for example specific heat consumption or specific energy consumption) is also necessary. The paper presents methods for generation the information about the influence of the steam-water cycle operating parameters on specific heat consumption in a turbine's cycle. A mathematical model of steam-water cycle for a CHP (Cogeneration - also Combined Heat and Power) unit is being worked out. Methods for calculation of operating deviations with the application of correction curves and a mathematical model are described. Exemplary calculation results are presented.

  11. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & RELOCATED ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This is an aerial view of KSC's Visitors Information Center, origination point of guided bus tours of KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. More than one million visitors a year take advantage of the public bus tours. In left midground are the new Hall of History and food services building. The bus tours will remain in operation during the U. S. Bicentennial Exposition on Science and Technology to be held here from May 30 through September 7.

  12. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  13. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  14. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1996-11-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up, and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy the authors analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  15. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1995-11-01

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy we analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. in extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  17. Aerial surveillance based on hierarchical object classification for ground target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Cervantes, Alberto; García-Huerta, Juan-Manuel; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Soto-Cajiga, J. A.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo

    2015-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have turned important in surveillance application due to the flexibility and ability to inspect and displace in different regions of interest. The instrumentation and autonomy of these vehicles have been increased; i.e. the camera sensor is now integrated. Mounted cameras allow flexibility to monitor several regions of interest, displacing and changing the camera view. A well common task performed by this kind of vehicles correspond to object localization and tracking. This work presents a hierarchical novel algorithm to detect and locate objects. The algorithm is based on a detection-by-example approach; this is, the target evidence is provided at the beginning of the vehicle's route. Afterwards, the vehicle inspects the scenario, detecting all similar objects through UTM-GPS coordinate references. Detection process consists on a sampling information process of the target object. Sampling process encode in a hierarchical tree with different sampling's densities. Coding space correspond to a huge binary space dimension. Properties such as independence and associative operators are defined in this space to construct a relation between the target object and a set of selected features. Different densities of sampling are used to discriminate from general to particular features that correspond to the target. The hierarchy is used as a way to adapt the complexity of the algorithm due to optimized battery duty cycle of the aerial device. Finally, this approach is tested in several outdoors scenarios, proving that the hierarchical algorithm works efficiently under several conditions.

  18. Analytical Tools for the Application of Operational Culture: A Case Study in the Trans-Sahel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-28

    their support to MEF staffs with Psychological Operations planning teams in the near future. 2.2.4 Observations on the Situation Context...1998). ―Organizational Consulting: A Gestalt Approach,‖ Cambridge: GIC Press, 23 UNCLASSIFIED Analytical Tools for the Application of Operational...cultural learning and past experiences. What we perceive is often based on our needs, our expectation, our projections, our psychological defenses, and

  19. Weighted inequalities for quasilinear integral operators on the semi-axis and applications to Lorentz spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, D. V.; Stepanov, V. D.

    2016-08-01

    A precise characterization of inequalities in weighted Lebesgue spaces with positive quasilinear integral operators of iterative type on the half-axis is given. All cases of positive integration parameters are treated, including the case of supremum. Applications to the solution of the well-known problem of the boundedness of the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in weighted Lorentz Γ-spaces are given. Bibliography: 41 titles.

  20. Wageningen UR Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility - Overview of activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Harm; Keesstra, Saskia; Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Mucher, Sander; Kramer, Henk; Franke, Jappe

    2016-04-01

    To support environmental management there is an increasing need for timely, accurate and detailed information on our land. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) are increasingly used to monitor agricultural crop development, habitat quality or urban heat efficiency. An important reason is that UAS technology is maturing quickly while the flexible capabilities of UAS fill a gap between satellite based and ground based geo-sensing systems. In 2012, different groups within Wageningen University and Research Centre have established an Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing Facility. The objective of this facility is threefold: a) To develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; b) To support high quality UAS services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAS user community; and c) To promote and test the use of UAS in a broad range of application fields like habitat monitoring, precision agriculture and land degradation assessment. The facility is hosted by the Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing (GRS) and the Department of Soil Physics and Land Management (SLM) of Wageningen University together with the team Earth Informatics (EI) of Alterra. The added value of the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility is that compared to for example satellite based remote sensing more dedicated science experiments can be prepared. This includes for example higher frequent observations in time (e.g., diurnal observations), observations of an object under different observation angles for characterization of BRDF and flexibility in use of camera's and sensors types. In this way, laboratory type of set ups can be tested in a field situation and effects of up-scaling can be tested. In the last years we developed and implemented different camera systems (e.g. a hyperspectral pushbroom system, and multispectral frame cameras) which we operated in projects all

  1. Biologically Inspired Behavioral Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Explorers on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg; Lau, Benton; Young, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural world is a rich source of problem- solving approaches. This paper discusses the feasibility and technical challenges underlying mimicking, or analogously adapting, biological behavioral strategies to mission/flight planning for aerial vehicles engaged in planetary exploration. Two candidate concepts based on natural resource utilization and searching behaviors are adapted io technological applications. Prototypes and test missions addressing the difficulties of implementation and their solutions are also described.

  2. Development of Oceanographic Software Tools and Applications for Navy Operational Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    DEVELOPMENT OF OCEANOGRAPHIC SOFTWARE TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS FOR NAVY OPERATIONAL USE James H. Corbin Center for Air Sea Technology Mississippi State...applications, were significantly reduced. Accordingly, the CAST objective for FY97 was to develop interactive graphical tools for shipboard METOC briefers...This was in response to a COMSIXTHFLT validated METOC requirement to provide visualization briefing tools , animations, and 3–D graphical depictions

  3. Operating characteristics of an air-cooling PEMFC for portable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Young-Jun; Park, Gu-Gon; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Lee, Won-Yong; Yim, Sung-Dae; Kim, Chang-Soo

    Optimal design and proper operation is important to get designed output power of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. The air-cooling fuel cell stack is widely used in sub kW PEMFC systems. The purpose of this study is to analyze the operating conditions affecting the performance of an air-cooling PEMFC which is designed for portable applications. It is difficult to maintain well balanced operating conditions. These parameters are the relative humidity, the temperature of the stack, the utility ratio of the reactant gas and so on. In this study a 500 W rate air-cooling PEMFC was fabricated and tested to evaluate the design performance and to determine optimal operating conditions. Moreover, basic modeling also is carried out. These results can be used as design criteria and optimal operating conditions for portable PEMFCs.

  4. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  5. Small unmanned aerial vehicles (micro-UAVs, drones) in plant ecology1

    PubMed Central

    Cruzan, Mitchell B.; Weinstein, Ben G.; Grasty, Monica R.; Kohrn, Brendan F.; Hendrickson, Elizabeth C.; Arredondo, Tina M.; Thompson, Pamela G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Low-elevation surveys with small aerial drones (micro–unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs]) may be used for a wide variety of applications in plant ecology, including mapping vegetation over small- to medium-sized regions. We provide an overview of methods and procedures for conducting surveys and illustrate some of these applications. Methods: Aerial images were obtained by flying a small drone along transects over the area of interest. Images were used to create a composite image (orthomosaic) and a digital surface model (DSM). Vegetation classification was conducted manually and using an automated routine. Coverage of an individual species was estimated from aerial images. Results: We created a vegetation map for the entire region from the orthomosaic and DSM, and mapped the density of one species. Comparison of our manual and automated habitat classification confirmed that our mapping methods were accurate. A species with high contrast to the background matrix allowed adequate estimate of its coverage. Discussion: The example surveys demonstrate that small aerial drones are capable of gathering large amounts of information on the distribution of vegetation and individual species with minimal impact to sensitive habitats. Low-elevation aerial surveys have potential for a wide range of applications in plant ecology. PMID:27672518

  6. Measurement Capabilities of the DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, B.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J.; Comstock, J. M.; Kluzek, C. D.; Chand, D.; Pekour, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites in three important climatic regimes that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties. ARM also operates mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months) to investigate understudied climate regimes around the globe. Finally, airborne observations by ARM's Aerial Facility (AAF) enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval algorithm development, and model evaluation that is not possible using ground-based techniques. AAF started out in 2007 as a "virtual hangar" with no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments owned by ARM. In this mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, the Battelle owned G-1 aircraft was included in the ARM facility. The G-1 is a large twin turboprop aircraft, capable of measurements up to altitudes of 7.5 km and a range of 2,800 kilometers. Furthermore the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of seventeen new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also heavily engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments. In the presentation we will showcase science applications based on measurements from recent field campaigns such as CARES, CALWATER and TCAP.

  7. Space Environments and Effects Concept: Transitioning Research to Operations and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Spann, James; Burns, Howard D.; Schumacher, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. NASA has established numerous offices specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline offices, a concept focusing on the development of space environment and effects application is presented. This includes space climate, space weather, and natural and induced space environments. This space environment and effects application is composed of 4 topic areas; characterization and modeling, engineering effects, prediction and operation, and mitigation and avoidance. These topic areas are briefly described below. Characterization and modeling of space environments will primarily focus on utilization during Program mission concept, planning, and design phases. Engineering effects includes materials testing and flight experiments producing data to be used in mission planning and design phases. Prediction and operation pulls data from existing sources into decision-making tools and empirical data sets to be used during the operational phase of a mission. Mitigation and avoidance will develop techniques and strategies used in the design and operations phases of the mission. The goal of this space environment and effects application is to develop decision-making tools and engineering products to support the mission phases of mission concept through operations by focusing on transitioning research to operations. Products generated by this space environments and effects application are suitable for use in anomaly investigations. This paper will outline the four topic areas, describe the need, and discuss an organizational structure for this space environments and effects

  8. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  9. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5734 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and gel coat application equipment cleaning operations? 63.5734 Section 63.5734 Protection of... Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Application Equipment Cleaning Operations § 63.5734 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat application equipment cleaning...

  11. Application of a Very-Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Consumer Grade Camera for the Collection of Research Grade Data: Preliminary Findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, P.; Davis, J. D.; Blesius, L.

    2013-12-01

    The use of UAV technology in the field of geoscience research has grown almost exponentially in the last decade. UAVs have been utilized as a sensor platform in many fields including geology, biology, climatology, geomorphology and archaeology. A UAV's ability to fly frequently, at very low altitude, and at relatively little cost makes them a perfect compromise between free, low temporal and spatial resolution satellite data and terrestrial based survey when there are insufficient funds to purchase custom satellite or manned aircraft data. Unfortunately, many available UAVs for research are still relatively expensive and often have predetermined imaging systems. However, the proliferation of hobbyist grade UAVs and consumer point and shoot cameras may provide many research projects with an alternative that is both cost-effective and efficient in data collection. This study therefore seeks to answer the question, can these very low cost, hobby-grade UAVs be used to produce research grade data. To achieve this end, in December of 2012 a small grant was obtained (<$6500) to set up a complete UAV system and to employ it in a diverse range of research. The system is comprised of a 3D Robotics hexacopter, Ardupilot automated flight hardware and software, spare parts and tool kit, two Canon point-and-shoot cameras including one modified for near infrared imagery, and a field laptop. To date, successful research flights have been flown for geomorphic research in degraded and restored montane meadows to study stream channel formation using both visible and near infrared imagery as well as for the creation of digital elevation models of large hillslope gullies using structure from motion (SFM). Other applications for the hexacopter, in progress or planned, include landslide monitoring, vegetation monitoring and mapping using the normalized difference vegetation index, archaeological survey, and bird nest identification on small rock islands. An analysis of the results

  12. Studies on an aerial propellant transfer space plane (APTSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayan, N.; Biju Kumar, K. S.; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Kashyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Venkatraman, Kartik; Mathew, Joseph; Mukunda, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a study of a fully reusable earth-to-orbit launch vehicle concept with horizontal take-off and landing, employing a turbojet engine for low speed, and a rocket for high-speed acceleration and space operations. This concept uses existing technology to the maximum possible extent, thereby reducing development time, cost and effort. It uses the experience in aerial filling of military aircrafts for propellant filling at an altitude of 13 km at a flight speed of M=0.85. Aerial filling of propellant reduces the take-off weight significantly thereby minimizing the structural weight of the vehicle. The vehicle takes off horizontally and uses turbojet engines till the end of the propellant filling operation. The rocket engines provide thrust for the next phase till the injection of a satellite at LEO. A sensitivity analysis of the mission with respect to rocket engine specific impulse and overall vehicle structural factor is also presented in this paper. A conceptual design of space plane with a payload capability of 10 ton to LEO is carried out. The study shows that the realization of an aerial propellant transfer space plane is possible with limited development of new technology thus reducing the demands on the finances required for achieving the objectives.

  13. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  14. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  15. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial-aquatic robotic platforms.

    PubMed

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-09-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire-abstract-implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial-aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots.

  16. An Operational Safety and Certification Assessment of a TASAR EFB Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koczo, Stefan; Wing, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of a Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Electronic Flight Bag application intended to inform the pilot of trajectory improvement opportunities while en route that result in operational benefits. The results of safety analyses and a detailed review of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulatory documents that establish certification and operational approval requirements are presented for TASAR. The safety analyses indicate that TASAR has a likely Failure Effects Classification of “No Effect,” and at most, is no worse than “Minor Effect.” Based on this safety assessment and the detailed review of FAA regulatory documents that determine certification and operational approval requirements, this study concludes that TASAR can be implemented in the flight deck as a Type B software application hosted on a Class 2 Portable Electronic Device (PED) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). This implementation approach would provide a relatively low-cost path to certification and operational approval for both retrofit and forward fit implementation, while at the same time facilitating the business case for early ADS-B IN equipage. A preliminary review by FAA certification and operational approvers of the analyses presented here confirmed that the conclusions are appropriate and that TASAR will be considered a Type B application.

  17. 78 FR 44167 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance test. 2. Carbon adsorber (regenerative) to which puncture sealant application spray booth emissions are ducted a. Maintain the total regeneration mass, volumetric flow, and carbon bed temperature at the operating range established during the performance test.b. Reestablish the carbon bed...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance test. 2. Carbon adsorber (regenerative) to which puncture sealant application spray booth emissions are ducted a. Maintain the total regeneration mass, volumetric flow, and carbon bed temperature at the operating range established during the performance test.b. Reestablish the carbon bed...

  20. The Application of Systems Thinking for 21st Century Operations (The Senior Scout Case Study)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the demands of today’s Information Age. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of systems thinking as a conceptual process for managing the...complexity of today’s operational environment. Using the Senior Scout Case Study, we will examine some of the applications of systems thinking on a

  1. 77 FR 22808 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  2. 75 FR 77906 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations I. Background Pursuant to section 189a.(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the U.S....

  3. 78 FR 54280 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  4. 77 FR 76078 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the...

  5. Fifth Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1991), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers given at the Space Operations and Applications Symposium, host by the NASA Johnson Space Center on July 9-11, 1991 are given. The technical areas covered included intelligent systems, automation and robotics, human factors and life sciences, and environmental interactions.

  6. 77 FR 63343 - Biweekly Notice: Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice: Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations Background Pursuant to Section 189a.(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act),...

  7. 20 CFR 725.547 - Applicability of overpayment and underpayment provisions to operator or carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of overpayment and underpayment provisions to operator or carrier. 725.547 Section 725.547 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... BENEFITS UNDER PART C OF TITLE IV OF THE FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Payment of...

  8. 75 FR 62592 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No Significant Hazards Considerations and Containing Sensitive Unclassified Non-Safeguards Information and Order Imposing Procedures for Access to Sensitive...

  9. 75 FR 54390 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No Significant Hazards Considerations I. Background Pursuant to section 189a.(2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (the Act), the U.S....

  10. An investigation of potential applications of OP-SAPS: Operational Sampled Analog Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, E. A.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    The application of OP-SAP's (operational sampled analog processors) in pattern recognition system is summarized. Areas investigated include: (1) human face recognition; (2) a high-speed programmable transversal filter system; (3) discrete word (speech) recognition; and (4) a resolution enhancement system.

  11. 75 FR 26287 - Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... intended design functions during normal and accident conditions. The balance of plant systems and... with the plant design basis. All design, material, and construction standards that were applicable... changes as a result of the MUR PU to the design or operation of the plant that could affect...

  12. 78 FR 16876 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Nos.: 50-409 and 72-046, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor (LACBWR), La Crosse County, Wisconsin Date of... modify any physical systems, or components. The plant conditions for which the LACBWR Decommissioning... applicable. The proposed changes do not affect remaining plant operations, systems, or components...

  13. 20 CFR 726.104 - Action by the Office upon application of operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Action by the Office upon application of operator. 726.104 Section 726.104 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  14. 20 CFR 726.104 - Action by the Office upon application of operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Action by the Office upon application of operator. 726.104 Section 726.104 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  15. 20 CFR 726.104 - Action by the Office upon application of operator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action by the Office upon application of operator. 726.104 Section 726.104 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG...

  16. Feature extraction with LIDAR data and aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jianhua; Liu, Yanjing; Cheng, Penggen; Li, Xianhua; Zeng, Qihong; Xia, Jing

    2006-10-01

    Raw LIDAR data is a irregular spacing 3D point cloud including reflections from bare ground, buildings, vegetation and vehicles etc., and the first task of the data analyses of point cloud is feature extraction. However, the interpretability of LIDAR point cloud is often limited due to the fact that no object information is provided, and the complex earth topography and object morphology make it impossible for a single operator to classify all the point cloud precisely 100%. In this paper, a hierarchy method for feature extraction with LIDAR data and aerial images is discussed. The aerial images provide us information of objects figuration and spatial distribution, and hierarchic classification of features makes it easy to apply automatic filters progressively. And the experiment results show that, using this method, it was possible to detect more object information and get a better result of feature extraction than using automatic filters alone.

  17. A Comparison of Platforms for the Aerial Exploration of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Levine, Joel S.

    2005-01-01

    Exploration of Titan, envisioned as a follow-on to the highly successful Cassini-Huygens mission, is described in this paper. A mission blending measurements from a dedicated orbiter and an in-situ aerial explorer is discussed. Summary description of the science rationale and the mission architecture, including the orbiter, is provided. The mission has been sized to ensure it can be accommodated on an existing expendable heavy-lift launch vehicle. A launch to Titan in 2018 with a 6-year time of flight to Titan using a combination of Solar Electric Propulsion and aeroassist (direct entry and aerocapture) forms the basic mission architecture. A detailed assessment of different platforms for aerial exploration of Titan has been performed. A rationale for the selection of the airship as the baseline platform is provided. Detailed description of the airship, its subsystems, and its operational strategies are provided.

  18. NOAA Operational Model Archive Distribution System (NOMADS): High Availability Applications for Reliable Real Time Access to Operational Model Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, J. C.; Wang, J.

    2009-12-01

    To reduce the impact of natural hazards and environmental changes, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provide first alert and a preferred partner for environmental prediction services, and represents a critical national resource to operational and research communities affected by climate, weather and water. NOMADS is now delivering high availability services as part of NOAA’s official real time data dissemination at its Web Operations Center (WOC) server. The WOC is a web service used by organizational units in and outside NOAA, and acts as a data repository where public information can be posted to a secure and scalable content server. A goal is to foster collaborations among the research and education communities, value added retailers, and public access for science and development efforts aimed at advancing modeling and GEO-related tasks. The user (client) executes what is efficient to execute on the client and the server efficiently provides format independent access services. Client applications can execute on the server, if it is desired, but the same program can be executed on the client side with no loss of efficiency. In this way this paradigm lends itself to aggregation servers that act as servers of servers listing, searching catalogs of holdings, data mining, and updating information from the metadata descriptions that enable collections of data in disparate places to be simultaneously accessed, with results processed on servers and clients to produce a needed answer. The services used to access the operational model data output are the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), implemented with the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) Data Server (GDS), and applications for slicing, dicing and area sub-setting the large matrix of real time model data holdings. This approach insures an efficient use of computer resources because users transmit/receive only the data necessary for their tasks including

  19. Rationale, Scenarios, and Profiles for the Application of the Internet Protocol Suite (IPS) in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benbenek, Daniel B.; Walsh, William

    2010-01-01

    This greenbook captures some of the current, planned and possible future uses of the Internet Protocol (IP) as part of Space Operations. It attempts to describe how the Internet Protocol is used in specific scenarios. Of primary focus is low-earth-orbit space operations, which is referred to here as the design reference mission (DRM). This is because most of the program experience drawn upon derives from this type of mission. Application profiles are provided. This includes parameter settings programs have proposed for sending IP datagrams over CCSDS links, the minimal subsets and features of the IP protocol suite and applications expected for interoperability between projects, and the configuration, operations and maintenance of these IP functions. Of special interest is capturing the lessons learned from the Constellation Program in this area, since that program included a fairly ambitious use of the Internet Protocol.

  20. Assistant Personal Robot (APR): Conception and Application of a Tele-Operated Assisted Living Robot.

    PubMed

    Clotet, Eduard; Martínez, Dani; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Palacín, Jordi

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents the technical description, mechanical design, electronic components, software implementation and possible applications of a tele-operated mobile robot designed as an assisted living tool. This robotic concept has been named Assistant Personal Robot (or APR for short) and has been designed as a remotely telecontrolled robotic platform built to provide social and assistive services to elderly people and those with impaired mobility. The APR features a fast high-mobility motion system adapted for tele-operation in plain indoor areas, which incorporates a high-priority collision avoidance procedure. This paper presents the mechanical architecture, electrical fundaments and software implementation required in order to develop the main functionalities of an assistive robot. The APR uses a tablet in order to implement the basic peer-to-peer videoconference and tele-operation control combined with a tactile graphic user interface. The paper also presents the development of some applications proposed in the framework of an assisted living robot.

  1. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  2. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  7. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  8. A Rapidly Deployable Operational Mesoscale Modeling System for Emergency-Response Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Thomas T.; Bowers, James F.; Swerdlin, Scott P.; Beitler, Brian A.

    2004-05-01

    An operational mesoscale model based forecasting system has been developed for use by U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command meteorologists in their support of test-range operations. This paper reports on the adaptation of this system to permit its rapid deployment in support of a variety of civilian and military emergency-response applications. The innovation that allows for this rapid deployment is an intuitive graphical user interface that permits a non-expert to quickly configure the model for a new application, and launch the forecast system to produce operational products without further intervention. The graphical interface is Web based and can be run on a wireless laptop or a personal digital assistant in the field. The instructions for configuring the modeling system are transmitted to a compute engine [generally a personal computer (PC) cluster], and forecast products are placed on a Web site that can be accessed by emergency responders or other forecast users. This system has been used operationally for predicting the potential transport and dispersion of hazardous material during the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and during military operations in Afghanistan. It has also been used operationally to satisfy the rapidly evolving needs of wildfire managers. Continued use of the modeling system by nonexperts will allow developers to refine the graphical interface and make the model and the interface more fault tolerant with respect to the decisions of model users.(The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  9. General Purpose Data-Driven Online System Health Monitoring with Applications to Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Spirkovska, Lilly; Schwabacher, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Modern space transportation and ground support system designs are becoming increasingly sophisticated and complex. Determining the health state of these systems using traditional parameter limit checking, or model-based or rule-based methods is becoming more difficult as the number of sensors and component interactions grows. Data-driven monitoring techniques have been developed to address these issues by analyzing system operations data to automatically characterize normal system behavior. System health can be monitored by comparing real-time operating data with these nominal characterizations, providing detection of anomalous data signatures indicative of system faults, failures, or precursors of significant failures. The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a general purpose, data-driven system health monitoring software tool that has been successfully applied to several aerospace applications and is under evaluation for anomaly detection in vehicle and ground equipment for next generation launch systems. After an introduction to IMS application development, we discuss these NASA online monitoring applications, including the integration of IMS with complementary model-based and rule-based methods. Although the examples presented in this paper are from space operations applications, IMS is a general-purpose health-monitoring tool that is also applicable to power generation and transmission system monitoring.

  10. Visual signature reduction of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Z. W.; Ma, Z. X.; Jayawijayaningtiyas; Ngoh, J. H. H.

    2016-10-01

    With the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in multiple tactical defence missions, there was a need for an efficient visual signature suppression system for a more efficient stealth operation. One of our studies experimentally investigated the visual signature reduction of UAVs achieved through an active camouflage system. A prototype was constructed with newly developed operating software, Cloak, to provide active camouflage to the UAV model. The reduction of visual signature was analysed. Tests of the devices mounted on UAVs were conducted in another study. A series of experiments involved testing of the concept as well as the prototype. The experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and under normal environmental conditions. Results showed certain degrees of blending with the sky to create a camouflage effect. A mini-UAV made mostly out of transparent plastic was also designed and fabricated. Because of the transparency of the plastic material, the visibility of this UAV in the air is very small, and therefore the UAV is difficult to be detected. After re-designs and tests, eventually a practical system to reduce the visibility of UAVs viewed by human observers from the ground was developed. The system was evaluated during various outdoor tests. The scene target-to-background lightness contrast and the scene target-to-background colour contrast of the adaptive control system prototype were smaller than 10% at a stand-off viewing distance of 20-50 m.

  11. 24. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 371 UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN 1974. BY 1968, BUILDING 771 WAS OUTMODED AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES HAD BEEN DEVELOPED FOR PLUTONIUM RECOVERY. AS A RESULT, A NEW RECOVERY BUILDING, BUILDING 371 WAS PLANNED. BUILDING 371 SUFFERED FROM VARIOUS DESIGN PROBLEMS, WHICH PREVENTED ITS OPENING UNTIL 1981 AND CAUSED TERMINATION OF RECOVERY OPERATIONS IN 1986. IT NEVER BECAME FULLY OPERATIONAL. TO THE EAST OF BUILDING 371, IS THE 700 BUILDING COMPLEX (4/74). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. The future of structural fieldwork - UAV assisted aerial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, are opening new and low cost possibilities to acquire high-resolution aerial images and digital surface models (DSM) for applications in structural geology. UAVs can be programmed to fly autonomously along a user defined grid to systematically capture high-resolution photographs, even in difficult to access areas. The photographs are subsequently processed using software that employ SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) and SFM (structure from motion) algorithms. These photogrammetric routines allow the extraction of spatial information (3D point clouds, digital elevation models, 3D meshes, orthophotos) from 2D images. Depending on flight altitude and camera setup, sub-centimeter spatial resolutions can be achieved. By "digitally mapping" georeferenced 3D models and images, orientation data can be extracted directly and used to analyse the structural framework of the mapped object or area. We present UAV assisted aerial mapping results from a coastal platform near Cape Liptrap (Victoria, Australia), where deformed metasediments of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt are exposed. We also show how orientation and spatial information of brittle and ductile structures extracted from the photogrammetric model can be linked to the progressive development of folds and faults in the region. Even though there are both technical and legislative limitations, which might prohibit the use of UAVs without prior commercial licensing and training, the benefits that arise from the resulting high-resolution, photorealistic models can substantially contribute to the collection of new data and insights for applications in structural geology.

  13. 30 CFR 947.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application to conduct underground coal mining operations. (b) Any application for an underground mining... local Air Pollution Control Authorities and the Washington Clean Air Act, RCW 70.94. (c) Any...

  14. GIS for mapping waterfowl density and distribution from aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Stehn, R.A.; Balogh, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  15. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  16. Low-cost Tools for Aerial Video Geolocation and Air Traffic Analysis for Delay Reduction Using Google Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetterlind, V.; Pledgie, S.

    2009-12-01

    Low-cost, low-latency, robust geolocation and display of aerial video is a common need for a wide range of earth observing as well as emergency response and security applications. While hardware costs for aerial video collection systems, GPS, and inertial sensors have been decreasing, software costs for geolocation algorithms and reference imagery/DTED remain expensive and highly proprietary. As part of a Federal Small Business Innovative Research project, MosaicATM and EarthNC, Inc have developed a simple geolocation system based on the Google Earth API and Google's 'built-in' DTED and reference imagery libraries. This system geolocates aerial video based on platform and camera position, attitude, and field-of-view metadata using geometric photogrammetric principles of ray-intersection with DTED. Geolocated video can be directly rectified and viewed in the Google Earth API during processing. Work is underway to extend our geolocation code to NASA World Wind for additional flexibility and a fully open-source platform. In addition to our airborne remote sensing work, MosaicATM has developed the Surface Operations Data Analysis and Adaptation (SODAA) tool, funded by NASA Ames, which supports analysis of airport surface operations to optimize aircraft movements and reduce fuel burn and delays. As part of SODAA, MosaicATM and EarthNC, Inc have developed powerful tools to display national airspace data and time-animated 3D flight tracks in Google Earth for 4D analysis. The SODAA tool can convert raw format flight track data, FAA National Flight Data (NFD), and FAA 'Adaptation' airport surface data to a spatial database representation and then to Google Earth KML. The SODAA client provides users with a simple graphical interface through which to generate queries with a wide range of predefined and custom filters, plot results, and export for playback in Google Earth in conjunction with NFD and Adaptation overlays.

  17. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  18. Aerial Orthophoto and Airborne Laser Scanning as Monitoring Tools for Land Cover Dynamics: A Case Study from the Milicz Forest District (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wezyk, Piotr; Tompalski, Piotr

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results from the study concerning the application of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and derived raster products like the digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM) for the assessment of the degree of change of the land use based on the forest succession example. Simultaneously, an automated method of ALS data processing was developed based on the normalized (nDSM) and cadastral GIS information. Besides delivering precise information on forest succession, ALS technology is an excellent tool for time-changes spatial analyses. Usage of the ALS data can support the image interpretation process decreasing the subjectivity of the operator. In parallel, a manual vectorization and object classification (object-based image analysis—OBIA) were performed; both based on aerial orthophoto and ALS data. By using integrated ALS point clouds and digital aerial images, one can obtain fast OBIA processing and the determination of areas where the land cover has changed. The Milicz District (central west part of Poland) was chosen as the test site where ALS was to be performed in 2007, together with the digital aerial photos (Vexcel camera; pixel 0.15 m; CIR). The aerial photos were then processed to a CIR orthophoto. The area of study consisted of 68 private parcels (some of them were abandoned; 68.57 ha; scanned cadastral maps from the local survey office; land use information) in the direct neighbourhood of the State Forest, on which a forest succession could often be observed. The operator vectorized forest (trees and shrubs) succession areas on the 2D CIR orthophoto. They were then compared with the results from the OBIA and GIS analysis, based on the normalized digital surface model. The results showed that areas with high vegetation cover were three times larger than the official land cover database (cadastral maps).

  19. In situ applications of a new diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler.

    PubMed

    Weber, Miriam; Faerber, Paul; Meyer, Volker; Lott, Christian; Eickert, Gabriele; Fabricius, Katharina E; De Beer, Dirk

    2007-09-01

    Microsensors are powerful tools for microenvironment studies, however their use has often been restricted to laboratory applications due to the lack of adequate equipment for in situ deployments. Here we report on new features, construction details, and examples of applications of an improved diver-operated motorized microsensor profiler for underwater field operation to a water depth of 25 m. The new motorized profiler has a final precision of 5 microm, and can accommodate amperometric Clark-type microsensors for oxygen and hydrogen sulfide, potentiometric microsensors (e.g., for pH, Ca2+), and fiber-optic irradiance microsensors. The profiler is interfaced by a logger with a signal display, and has pushbuttons for underwater operation. The system can be pre-programmed to autonomous operation or interactively operated by divers. Internal batteries supply power for up to 24 h of measurements and 36 h of data storage (max. 64 million data points). Two flexible stands were developed for deployment on uneven or fragile surfaces, such as coral reefs. Three experimental pilot studies are presented, where (1) the oxygen distribution in a sand ripple was 3-D-mapped, (2) the microenvironment of sediment accumulated on a stony coral was studied, and (3) oxygen dynamics during an experimental sedimentation were investigated. This system allows SCUBA divers to perform a wide array of in situ measurements, with deployment precision and duration similar to those possible in the laboratory.

  20. Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications and Research (SOAR 1993), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Space Operations, Applications and Research Symposium (SOAR) Symposium hosted by NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) and cosponsored by NASA/JSC and U.S. Air Force Materiel Command. SOAR included NASA and USAF programmatic overviews, plenary session, panel discussions, panel sessions, and exhibits. It invited technical papers in support of U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, Department of Energy, NASA, and USAF programs in the following areas: robotics and telepresence, automation and intelligent systems, human factors, life support, and space maintenance and servicing. SOAR was concerned with Government-sponsored research and development relevant to aerospace operations.