Science.gov

Sample records for aerial critical ratios

  1. Auditory masking in three pinnipeds: aerial critical ratios and direct critical bandwidth measurements.

    PubMed

    Southall, Brandon L; Schusterman, Ronald J; Kastak, David

    2003-09-01

    This study expands the limited understanding of pinniped aerial auditory masking and includes measurements at some of the relatively low frequencies predominant in many pinniped vocalizations. Behavioral techniques were used to obtain aerial critical ratios (CRs) within a hemianechoic chamber for a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Simultaneous, octave-band noise maskers centered at seven test frequencies (0.2-8.0 kHz) were used to determine aerial CRs. Narrower and variable bandwidth masking noise was also used in order to obtain direct critical bandwidths (CBWs). The aerial CRs are very similar in magnitude and in frequency-specific differences (increasing gradually with test frequency) to underwater CRs for these subjects, demonstrating that pinniped cochlear processes are similar both in air and water. While, like most mammals, these pinniped subjects apparently lack specialization for enhanced detection of specific frequencies over masking noise, they consistently detect signals across a wide range of frequencies at relatively low signal-to-noise ratios. Direct CBWs are 3.2 to 14.2 times wider than estimated based on aerial CRs. The combined masking data are significant in terms of assessing aerial anthropogenic noise impacts, effective aerial communicative ranges, and amphibious aspects of pinniped cochlear mechanics. PMID:14514219

  2. Auditory masking in three pinnipeds: Aerial critical ratios and direct critical bandwidth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Brandon L.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David

    2003-09-01

    This study expands the limited understanding of pinniped aerial auditory masking and includes measurements at some of the relatively low frequencies predominant in many pinniped vocalizations. Behavioral techniques were used to obtain aerial critical ratios (CRs) within a hemianechoic chamber for a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Simultaneous, octave-band noise maskers centered at seven test frequencies (0.2-8.0 kHz) were used to determine aerial CRs. Narrower and variable bandwidth masking noise was also used in order to obtain direct critical bandwidths (CBWs). The aerial CRs are very similar in magnitude and in frequency-specific differences (increasing gradually with test frequency) to underwater CRs for these subjects, demonstrating that pinniped cochlear processes are similar both in air and water. While, like most mammals, these pinniped subjects apparently lack specialization for enhanced detection of specific frequencies over masking noise, they consistently detect signals across a wide range of frequencies at relatively low signal-to-noise ratios. Direct CBWs are 3.2 to 14.2 times wider than estimated based on aerial CRs. The combined masking data are significant in terms of assessing aerial anthropogenic noise impacts, effective aerial communicative ranges, and amphibious aspects of pinniped cochlear mechanics.

  3. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    PubMed

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar Arctic distribution. In this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. Using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. Masked underwater thresholds were measured in the presence of octave-band noise to determine critical ratios. Results indicate that ringed seals possess hearing abilities comparable to those of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and considerably better than previously reported for ringed and harp seals. Best sensitivity was 49 dB re. 1 µPa (12.8 kHz) in water, and -12 dB re. 20 µPa (4.5 kHz) in air, rivaling the acute hearing abilities of some fully aquatic and terrestrial species in their respective media. Critical ratio measurements ranged from 14 dB at 0.1 kHz to 31 dB at 25.6 kHz, suggesting that ringed seals--like other true seals--can efficiently extract signals from background noise across a broad range of frequencies. The work described herein extends similar research on amphibious hearing in spotted seals recently published by the authors. These parallel studies enhance our knowledge of the auditory capabilities of ice-living seals, and inform effective management strategies for these and related species in a rapidly changing Arctic environment. PMID:25987727

  4. Amphibious hearing in spotted seals (Phoca largha): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    PubMed

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-03-01

    Spotted seals (Phoca largha) inhabit Arctic regions that are facing both rapid climate change and increasing industrialization. While little is known about their sensory capabilities, available knowledge suggests that spotted seals and other ice seals use sound to obtain information from the surrounding environment. To quantitatively assess their auditory capabilities, the hearing of two young spotted seals was tested using a psychophysical paradigm. Absolute detection thresholds for tonal sounds were measured in air and under water over the frequency range of hearing, and critical ratios were determined using octave-band masking noise in both media. The behavioral audiograms show a range of best sensitivity spanning four octaves in air, from approximately 0.6 to 11 kHz. The range of sensitive hearing extends across seven octaves in water, with lowest thresholds between 0.3 and 56 kHz. Critical ratio measurements were similar in air and water and increased monotonically from 12 dB at 0.1 kHz to 30 dB at 25.6 kHz, indicating that the auditory systems of these seals are quite efficient at extracting signals from background noise. This study demonstrates that spotted seals possess sound reception capabilities different from those previously described for ice seals, and more similar to those reported for harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). The results are consistent with the amphibious lifestyle of these seals and their apparent reliance on sound. The hearing data reported herein are the first available for spotted seals and can inform best management practices for this vulnerable species in a changing Arctic. PMID:24574387

  5. Critical Assessment of Object Segmentation in Aerial Image Using Geo-Hausdorff Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Ding, Y.; Huang, Y.; Wang, G.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial Image records the large-range earth objects with the ever-improving spatial and radiometric resolution. It becomes a powerful tool for earth observation, land-coverage survey, geographical census, etc., and helps delineating the boundary of different kinds of objects on the earth both manually and automatically. In light of the geo-spatial correspondence between the pixel locations of aerial image and the spatial coordinates of ground objects, there is an increasing need of super-pixel segmentation and high-accuracy positioning of objects in aerial image. Besides the commercial software package of eCognition and ENVI, many algorithms have also been developed in the literature to segment objects of aerial images. But how to evaluate the segmentation results remains a challenge, especially in the context of the geo-spatial correspondence. The Geo-Hausdorff Distance (GHD) is proposed to measure the geo-spatial distance between the results of various object segmentation that can be done with the manual ground truth or with the automatic algorithms.Based on the early-breaking and random-sampling design, the GHD calculates the geographical Hausdorff distance with nearly-linear complexity. Segmentation results of several state-of-the-art algorithms, including those of the commercial packages, are evaluated with a diverse set of aerial images. They have different signal-to-noise ratio around the object boundaries and are hard to trace correctly even for human operators. The GHD value is analyzed to comprehensively measure the suitability of different object segmentation methods for aerial images of different spatial resolution. By critically assessing the strengths and limitations of the existing algorithms, the paper provides valuable insight and guideline for extensive research in automating object detection and classification of aerial image in the nation-wide geographic census. It is also promising for the optimal design of operational specification of remote

  6. Critical Concentration Ratio for Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ur Rehman, Naveed; Siddiqui, Mubashir Ali

    2016-06-01

    A correlation for determining the critical concentration ratio (CCR) of solar concentrated thermoelectric generators (SCTEGs) has been established, and the significance of the contributing parameters is discussed in detail. For any SCTEG, higher concentration ratio leads to higher temperatures at the hot side of modules. However, the maximum value of this temperature for safe operation is limited by the material properties of the modules and should be considered as an important design constraint. Taking into account this limitation, the CCR can be defined as the maximum concentration ratio usable for a particular SCTEG. The established correlation is based on factors associated with the material and geometric properties of modules, thermal characteristics of the receiver, installation site attributes, and thermal and electrical operating conditions. To reduce the number of terms in the correlation, these factors are combined to form dimensionless groups by applying the Buckingham Pi theorem. A correlation model containing these groups is proposed and fit to a dataset obtained by simulating a thermodynamic (physical) model over sampled values acquired by applying the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique over a realistic distribution of factors. The coefficient of determination and relative error are found to be 97% and ±20%, respectively. The correlation is validated by comparing the predicted results with literature values. In addition, the significance and effects of the Pi groups on the CCR are evaluated and thoroughly discussed. This study will lead to a wide range of opportunities regarding design and optimization of SCTEGs.

  7. Use of 35-mm color aerial photography to acquire mallard sex ratio data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, E.L.; Jorde, D.G.; Sease, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A conventional 35-mm camera equipped with an f2.8 135-mm lens and ASA 64 color film was used to acquire sex ratio data on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in the Platte River Valley of south-central Nebraska. Prelight focusing for a distance of 30.5 metres and setting of shutter speed at 1/2000 of a second eliminated focusing and reduced image motion problems and resulted in high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography of small targets. This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas. The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per-100 bird basis.

  8. The choking pressure ratio of a critical flow venturi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillbrath, H. S.; Dill, W. P.; Wacker, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The critical flow venturi has many important applications in the measurement and control of gas flow. In many of these applications, it is desirable to minimize the pressure loss required to maintain critical flow conditions. The performance of the venturi may be characterized by the ratio of outlet static pressure to inlet total pressure just sufficiently small to produce critical flow. This ratio is called choking pressure ratio. The optimization of diffusers for critical flow venturis is discussed and suggestions for designs practice are presented. Test results are given for six different diffuser configurations, and a comparison is made with data on 11 configurations from other investigators. It is shown that, for the small divergence angles considered, a simply defined diffuser effectiveness parameter is approximately independent of flow conditions and may be used to predict choking pressure ratio.

  9. Recalculation of the Critical Values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, F. Robert; Pan, Wei; Schumsky, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The content validity ratio (Lawshe) is one of the earliest and most widely used methods for quantifying content validity. To correct and expand the table, critical values in unit steps and at multiple alpha levels were computed. Implications for content validation are discussed. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Critical ratios for structural analysis of triacylglycerols using mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments have finally allowed fragment behaviors using APCI-MS to be elucidated after twenty years of literature reports. Critical Ratios have been defined that correspond to various aspects of triacylglycerol (TAG) analysis, from overall degree of unsaturation to localization of fatty ac...

  11. Autocorrelation and Dominance Ratio in Monte Carlo Criticality Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, Taro; Brown, Forrest B.; Parsons, D. Kent; Kornreich, Drew E.

    2003-11-15

    The cycle-to-cycle correlation (autocorrelation) in Monte Carlo criticality calculations is analyzed concerning the dominance ratio of fission kernels. The mathematical analysis focuses on how the eigenfunctions of a fission kernel decay if operated on by the cycle-to-cycle error propagation operator of the Monte Carlo stationary source distribution. The analytical results obtained can be summarized as follows: When the dominance ratio of a fission kernel is close to unity, autocorrelation of the k-effective tallies is weak and may be negligible, while the autocorrelation of the source distribution is strong and decays slowly. The practical implication is that when one analyzes a critical reactor with a large dominance ratio by Monte Carlo methods, the confidence interval estimation of the fission rate and other quantities at individual locations must account for the strong autocorrelation. Numerical results are presented for sample problems with a dominance ratio of 0.85-0.99, where Shannon and relative entropies are utilized to exclude the influence of initial nonstationarity.

  12. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  13. Time-critical cooperative path-following control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xargay Mata, Enric

    This thesis addresses the problem of steering a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) along desired 3D spatial paths while meeting stringent relative temporal constraints. A representative example is the challenging mission scenario where the UAVs are tasked to cooperatively execute collision-free maneuvers and arrive at their final destinations at the same time, or at different times so as to meet a desired inter-vehicle schedule. In the proposed framework, the UAVs are assigned nominal spatial paths and speed profiles along those, and then the vehicles are requested to execute cooperative path following, rather than "open-loop" trajectory-tracking maneuvers. This strategy yields robust behavior against external disturbances by allowing the UAVs to negotiate their speeds along the paths in response to information exchanged over a supporting inter-vehicle communications network. The proposed approach addresses explicitly the situation where each vehicle transmits coordination-relevant information to only a subset of the other vehicles, as determined by the time-varying communications topology. Furthermore, the thesis considers the case where the graph that captures the underlying communications topology is disconnected during some interval of time or even fails to be connected at all times. Conditions are given under which the complete time-critical cooperative path-following closed-loop system is stable and yields convergence of a conveniently defined cooperation error to a neighborhood of the origin. The thesis also derives lower bounds on the convergence rate of the coordination dynamics as a function of the quality of service of the supporting network, and proposes a coordination algorithm to improve the rate of convergence of the coordination dynamics in low-connectivity scenarios. Moreover, motivated by the exchange of information over networks with finite-rate communication links, the effect of quantization on vehicle coordination is also analyzed

  14. Experimental aerodynamic and static elastic deformation characterization of low aspect ratio flexible fixed wings applied to micro aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertani, Roberto

    The concept of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) is for a small, inexpensive and sometimes expendable platform, flying by remote pilot, in the field or autonomously. Because of the requirement to be flown either by almost inexperienced pilots or by autonomous control, they need to have very reliable and benevolent flying characteristics drive the design guidelines. A class of vehicles designed by the University of Florida adopts a flexible-wing concept, featuring a carbon fiber skeleton and a thin extensible latex membrane skin. Another typical feature of MAVs is a wingspan to propeller diameter ratio of two or less, generating a substantial influence on the vehicle aerodynamics. The main objectives of this research are to elucidate and document the static elastic flow-structure interactions in terms of measurements of the aerodynamic coefficients and wings' deformation as well as to substantiate the proposed inferences regarding the influence of the wings' structural flexibility on their performance; furthermore the research will provide experimental data to support the validation of CFD and FEA numerical models. A unique facility was developed at the University of Florida to implement a combination of a low speed wind tunnel and a visual image correlation system. The models tested in the wind tunnel were fabricated at the University MAV lab and consisted of a series of ten models with an identical geometry but differing in levels of structural flexibility and deformation characteristics. Results in terms of full-field displacements and aerodynamic coefficients from wind tunnel tests for various wind velocities and angles of attack are presented to demonstrate the deformation of the wing under steady aerodynamic load. The steady state effects of the propeller slipstream on the flexible wing's shape and its performance are also investigated. Analytical models of the aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics are proposed based on a multi dimensional linear regression

  15. Using higher moments of fluctuations and their ratios in the search for the QCD critical point

    SciTech Connect

    Athanasiou, Christiana; Rajagopal, Krishna; Stephanov, Misha

    2010-10-01

    The QCD critical point can be found in heavy-ion collision experiments via the nonmonotonic behavior of many fluctuation observables as a function of the collision energy. The event-by-event fluctuations of various particle multiplicities are enhanced in those collisions that freeze-out near the critical point. Higher, non-Gaussian, moments of the event-by-event distributions of such observables are particularly sensitive to critical fluctuations, since their magnitude depends on the critical correlation length to a high power. We present quantitative estimates of the contribution of critical fluctuations to the third and fourth moments of the pion, proton and net proton multiplicities, as well as estimates of various measures of pion-proton correlations, all as a function of the same five nonuniversal parameters, one of which is the correlation length that parametrizes proximity to the critical point. We show how to use nontrivial but parameter-independent ratios among these more than a dozen fluctuation observables to discover the critical point. We also construct ratios that, if the critical point is found, can be used to overconstrain the values of the nonuniversal parameters.

  16. Stagnation of a droplet on a conical substrate determined by the critical curvature ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, YingQi; Wu, HengAn; Wang, FengChao

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we studied the effect of the curvature ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the local substrate radii to droplet radii, on the spontaneous directed movement and stagnation of a droplet on a conical substrate. The stagnation phenomenon emerged when the ratio exceeded a critical value. We found that the moving process of the droplet from the tip to the base of the conical substrate can be divided into three stages based on the critical curvature ratio. In order, these comprise: the fast-moving stage (S1) where the droplet obtains large driving force and resistance force, which are resulted from large contact line and contact angle difference between the two opposite sides of the droplet, respectively; the short transition stage (S2) where the droplet morphology tends to be symmetry, both driving force and resistance force decrease rapidly to a low level; and the stagnation stage (S3) where the curvature ratio is much larger than the critical value. Both driving force and resistance force approach zero, the droplet stagnates at the local substrate instead of moving forward. The curvature ratio based theoretical analyses of free energy, driving force and resistance force are in good consistence with simulation results, and can well describe the moving process and the stagnation phenomenon of the droplet on the conical substrate.

  17. Critical aspect ratio for tungsten fibers in copper-nickel matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jech, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Stress-rupture and tensile tests were conducted at 816 C (1500 F) to determine the effect of matrix composition on the minimum fiber length to diameter ratio (critical aspect ratio) below which fibers in a tungsten fiber/copper-nickel alloy matrix composite could not be stressed to their ultimate load carrying capability. This study was intended to simulate some of the conditions that might be encountered with materials combinations used in high-temperature composites. The critical aspect ratio for stress-rupture was found to be greater than for short-time tension, and it increased as the time to rupture increased. The increase was relatively slight, and calculated fiber lengths for long service appear to be well within practical size limits for effective reinforcement and ease of fabrication of potential gas turbine components.

  18. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-09-30

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided.

  19. Thermodynamic signature of quantum criticality: universally diverging Grüneisen ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lijun

    2005-03-01

    At a generic quantum critical point where pressure acts as (or couples to) the zero-temperature control parameter, the Grüneisen ratio γ (the ratio of thermal expansion to specific heat) is divergent[1]. This property provides a novel probe to quantum criticality from thermodynamics. When scaling applies, γ˜1/T^x at the critical pressure p=pc, where the exponent x measures the scaling dimension of the most singular operator coupled to pressure; in the alternative limit T ->0 and p !=pc, γ= Gr/(p-pc), where Gr is a universal combination of critical exponents. The predicted divergence has been observed near the quantum critical points of several heavy fermion metals[2]. Analyses based on specific models relevant to these experiments are also presented. [1] L. Zhu, M. Garst, A. Rosch, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 066404 (2003). [2] R. Küchler et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 066405 (2003); ibid. 93, 096402 (2004).

  20. Calculation of MCPR (minimum critical power ratio) for BWR transients using the BNL plant analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Diamond, D.J.

    1987-06-01

    The critical power ratio (CPR) is used for determining the thermal limits of boiling water reactors. In this study, critical power ratios for a series of transients run on the Brookhaven Plant Analyzer (BPA) (1) have been calculated. The transients include nominal base case simulations, simulations with variations in relief valve setpoints and the number of failed feedwater heaters, simulations at the 100% power, 75% flow point on the extended load line of the MEOD, and a simulation with partial feedwater heating. The plant represented with the BPA is a BWR/4 rated at 3293 MW with a 6.38 m (251'') vessel. Data were obtained by the Plant Analyzer Development Group at BNL from a variety of sources describing the Browns Ferry Plant.

  1. Study by the Prandtl-Glauert method of compressibility effects and critical Mach number for ellipsoids of various aspect ratios and thickness ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Robert V; Gardner, Clifford S

    1947-01-01

    By using the Prandtl-Glauert method that is valid for three-dimensional flow problems, the value of the maximum incremental velocity for compressible flow about thin ellipsoids at zero angle of attack is calculated as a function of the Mach number for various aspect ratios and thickness ratios. The critical Mach numbers of the various ellipsoids are also determined. The results indicate an increase in critical Mach number with decrease in aspect ratio which is large enough to explain experimental results on low-aspect-ratio wings at zero lift.

  2. Relation between self-organized criticality and grain aspect ratio in granular piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, D. V.; Villanueva, Y. Y.; Lőrincz, K. A.; May, S.; Wijngaarden, R. J.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate experimentally whether self-organized criticality (SOC) occurs in granular piles composed of different grains, namely, rice, lentils, quinoa, and mung beans. These four grains were selected to have different aspect ratios, from oblong to oblate. As a function of aspect ratio, we determined the growth (β) and roughness (α) exponents, the avalanche fractal dimension (D), the avalanche size distribution exponent (τ), the critical angle (γ), and its fluctuation. At superficial inspection, three types of grains seem to have power-law-distributed avalanches with a well-defined τ. However, only rice is truly SOC if we take three criteria into account: a power-law-shaped avalanche size distribution, finite size scaling, and a universal scaling relation relating characteristic exponents. We study SOC as a spatiotemporal fractal; in particular, we study the spatial structure of criticality from local observation of the slope angle. From the fluctuation of the slope angle we conclude that greater fluctuation (and thus bigger avalanches) happen in piles consisting of grains with larger aspect ratio.

  3. Audiogram and auditory critical ratios of two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Gaspard, Joseph C; Bauer, Gordon B; Reep, Roger L; Dziuk, Kimberly; Cardwell, Adrienne; Read, Latoshia; Mann, David A

    2012-05-01

    Manatees inhabit turbid, shallow-water environments and have been shown to have poor visual acuity. Previous studies on hearing have demonstrated that manatees possess good hearing and sound localization abilities. The goals of this research were to determine the hearing abilities of two captive subjects and measure critical ratios to understand the capacity of manatees to detect tonal signals, such as manatee vocalizations, in the presence of noise. This study was also undertaken to better understand individual variability, which has been encountered during behavioral research with manatees. Two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) were tested in a go/no-go paradigm using a modified staircase method, with incorporated 'catch' trials at a 1:1 ratio, to assess their ability to detect single-frequency tonal stimuli. The behavioral audiograms indicated that the manatees' auditory frequency detection for tonal stimuli ranged from 0.25 to 90.5 kHz, with peak sensitivity extending from 8 to 32 kHz. Critical ratios, thresholds for tone detection in the presence of background masking noise, were determined with one-octave wide noise bands, 7-12 dB (spectrum level) above the thresholds determined for the audiogram under quiet conditions. Manatees appear to have quite low critical ratios, especially at 8 kHz, where the ratio was 18.3 dB for one manatee. This suggests that manatee hearing is sensitive in the presence of background noise and that they may have relatively narrow filters in the tested frequency range. PMID:22496279

  4. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  5. Moment ratios and dynamic critical behavior of a reactive system with several absorbing configurations.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, M F; Figueiredo, W

    2011-03-01

    We determine the critical behavior of a reactive model with many absorbing configurations. Monomers A and B land on the sites of a linear lattice and can react depending on the state of their nearest-neighbor sites. The probability of a reaction depends on temperature of the catalyst as well as on the energy coupling between pairs of nearest-neighbor monomers. We employ Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the moments of the order parameter of the model as a function of temperature. Some ratios between pairs of moments are independent of temperature and are in the same universality class of the contact process. We also find the dynamical critical exponents of the model and we show that they are in the directed percolation universality class whatever the values of temperature. PMID:21517455

  6. Amplitude ratios for critical systems in the c=-2 universality class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmailian, N. Sh.; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2013-01-01

    We study the finite-size corrections of the critical dense polymer (CDP) and the dimer models on ∞×N rectangular lattice. We find that the finite-size corrections in the CDP and dimer models depend in a crucial way on the parity of N, and a change of the parity of N is equivalent to the change of boundary conditions. We present a set of universal amplitude ratios for amplitudes in finite-size correction terms of critical systems in the universality class with central charge c=-2. The results are in perfect agreement with a perturbated conformal field theory under the assumption that all analytical corrections coming from the operators which belongs to the tower of the identity. Our results inspire many interesting problems for further studies.

  7. Equianalgesic dose ratios for opioids. a critical review and proposals for long-term dosing.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J; Lawlor, P; Vigano, A; Dorgan, M; Bruera, E

    2001-08-01

    Clinicians involved in the opioid pharmacotherapy of cancer-related pain should be acquainted with a variety of opioids and be skilled in the selection of doses when the type of opioid or route of administration needs changing. The optimal dose should avoid under-dosing or overdosing, both associated with negative outcomes for the patient. Although equianalgesic dose tables are generally used to determine the new doses in these circumstances, the evidence to support the ratios indicated in these tables largely refers to the context of single dose administration. The applicability of these ratios to the setting of chronic opioid administration has been questioned. A systematic search of published literature from 1966 to September 1999 was conducted to critically appraise the emerging evidence on equianalgesic dose ratios derived from studies of chronic opioid administration. There were six major findings: 1) there exists a general paucity of data related to long-term dosing and studies are heterogeneous in nature; 2) the ratios exhibit extremely wide ranges; 3) methadone is more potent than previously appreciated; 4) the ratios related to methadone are highly correlated with the dose of the previous opioid; 5) the ratio may change according to the direction the opioid switch; and 6) discrepancies exist with respect to both oxycodone and fentanyl. Overall, these findings have important clinical implications for clinicians and warrant consideration in the potential revision of current tables. The complexity of the clinical context in which many switches occur must be recognized and also appreciated in the design of future studies. PMID:11495714

  8. Narrowing the critical regions for mouse t complex transmission ratio distortion factors by use of deletions.

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, M F; Schimenti, J C; Evans, E P

    2000-01-01

    Previously a deletion in mouse chromosome 17, T(22H), was shown to behave like a t allele of the t complex distorter gene Tcd1, and this was attributed to deletion of this locus. Seven further deletions are studied here, with the aim of narrowing the critical region in which Tcd1 must lie. One deletion, T(30H), together with three others, T(31H), T(33H), and T(36H), which extended more proximally, caused male sterility when heterozygous with a complete t haplotype and also enhanced transmission ratio of the partial t haplotype t(6), and this was attributed to deletion of the Tcd1 locus. The deletions T(29H), T(32H), and T(34H) that extended less proximally than T(30H) permitted male fertility when opposite a complete t haplotype. These results enabled narrowing of the critical interval for Tcd1 to between the markers D17Mit164 and D17Leh48. In addition, T(29H) and T(32H) enhanced the transmission ratio of t(6), but significantly less so than T(30H). T(34H) had no effect on transmission ratio. These results could be explained by a new distorter located between the breakpoints of T(29H) and T(34H) (between T and D17Leh66E). It is suggested that the original distorter Tcd1 in fact consists of two loci: Tcd1a, lying between D17Mit164 and D17Leh48, and Tcd1b, lying between T and D17Leh66E. PMID:10835400

  9. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  10. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved. PMID:18632389

  11. Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2014-08-25

    A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: “Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?”, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.

  12. Evaluation of the difficulty of crystallization of organic compounds using the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Daiki; Ida, Yasuo; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    In the case of solvent selection, supersolubility is an index for improving crystallization behavior. However, supersolubility is affected by kinetic factors such as the cooling rate. An index for suitable solvent selection is needed. The supersaturation ratio (S) is one of the operation design indices of controlling crystallization behavior such as supersolubility. The S at 298 K (S298) of the pharmaceutical compounds theophylline, noscapine, clotrimazole, indomethacin, carbamazepine, naproxene and tolbutamide were measured in ethanol using a polythermal method. If the compound had a large lnS298, the cooling rate strongly affected the temperature of the cloud point in the cooling crystallization method. In order to estimate the crystallization behavior without the cooling rate effect, the critical supersaturation ratio (Sc) was proposed. Sc at 298 K (Sc298) was calculated from dissolution/cloud points at 0 K/min extrapolated from that of several heating/cooling rates to remove the kinetic effects on S. The lnSc298 values of theophylline, noscapine and clotrimazole were estimated in acetonitrile, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. The lnSc298 value of clotrimazole was the largest in all solvents. The results showed that lnSc298 was a simple index which could be used to evaluate the crystallization behavior resulting from the interaction between the solvent and the compound. In conclusion, the proposed lnSc298 should be useful for comparing the difficulty of crystallization which indicates how we should obtain desired crystals within a certain finite time period for development API in the manufacturing field without considering the effect of the heating/cooling rate.

  13. Measurements of soot formation and hydroxyl concentration in near critical equivalence ratio premixed ethylene flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inbody, Michael Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The testing and development of existing global and detailed chemical kinetic models for soot formation requires measurements of soot and radical concentrations in flames. A clearer understanding of soot particle inception relies upon the evaluation and refinement of these models in comparison with such measurements. We present measurements of soot formation and hydroxyl (OH) concentration in sequences of flat premixed atmospheric-pressure C2H4/O2/N2 flames and 80-torr C2H4/O2 flames for a unique range of equivalence ratios bracketting the critical equivalence ratio (phi(sub c)) and extending to more heavily sooting conditions. Soot volume fraction and number density profiles are measured using a laser scattering-extinction apparatus capable of resolving a 0.1 percent absorption. Hydroxyl number density profiles are measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with broadband detection. Temperature profiles are obtained from Rayleigh scattering measurements. The relative volume fraction and number density profiles of the richer sooting flames exhibit the expected trends in soot formation. In near-phi(sub c) visibility sooting flames, particle scattering and extinction are not detected, but an LIF signal due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) can be detected upon excitation with an argon-ion laser. A linear correlation between the argon-ion LIF and the soot volume fraction implies a common mechanistic source for the growth of PAH's and soot particles. The peak OH number density in both the atmospheric and 80-torr flames declines with increasing equivalence ratio, but the profile shape remains unchanged in the transition to sooting, implying that the primary reaction pathways for OH remain unchanged over this transition. Chemical kinetic modeling is demonstrated by comparing predictions using two current reaction mechanisms with the atmospheric flame data. The measured and predicted OH number density profiles show good agreement. The predicted benzene

  14. Non-linear quantum critical dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation ratios far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, Farzaneh; Ribeiro, Pedro; Kirchner, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Non-thermal correlations of strongly correlated electron systems and the far-from-equilibrium properties of phases of condensed matter have become a topical research area. Here, an overview of the non-linear dynamics found near continuous zero-temperature phase transitions within the context of effective temperatures is presented. In particular, we focus on models of critical Kondo destruction. Such a quantum critical state, where Kondo screening is destroyed in a critical fashion, is realized in a number of rare earth intermetallics. This raises the possibility of experimentally testing for the existence of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium in terms of effective temperatures. Finally, we present an analysis of a non-interacting, critical reference system, the pseudogap resonant level model, in terms of effective temperatures and contrast these results with those obtained near interacting quantum critical points.

  15. Identifying the critical financial ratios for stocks evaluation: A fuzzy delphi approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtar, Mazura; Shuib, Adibah; Mohamad, Daud

    2014-12-01

    Stocks evaluation has always been an interesting and challenging problem for both researchers and practitioners. Generally, the evaluation can be made based on a set of financial ratios. Nevertheless, there are a variety of financial ratios that can be considered and if all ratios in the set are placed into the evaluation process, data collection would be more difficult and time consuming. Thus, the objective of this paper is to identify the most important financial ratios upon which to focus in order to evaluate the stock's performance. For this purpose, a survey was carried out using an approach which is based on an expert judgement, namely the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM). The results of this study indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share and debt to equity are the most important ratios.

  16. Transverse Velocity Dependence of the Proton-Antiproton Ratio as a Signature of the QCD Critical Point

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, M.; Bass, S. A.; Mueller, B.; Nonaka, C.

    2008-09-19

    The presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram can deform the trajectories describing the evolution of the expanding fireball in the {mu}{sub B}-T phase diagram. If the average emission time of hadrons is a function of transverse velocity, as microscopic simulations of the hadronic freeze-out dynamics suggest, the deformation of the hydrodynamic trajectories will change the transverse velocity ({beta}{sub T}) dependence of the proton-antiproton ratio when the fireball passes in the vicinity of the critical point. An unusual {beta}{sub T} dependence of the p/p ratio in a narrow beam energy window would thus signal the presence of the critical point.

  17. Yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pin-Rou; Kho, Stephanie Hui Chern; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Summary The growth kinetics and fermentation performance of Williopsis saturnus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at ratios of 10:1, 1:1 and 1:10 (W.:S.) were studied in papaya juice with initial 7-day fermentation by W. saturnus, followed by S. cerevisiae. The growth kinetics of W. saturnus were similar at all ratios, but its maximum cell count decreased as the proportion of S. cerevisiae was increased. Conversely, there was an early death of S. cerevisiae at the ratio of 10:1. Williopsis saturnus was the dominant yeast at 10:1 ratio that produced papaya wine with elevated concentrations of acetate esters. On the other hand, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios allowed the coexistence of both yeasts which enabled the flavour-enhancing potential of W. saturnus as well as the ethyl ester and alcohol-producing abilities of S. cerevisiae. In particular, 1:1 and 1:10 ratios resulted in production of more ethyl esters, alcohols and 2-phenylethyl acetate. However, the persistence of both yeasts at 1:1 and 1:10 ratios led to formation of high levels of acetic acid. The findings suggest that yeast ratio is a critical factor for sequential fermentation of papaya wine by W. saturnus and S. cerevisiae as a strategy to modulate papaya wine flavour. PMID:23171032

  18. Adaptive Multi-Path Routing with Guaranteed Target-Delivery Ratio of Critical Events in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Jang Woon; Nam, Young Jin; Seo, Dae-Wha

    Wireless sensor networks are subject to node and link failures for a variety of reasons. This paper proposes a k-disjoint-path routing algorithm that varies the number of disjoint paths (k) in order to meet a target-delivery ratio of critical events and to reduce energy consumption. The proposed algorithm sends packets to the base station through a single path without the occurrence of critical events, however, it sends packets to the base station through k disjoint paths (k > 1) under the occurrence of critical events, where k is computed from a well-defined fault model. The proposed algorithm detects the occurrence of critical events by monitoring collected data patterns. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm is more resilient to random node failure and patterned failure than other routing algorithms, and it also decreases energy consumption much more than the multi-path and path-repair algorithms.

  19. Estimation of ground water residence times in the Critical zone: insight from U activity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Ackerer, Julien; Lucas, Yann; viville, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  20. Northern elephant seal field bioacoustics and aerial auditory masked hearing thresholds in three pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Brandon Lee

    This dissertation comprises four interrelated studies on acoustic communication (including both signal production and signal reception) in pinnipeds, primarily northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Field measurements of vocalization parameters were obtained in elephant seal breeding rookeries. Additionally, auditory masking experiments were conducted with individuals representing three pinniped species, including a northern elephant seal. This study quantified how aerial noise masks aerial hearing and provided preliminary data on auditory frequency filtering. All of these studies were conducted in air for a variety of practical and theoretical reasons. Some governmental, media, and research organizations have recently become concerned with the impacts of underwater anthropogenic noise on aquatic animals. However, little consideration has been given to the dual pressures imposed by aerial and underwater noise on amphibious marine mammals such as the pinnipeds. This dissertation sought to provide some basic data bearing on this matter by investigating aerial signals and aerial masked hearing. Data were obtained on aerial vocalization source levels, signal directivity patterns, natural aerial ambient noise, signal propagation properties, multi-modal aspects of signaling, motivation-specific signal variability, aerial critical masking ratios, and auditory filter bandwidths. The results indicate that different signal components may be more readily detectable in variable noise conditions, frequency resolution likely affects detection ranges, developmental and motivational factors affect signal parameters, and that some pinnipeds apparently detect signals over masking noise relatively well both in air and water. Using the northern elephant seal as a representative model, a model for quantifying constraints on vocal communication was developed to provide first-order predictions about detection ranges for signals in variable noise conditions.

  1. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Hawn Sung, Zu; Lee, Peter J.; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaus; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-08-01

    High critical current density (J c) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a J c (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ∼2500 A mm‑2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ∼1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2–3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible J c must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high J c SG A15 and minimizing low J c large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. In one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial J c improvement.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  3. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  4. The Critical Mass Ratio of Double White Dwarf Binaries for Violent Merger-induced Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yushi; Nakasato, Naohito; Tanikawa, Ataru; Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Maeda, Keiichi; Hachisu, Izumi

    2016-04-01

    Mergers of carbon–oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs) are considered to be one of the potential progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Recent hydrodynamical simulations showed that the less massive (secondary) WD violently accretes onto the more massive (primary) one, carbon detonation occurs, the detonation wave propagates through the primary, and the primary finally explodes as a sub-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia. Such an explosion mechanism is called the violent merger scenario. Based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of merging CO WDs, we derived a critical mass ratio (qcr) leading to the violent merger scenario that is more stringent than previous results. We conclude that this difference mainly comes from the differences in the initial condition of whether or not the WDs are synchronously spinning. Using our new results, we estimated the brightness distribution of SNe Ia in the violent merger scenario and compared it with previous studies. We found that our new qcr does not significantly affect the brightness distribution. We present the direct outcome immediately following CO WD mergers for various primary masses and mass ratios. We also discussed the final fate of the central system of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428, which was recently suggested to be a double CO WD system whose total mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar-limiting mass, merging within the Hubble time. Even considering the uncertainties in the proposed binary parameters, we concluded that the final fate of this system is almost certainly a sub-Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia in the violent merger scenario.

  5. Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Primm, R.T. III; Lloyd, R.C.; Clayton, E.D.

    1986-04-01

    A series of critical experiments was conducted with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu+U) ratios >0.5. Three geometries and four conditions of reflection were examined. The plutonium concentrations ranged from 170 to 350 g/L. The value of k-effective for each experiment was calculated using the KENO-IV code and 27-group cross sections derived from the Evaluated Nuclear Data File B--version IV (ENDF/B-IV). The mean value for the set of 26 experiments was 1.003, with a minimum value of 0.987 and a maximum of 1.022. The spread in the distribution of calculated k-effectives is believed to be the result of uncertainties in analytical chemistry measurements. No correlation between condition of reflection and calculated k-effective was found. An allowable multiplication factor to be used in the evaluation of reprocessing equipment at conditions that have been investigated was calculated to be 0.945.

  6. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  7. Decreasing the roughage:concentrate ratio of a diet to determine the critical roughage part for beef cattle.

    PubMed

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; De Boever, J L; Vanacker, J M; De Brabander, D L

    2002-02-01

    The critical roughage part (CRP) of 2 diet types was determined in a cross-over design with 6 double-muscled and 6 normally conformed Belgian Blue bulls fitted with rumen cannulae. The roughage:concentrate ratio was lowered weekly until signs of a lack of physical structure were observed. For diet 1, consisting of maize silage and concentrates, the initial proportion of maize silage was 25% of DM but it decreased weekly with 5% units of DM. For the second diet, consisting of wheat straw and concentrate, 12% straw (DM basis) was provided during the first week and thereafter the proportion of straw decreased weekly with 3% units of DM. Several directly observable parameters (rumen pH, feed intake, bloat, faecal consistency) were evaluated weekly for each bull. Apart from these direct indicators of acidosis, also other parameters, whose results were only available after the end of the trial, were determined (volatile fatty acid profile, lactic acid concentration, chewing time). The roughage part between the part fed when signs of a lack of physical structure was first observed and the part that was fed the week before, was considered as the CRP. Most animals showed no acute signs of clinical acidosis (directly observable parameters) and finished the trial on a 100% concentrate diet. However, in sacco rumen DM-degradabilities of maize silage, grass silage and wheat grain was depressed considerably when low roughage diets were fed. Based on all observed parameters, the mean CRP was calculated to be 14.7% for diet 1 and 8.1% for diet 2. The beef type (double-muscled or not) had no influence on the CRP. PMID:12389217

  8. Aerial application methods for increasing spray deposition on wheat heads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease of wheat and barley in several small grain production areas in the United States and, as such, the development and evaluation of aerial application technologies that enhance the efficacy of fungicides with aerial spray applications is critical to its man...

  9. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1975-01-01

    The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

  10. Aerial righting reflexes in flightless animals.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Ardian; Zeng, Yu; Full, Robert J; Dudley, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Animals that fall upside down typically engage in an aerial righting response so as to reorient dorsoventrally. This behavior can be preparatory to gliding or other controlled aerial behaviors and is ultimately necessary for a successful landing. Aerial righting reflexes have been described historically in various mammals such as cats, guinea pigs, rabbits, rats, and primates. The mechanisms whereby such righting can be accomplished depend on the size of the animal and on anatomical features associated with motion of the limbs and body. Here we apply a comparative approach to the study of aerial righting to explore the diverse strategies used for reorientation in midair. We discuss data for two species of lizards, the gecko Hemidactylus platyurus and the anole Anolis carolinensis, as well as for the first instar of the stick insect Extatosoma tiaratum, to illustrate size-dependence of this phenomenon and its relevance to subsequent aerial performance in parachuting and gliding animals. Geckos can use rotation of their large tails to reorient their bodies via conservation of angular momentum. Lizards with tails well exceeding snout-vent length, and correspondingly large tail inertia to body inertia ratios, are more effective at creating midair reorientation maneuvers. Moreover, experiments with stick insects, weighing an order of magnitude less than the lizards, suggest that aerodynamic torques acting on the limbs and body may play a dominant role in the righting process for small invertebrates. Both inertial and aerodynamic effects, therefore, can play a role in the control of aerial righting. We propose that aerial righting reflexes are widespread among arboreal vertebrates and arthropods and that they represent an important initial adaptation in the evolution of controlled aerial behavior. PMID:21930662

  11. Modeling aerial refueling operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Allen B., III

    Aerial Refueling (AR) is the act of offloading fuel from one aircraft (the tanker) to another aircraft (the receiver) in mid flight. Meetings between tanker and receiver aircraft are referred to as AR events and are scheduled to: escort one or more receivers across a large body of water; refuel one or more receivers; or train receiver pilots, tanker pilots, and boom operators. In order to efficiently execute the Aerial Refueling Mission, the Air Mobility Command (AMC) of the United States Air Force (USAF) depends on computer models to help it make tanker basing decisions, plan tanker sorties, schedule aircraft, develop new organizational doctrines, and influence policy. We have worked on three projects that have helped AMC improve its modeling and decision making capabilities. Optimal Flight Planning. Currently Air Mobility simulation and optimization software packages depend on algorithms which iterate over three dimensional fuel flow tables to compute aircraft fuel consumption under changing flight conditions. When a high degree of fidelity is required, these algorithms use a large amount of memory and CPU time. We have modeled the rate of aircraft fuel consumption with respect to AC GrossWeight, Altitude and Airspeed. When implemented, this formula will decrease the amount of memory and CPU time needed to compute sortie fuel costs and cargo capacity values. We have also shown how this formula can be used in optimal control problems to find minimum costs flight plans. Tanker Basing Demand Mismatch Index. Since 1992, AMC has relied on a Tanker Basing/AR Demand Mismatch Index which aggregates tanker capacity and AR demand data into six regions. This index was criticized because there were large gradients along regional boundaries. Meanwhile tankers frequently cross regional boundaries to satisfy the demand for AR support. In response we developed continuous functions to score locations with respect to their proximity to demand for AR support as well as their

  12. The effects of the glass surface area/solution volume ratio on glass corrosion: A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.

    1995-03-01

    This report reviews and summarizes the present state of knowledge regarding the effects of the glass surface area/solution volume (SA/V) ratio on the corrosion behavior of borosilicate waste glasses. The SA/V ratio affects the rate of glass corrosion through the extent of dilution of corrosion products released from the glass into the leachate solution: glass corrosion products are diluted more in tests conducted at low SA/V ratios than they are in tests conducted at high SA/V ratios. Differences in the solution chemistries generated in tests conducted at different SA/V ratios then affect the observed glass corrosion behavior. Therefore, any testing parameter that affects the solution chemistry will also affect the glass corrosion rate. The results of static leach tests conducted to assess the effects of the SA/V are discussed with regard to the effects of SA/V on the solution chemistry. Test results show several remaining issues with regard to the long-term glass corrosion behavior: can the SA/V ratio be used as an accelerating parameter to characterize the advanced stages of glass corrosion relevant to long disposal times; is the alteration of the glass surface the same in tests conducted at different SA/V, and in tests conducted with monolithic and crushed glass samples; what are the effects of the SA/V and the extent of glass corrosion on the disposition of released radionuclides? These issues will bear on the prediction of the long-term performance of waste glasses during storage. The results of an experimental program conducted at ANL to address these and other remaining issues regarding the effects of SA/V on glass corrosion are described. 288 refs., 59 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. U Activity Ratios in Surface Waters as Tracers and Chronometers of Water Transfers in the Critical zone;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, F.

    2015-12-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as geochemical tracer and chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  14. Critical evaluation of changes in the ratio of insoluble bound to soluble phenolics on antioxidant activity of lentils during germination.

    PubMed

    Yeo, JuDong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-21

    A new indicator, the ratio of insoluble bound phenolics (IBPs) to soluble phenolics (SPs), is suggested as an effective means to monitor changes in the antioxidant activity of lentils during germination. This indicator may be used to monitor other process-induced changes in antioxidant potential of food phenolics in other foods. The antioxidant activity of SPs, IBPs, and total value, the sum of both free and esterified phenolics, of germinated CDC Richlea lentil variety was evaluated for 4 days. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability were employed to record antioxidant activities. An incremental increase in IBPs was found in TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, whereas SPs showed a declining trend in TFC, DPPH, and ABTS, except TPC during 4 days of germination. The ratio of IBPs to SPs increased using most methods, and this may be possibly due to the changes of phenolic compound formation from soluble into insoluble bound form during germination process. The ratio can be used as a novel method for monitoring process-induced changes in the antioxidant activity of foods. PMID:25560637

  15. Evaluation of critical depth ratio for soft V2O5 film on hard Si substrate by finite element modeling of experimentally measured nanoindentation response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A. K.; Porwal, Deeksha; Dey, Arjun; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar; Sharma, Anand Kumar

    2016-04-01

    A combined nanoindentation experiment and finite element modeling (FEM) approach was utilized in the present work to evaluate the effects of variations in the ratio (h/t) of indentation depth (h) to film thickness (t) on the nanomechanical behavior of 2.3-6.2 μm vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films. The soft V2O5 films were deposited by pulsed radio frequency magnetron sputtering on a relatively hard silicon (Si) substrate. The elasto-plastic properties of the V2O5 films as well as the Si substrate were evaluated using a power law-based nonlinear material model. Based on the present nanoindentation and FEM results the critical penetration depth to film thickness ratio (h /t)c, i.e. critical depth ratio (CDR) was predicted as 7.9%,,confirming thereby that there is no universal critical penetration depth beyond which the mechanical properties of the substrate start to affect the evaluated nanomechanical properties (e.g. nanohardness H, Young’s modulus E, etc) of a given soft film on a given hard substrate. The experimental data showed that at h ~ 0.5t the magnitudes of E and H were approximately two times the values measured at h  ⩽  0.1t. The FEM results obtained in the present work successfully predicted the effects of variations in the h /t ratio on the indenter displacements as well as the distributions of the von Mises stress for the soft V2O5 films on the hard Si substrate system.

  16. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  17. Buffer-Gas Cooling of a Single Ion in a Multipole Radio Frequency Trap Beyond the Critical Mass Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höltkemeier, Bastian; Weckesser, Pascal; López-Carrera, Henry; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of a trapped ion immersed in a spatially localized buffer gas. For a homogeneous buffer gas, the ion's energy distribution reaches a stable equilibrium only if the mass of the buffer gas atoms is below a critical value. This limitation can be overcome by using multipole traps in combination with a spatially confined buffer gas. Using a generalized model for elastic collisions of the ion with the buffer-gas atoms, the ion's energy distribution is numerically determined for arbitrary buffer-gas distributions and trap parameters. Three regimes characterized by the respective analytic form of the ion's equilibrium energy distribution are found. Final ion temperatures down to the millikelvin regime can be achieved by adiabatically decreasing the spatial extension of the buffer gas and the effective ion trap depth (forced sympathetic cooling).

  18. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jade; Tyrrell, Zachary; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy W.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 °C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogs can preserve the micellar-solution structure. PMID:21686070

  19. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects.

    PubMed

    Green, Jade; Tyrrell, Zachary; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy W

    2011-05-19

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 °C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogs can preserve the micellar-solution structure. PMID:21686070

  20. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jade; Tyrrell, Zachary; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self-assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres, or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation, while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogues can preserve the micellar-solution structure.

  1. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  2. A Critical Proton MR Spectroscopy Marker of Alzheimer's Disease Early Neurodegenerative Change: Low Hippocampal NAA/Cr Ratio Impacts APOE ɛ4 Mexico City Children and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Melo-Sánchez, Gastón; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Styner, Martin; Mukherjee, Partha S; Lin, Weili; Jewells, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Severe air pollution exposures produce systemic, respiratory, myocardial, and brain inflammation and Alzheimer's disease (AD) hallmarks in clinically healthy children. We tested whether hippocampal metabolite ratios are associated with contrasting levels of air pollution, APOE, and body mass index (BMI) in paired healthy children and one parent sharing the same APOE alleles. We used 1H-MRS to interrogate bilateral hippocampal single-voxel in 57 children (12.45 ± 3.4 years) and their 48 parents (37.5 ± 6.78 years) from a low pollution city versus Mexico City (MC). NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr metabolite ratios were analyzed. The right hippocampus NAA/Cr ratio was significantly different between cohorts (p = 0.007). The NAA/Cr ratio in right hippocampus in controls versus APOE ɛ4 MC children and in left hippocampus in MC APOE ɛ4 parents versus their children was significantly different after adjusting for age, gender, and BMI (p = 0.027 and 0.01, respectively). The NAA/Cr ratio is considered reflective of neuronal density/functional integrity/loss of synapses/higher pTau burden, thus a significant decrease in hippocampal NAA/Cr ratios may constitute a spectral marker of early neurodegeneration in young urbanites. Decreases in NAA/Cr correlate well with cognitive function, behavioral symptoms, and dementia severity; thus, since the progression of AD starts decades before clinical diagnosis, our findings support the hypothesis that under chronic exposures to fine particulate matter and ozone above the standards, neurodegenerative processes start in childhood and APOE ɛ4 carriers are at higher risk. Gene and environmental factors are critical in the development of AD and the identification and neuroprotection of young urbanites at high risk must become a public health priority. PMID:26402110

  3. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  4. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  5. Aerial Perspective Artistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

  6. Study of Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio and Critical-Band Energy Spectrum of Speech as Acoustic Indicators of Laryngeal and Voice Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Kumara; krishna, Anantha; Cholayya, Niranjan U.

    2006-12-01

    Acoustic analysis of speech signals is a noninvasive technique that has been proved to be an effective tool for the objective support of vocal and voice disease screening. In the present study acoustic analysis of sustained vowels is considered. A simple[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-means nearest neighbor classifier is designed to test the efficacy of a harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) measure and the critical-band energy spectrum of the voiced speech signal as tools for the detection of laryngeal pathologies. It groups the given voice signal sample into pathologic and normal. The voiced speech signal is decomposed into harmonic and noise components using an iterative signal extrapolation algorithm. The HNRs at four different frequency bands are estimated and used as features. Voiced speech is also filtered with 21 critical-bandpass filters that mimic the human auditory neurons. Normalized energies of these filter outputs are used as another set of features. The results obtained have shown that the HNR and the critical-band energy spectrum can be used to correlate laryngeal pathology and voice alteration, using previously classified voice samples. This method could be an additional acoustic indicator that supplements the clinical diagnostic features for voice evaluation.

  7. Calculating aerial images from EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistor, Thomas V.; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    1999-06-01

    Aerial images for line/space patterns, arrays of posts and an arbitrary layout pattern are calculated for EUV masks in a 4X EUV imaging system. Both mask parameters and illumination parameters are varied to investigate their effects on the aerial image. To facilitate this study, a parallel version of TEMPEST with a Fourier transform boundary condition was developed and run on a network of 24 microprocessors. Line width variations are observed when absorber thickness or sidewall angle changes. As the line/space pattern scales to smaller dimensions, the aspect ratios of the absorber features increase, introducing geometric shadowing and reducing aerial image intensity and contrast. 100nm square posts have circular images of diameter close to 100nm, but decreasing in diameter significantly when the corner round radius at the mask becomes greater than 50 nm. Exterior mask posts image slightly smaller and with higher ellipticity than interior mask posts. The aerial image of the arbitrary test pattern gives insight into the effects of the off-axis incidence employed in EUV lithography systems.

  8. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  9. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  10. Randomized trial of total parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: metabolic effects of varying glucose-lipid ratios as the energy source.

    PubMed

    Baker, J P; Detsky, A S; Stewart, S; Whitwell, J; Marliss, E B; Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1984-07-01

    We studied 20 critically ill patients receiving ventilatory support to determine both their metabolic requirements and the effect of providing energy substrate regimens containing different lipid to glucose calorie ratios on whole-body protein economy. The measurements used included indirect calorimetry, substrate hormone profile, and whole body protein turnover by [14C]leucine. Measurements were done while patients were receiving all their nonprotein calories as dextrose ( D100 ) and were compared with results obtained when they received all their nonprotein calories as a combination of dextrose and lipid in a calorie ratio either of 3:1 ( D75 ) or 1:3 ( D25 ). To maintain euglycemia, exogenous insulin was infused by attending physicians not cognizant of the total parenteral nutrition regimen used. Energy expenditure before receiving total parenteral nutrition was only 4.6% above basal, and did not rise significantly during any of the regimens. The insulin infusion rate, plasma insulin, CO2 production, and serum lactate were significantly higher with D100 than with D25 , but not with D75 . Correspondingly, plasma free fatty acids were significantly lower with D100 when compared with D25 but not with D75 . Despite this, there were no significant differences in whole-body protein synthesis, breakdown, or net synthesis (synthesis - breakdown) and, in general, the patients in all groups were close to zero protein balance. These data suggest that critically ill patients are not severely hypermetabolic, and that they can maintain protein balance with a modest excess of calories while using a wide range of fuel mixtures. PMID:6427057

  11. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  12. Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio: A Novel Prognostic Factor for Prediction of 90-day Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Shi-Gang; Wang, Li-Ren; Fang, Chen-Chen; Lin, Yi-Qian; Braddock, Martin; Zhu, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Zhongheng; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shen, Fei-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus and the novel systemic inflammation marker platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may be associated with clinical outcome in patients with DKA. This study aimed to investigate the utility of PLR in predicting 90-day clinical outcomes in patients with DKA. Patient data exacted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database was analyzed. A cutoff value for PLR of 267.67 was determined using Youden index (P < 0.05) and used to categorize subjects into a high PLR group and a low PLR group. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for DKA were calculated across PLR. Clinical outcomes in our study were defined as intensive care unit (ICU) 90-day readmission and all-cause mortality. A total of 278 ICU admissions were enrolled and stratified by cutoff value of PLR. The incidence of readmission and mortality was 17.8% in the high PLR group, significantly higher than 7.4% in the low PLR group. In the multivariable model, after adjusting for known confounding variables including clinical parameters, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, the HRs for DKA were 2.573 (95% CI 1.239-5.345; P = 0.011), 2.648 (95% CI 1.269-5.527; P = 0.009), and 2.650 (95% CI 1.114-6.306; P = 0.028), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that a high PLR level was associated with a higher risk for 90-day outcomes in patients with DKA. The authors report that higher PLR presents a higher risk for 90-day incidence of readmission and mortality in patients with DKA. It appears to be a novel independent predictor of 90-day outcomes in critically ill DKA patients in ICU units. PMID:26825908

  13. Infrared film for aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.

  14. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

  15. Critical ratios in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) for tonal signals between 0.315 and 150 kHz in random Gaussian white noise.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Wensveen, Paul J; Hoek, Lean; Au, Whitlow W L; Terhune, John M; de Jong, Christ A F

    2009-09-01

    A psychoacoustic behavioral technique was used to determine the critical ratios (CRs) of two harbor porpoises for tonal signals with frequencies between 0.315 and 150 kHz, in random Gaussian white noise. The masked 50% detection hearing thresholds were measured using a "go/no-go" response paradigm and an up-down staircase psychometric method. CRs were determined at one masking noise level for each test frequency and were similar in both animals. For signals between 0.315 and 4 kHz, the CRs were relatively constant at around 18 dB. Between 4 and 150 kHz the CR increased gradually from 18 to 39 dB ( approximately 3.3 dB/octave). Generally harbor porpoises can detect tonal signals in Gaussian white noise slightly better than most odontocetes tested so far. By combining the mean CRs found in the present study with the spectrum level of the background noise levels at sea, the basic audiogram, and the directivity index, the detection threshold levels of harbor porpoises for tonal signals in various sea states can be calculated. PMID:19739772

  16. AERIAL MEASURING SYSTEM IN JAPAN

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

  17. The AST/ALT (De-Ritis) ratio: A novel marker for critical limb ischemia in peripheral arterial occlusive disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rief, Peter; Pichler, Martin; Raggam, Reinhard; Hafner, Franz; Gerger, Armin; Eller, Philipp; Brodmann, Marianne; Gary, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The aspartat aminotransferase (AST)/alanin aminotransferase (ALT) (De-Ritis) ratio (AAR) is an easily applicable blood test. An elevated AAR on the one hand has been associated with an increase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD on the other hand is associated with an increase in cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and diabetes. As the AAR is also elevated in case of muscular damage, we investigated AAR and its association with critical limb ischemia (CLI) in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients.In our cross-sectional study, we included 1782 PAOD patients treated at our institution from 2005 to 2010. Patients with chronic alcohol consumption (>20 g/day) were excluded. AAR was calculated and the cohort was categorized into tertiles according to the AAR. An optimal cut-off value for the continuous AAR was calculated by applying a receiver operating curve analysis to discriminate between CLI and non-CLI.In our cohort, occurrence of CLI significantly increased with an elevation in AAR. As an optimal cut-off value, an AAR of 1.67 (sensitivity 34.1%, specificity 81.0%) was identified. Two groups were categorized, 1st group containing 1385 patients (AAR < 1.67) and a 2nd group with 397 patients (AAR > 1.67). CLI was more frequent in AAR > 1.67 patients (166 [41.9%]) compared to AAR < 1.67 patients (329 [23.8%]) (P < 0.001), as was prior myocardial infarction (28 [7.1%] vs 54 [3.9%], P = 0.01). Regarding inflammatory parameters, C-reactive protein (median 8.1 mg/L [2.9-28.23] vs median 4.3 mg/L [2.0-11.5]) and fibrinogen (median 427.5 mg/dL [344.25-530.0] vs 388.0 mg/dL [327.0-493.0]) also significantly differed in the 2 patient groups (both P < 0.001). Finally, an AAR > 1.67 was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.3) for CLI even after adjustment for other well-established vascular risk factors.An increased AAR is significantly associated with patients

  18. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  19. Wafer weak point detection based on aerial images or WLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Guoxiang; Philipp, Peter; Litt, Lloyd C.; Ackmann, Paul; Crell, Christian; Chen, Norman

    2015-10-01

    Aerial image measurement is a key technique for model based optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. Actual aerial images obtained by AIMS (aerial image measurement system) or WLCD (wafer level critical dimension) can detect printed wafer weak point structures in advance of wafer exposure and defect inspection. Normally, the potential wafer weak points are determined based on optical rule check (ORC) simulation in advance. However, the correlation to real wafer weak points is often not perfect due to the contribution of mask three dimension (M3D) effects, actual mask errors, and scanner lens effects. If the design weak points can accurately be detected in advance, it will reduce the wafer fab cost and improve cycle time. WLCD or AIMS tools are able to measure the aerial images CD and bossung curve through focus window. However, it is difficult to detect the wafer weak point in advance without defining selection criteria. In this study, wafer weak points sensitive to mask mean-to-nominal values are characterized for a process with very high MEEF (normally more than 4). Aerial image CD uses fixed threshold to detect the wafer weak points. By using WLCD through threshold and focus window, the efficiency of wafer weak point detection is also demonstrated. A novel method using contrast range evaluation is shown in the paper. Use of the slope of aerial images for more accurate detection of the wafer weak points using WLCD is also discussed. The contrast range can also be used to detect the wafer weak points in advance. Further, since the mean to nominal of the reticle contributes to the effective contrast range in a high MEEF area this work shows that control of the mask error is critical for high MEEF layers such as poly, active and metal layers. Wafer process based weak points that cannot be detected by wafer lithography CD or WLCD will be discussed.

  20. Reformulated 17O correction of mass spectrometric stable isotope measurements in carbon dioxide and a critical appraisal of historic 'absolute' carbon and oxygen isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Mass-spectrometric stable isotope measurements of CO 2 use molecular ion currents at mass-to-charge ratios m/ z 44, 45 and 46 to derive the elemental isotope ratios n( 13C)/ n( 12C) and n( 18O)/ n( 16O), abbreviated 13C/ 12C and 18O/ 16O, relative to a reference. The ion currents have to be corrected for the contribution of 17O-bearing isotopologues, the so-called ' 17O correction'. The magnitude of this correction depends on the calibrated isotope ratios of the reference. Isotope ratio calibrations are difficult and are therefore a matter of debate. Here, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of the existing 13C/ 12C ( 13R), 17O/ 16O ( 17R) and 18O/ 16O ( 18R) calibrations of the reference material Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW) and CO 2 generated from the reference material Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) by reaction with 100% H 3PO 4 at 25 °C (VPDB-CO 2). I find 17R/10-6=382.7-2.1+1.7, 18RVSMOW/10 -6 = 2005.20 ± 0.45, 13R/10-6= 11124 ± 45, 17R/10-6=391.1-2.1+1.7 and 18R/10-6=2088.37±0.90. I also rephrase the calculation scheme for the 17O correction completely in terms of relative isotope ratio differences ( δ values). This reveals that only ratios of isotope ratios (namely, 17R/ 13R and 13R17R/ 18R) are required for the 17O correction. These can be, and have been, measured on conventional stable isotope mass spectrometers. I then show that the remaining error for these ratios of isotope ratios can lead to significant uncertainty in the derived relative 13C/ 12C difference, but not for 18O/ 16O. Even though inter-laboratory differences can be corrected for by a common 'ratio assumption set' and/or normalisation, the ultimate accuracy of the 17O correction is hereby limited. Errors of similar magnitude can be introduced by the assumed mass-dependent relationship between 17O/ 16O and 18O/ 16O isotope ratios. For highest accuracy in the 13C/ 12C ratio, independent triple oxygen isotope measurements are required. Finally, I propose an experiment that

  1. Aerial camera auto focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan; Lan, Gongpu; Gao, Xiaodong; Liang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Before the aerial photographic task, the cameras focusing work should be performed at first to compensate the defocus caused by the changes of the temperature, pressure etc. A new method of aerial camera auto focusing is proposed through traditional photoelectric self-collimation combined with image processing method. Firstly, the basic principles of optical self-collimation and image processing are introduced. Secondly, the limitations of the two are illustrated and the benefits of the new method are detailed. Then the basic principle, the system composition and the implementation of this new method are presented. Finally, the data collection platform is set up reasonably and the focus evaluation function curve is draw. The results showed that: the method can be used in the Aerial camera focusing field, adapt to the aviation equipment trends of miniaturization and lightweight .This paper is helpful to the further work of accurate and automatic focusing.

  2. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  3. AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    AERIAL OF VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING & SURROUNDING AREA KSC-377C-0082.41 116-KSC-377C-82.41, P-15877, ARCHIVE-04151 Aerial view - Shuttle construction progress - VAB and Orbiter Processing Facilities - direction northwest.

  4. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  6. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  7. Flexible vision-based navigation system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.

    1995-01-01

    A critical component of unmanned aerial vehicles in the navigation system which provides position and velocity feedback for autonomous control. The Georgia Tech Aerial Robotics navigational system (NavSys) consists of four DVTStinger70C Integrated Vision Units (IVUs) with CCD-based panning platforms, software, and a fiducial onboard the vehicle. The IVUs independently scan for the retro-reflective bar-code fiducial while the NavSys image processing software performs a gradient threshold followed by a image search localization of three vertical bar-code lines. Using the (x,y) image coordinate and CCD angle, the NavSys triangulates the fiducial's (x,y) position, differentiates for velocity, and relays the information to the helicopter controller, which independently determines the z direction with an onboard altimeter. System flexibility is demonstrated by recognition of different fiducial shapes, night and day time operation, and is being extended to on-board and off-board navigation of aerial and ground vehicles. The navigation design provides a real-time, inexpensive, and effective system for determining the (x,y) position of the aerial vehicle with updates generated every 51 ms (19.6 Hz) at an accuracy of approximately +/- 2.8 in.

  8. Development of sea ice monitoring with aerial remote sensing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuhui; Han, Lei; Dong, Liang; Cui, Lulu; Bie, Jun; Fan, Xuewei

    2014-11-01

    In the north China Sea district, sea ice disaster is very serious every winter, which brings a lot of adverse effects to shipping transportation, offshore oil exploitation, and coastal engineering. In recent years, along with the changing of global climate, the sea ice situation becomes too critical. The monitoring of sea ice is playing a very important role in keeping human life and properties in safety, and undertaking of marine scientific research. The methods to monitor sea ice mainly include: first, shore observation; second, icebreaker monitoring; third, satellite remote sensing; and then aerial remote sensing monitoring. The marine station staffs use relevant equipments to monitor the sea ice in the shore observation. The icebreaker monitoring means: the workers complete the test of the properties of sea ice, such as density, salinity and mechanical properties. MODIS data and NOAA data are processed to get sea ice charts in the satellite remote sensing means. Besides, artificial visual monitoring method and some airborne remote sensors are adopted in the aerial remote sensing to monitor sea ice. Aerial remote sensing is an important means in sea ice monitoring because of its strong maneuverability, wide watching scale, and high resolution. In this paper, several methods in the sea ice monitoring using aerial remote sensing technology are discussed.

  9. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  10. Trends in quantitative aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.

    1983-06-01

    Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.

  11. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  12. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  13. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  14. The NASA Dryden AAR Project: A Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented.

  15. The NASA Dryden Flight Test Approach to an Aerial Refueling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Murray, James E.; Campos, Norma V.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) into controlled airspace has generated a new era of autonomous technologies and challenges. Autonomous aerial refueling would enable UAVs to travel further distances and loiter for extended periods over time-critical targets. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center recently has completed a flight research project directed at developing a dynamic hose and drogue system model to support the development of an automated aerial refueling system. A systematic dynamic model of the hose and drogue system would include the effects of various influences on the system, such as flight condition, hose and drogue type, tanker type and weight, receiver type, and tanker and receiver maneuvering. Using two NASA F/A-18 aircraft and a conventional hose and drogue aerial refueling store from the Navy, NASA has obtained flight research data that document the response of the hose and drogue system to these effects. Preliminary results, salient trends, and important lessons are presented

  16. A hybrid double-observer sightability model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Paul C.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Vales, David J.; Moeller, Barbara J.; Reid, Mason; Happe, Patricia J.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Tirhi, Michelle J.; Schaberi, Jim P.; Beirne, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Raw counts from aerial surveys make no correction for undetected animals and provide no estimate of precision with which to judge the utility of the counts. Sightability modeling and double-observer (DO) modeling are 2 commonly used approaches to account for detection bias and to estimate precision in aerial surveys. We developed a hybrid DO sightability model (model MH) that uses the strength of each approach to overcome the weakness in the other, for aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus). The hybrid approach uses detection patterns of 2 independent observer pairs in a helicopter and telemetry-based detections of collared elk groups. Candidate MH models reflected hypotheses about effects of recorded covariates and unmodeled heterogeneity on the separate front-seat observer pair and back-seat observer pair detection probabilities. Group size and concealing vegetation cover strongly influenced detection probabilities. The pilot's previous experience participating in aerial surveys influenced detection by the front pair of observers if the elk group was on the pilot's side of the helicopter flight path. In 9 surveys in Mount Rainier National Park, the raw number of elk counted was approximately 80–93% of the abundance estimated by model MH. Uncorrected ratios of bulls per 100 cows generally were low compared to estimates adjusted for detection bias, but ratios of calves per 100 cows were comparable whether based on raw survey counts or adjusted estimates. The hybrid method was an improvement over commonly used alternatives, with improved precision compared to sightability modeling and reduced bias compared to DO modeling.

  17. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  18. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  20. A Classroom Simulation of Aerial Photography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Simon

    1981-01-01

    Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)

  1. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  2. Differences in mechanical and structural properties of surface and aerial petioles of the aquatic plant Nymphaea odorata subsp. tuberosa (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Etnier, Shelley A; Villani, Philip J

    2007-07-01

    Lily pads (Nymphaea odorata) exhibit heterophylly where a single plant may have leaves that are submerged, floating, or above (aerial) the surface of the water. Lily pads are placed in a unique situation because each leaf form is exposed to a distinctly different set of mechanical demands. While surface petioles may be loaded in tension under conditions of wind or waves, aerial petioles are loaded in compression because they must support the weight of the lamina. Using standard techniques, we compared the mechanical and morphological properties of both surface and aerial leaf petioles. Structural stiffness (EI) and the second moment of area (I) were higher in aerial petioles, although we detected no differences in other mechanical values (elastic modulus [E], extension ratio, and breaking strength). Morphologically, aerial petioles had a thicker rind, with increased collenchyma tissue and sclereid cell frequency. Aerial petioles also had a larger cross-sectional area and were more elliptical. Thus, subtle changes in the distribution of materials, rather than differences in their makeup, differentiate petiole forms. We suggest that the growth of aerial petioles may be an adaptive response to shading, allowing aerial leaves to rise above a crowded water surface. PMID:21636476

  3. Adaptive planning of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuqiang; Zhu, Qing; Zhang, Junxiao; Miao, Shuangxi; Zhou, Xingxia; Cao, Zhenyu

    2015-12-01

    Aiming at the diversity of emergency aerial photogrammetric mission requirements, complex ground and air environmental constraints make the planning mission time-consuming. This paper presents a fast adaptation for the UAV aerial photogrammetric mission planning. First, Building emergency aerial UAVs mission the unified expression of UAVs model and mechanical model of performance parameters in the semantic space make the integrated expression of mission requirements and low altitude environment. Proposed match assessment method which based on resource and mission efficiency. Made the Adaptive match of UAV aerial resources and mission. According to the emergency aerial resource properties, considering complex air-ground environment and mission requirements constraints. Made accurate design of UAV route. Experimental results show, the method scientific and efficient, greatly enhanced the emergency response rate.

  4. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W.; Colozza, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  5. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  6. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Symmetric and Asymmetric Styrene?Diene Diblocks in Compressible Near Critical Solvents: Micellization Pressures and Cloud Pressures Respond but Micellar Cloud Pressures Insensitive to Copolymer Molecular Weight, Concentration, and Block Ratio Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Winoto, Winoto; Tan, Sugata; Shen, Youqin; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical nonmicellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Concentration-dependent pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size, and ratio. The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  7. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  8. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  9. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  10. Aerial videotape mapping of coastal geomorphic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.

    1991-01-01

    An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.

  11. A practical interpretation and use of the USDA aerial fixed-wing nozzle models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper selection and operation of spray nozzles associated with aerial applications is critical to insuring efficacy while mitigating off-target movement. Labels for most agrochemical products applied in the U.S. specifically define the droplet size or spray classification that can be used to apply...

  12. Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.

    2012-08-01

    This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square

  13. Alternative method for variable aspect ratio vias using a vortex mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepis, Anthony R.; Levinson, Zac; Burbine, Andrew; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-03-01

    Historically IC (integrated circuit) device scaling has bridged the gap between technology nodes. Device size reduction is enabled by increased pattern density, enhancing functionality and effectively reducing cost per chip. Exemplifying this trend are aggressive reductions in memory cell sizes that have resulted in systems with diminishing area between bit/word lines. This affords an even greater challenge in the patterning of contact level features that are inherently difficult to resolve because of their relatively small area and complex aerial image. To accommodate these trends, semiconductor device design has shifted toward the implementation of elliptical contact features. This empowers designers to maximize the use of free device space, preserving contact area and effectively reducing the via dimension just along a single axis. It is therefore critical to provide methods that enhance the resolving capacity of varying aspect ratio vias for implementation in electronic design systems. Vortex masks, characterized by their helically induced propagation of light and consequent dark core, afford great potential for the patterning of such features when coupled with a high resolution negative tone resist system. This study investigates the integration of a vortex mask in a 193nm immersion (193i) lithography system and qualifies its ability to augment aspect ratio through feature density using aerial image vector simulation. It was found that vortex fabricated vias provide a distinct resolution advantage over traditionally patterned contact features employing a 6% attenuated phase shift mask (APM). 1:1 features were resolvable at 110nm pitch with a 38nm critical dimension (CD) and 110nm depth of focus (DOF) at 10% exposure latitude (EL). Furthermore, iterative source-mask optimization was executed as means to augment aspect ratio. By employing mask asymmetries and directionally biased sources aspect ratios ranging between 1:1 and 2:1 were achievable, however, this

  14. Ratio maps of iron ore deposits Atlantic City district, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary results of a spectral rationing technique are shown for a region at the southern end of the Wind River Range, Wyoming. Digital ratio graymaps and analog ratio images have been produced for the test site, but ground truth is not yet available for thorough interpretation of these products. ERTS analog ratio images were found generally better than either ERTS single-channel images or high altitude aerial photos for the discrimination of vegetation from non-vegetation in the test site region. Some linear geological features smaller than the ERTS spatial resolution are seen as well in ERTS ratio and single-channel images as in high altitude aerial photography. Geochemical information appears to be extractable from ERTS data. Good preliminary quantitative agreement between ERTS-derived ratios and laboratory-derived reflectance ratios of rocks and minerals encourage plans to use lab data as training sets for a simple ratio gating logic approach to automatic recognition maps.

  15. Verification of Potency of Aerial Digital Oblique Cameras for Aerial Photogrammetry in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna

    2016-06-01

    Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.

  16. Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

    1997-06-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

  17. Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Officials: Aerial Spraying Working Against Miami Mosquitoes The insects are to blame for first cases of Zika ... mosquitoes in a part of Miami where the insects have been linked to 16 cases of Zika ...

  18. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  19. Minimum required capture radius in a coplanar model of the aerial combat problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. V.; Merz, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    Coplanar aerial combat is modeled with constant speeds and specified turn rates. The minimum capture radius which will always permit capture, regardless of the initial conditions, is calculated. This 'critical' capture radius is also the maximum range which the evader can guarantee indefinitely if the initial range, for example, is large. A composite barrier is constructed which gives the boundary, at any heading, of relative positions for which the capture radius is less than critical.

  20. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  1. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  2. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    , specific capabilities, and use of local aerial radiation detection systems would be critical in planning the response, even before federal assets arrive on the scene. The relationship between local and federal aerial assets and the potential role for the further use of the MARS training and expanded AMS Reachback capabilities in facilitating such interactions will be discussed.

  3. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  4. Aerial imaging study of the mask-induced line-width roughness of EUV lithography masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojdyla, Antoine; Donoghue, Alexander; Benk, Markus P.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2016-03-01

    EUV lithography uses reflective photomasks to print features on a wafer through the formation of an aerial image. The aerial image is influenced by the mask's substrate and pattern roughness and by photon shot noise, which collectively affect the line-width on wafer prints, with an impact on local critical dimension uniformity (LCDU). We have used SHARP, an actinic mask-imaging microscope, to study line-width roughness (LWR) in aerial images at sub-nanometer resolution. We studied the impact of photon density and the illumination partial coherence on recorded images, and found that at low coherence settings, the line-width roughness is dominated by photon noise, while at high coherence setting, the effect of speckle becomes more prominent, dominating photon noise for exposure levels of 4 photons/nm2 at threshold on the mask size.

  5. Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for medical product transport.

    PubMed

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Aho, Johnathon M; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology and decreasing costs have led to an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by the military and civilian sectors. The use of UAVs in commerce is restricted by US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations, but the FAA is drafting new regulations that are expected to expand commercial applications. Currently, the transportation of medical goods in times of critical need is limited to wheeled motor vehicles and manned aircraft, options that can be costly and slow. This article explores the demand for, feasibility of, and risks associated with the use of UAVs to deliver medical products, including blood derivatives and pharmaceuticals, to hospitals, mass casualty scenes, and offshore vessels in times of critical demand. PMID:25733117

  6. Canopy Measurements with a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    This work discusses the use of a small unmanned aerial system (UAS) for the remote placement of wireless environmental sensors in tree canopies. Remote presence applications occur when one or more humans use a robot to project themselves into an environment in order to complete an inaccessible or time-critical mission. The more difficult problem of physical object manipulation goes one step further by incorporating physical-based interaction, in additional to visualization. Forested environments present especially unique challenges for small UAS versus similar domains (e.g., disaster response, inspection of critical infrastructure) due to the navigation and interaction required with dense tree canopies. This work describes two field investigations that inform: i) the type of physical object manipulation and visualization necessary for sensor placement (ventral, frontal, dorsal), ii) the necessary display form (hybrid) for piloting and sensor placement, and iii) visual feedback mechanisms useful for handling human-robot team role conflicts.

  7. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Very High Resolution Satellite and Aerial Orthoimagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to assess the accuracy and radiometric quality of orthorectified high resolution satellite imagery from Pleiades-1B satellites through a comparative evaluation of their quantitative and qualitative properties. A Pleiades-B1 stereopair of high resolution images taken in 2013, two adjacent GeoEye-1 stereopairs from 2011 and aerial orthomosaic (LSO) provided by NCMA S.A (Hellenic Cadastre) from 2007 have been used for the comparison tests. As control dataset orthomosaic from aerial imagery provided also by NCMA S.A (0.25m GSD) from 2012 was selected. The process for DSM and orthoimage production was performed using commercial digital photogrammetric workstations. The two resulting orthoimages and the aerial orthomosaic (LSO) were relatively and absolutely evaluated for their quantitative and qualitative properties. Test measurements were performed using the same check points in order to establish their accuracy both as far as the single point coordinates as well as their distances are concerned. Check points were distributed according to JRC Guidelines for Best Practice and Quality Checking of Ortho Imagery and NSSDA standards while areas with different terrain relief and land cover were also included. The tests performed were based also on JRC and NSSDA accuracy standards. Finally, tests were carried out in order to assess the radiometric quality of the orthoimagery. The results are presented with a statistical analysis and they are evaluated in order to present the merits and demerits of the imaging sensors involved for orthoimage production. The results also serve for a critical approach for the usability and cost efficiency of satellite imagery for the production of Large Scale Orthophotos.

  10. Aerial radiation survey at a military range.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G. P.; Martino, L. E.; Wrobel, J.; Environmental Assessment; U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground

    2001-04-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) is currently listed on the Superfund National Priorities List because of past waste handling practices at 13 'study areas.' Concern has been expressed that anthropogenic radioisotopes may have been released at some of the study areas, with the potential of posing health risks to human or ecological receptors. This concern was addressed by thoroughly searching archival records, sampling and analyzing environmental media, and performing an aerial radiation survey. The aerial radiation survey techniques employed have been used over all U.S. Department of Energy and commercial reactor sites. Use of the Aerial Measurement System (AMS) allowed investigators to safely survey areas where surveys using hand-held instruments would be difficult to perform. In addition, the AMS delivered a full spectrum of the measured gamma radiation, thereby providing a means of determining which radioisotopes were present at the surface. As a quality check on the aerial measurements, four ground truth measurements were made at selected locations and compared with the aerial data for the same locations. The results of the survey revealed no evidence of surface radioactive contamination. The measured background radiation, including the cosmic contribution, ranged from 4 to 11 {mu}R/h.

  11. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  12. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  13. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  14. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  15. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  16. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  17. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  18. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  19. Distribution of radionuclides in the surface sea water developed by aerial radiological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    This study provides new data analysis method of aerial radiological survey to monitor the distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in surface seawaters as a first attempt. The aerial radiological survey was performed by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) within a 30 km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) on 18 April 2011. We found good correlations between the observed concentrations of FNPP1 derived radionuclides (131I, 134Cs, 137Cs) in the surface seawater and gamma-ray dose rates by aerial radiological surveys (correlation coefficients for 131I, 0.89; 134Cs, 0.96;137Cs, 0.95). The detection limits of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in surface seawaters for the aerial radiological survey are 25, 21, 24 Bq L-1, respectively. Based on these relations, we find that the area with high concentrations of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides spread south-southeast from the FNPP1. The maximum concentrations of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs reached 303, 456, and 528 Bq L-1, respectively. The131I/134Cs ratios in surface waters of the high activities area are about 0.6-0.7. Considering the radioactive decay of 131I (half-life: 8.021 d), we confirm that radionuclides in the surface seawater of this area are due to direct release from FNPP1 to the ocean. From these results, it is concluded that the aerial radiological survey is very effective to investigate the accurate distribution of anthropogenic radioactivity in the surface seawater. Furthermore, the model reproduced the distribution pattern of the FNPP1 derived radionuclides in surface seawater obtained by the aerial radiological survey, although simulated results by regional ocean model are underestimated.

  20. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  1. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 1755.507 Aerial cable services. (a) Where more than six pairs are needed initially, and where an aerial service is necessary, the service shall consist of 22 AWG filled aerial cable of a pair size adequate for... from the building, the wall bracket shall be reinforced against pullout by an arrangement equivalent...

  3. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  4. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  6. 47 CFR 32.6421 - Aerial cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial cable expense. 32.6421 Section 32.6421... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6421 Aerial cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with aerial cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  7. Geography via Aerial Field Trips: Do It This Way, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.; Guell, Carl E.

    To provide guidance for geography teachers, this booklet presents information on how to plan and execute aerial field trips. The aerial field trip can be employed as an effective visual aid technique in the teaching of geography, especially for presenting earth generalizations and interrelationships. The benefits of an aerial field trip are…

  8. Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

  9. Coplanar tail-chase aerial combat as a differential game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merz, A. W.; Hague, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A reduced-order version of the one-on-one aerial combat problem is studied as a pursuit-evasion differential game. The coplanar motion takes place at given speeds and given maximum available turn rates, and is described by three state equations which are equivalent to the range, bearing, and heading of one aircraft relative to the other. The purpose of the study is to determine those relative geometries from which either aircraft can be guaranteed a win, regardless of the maneuver strategies of the other. Termination is specified by the tail-chase geometry, at which time the roles of pursuer and evader are known. The roles are found in general, together with the associated optimal turn maneuvers, by solution of the differential game of kind. For the numerical parameters chosen, neither aircraft can win from the majority of possible initial conditions if the other turns optimally in certain critical geometries.

  10. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  11. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  12. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  15. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  16. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATION OF LOW ALTITUDE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most practical avenue for development of these goals is to continue to use the LAAPS system at field sites that require aerial imaging. For the sake of convenience, I believe that the local field sites can provide a convenient location to develop new applications and test enh...

  18. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  19. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  20. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  1. Recent advances in aerial gamma-ray surveying.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Bruce L

    2004-01-01

    Aerial gamma-ray surveying uses NaI(Tl) detectors mounted in small aircraft to measure gamma radiation, emitted from the earth's surface. The data are collected as gamma-ray spectra, typically with 1 s counting times, from which are derived K, U and Th concentrations in the ground. Applications of aerial surveying include geological mapping for mineral exploration, soil mapping for agriculture, pollution studies and location of lost sources. Recent advances in applying statistical methods to the spectral data have resulted in large reductions in the noise levels in the surveys. Some of the methods available to do this include noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) [Proceedings of Exploration 97: Fourth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration (1997) 753] and maximum noise fraction (MNF) and enhanced MNF (eMNF) [Explor. Geophys. 31 (2000) 73]. These methods, in general, apply normalization for variance to the spectra, use a principal component method to obtain the "significant" components of the data and reconstruct cleaned spectra, which are then processed in a standard manner to get radionuclide concentrations. However, they differ in the detail of the application and thus give slightly different results. In this paper, the application of noise reduction methods to various synthetic surveys is used to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. In tests where there are high correlations between U and Th, the eMNF method performs best although the results are improved by prior clustering of the data by the Th/U ratio. If the data show no correlations, then the effectiveness of all the noise removal methods is reduced. If a data set is small (<1500 spectra), then MNF appears to be the better method. Consideration of the various tests suggests an optimum process whereby spectra are sorted into groups by the Th/U ratio of areas identified in a standard processing and then cleaned by eMNF or MNF, depending on the number of spectra

  2. An aerial photographic census of Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Goldsberry, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Derleth, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Conventional 35 mm photography was used to conduct an aerial photographic census of canvasbacks (A. valisineria) throughout Chesapeake Bay (tidal Maryland and Virginia) and coastal North Carolina, Jan. 26-30, 1981. Flock size and sex ratio characteristics were determined from examination of color transparencies of 165 canvasback flocks totaling > 95,000 birds. A sex ratio of 2.91 males/female was determined from 68,769 birds, 80% of the birds in 150 flocks. Sex ratio for the Atlantic Flyway was projected as 2.90 males/female. The greatest number of canvasbacks and the widest range of flock size were recorded in Maryland waters; the fewest canvasbacks and the smallest average flock size in Virginia; and the fewest but on average the largest flocks of canvasbacks in North Carolina. Sex ratio varied latitudinally in the flyway with a tendency for males to occupy more northern and females more southern latitudes in winter. Sex ratio (males/female) was highest in Maryland (3.98), slightly lower in Virginia (3.71), and lowest in North Carolina (1.70). Locally, sex ratio varied with flock size. In Chesapeake Bay, small flocks ( 1000) flocks. By providing large-sample sex ratio information, as well as exact counts of birds, low-level 35-mm aerial photography is the most efficient and accurate means of determining canvasback population status in eastern coastal habitats.

  3. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  4. Aerial measurement of heat loss: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of the program described was to develop techniques to reduce or eliminate some of the variables associated with thermogram analysis in order to provide more objective interpretation of the data collected with greater potential for accuracy. A procedure is given for measuring temperature which accounts for atmospheric, background, and differential emissivity effects. The residual error was found to be 1.0/sup 0/C. A technique was then identified and developed for determining heat loss lovels from roof top surface temperature data. A thermal integrity factor was defined as a function of insulation level and thermostat setting. Comparing these thermal integrity factors with aerial thermography data indicates that aerial thermography can be used to objectively and confidently define heat loss levels from building roofs. (LEW)

  5. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  6. Controller Design of Quadrotor Aerial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yali, Yu; SunFeng; Yuanxi, Wang

    This paper deduced the nonlinear dynamic model of a quadrotor aerial robot, which was a VTOL (vertical tale-off and landing) unmanned air vehicle. Since that is a complex model with the highly nonlinear multivariable strongly coupled and under-actuated property, the controller design of it was very difficult. Aimed at attaining the excellent controller, the whole system can be divided into three interconnected parts: attitude subsystem, vertical subsystem, position subsystem. Then nonlinear control strategy of them has been described, such as SDRE and Backstepping. The controller design was presented to stabilize the whole system. Through simulation result indicates, the various models have shown that the control law stabilize a quadrotor aerial robot with good tracking performance and robotness of the system.

  7. Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G.; Lamp, T.

    1997-12-31

    New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  9. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.

    2014-02-01

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  10. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  11. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  12. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  13. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  14. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method ofmore » Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.« less

  15. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  16. a New Paradigm for Matching - and Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, T.; Zhuo, X.; Reinartz, P.; Fraundorfer, F.

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the performance of SIFT-based image matching regarding large differences in image scaling and rotation, as this is usually the case when trying to match images captured from UAVs and airplanes. This task represents an essential step for image registration and 3d-reconstruction applications. Various real world examples presented in this paper show that SIFT, as well as A-SIFT perform poorly or even fail in this matching scenario. Even if the scale difference in the images is known and eliminated beforehand, the matching performance suffers from too few feature point detections, ambiguous feature point orientations and rejection of many correct matches when applying the ratio-test afterwards. Therefore, a new feature matching method is provided that overcomes these problems and offers thousands of matches by a novel feature point detection strategy, applying a one-to-many matching scheme and substitute the ratio-test by adding geometric constraints to achieve geometric correct matches at repetitive image regions. This method is designed for matching almost nadir-directed images with low scene depth, as this is typical in UAV and aerial image matching scenarios. We tested the proposed method on different real world image pairs. While standard SIFT failed for most of the datasets, plenty of geometrical correct matches could be found using our approach. Comparing the estimated fundamental matrices and homographies with ground-truth solutions, mean errors of few pixels can be achieved.

  17. 20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH FROM ARLINGTON TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST TOWARDS LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND WASHINGTON MONUMENT - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  20. Aerial ropeways transport over flat and rough terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The modern aerial ropeway provides a very economic and efficient means of transporting bulk material over long distances, particularly over rough and mountainous terrain. There are currently two types of circulating aerial ropeway systems: monocable and bicable. Development of the present generation of ropeways has seen the capacity of conventional monocable increase to a maximum of 300 tons per hour, and that of bicable to 650 tons per hour. During this period of development, covering the last 30 to 40 years, reliability and efficiency of aerial systems has increased. Recent examples of aerial ropeway systems in Zimbabwe, Taiwan, and the Sudan are cited to illustrate the cost effectiveness and reliability of such systems.

  1. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  2. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  3. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  4. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  5. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  6. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  7. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  8. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  9. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  10. Robust crack detection strategies for aerial inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Emanuel; Le Hégarat, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    In this work, we evaluate the relevance of current state of the art algorithms widely employed in the detection of cracks, for the specific context of aerial inspection, which is characterized by image quality degradation. In this study we focus on minimal cost path and on Marked Point Process algorithms, and we test their resilience to motion blur. The results show that the current strategies for defect detection are sensitive to the quality of input images; alternatively, we suggest some improvements based on a-contrario methods that are able to cope with significant motion blur.

  11. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  12. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  13. 3D Buildings Extraction from Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikova, O.; Prandi, F.

    2011-09-01

    This paper introduces a semi-automatic method for buildings extraction through multiple-view aerial image analysis. The advantage of the used semi-automatic approach is that it allows processing of each building individually finding the parameters of buildings features extraction more precisely for each area. On the early stage the presented technique uses an extraction of line segments that is done only inside of areas specified manually. The rooftop hypothesis is used further to determine a subset of quadrangles, which could form building roofs from a set of extracted lines and corners obtained on the previous stage. After collecting of all potential roof shapes in all images overlaps, the epipolar geometry is applied to find matching between images. This allows to make an accurate selection of building roofs removing false-positive ones and to identify their global 3D coordinates given camera internal parameters and coordinates. The last step of the image matching is based on geometrical constraints in contrast to traditional correlation. The correlation is applied only in some highly restricted areas in order to find coordinates more precisely, in such a way significantly reducing processing time of the algorithm. The algorithm has been tested on a set of Milan's aerial images and shows highly accurate results.

  14. Community aerial mosquito control and naled exposure.

    PubMed

    Duprey, Zandra; Rivers, Samantha; Luber, George; Becker, Alan; Blackmore, Carina; Barr, Dana; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Kieszak, Stephanie; Flanders, W Dana; Rubin, Carol

    2008-03-01

    In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Following the spray event, participants were asked to collect postspray urine specimens within 12 h of the spray event and at 8-h intervals for up to 40 h. Upon completion, a postspray activity questionnaire was administered to study participants. Two hundred five (87%) participants completed the study. The urine analysis showed that although 67% of prespray urine samples had detectable levels of a naled metabolite, the majority of postspray samples were below the limit of detection (< LOD). Only at the "postspray 6" time period, which corresponds to a time greater than 5 half-lives (> 40 h) following exposure, the number of samples with detectable levels exceeded 50%. There was a significant decrease in naled metabolites from prespray to postspray (= .02), perhaps associated with a significant reduction (< or = 0.05) in some participants that may have resulted in pesticide exposure by means other than the mosquito control operations. These data suggest that aerial spraying of naled does not result in increased levels of naled in humans, provided the naled is used according to label instructions. PMID:18437813

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  16. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  17. Aerial survey estimates of fallow deer abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Gates, Natalie B.; Lubow, Bruce C.; Pettit, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Reliable estimates of the distribution and abundance of an ungulate species is essential prior to establishing and implementing a management program. We used ground surveys to determine distribution and ground and aerial surveys and individually marked deer to estimate the abundance of fallow deer (Dama dama) in north-coastal California. Fallow deer had limited distribution and heterogeneous densities. Estimated post-rut densities across 4 annual surveys ranged from a low of 1.4 (SE=0.2) deer/km2 to a high of 3.3 (se=0.5) deer/km2 in a low density stratum and from 49.0 (SE=8.3) deer/km2 to 111.6 deer/km2 in a high density stratum. Sightability was positively influenced by the presence of white color-phase deer in a group and group size, and varied between airial and ground-based observers and by density strata. Our findings underscore the utility of double-observer surveys and aerial surveys with individually marked deer, both incorporating covariates to model sightability, to estimate deer abundance.

  18. Design of an integrated aerial image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jing; Spanos, Costas J.

    2005-05-01

    The subject of this paper is a novel integrated aerial image sensor (IAIS) system suitable for integration within the surface of an autonomous test wafer. The IAIS could be used as a lithography processing monitor, affording a "wafer's eye view" of the process, and therefore facilitating advanced process control and diagnostics without integrating (and dedicating) the sensor to the processing equipment. The IAIS is composed of an aperture mask and an array of photo-detectors. In order to retrieve nanometer scale resolution of the aerial image with a practical photo-detector pixel size, we propose a design of an aperture mask involving a series of spatial phase "moving" aperture groups. We demonstrate a design example aimed at the 65nm technology node through TEMPEST simulation. The optimized, key design parameters include an aperture width in the range of 30nm, aperture thickness in the range of 70nm, and offer a spatial resolution of about 5nm, all with comfortable fabrication tolerances. Our preliminary simulation work indicates the possibility of the IAIS being applied to the immersion lithography. A bench-top far-field experiment verifies that our approach of the spatial frequency down-shift through forming large Moire patterns is feasible.

  19. Monitoring and Assuring the Quality of Digital Aerial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopherson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explains the USGS plan for monitoring and assuring the quality of digital aerial data. The contents include: 1) History of USGS Aerial Imaging Involvement; 2) USGS Research and Results; 3) Outline of USGS Quality Assurance Plan; 4) Other areas of Interest; and 5) Summary

  20. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aerial wire services 1755.506 Section 1755.506 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.506 Aerial wire services...

  1. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  2. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  3. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  4. 12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of photograph (original negative located at Aerial Mapping Company, Phoenix, Arizona, Negative No. 90046) Photographer unknown, March 28, 1990. DIMENSION-CONTROLLED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC MAP. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  5. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  6. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  9. Effects of pesticides aerial applications on rice quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of pesticides has become an important research topic in recent years. This research investigated the effects of two types of commercial pesticides on the rice quality under low volume aerial application. It could provide guidance for the pesticide application and choose the right ...

  10. A practical guide to the design of rhombic aerials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, J. N.

    1985-04-01

    Basic principles of the rhombic aerial are explained and design charts are presented. These, compiled using two simple computer programs, offer a considerable time saving in design. Examples of aerials designed using the charts are given, together with polar diagrams of their theoretical performance.

  11. Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Smith, Daniel G.

    2012-09-01

    Beginning with the seminal Dill papers of 1975, the aerial image has been essential for understanding the process of microlithography. From the aerial image, we can predict the performance of a given lithographic process in terms of depth of focus, exposure latitude, etc. As lithographic technologies improved, reaching smaller and smaller printed features, the sophistication of aerial image calculations has had to increase from simple incoherent imaging theory, to partial coherence, polarization effects, thin film effects at the resist, thick mask effects, and so on. This tutorial provides an overview and semihistorical development of the aerial image calculation and then provides a review of some of the various ways in which the aerial image is typically used to estimate the performance of the lithographic process.

  12. Bears Show a Physiological but Limited Behavioral Response to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ditmer, Mark A; Vincent, John B; Werden, Leland K; Tanner, Jessie C; Laske, Timothy G; Iaizzo, Paul A; Garshelis, David L; Fieberg, John R

    2015-08-31

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have the potential to revolutionize the way research is conducted in many scientific fields. UAVs can access remote or difficult terrain, collect large amounts of data for lower cost than traditional aerial methods, and facilitate observations of species that are wary of human presence. Currently, despite large regulatory hurdles, UAVs are being deployed by researchers and conservationists to monitor threats to biodiversity, collect frequent aerial imagery, estimate population abundance, and deter poaching. Studies have examined the behavioral responses of wildlife to aircraft (including UAVs), but with the widespread increase in UAV flights, it is critical to understand whether UAVs act as stressors to wildlife and to quantify that impact. Biologger technology allows for the remote monitoring of stress responses in free-roaming individuals, and when linked to locational information, it can be used to determine events or components of an animal's environment that elicit a physiological response not apparent based on behavior alone. We assessed effects of UAV flights on movements and heart rate responses of free-roaming American black bears. We observed consistently strong physiological responses but infrequent behavioral changes. All bears, including an individual denned for hibernation, responded to UAV flights with elevated heart rates, rising as much as 123 beats per minute above the pre-flight baseline. It is important to consider the additional stress on wildlife from UAV flights when developing regulations and best scientific practices. PMID:26279232

  13. Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…

  14. Trajectory optimization for unmanned aerial vehicle formation reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-seok; Kim, Youdan

    2014-01-01

    The results of trajectory optimization to reconfigure unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) formation in the event of a critical failure are presented. The formation reconfiguration process includes two distinct manoeuvres: an escape manoeuvre for a malfunctioning UAV and a replacement movement for an alternative UAV related to its position. This article deals with both manoeuvres but focuses more on the replacement movement. The trajectory optimization problem of the escape manoeuvre is formulated as a minimum-time problem to reduce the possibility of collisions resulting from a failure, whereas the problem of the replacement movement is formulated as a final-time fixed minimum-fuel problem to secure the durability of the group of UAVs. These problems are solved by means of sequential quadratic programming. To evaluate the performance of the optimization results, fuel consumption for the replacement movement is considered and optimization of a three-phase reference trajectory is performed. The results show that the trajectory optimization reduces the fuel consumption and saves time.

  15. The U.S. Department of Energy's Aerial Measuring System (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno

    2008-03-01

    For nearly 40 years, aerial radiological search and survey missions have been performed by the United States Department of Energy's (USDOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL). Originally created in 1967 as Aerial Measurement Operations (AMO), the AMS mission has expanded to include acquiring baseline measurements, performing periodic area monitoring, and responding to radiological emergencies. In an accident scenario, AMS fixed-wing and/or rotary-wing systems can be deployed to map radiological deposition. A fixed-wing system is on standby twenty-fours per day, seven days per week and can be deployed within four hours of notification. It can quickly evaluate high levels of radiation which may constitute immediate health risks. To accomplish its mission the fixed-wing aircraft utilizes the Spectral Aerial Radiological Computer System (SPARCS) which records gross count and spectral information. Data from SPARCS is telemetered to ground stations and secure websites where it can be viewed and evaluated in near-real time. The rotary-wing system deploys following the critical phase of an accident and supports the DOE's Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) in determining long term consequences of the accident. The rotary wing aircraft utilizes the Radiation and Environmental Data Acquisition and Recording System (REDAR). A 25-liter sodium iodide (NaI) spectral system and precise positioning allow distributed man-made activity of less than 1 {micro}R/hr at ground level to be precisely mapped. This talk will discuss history of the USDOE's AMS program and its current efforts to conduct baseline aerial surveys of some US cities.

  16. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  17. Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for Segmentation of Aerial Photography Data Obtained Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinin, M. V.; Akinina, N. V.; Klochkov, A. Y.; Nikiforov, M. B.; Sokolova, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The report reviewed the algorithm fuzzy c-means, performs image segmentation, give an estimate of the quality of his work on the criterion of Xie-Beni, contain the results of experimental studies of the algorithm in the context of solving the problem of drawing up detailed two-dimensional maps with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the results of the experiment concluded that the possibility of applying the algorithm in problems of decoding images obtained as a result of aerial photography. The considered algorithm can significantly break the original image into a plurality of segments (clusters) in a relatively short period of time, which is achieved by modification of the original k-means algorithm to work in a fuzzy task.

  18. Reliability Assessment for Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Paul Michael

    Existing low-cost unmanned aerospace systems are unreliable, and engineers must blend reliability analysis with fault-tolerant control in novel ways. This dissertation introduces the University of Minnesota unmanned aerial vehicle flight research platform, a comprehensive simulation and flight test facility for reliability and fault-tolerance research. An industry-standard reliability assessment technique, the failure modes and effects analysis, is performed for an unmanned aircraft. Particular attention is afforded to the control surface and servo-actuation subsystem. Maintaining effector health is essential for safe flight; failures may lead to loss of control incidents. Failure likelihood, severity, and risk are qualitatively assessed for several effector failure modes. Design changes are recommended to improve aircraft reliability based on this analysis. Most notably, the control surfaces are split, providing independent actuation and dual-redundancy. The simulation models for control surface aerodynamic effects are updated to reflect the split surfaces using a first-principles geometric analysis. The failure modes and effects analysis is extended by using a high-fidelity nonlinear aircraft simulation. A trim state discovery is performed to identify the achievable steady, wings-level flight envelope of the healthy and damaged vehicle. Tolerance of elevator actuator failures is studied using familiar tools from linear systems analysis. This analysis reveals significant inherent performance limitations for candidate adaptive/reconfigurable control algorithms used for the vehicle. Moreover, it demonstrates how these tools can be applied in a design feedback loop to make safety-critical unmanned systems more reliable. Control surface impairments that do occur must be quickly and accurately detected. This dissertation also considers fault detection and identification for an unmanned aerial vehicle using model-based and model-free approaches and applies those

  19. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  20. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  1. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  2. Aerial Magnetic Sensing with AN Uav Helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, C.; Imbach, B.

    2011-09-01

    This paper concentrates on aerial magnetic sensing with an autonomous Scout B1-100 UAV helicopter. A high-resolution 3-axis mag- netic sensor has been mounted on the helicopter in order to generate a detailed magnetic map and to identify various ferrous objects in the soil. The development is based on advanced mission planning for the UAV as well as test flights under challenging weather conditions such as wind gusts and snow fall. Finally, this paper summarizes a real-world application after the collapse of a daylight coal mining where various persons have been killed and multiple infrastructure objects have been buried. The task of magnetic scanning was applied in order to find buried vehicles where miners have been expected based on eyewitnesses during the collapse. However, while several ferrous objects have been located, the van could not be identified in the extensive area of the landslide.

  3. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  4. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  5. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  6. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  7. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways. PMID:26477348

  8. Burkian Ratios and Clement Haynesworth: A Proposed Method and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vibbert, Steven L.

    Kenneth Burke's 20 ratios permit the rhetorical critic to make very specific statements about the discourse under analysis and open the way for analytic speculation. The ratio method permits the critic to describe and understand the specific qualities of practical ethical dispute. Burkian ratios were employed to analyze the justificatory rhetoric…

  9. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  10. Aerial image retargeting (AIR): achieving litho-friendly designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehia Hamouda, Ayman; Word, James; Anis, Mohab; Karim, Karim S.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present a new technique to detect non-Litho-Friendly design areas based on their Aerial Image signature. The aerial image is calculated for the litho target (pre-OPC). This is followed by the fixing (retargeting) the design to achieve a litho friendly OPC target. This technique is applied and tested on 28 nm metal layer and shows a big improvement in the process window performance. For an optimized Aerial-Image-Retargeting (AIR) recipe is very computationally efficient and its runtime doesn't consume more than 1% of the OPC flow runtime.

  11. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  12. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  13. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  14. 12. AERIAL VIEW OF STATION. Please credit: Louisville and Nashville ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. AERIAL VIEW OF STATION. Please credit: Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company/Family Lines Rail System Archives - Louisville & Nashville Railroad, Union Station, 1000 West Broadway, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  15. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  16. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  17. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  1. 18. A southeastward aerial view of entire complex. Area east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A southeastward aerial view of entire complex. Area east of Cherles Street (behind water tower in view) is not part of this project. - American Chain & Cable Company, East Princess Street (400 Block), York, York County, PA

  2. 49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ BRIDGE PRIOR TO DEVELOPMENT OF PORT ELIZABETH - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS THREE,FOUR, FIVE AND SIX IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK CITY NEAR BROOKLYN BRIDGE ON HER WAY TO SEA TRIALS. NOTE THE BIRD CAGE TOWERS, 1918. - USS Arizona, Submerged off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NE ALONG RAILROAD APPROACH TO CHICAGO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NE ALONG RAILROAD APPROACH TO CHICAGO. - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Calumet River Bridge, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  9. 47. Aerial view of station in 1956, three years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Aerial view of station in 1956, three years after the National Park Service (NPS) acquired the grounds. Photographer unknown. - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  10. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  11. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  12. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  16. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  17. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  18. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  19. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH AVENUE. BRIDGE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH AVENUE. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT CENTER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. 3. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING EASTSOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN SETTING, LOOKING EAST-SOUTHEAST FROM DOWNSTREAM - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  2. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  3. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. All comments received in response... disabilities who require alternative mean for communication (Braille, large print, audio tape, etc.) should...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial...

  4. Analysis of Operation PLUMBBOB nuclear test smoky aerial radiological data

    SciTech Connect

    Steadman, C.R. Jr.; Kennedy, N.C.; Quinn, V.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) analysis of the aerial radiological data collected following the SMOKY nuclear test of Operation PLUMBBOB. The methods of converting these aerial data to exposure rates compatible with those measured by ground-level monitors are discussed. A fallout pattern, based upon the resulting aerial exposure-rate values, is presented for the downwind area where no ground-level exposure-rate measurements were made. This WSNSO extended fallout pattern is compared with a similar analysis prepared in the late 1950s. An evaluation of the enhanced fallout areas shown in the extended pattern is made. The appendices contain discussions of the aerial data collection and analysis procedures, and contain tabulated radiological data used in the extended fallout pattern analysis. 7 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  5. 22. Photographer unknown, 1956 AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST, BUILDING 20 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographer unknown, 1956 AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST, BUILDING 20 AT LEFT. DARK AREAS ARE LANDSCAPED. - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  6. 25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN WHEN STRUCTURE WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-5409. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCIUS STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCI-US STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Oblique Aerial View of North Plant, Looking North, Showing Powerhouse in Left Center and 1929 Bridge in Right Center (undated) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 27. Oblique Aerial View of North and South Plants, Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Oblique Aerial View of North and South Plants, Looking East, with Powerhouse in Center Foreground (undated) - Atwater Kent Manufacturing Company, North Plant, 5000 Wissahickon Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN, NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Aerial photography summary record system - five years later.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauterborn, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author

  15. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EASTERLY AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE RIGHT ABUTMENT AND OUTLET CONTROL WORKS IN THE FOREGROUND.... Volume XX, No. 8, September 9, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. 13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE SPILLWAY APRON.... Volume XVII, No. 12, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  18. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE OUTLET STRUCTURE AND OUTLET CHANNEL, LOOKING UPSTREAM.... Volume XVII, No. 11, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  19. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF DAM SITE SHOWING OUTLET WORKS AND DIVERSION CHANNEL IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 9, March 5, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 4. AERIAL PERSPECTIVE SHOWING MAJORITY OF SOUTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL PERSPECTIVE SHOWING MAJORITY OF SOUTH ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTH - Central of Georgia Railway, Bay Street Viaduct, U.S. 17 & Bay Street, spanning Central of Georgia Railroad, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER LAKE IN FOREGROUND. NOTE SILVER LAKE MINE AND MILL RUINS ON FAR SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE RUINS AT LEFT CENTER AND SILVER LAKE MINE RUINS BEYOND NORTHWEST SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  4. 208. AERIAL VIEW OF POTOMAC AND AREA TO BE FILLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    208. AERIAL VIEW OF POTOMAC AND AREA TO BE FILLED WITH DREDGING OPERATION IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER, 1930. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  5. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOVE THE POTOMAC RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM ABOVE THE POTOMAC RIVER OVER THE LINCOLN MEMORIAL AND REFLECTING POOL TO THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT AND THE MALL BEYOND. - West Potomac Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED. (11/7/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  8. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF LAKE ALDWELL AND ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE, WITH STRAIT OF JUAN DE FUCA TO THE NORTH. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  9. AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO OF ELWHA RIVER, SPILLWAYS AT GLINES DAM, POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK AND TRANSFORMER YARD WITH HISTORIC SHED (WAREHOUSE). PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  10. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, AT GLINES DAM AND POWERHOUSE, LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR, AND THE ELWHA RIVER. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  11. AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL PHOTO, LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING POWERHOUSE, SURGE TANK, TRANSFORMER YARD, GLINES DAM, AND LAKE MILLS RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  12. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF LAKE ALDWELL (RESERVOIR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF LAKE ALDWELL (RESERVOIR) WITH ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  13. GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTH OF ELWHA DAM AND POWERHOUSE WITH NORTH END OF RESERVOIR. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Elwha Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  14. 3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ANCHORAGE (EXTREME LEFT) TO WEST CABLE ANCHORAGE (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 50. AERIAL VIEW OF THE SOUTH END OF ALEXANDRIA LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. AERIAL VIEW OF THE SOUTH END OF ALEXANDRIA LOOKING NORTH. (WASHINGTON ST.) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  16. 67. AERIAL VIEW OF WATERFOWL SANCTUARY WITH INTERSTATE 395 LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. AERIAL VIEW OF WATERFOWL SANCTUARY WITH INTERSTATE 395 LOOKING NORTHEAST INTO WASHINGTON D.C. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  17. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF MT. VERNON TERMINUS, SOUTHERN TERMINUS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL PARKWAY (GWMP), LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  18. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE WEST GROUNDS OF THE CAPITOL, UNION PLAZA AND REFLECTING POOL AND THE BOTANIC GARDENS, LOOKING NORTH FROM OVER FIRST STREET, SW. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  20. 13. AERIAL OF FORT SHERIDAN LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL OF FORT SHERIDAN LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WATER TOWER (Copy negative made from negative by TASO, U.S. Army, Fort Sheridan, Illinois). - Fort Sheridan, 25 miles Northeast of Chicago, on Lake Michigan, Lake Forest, Lake County, IL

  1. Historic Image: Aerial view of cemetery and its environs. Photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic Image: Aerial view of cemetery and its environs. Photograph 2 November 1961. NCA History Collection - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  2. Aerial view showing US 93, Switchyards, Visitor Center Parking Garage, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view showing US 93, Switchyards, Visitor Center Parking Garage, Hoover Dam, and Colorado River Canyon in Nevada - Hoover Dam, Spanning Colorado River at Route 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF SHENANDOAHDIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE PORTAL, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF SHENANDOAH-DIVES (MAYFLOWER) MINE PORTAL, IN SHADOW AT WIDENED END OF ROAD, THREE-EIGHTHS FROM THE BOTTOM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  4. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY AND MAIN STREET IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, FROM RED MOUNTAIN TO USX FAIRFIELD WORKS (TOP LEFT) WITH WENONAH SINTERING PLANT (BOTTOM CENTER) AND WENONAH COMMUNITY (CENTER RIGHT). - High Line Railroad, From Red Mountain to Fairfield Works, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Aerial view of old station and sand dunes looking east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of old station and sand dunes looking east from tower of newer station. - Vermilion Life Saving Station, Shore of Lake Superior, 10 miles west of Whitefish Point, Paradise, Chippewa County, MI

  8. Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial overview of the Denver International Airport site, looking southwest - Denver International Airport Site, Between Fifty-sixth & 128th Avenues, Buckley Road & Box Elder Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  9. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  10. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP RIGHT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH 15 SEPTEMBER 1950. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  15. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  16. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  17. 15. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF PORT AUTHORITY GRAIN TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF PORT AUTHORITY GRAIN TERMINAL AND COLUMBIA STREET PIER, June 25, 1950. (Original negative GT-895) - New York Barge Canal, Gowanus Bay Terminal Pier, East of bulkhead supporting Columbia Street, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  18. 70. AERIAL VIEW OF ROUTE 110 WITH PENTAGON AND PARKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. AERIAL VIEW OF ROUTE 110 WITH PENTAGON AND PARKING AREA LOOKING SOUTHEAST.(EXPRESSWAY V.S. PARKWAY) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  19. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  1. 2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CLOSE IN AERIAL VIEW OF ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS OF LOCOMOTIVE PITS IN FORMER ERECTING SHOP. MACHINE SHOP IS BUILDING AT RIGHT. - Grant Locomotive Works, Market & Spruce Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  2. 8. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAELOGY TRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAELOGY TRENCH AND GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS ERECTING SHOP - ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION IN BACKGROUND. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  4. 2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October 26, 1966. Original photo in possession of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 14. Photocopy, AERIAL VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, photographed in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy, AERIAL VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, photographed in the 1970s. Original photograph at North Dakota National Guard - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  6. 180. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL ELEVATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    180. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL ELEVATION VIEW OF SUSPENSION BRIDGE AT CABLE VALLEY WITH SAN FRANCISCO IN BACKGROUND, FACING WEST NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 175. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 AERIAL ELEVATION VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    175. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 AERIAL ELEVATION VIEW OF TOWER W-2, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 179. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 AERIAL ELEVATION VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    179. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 AERIAL ELEVATION VIEW OF SUSPENSION BRIDGE STIFFENING TRUSS AND TOWER W-2, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. 5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, SITE OF FORMER MAIN STORAGE RESERVOIR - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WATER WORKS SITE AND PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART ON HILL ABOVE - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  14. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ROOSEVELT BASE LOOKING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Bounded by Ocean Boulevard, Pennsylvania Avenue, Richardson Avenue, & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Aerial view of SAC command post construction, looking west - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  17. 67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, undated - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking east - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Aerial view of SAC command post, building 500, looking northeast, spring, 1957 - Offutt Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command Headquarters & Command Center, Headquarters Building, 901 SAC Boulevard, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  1. 21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH UP MEETING STREET FROM THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING AND BROAD STREETS (FOUR CORNERS--ST. MICHAEL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, FIREPROOF BUILDING, COURTHOUSE, U.S. POST OFFICE). - City Plan of Charleston, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  2. 25. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST OVER THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST OVER THE INTERSECTION OF MEETING AND TRADD STREETS WITH THE NATHANIEL RUSSELL HOUSE AND THE FIRST SCOTT PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AS LANDMARKS ALONG MEETING STREET. - City Plan of Charleston, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  3. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  4. Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic Image: Aerial view of Mount of Victory Plot. Photograph 1961. NCA History Collection - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Mount of Victory Plot Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  5. 45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after automation and before construction of the parking lot.U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Photo - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  6. 36. photographer unknown 7 October 1940 AERIAL VIEW OF BONNEVILLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. photographer unknown 7 October 1940 AERIAL VIEW OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT LOOKING WEST. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF SEGMENT OF VIRGINIA AVENUE BETWEEN SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF SEGMENT OF VIRGINIA AVENUE BETWEEN SOUTH CAPITOL AND FOURTH STREET, SE, LOOKING EAST. VIEW INCLUDES GARFIELD PARK, RESERVATION NO. 17. - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  10. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  11. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), BROKEN BOW OF VESSEL IN FOREGROUND Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  12. Aerial view after September 11, 2001. Photograph by Eric J. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view after September 11, 2001. Photograph by Eric J. Tilford, U.S. Navy, September 17, 2001. - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  13. 2. Aerial view of south wing of north court building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view of south wing of north court building, back of office / residence building and back of main building from balcony; facing southeast. - Mission Motel, North Court, 9235 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  14. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  15. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE SHORE IN FOREGROUND; GENE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. 54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN JUST SOUTH OF WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  18. 56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. AERIAL VIEW OF WIDE MEDIAN NEXT TO WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  19. a Method for Simultaneous Aerial and Terrestrial Geodata Acquisition for Corridor Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, P.; Blázquez, M.; Sastre, J.; Colomina, I.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present mapKITE, a new mobile, simultaneous terrestrial and aerial, geodata collection and post-processing method. On one side, the method combines a terrestrial mobile mapping system (TMMS) with an unmanned aerial mapping one, both equipped with remote sensing payloads (at least, a nadir-looking visible-band camera in the UA) by means of which aerial and terrestrial geodata are acquired simultaneously. This tandem geodata acquisition system is based on a terrestrial vehicle (TV) and on an unmanned aircraft (UA) linked by a 'virtual tether', that is, a mechanism based on the real-time supply of UA waypoints by the TV. By means of the TV-to-UA tether, the UA follows the TV keeping a specific relative TV-to-UA spatial configuration enabling the simultaneous operation of both systems to obtain highly redundant and complementary geodata. On the other side, mapKITE presents a novel concept for geodata post-processing favoured by the rich geometrical aspects derived from the mapKITE tandem simultaneous operation. The approach followed for sensor orientation and calibration of the aerial images captured by the UA inherits the principles of Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) and adds the pointing-and-scaling photogrammetric measurement of a distinctive element observed in every UA image, which is a coded target mounted on the roof of the TV. By means of the TV navigation system, the orientation of the TV coded target is performed and used in the post-processing UA image orientation approach as a Kinematic Ground Control Point (KGCP). The geometric strength of a mapKITE ISO network is therefore high as it counts with the traditional tie point image measurements, static ground control points, kinematic aerial control and the new point-and-scale measurements of the KGCPs. With such a geometry, reliable system and sensor orientation and calibration and eventual further reduction of the number of traditional ground control points is feasible. The different

  20. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of…

  1. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  2. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  3. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  4. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  5. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  6. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species.

  7. Research of Active Contour Model in Aerial Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Wang; Li, Guo

    With the development of computer and aviation technology, the aerial image is facing an important issue is how to automate, including aerial images of the automatic extraction of the target. In this paper, the issue of aerial images to study the active contour model is introduced, that is, Snake model, to achieve the target aerial image of the semi-automatic contour extraction method. Snake model used the unique characteristic of the energy minimization, carried out on the image contour extraction, to obtain a clear, consistent and accurate image contour. The model is defined through the energy minimization of the function, given in the initial position of artificial circumstances, through the iterative calculation of Snake model will eventually form the minimum energy function has been described in the outline of the target partition. The results indicate that Snake model for aerial images of the edge contour extraction, verification, concluded that the Snake-based edge detection methods could be more objectively and accurately extract the edge of the outline of aerial images.

  8. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  9. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion. PMID:26548019

  10. Quantifying heat losses using aerial thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Haigh, G.A.; Pritchard, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model is described for calculating flat roof total heat losses and thermal conductances from aerial infrared data. Three empirical methods for estimating convective losses are described. The disagreement between the methods shows that they are prone to large (20%) errors, and that the survey should be carried out in low wind speeds, in order to minimize the effect of these errors on the calculation of total heat loss. The errors associated with knowledge of ground truth data are discussed for a high emissivity roof and three sets of environmental conditions. It is shown that the error in the net radiative loss is strongly dependent on the error in measuring the broad-band radiation incident on the roof. This is minimized for clear skies, but should be measured. Accurate knowledge of roof emissivity and the radiation reflected from the roof is shown to be less important. Simple techniques are described for measuring all three factors. Using these techniques in good conditions it should be possible to measure total heat losses to within 15%.

  11. Spread spectrum applications in unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bess, Philip K.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing Naval Postgraduate School research project to develop unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) using current off the shelf (COTS) technology. This thesis specifically evaluated a spread spectrum UHF data link between a UAV and ground terminal. The command and control (C2) process and its role as the fundamental premise of the warfare commander were discussed. A review of the Pioneer remotely piloted vehicle (RPV), which gained such wide recognition during Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield, was provided to the reader for familiarization with the workings of a generic UAV. An investigation of two common spread spectrum techniques and their associated benefits was made. A link budget calculation was made. The choice of a spread spectrum radio transceiver was reviewed. The requirements and design of the UAV and ground terminal antenna were discussed. A link budget analysis was performed. An atmospheric path propagation prediction was performed. The details of an actual flight test and the data gathered were examined. Future changes to enhance the data link performance and increase its capabilities were introduced. The COTS spread spectrum data link will enhance the role of the UAV in its command and control mission for the warfare commander.

  12. AERICOMP: an aerial photo comparison system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, Lynne L.; Rowe, Neil; Baer, Wolfgang

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes a system, which compares aerial photographs of the same terrain taken at different times and tires to recognize straight-edged cultural features that have changed. This work is intended to be highly robust, handling very different lighting conditions, weather, times of year, camera, and film between the images to be compared. Our system AERICOMP is designed to facilitate battlefield terrain modeling by permitting automatic updates form new images. AERICOMP does coarse registration, image correction, feature detection, automatic refined registration, feature difference detection and reduction, feature difference presentation and operator acceptance, difference identification, and database update. It emphasizes line segments for comparisons because differences in them are more robust for photometric changes between terrain images. In addition, line segment comparisons require less computation than pixel comparisons and are more compatible with identification tasks. For our intended application of battlefield terrain modeling, detecting changes in man-made structures is of much greater importance than changes in vegetation, and line segments are the key to identifying such structures. We show results involving change analysis between color IR and black/white USGS photographs of the same area six years apart. Even a mostly automatic system benefits form user interacting at key points. AERICOMP exploits user judgements at the beginning and end of its processing to assist in coarse registration and to approve the significance of any differences found. AERICOMP is currently under development at the Naval Postgraduate School, and is supported by the TENCAPS project under the US Navy.

  13. Intelligent mission management for uninhabited aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Don; Totah, Joseph J.; Wegener, Steve S.; Enomoto, Francis Y.; Frost, Chad R.; Kaneshige, John; Frank, Jeremy E.

    2004-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate, is developing Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAV"s) under the Vehicle Systems Program"s Autonomous Robust Avionics Project. The objective of the project is to develop air vehicle and associated ground element technology to enhance mission success by increasing mission return and reducing mission risk. Unanticipated science targets, uncertain conditions and changing mission requirements can all influence a flight plan and may require human intervention during the flight; however, time delays and communications bandwidth limit opportunities for operator intervention. To meet these challenges, we will develop UAV-specific technologies enabling goal-directed autonomy, i.e. the ability to redirect the flight in response to current conditions and the current goals of the flight. Our approach divides goal-directed autonomy into two components, an on-board Intelligent Agent Architecture (IAA) and a ground based Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE). These technologies cut across all aspects of a UAV system, including the payload, inner- and outer-loop onboard control, and the operator"s ground station.

  14. Autonomous navigation with teams of aerial robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Nathan; Kumar, Vijay

    2011-06-01

    There are many examples in nature where large groups of individuals are able to maintain three-dimensional formations while navigating in complex environments. This paper addresses the development of a framework and robot controllers that enable a group of aerial robots to maintain a formation with partial state information while avoiding collisions. The central concept is to develop a low-dimensional abstraction of the large teams of robots, facilitate planning, command, and control in a low-dimensional space, and to realize commands or plans in the abstract space by synthesizing controllers for individual robots that respect the specified abstraction. The fundamental problem that is addressed in this paper relates to coordinated control of multiple UAVs in close proximity. We develop a representation for a team of robots based on the first and second statistical moments of the system and design kinematic, exponentially stabilizing controllers for point robots. The selection of representation permits a controller design that is invariant to the number of robots in the system, requires limited global state information, and reduces the complexity of the planning problem by generating an abstract planning and control space determined by the moment parameterization. We present experimental results with a team of quadrotors and discuss considerations such as aerodynamic interactions between robots.

  15. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  16. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  17. Adapting unmanned aerial vehicles for turbulence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Brandon; Helvey, Jacob; Mullen, Jon; Thamann, Michael; Bailey, Sean

    2015-11-01

    We describe the approach of using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to spatially interrogate the atmospheric boundary layer's turbulent flow structure. This approach introduces new capabilities not available in contemporary micro-meteorological measurement techniques such as instrumented towers, balloons, and manned aircraft. A key advantage in utilizing UAVs as an atmospheric turbulence research tool is that it reduces the reliance on assumptions regarding temporal evolution of the turbulence inherent within Taylor's frozen flow hypothesis by facilitating the ability to spatially sample the flow field over a wide range of spatial scales. In addition, UAVs offer the ability to measure in a wide range of boundary conditions and distance from the earth's surface, the ability to gather many boundary layer thicknesses of data during brief periods of statistical quasi-stationarity, and the ability to acquire data where and when it is needed. We describe recent progress made in manufacturing purpose-built airframes and adapting pre-fabricated airframes for these measurements by integrating sensors into those airframes and developing data analysis techniques to isolate the atmospheric turbulence from the measured velocity signal. This research is supported by NSF Award CBET-1351411.

  18. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  19. Aerial view of the KSC crawler transporters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view the Crawler Transporter Maintenance Building (center) sits between two crawler transporters. The KSC crawlers are the largest tracked vehicles known. Once used to move assembled Apollo/Saturn from the VAB to the launch pad, they are now used for transporting Shuttle vehicles. They move the Mobile Launcher Platform into the Vehicle Assembly Building and then to the Launch Pad with an assembled space vehicle. Maximum speed is 1.6 km (one mile) per hour loaded, about 3.2 km (2 miles) per hour unloaded. Launch Pad to VAB trip time with the Mobile Launch Platform is about 5 hours. The crawler burns 568 liters (150 gallons) of diesel oil per mile. KSC's two crawlers have accumulated 1,243 miles since 1977. Including the Apollo years, the transporters have racked up 2,526 miles, about the same distance as a one-way trip from KSC to Los Angeles by interstate highway or a round trip between KSC and New York City.

  20. Genotoxicity of dried Hoodia parviflora aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Barry; Lau, Annette; Baldwin, Nigel; Hofman-Hüther, Hana; Bauter, Mark R; Marone, Palma Ann

    2013-05-01

    Hoodia parviflora is being developed commercially for use in weight loss food and dietary supplement products. Its effects are ascribed to a number of glycosides that have been shown to be present in plant extracts from several Hoodia species, the best known of which is H. gordonii. H. parviflora has been identified as an alternative to H. gordonii, and, as part of the process to develop H. parviflora, in vitro genotoxicity tests, as recommended by recent European Food Safety Authority guidance, were conducted on a dried powder preparation of H. parviflora aerial parts. The preparation was tested for reverse mutation at doses up to 5,000μg/plate in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA TA, both in the presence and in the absence of an exogenous source of metabolic activation (rat liver S9). In addition, the dried powder was evaluated in an in vitro cytotoxicity chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes. Test conditions included both a 4 (up to 2500μg/mg) and 44-h exposure period (up to 1000μg/mg) and the incorporation of an exogenous source of metabolic activation (4-h exposure only). H. parviflora dried powder was non-genotoxic in both in vitro assays. PMID:23348409

  1. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  2. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, accidents, infections, and severe breathing problems. It involves ...

  3. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  4. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  5. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  6. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  7. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  8. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  9. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  10. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  11. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3). PMID:19046635

  12. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  13. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  14. Environmental applications utilizing digital aerial imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Monday, H.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of satellite imagery, aerial photography, and computerized airborne imagery as applied to environmental mapping, analysis, and monitoring. A project conducted by the City of Irving, Texas involves compliance with national pollutant discharge elimination system (NPDES) requirements stipulated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of the project was the development and maintenance of a stormwater drainage utility. Digital imagery was collected for a portion of the city to map the City`s porous and impervious surfaces which will then be overlaid with property boundaries in the City`s existing Geographic information System (GIS). This information will allow the City to determine an equitable tax for each land parcel according to the amount of water each parcel is contributing to the stormwater system. Another project involves environmental compliance for warm water discharges created by utility companies. Environmental consultants are using digital airborne imagery to analyze thermal plume affects as well as monitoring power generation facilities. A third project involves wetland restoration. Due to freeway and other forms of construction, plus a major reduction of fresh water supplies, the Southern California coastal wetlands are being seriously threatened. These wetlands, rich spawning grounds for plant and animal life, are home to thousands of waterfowl and shore birds who use this habitat for nesting and feeding grounds. Under the leadership of Southern California Edison (SCE) and CALTRANS (California Department of Transportation), several wetland areas such as the San Dieguito Lagoon (Del Mar, California), the Sweetwater Marsh (San Diego, California), and the Tijuana Estuary (San Diego, California) are being restored and closely monitored using digital airborne imagery.

  15. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  16. Analysis of initial drainage network evolution from aerial photography and a DEM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anna; Gerke, Horst H.; Maurer, Thomas; Nenov, Rossen; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of erosion rill or gully networks is a formative process in initial landscape development. Digital representations of drainage networks are often derived from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on morphometric parameters, or mapped in field surveys or from aerial photographs. This study attempted to reconstruct and analyze the first five years of erosion rill network evolution in the 6 ha artificial catchment 'Hühnerwasser', which serves as a real world-laboratory to study patterns and processes of initial ecosystem development. The drainage network was characterized in a twofold approach, based on the analysis of remotely-sensed data. We used high-resolution drone-based aerial photographs to map the actively eroding rill network for four states of development, and a time series of ten Digital Elevation Models to characterize the morphology of the surface. Rill network maps and morphometric parameters were combined to allow for region-specific analyses of morphometry for different parts of the rill network. After a rapid growth of the erosion rill network during the first two years of development, a reduction of the area of actively eroding rills was observed. Region-specific analysis of morphometry indicates an increase in flow accumulation in the central parts of the rill network, which suggests that locally evolving feedback cycles between flow accumulation and erosion affected rill network development, in addition to the effects of precipitation characteristics and the growth of vegetation cover. The combination of drainage network characterization from aerial photography and DEMs could improve analyses of initial drainage network development in experimental studies, as it allows for critical comparisons of flow accumulation patterns and the actual patterns of erosion rills or gullies.

  17. Critics and Criticism of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1977-01-01

    Radical educational critics, such as Edgar Friedenberg, Paul Goodman, A. S. Neill, John Holt, Jonathan Kozol, Herbert Kohl, James Herndon, and Ivan Illich, have few constructive goals, no strategy for broad change, and a disdain for modernization and compromise. Additionally, these critics, says the author, fail to consider social factors related…

  18. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  19. Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia.

    PubMed

    Bergou, Attila J; Swartz, Sharon M; Vejdani, Hamid; Riskin, Daniel K; Reimnitz, Lauren; Taubin, Gabriel; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats' wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for all other extant flyers. Although the inertia in bat wings would typically be associated with decreased aerial maneuverability, we show that bat maneuvers challenge this notion. We use a model-based tracking algorithm to measure the wing and body kinematics of bats performing complex aerial rotations. Using a minimal model of a bat with only six degrees of kinematic freedom, we show that bats can perform body rolls by selectively retracting one wing during the flapping cycle. We also show that this maneuver does not rely on aerodynamic forces, and furthermore that a fruit fly, with nearly massless wings, would not exhibit this effect. Similar results are shown for a pitching maneuver. Finally, we combine high-resolution kinematics of wing and body movements during landing and falling maneuvers with a 52-degree-of-freedom dynamical model of a bat to show that modulation of wing inertia plays the dominant role in reorienting the bat during landing and falling maneuvers, with minimal contribution from aerodynamic forces. Bats can, therefore, use their wings as multifunctional organs, capable of sophisticated aerodynamic and inertial dynamics not previously observed in other flying animals. This may also have implications for the control of aerial robotic vehicles. PMID:26569116

  20. Falling with Style: Bats Perform Complex Aerial Rotations by Adjusting Wing Inertia

    PubMed Central

    Bergou, Attila J.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Vejdani, Hamid; Riskin, Daniel K.; Reimnitz, Lauren; Taubin, Gabriel; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable maneuverability of flying animals results from precise movements of their highly specialized wings. Bats have evolved an impressive capacity to control their flight, in large part due to their ability to modulate wing shape, area, and angle of attack through many independently controlled joints. Bat wings, however, also contain many bones and relatively large muscles, and thus the ratio of bats’ wing mass to their body mass is larger than it is for all other extant flyers. Although the inertia in bat wings would typically be associated with decreased aerial maneuverability, we show that bat maneuvers challenge this notion. We use a model-based tracking algorithm to measure the wing and body kinematics of bats performing complex aerial rotations. Using a minimal model of a bat with only six degrees of kinematic freedom, we show that bats can perform body rolls by selectively retracting one wing during the flapping cycle. We also show that this maneuver does not rely on aerodynamic forces, and furthermore that a fruit fly, with nearly massless wings, would not exhibit this effect. Similar results are shown for a pitching maneuver. Finally, we combine high-resolution kinematics of wing and body movements during landing and falling maneuvers with a 52-degree-of-freedom dynamical model of a bat to show that modulation of wing inertia plays the dominant role in reorienting the bat during landing and falling maneuvers, with minimal contribution from aerodynamic forces. Bats can, therefore, use their wings as multifunctional organs, capable of sophisticated aerodynamic and inertial dynamics not previously observed in other flying animals. This may also have implications for the control of aerial robotic vehicles. PMID:26569116

  1. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Estimation of wildlife population ratios incorporating survey design and visibility bias

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Garton, E.O.; Unsworth, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    Age and sex ratio statistics are often a key component of the evaluation and management of wildlife populations. These statistics are determined from counts of animals that are commonly plagued by errors associated with either survey design or visibility bias. We present age and sex ratio estimators that incorporate both these sources of error and include the typical situation that animals are sampled in groups. Aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus) in northcentral Idaho illustrate that differential visibility of age or sex classes can produce biased ratio estimates. Visibility models may be used to provide corrected estimates of ratios and their variability that incorporates errors due to sampling, visibility bias, and visibility estimation.

  3. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with

  4. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  5. Real-time aerial video exploitation station for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregga, Jason B.; Pope, Art; Kielmeyer, Kathy; Ran, Yang

    2008-04-01

    SET Corporation, under contract to the Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, is building a Real-time Aerial Video Exploitation (RAVE) Station for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). Users of SUAVs have in general been underserved by the exploitation community because of the unique challenges of operating in the SUAV environment. SUAVs are often used by small teams without the benefits of dedicated personnel, equipment, and time for exploitation. Thus, effective exploitation tools for these users must have sufficiently automated capabilities to keep demands on the team's labor low, with the ability to process video and display results in real-time on commonly-found ruggedized laptops. The RAVE Station provides video stabilization, mosaicking, moving target indicators (MTI), tracking, and target classification, and displays the results in several different display modes. This paper focuses on features of the RAVE Station implementation that make it efficient, low-cost, and easy to use. The software architecture is a pipeline model, allowing each processing module to tap off the pipe, and to add new information back into the stream, keeping redundancy to a minimum. The software architecture is also open, allowing new algorithms to be developed and plugged in. Frame-to-frame registration is performed by a feature-tracking algorithm which employs RANSAC to discard outlying matches. MTI is performed via a fast and robust three frame differencing algorithm. The user interface and exploitation functions are simple, easy to learn and use. RAVE is a capable exploitation tool that meets the needs of SUAV users despite their challenging environment.

  6. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  7. Radiological Disaster Simulators for Field and Aerial Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr

    2002-11-01

    Simulators have been developed to dramatically improve the fidelity of play for field monitors and aircraft participating in radiological disaster drills and exercises. Simulated radiological measurements for the current Global Positioning System (GPS) location are derived from realistic models of radiological consequences for accidents and malicious acts. The aerial version outputs analog pulses corresponding to the signal that would be produced by various NaI (Tl) detectors at that location. The field monitor version reports the reading for any make/model of survey instrument selected. Position simulation modes are included in the aerial and field versions. The aerial version can generate a flight path based on input parameters or import an externally generated sequence of latitude and longitude coordinates. The field version utilizes a map-based point and click/drag interface to generate individual or a sequence of evenly spaced instrument measurements.

  8. Exploration of Titan Using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: (1) low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; (2) remote-site sample return to lander platforms; (3) precision placement of scientific probes; (4) soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; (5) greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; and (6) greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Aerial Image Microscopes for the Inspection of Defects in EUV Masks

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Taylor, J S; Hudyma, R; Spiller, E; Sweeney, D W; Shelden, G; Urbach, J-P

    2002-10-22

    The high volume inspection equipment currently available to support development of EUV blanks is non-actinic. The same is anticipated for patterned EUV mask inspection. Once potential defects are identified and located by such non-actinic inspection techniques, it is essential to have instrumentation to perform detailed characterization, and if repairs are performed, re-evaluation. The ultimate metric for the acceptance or rejection of a mask due to a defect, is the wafer level impact. Thus measuring the aerial image for the site under question is required. An EUV Aerial Image Microscope (''AIM'') similar to the current AIM tools for 248nm and 193nm exposure wavelength is the natural solution for this task. Due to the complicated manufacturing process of EUV blanks, AIM measurements might also be beneficial to accurately assessing the severity of a blank defect. This is an additional application for an EUV AIM as compared to today's use In recognition of the critical role of an EUV AIM for the successful implementation of EUV blank and mask supply, International SEMATECH initiated this design study with the purpose to define the technical requirements for accurately simulating EUV scanner performance, demonstrating the feasibility to meet these requirements and to explore various technical approaches to building an EUV AIM tool.

  10. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  11. Knowledge-based understanding of aerial surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hui; Butler, Darren

    2006-05-01

    Aerial surveillance has long been used by the military to locate, monitor and track the enemy. Recently, its scope has expanded to include law enforcement activities, disaster management and commercial applications. With the ever-growing amount of aerial surveillance video acquired daily, there is an urgent need for extracting actionable intelligence in a timely manner. Furthermore, to support high-level video understanding, this analysis needs to go beyond current approaches and consider the relationships, motivations and intentions of the objects in the scene. In this paper we propose a system for interpreting aerial surveillance videos that automatically generates a succinct but meaningful description of the observed regions, objects and events. For a given video, the semantics of important regions and objects, and the relationships between them, are summarised into a semantic concept graph. From this, a textual description is derived that provides new search and indexing options for aerial video and enables the fusion of aerial video with other information modalities, such as human intelligence, reports and signal intelligence. Using a Mixture-of-Experts video segmentation algorithm an aerial video is first decomposed into regions and objects with predefined semantic meanings. The objects are then tracked and coerced into a semantic concept graph and the graph is summarized spatially, temporally and semantically using ontology guided sub-graph matching and re-writing. The system exploits domain specific knowledge and uses a reasoning engine to verify and correct the classes, identities and semantic relationships between the objects. This approach is advantageous because misclassifications lead to knowledge contradictions and hence they can be easily detected and intelligently corrected. In addition, the graph representation highlights events and anomalies that a low-level analysis would overlook.

  12. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  13. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  14. Supporting Remote Sensing Research with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Shanks, P. C.; Kritis, L. A.; Trani, M. G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe several remote sensing research projects supported with small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) operated by the NGA Basic and Applied Research Office. These sUAS collections provide data supporting Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR), NGA University Research Initiative (NURI), and Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADA) efforts in addition to inhouse research. Some preliminary results related to 3D electro-optical point clouds are presented, and some research goals discussed. Additional details related to the autonomous operational mode of both our multi-rotor and fixed wing small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) platforms are presented.

  15. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  16. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  17. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  18. Digital aerial-triangulation system on personal computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsing; Chang, Shau-Yen

    1994-08-01

    This paper demonstrates a prototype of a PC-based digital aerial-triangulation system (PC- DATS). The system takes all of the procedures of aerial triangulation and is constructed by five working modules: preparation, interior orientation, tie point measurement, target point measurement, and bundle adjustment. All of the modules are integrated on the platform Microsoft-Windows. A test block containing 15 photos was processed by using the system. The operation was quite smooth, and the adjustment result shows an accuracy of about 0.3 pixel in average. The success of this proto-DATS was quite encouraging.

  19. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  20. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  1. Preliminary assessment of aerial photography techniques for canvasback population analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munro, R.E.; Trauger, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent intensive research on the canvasback has focused attention on the need for more precise estimates of population parameters. During the 1972-75 period, various types of aerial photographing equipment were evaluated to determine the problems and potentials for employing these techniques in appraisals of canvasback populations. The equipment and procedures available for automated analysis of aerial photographic imagery were also investigated. Serious technical problems remain to be resolved, but some promising results were obtained. Final conclusions about the feasibility of operational implementation await a more rigorous analysis of the data collected.

  2. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... on the role of DACA, the communication service architecture and various DACA platform...

  3. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  4. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  5. Simplifying Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

  6. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography, and map sources - Compatibility, accuracy and cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to merge land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography and map sources into a grid-based geographic information system. The method basically involves computer-assisted categorization of Landsat data to provide certain user-specified land cover categories; manual interpretation of aerial photography to identify other selected land cover/use categories that cannot be obtained from Landsat data; identification of special features from aerial photography or map sources; merging of the interpreted data from all the sources into a computer compatible file under a standardized coding structure; and the production of land cover/use maps, thematic maps, and tabular data. The specific tasks accomplished in producing the merged land cover/use data file and subsequent output products are identified and discussed. It is shown that effective implementation of the merging method is critically dependent on selecting the 'best' data source for each user-specified category in terms of accuracy and time/cost tradeoffs.

  7. Automatic construction of aerial corridor for navigation of unmanned aircraft systems in class G airspace using LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dengchao; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    According to the airspace classification by the Federal Aviation Agency, Class G airspace is the airspace at 1,200 feet or less to the ground, which is beneath class E airspace and between classes B-D cylinders around towered airstrips. However, the lack of flight supervision mechanism in this airspace, unmanned aerial system (UAS) missions pose many safety issues. Collision avoidance and route planning for UASs in class G airspace is critical for broad deployment of UASs in commercial and security applications. Yet, unlike road network, there is no stationary marker in airspace to identify corridors that are available and safe for UASs to navigate. In this paper, we present an automatic LiDAR-based airspace corridor construction method for navigation in class G airspace and a method for route planning to minimize collision and intrusion. Our idea is to combine LiDAR to automatically identify ground objects that pose navigation restrictions such as airports and high-rises. Digital terrain model (DTM) is derived from LiDAR point cloud to provide an altitude-based class G airspace description. Following the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual, the ground objects that define the restricted airspaces are used together with digital surface model derived from LiDAR data to construct the aerial corridor for navigation of UASs. Preliminary results demonstrate competitive performance and the construction of aerial corridor can be automated with much great efficiency.

  8. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  9. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  10. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  11. The Ground Control Room as an Enabling Technology in the Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gear, Gary; Mace, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of the ground control room as an required technology for the use of an Unmanned Aerial system. The Unmanned Aerial system is a strategic component of the Global Observing System, which will serve global science needs. The unmanned aerial system will use the same airspace as manned aircraft, therefore there will be unique telemetry needs.

  12. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for evaluating the efficacy of aerially-applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set...

  13. Current status and future directions of precision agriculture for aerial application in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision aerial application in the USA is less than a decade old since the development of the first variable-rate aerial application system. Many areas of the United States rely on readily available agricultural airplanes or helicopters for pest management. Variable-rate aerial application provides...

  14. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for efficacy evaluation of aerially applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set u...

  15. Assessing crop injury caused by aerially applied glyphosate drift using spray sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop injury caused by off-target drift of aerially applied glyphosate is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. An experiment was conducted in 2009 to determine the extent of injury due to near-field glyphosate drift from aerial application to glyphosate-sensitive cotton, corn and soybe...

  16. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  17. Design, fabrication & performance analysis of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. I.; Salam, M. A.; Afsar, M. R.; Huda, M. N.; Mahmud, T.

    2016-07-01

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was designed, analyzed and fabricated to meet design requirements and perform the entire mission for an international aircraft design competition. The goal was to have a balanced design possessing, good demonstrated flight handling qualities, practical and affordable manufacturing requirements while providing a high vehicle performance. The UAV had to complete total three missions named ferry flight (1st mission), maximum load mission (2nd mission) and emergency medical mission (3rd mission). The requirement of ferry flight mission was to fly as many as laps as possible within 4 minutes. The maximum load mission consists of flying 3 laps while carrying two wooden blocks which simulate cargo. The requirement of emergency medical mission was complete 3 laps as soon as possible while carrying two attendances and two patients. A careful analysis revealed lowest rated aircraft cost (RAC) as the primary design objective. So, the challenge was to build an aircraft with minimum RAC that can fly fast, fly with maximum payload, and fly fast with all the possible configurations. The aircraft design was reached by first generating numerous design concepts capable of completing the mission requirements. In conceptual design phase, Figure of Merit (FOM) analysis was carried out to select initial aircraft configuration, propulsion, empennage and landing gear. After completion of the conceptual design, preliminary design was carried out. The preliminary design iterations had a low wing loading, high lift coefficient, and a high thrust to weight ratio. To make the aircraft capable of Rough Field Taxi; springs were added in the landing gears for absorbing shock. An airfoil shaped fuselage was designed to allowed sufficient space for payload and generate less drag to make the aircraft fly fast. The final design was a high wing monoplane with conventional tail, single tractor propulsion system and a tail dragger landing gear. Payload was stored in

  18. Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    True excellence in technology implementation emerges when IT, administrative, and academic leaders link IT to mission-critical institutional objectives, investing in hardware and software to serve an explicit purpose and a distinct population of users. This article illustrates that at public institutions of higher education in New Hampshire as…

  19. Identifying Contingency Requirements using Obstacle Analysis on an Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Nelson, Stacy; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Frost, Chad R.; Tal, Doron

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes experience using Obstacle Analysis to identify contingency requirements on an unpiloted aerial vehicle. A contingency is an operational anomaly, and may or may not involve component failure. The challenges to this effort were: ( I ) rapid evolution of the system while operational, (2) incremental autonomy as capabilities were transferred from ground control to software control and (3) the eventual safety-criticality of such systems as they begin to fly over populated areas. The results reported here are preliminary but show that Obstacle Analysis helped (1) identify new contingencies that appeared as autonomy increased; (2) identify new alternatives for handling both previously known and new contingencies; and (3) investigate the continued validity of existing software requirements for contingency handling. Since many mobile, intelligent systems are built using a development process that poses the same challenges, the results appear to have applicability to other similar systems.

  20. Power line field sensing to support autonomous navigation of small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

    2013-06-01

    Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.

  1. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FITTING SHOP, MILLWRIGHT SHOP. DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO. AND BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. IN LOWER LEFT, SUM HYDROELECTRIC IN UPPER RIGHT. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 4. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW TO SOUTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th District, File No. 62751-22 A.S. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 5. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF ENTIRE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th Coast Guard District, San Francisco. 1960. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Use of aerial thermography in Canadian energy conservation programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cihlar, J.; Brown, R. J.; Lawrence, G.; Barry, J. N.; James, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of aerial thermography in energy conservation programs within Canada were summarized. Following a brief review of studies conducted during the last three years, methodologies of data acquisition, processing, analysis and interpretation was discussed. Examples of results from an industrial oriented project were presented and recommendations for future basic work were outlined.

  7. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. 9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1270. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. 8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-65-1271. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE FROM STONE QUARRY. TRACKS ARE GONE BUT RIGHT-OF-WAY IS STILL VISIBLE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  12. AERIAL VIEW OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING SHOWING CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING SHOWING CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AND EXCAVATION FOR LABORATORY ON LEFT. INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-1759. Unknown Photographer, 3/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 991, LOOKING WEST. BUILDING 991 WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 991, LOOKING WEST. BUILDING 991 WAS DESIGNED FOR SHIPPING AND RECEIVING AND FOR FINAL ASSEMBLY OF WEAPON COMPONENTS. (6/26/91) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Lower end of the Old Crosscut Canal, aerial view to north. The Old Crosscut runs top left to lower right, west of meat packing plant and stockyards. Photographer unknown, c. 1939. Source: Pueblo Grande Museum Cultural Park. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 1. Aerial plan view of Longacres in 1936. (This photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial plan view of Longacres in 1936. (This photograph is an 8x10' enlargement made from a 4x5' two-step duplicate negative. The original negative is in the collection of The Boeing Co., Renton, WA. Photograph by Walker and Associates, Seattle, WA.) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  16. 2. Aerial plan view of Longacres in January 1991. (This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial plan view of Longacres in January 1991. (This photograph is an 8x10' enlargement made from a 4x5' two-step duplicate negative. The original color negative is in the collection of The Boeing Co., Renton, WA. Photograph by Nies Mapping Group, Bellevue, WA.) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  17. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF MOBILE LAUNCHER. ON TOP OF LUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF MOBILE LAUNCHER. ON TOP OF LUT SITS A 25 TON HAMMERHEAD CRANE. STRUCTURE ON LEFT SIDE OF LAUNCH PLATFORM IS KNOWN AS A 'MILK STOOL' AND ALLOWS A SATURN 1B ROCKET TO BE USED IN PLACE OF THE SATURN V ROCKET. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  18. 5. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1945. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1945. Original photo on file at Public Affairs Office (PAO), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  19. 6. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1965. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1965. Original photo on file at (PAO), NUWC, Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  20. 9. Photographic copy of aerial photograph of NUWC, 1993, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of aerial photograph of NUWC, 1993, view northwest. Original color negative no. 093(L)-09212.32 on file at photo lab at NUWC, Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  1. 26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the southwest. At upper left is firing pier. Shop building and power plant under construction at center. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  2. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  3. Data processing programs for aerial gamma-ray data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval1, Joseph S.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses computer programs to process aerial gamma-ray data; some do editing and data manipulation to allow for corrections. Programs to convert flight-line data to latitude-longitude coordinates are included. Plotting programs include contour plotting, profile plots, and photographic raster plots.

  4. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF THE CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF THE CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN ON 6 APRIL 1968. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS NINE, TEN, AND DEEP RAVINE,LOOKING SOUTH FROM BREAK OVER TOWER LOCATION. A SINGLE ORE BUCKET HANGS FROM THE CABLE AT CENTER. DEATH VALLEY'S FLOOR IS IN THE DISTANCE (TOP). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD THE CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (TOP LEFT). - Railroad Reservation, Bounded by Thirty-eighth Street on the east, Sixteenth Street on the west, First Avenue on the north, & First Avenue on the south, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. AERIAL VIEW OF MC WANE CAST IRON PIPE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF MC WANE CAST IRON PIPE, LOOKING WEST TO BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER. I-20-59 RUNNING DIAGONALLY FROM RIGHT MIDDLE GROUND. L&N RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWERS THREE AND FOUR WITH TOWERS FIVE AND SIX IN THE DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE TWO INTACT CABLES RUNNING ALONG TOP OF THE TOWERS ARE FIXED. WHILE THE MOVING CABLE IS LYING SLACK ON THE GROUND. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  9. 46. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE REDSTONE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST AT THE REDSTONE TEST SITE, SHOWING THE TEST STAND, SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, SERVICE AREA AND THE OBSERVATION TANKS BURIED BENEATH THE EARTH MOUND IN THE BACKGROUND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH, WITH BROWN MARX BUILDING (BOTTOM CENTER TO RIGHT), EMPIRE BUILDING (CENTER TOP) WITH ITS TERRACOTTA-CLAD 20TH STREET AND FIRST AVENUE FACADES, AND JOHN HAND BUILDING - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms. PMID:27352817

  12. FlyAR: augmented reality supported micro aerial vehicle navigation.

    PubMed

    Zollmann, Stefanie; Hoppe, Christof; Langlotz, Tobias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Micro aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras can be used to create aerial reconstructions of an area of interest. In that context automatic flight path planning and autonomous flying is often applied but so far cannot fully replace the human in the loop, supervising the flight on-site to assure that there are no collisions with obstacles. Unfortunately, this workflow yields several issues, such as the need to mentally transfer the aerial vehicle’s position between 2D map positions and the physical environment, and the complicated depth perception of objects flying in the distance. Augmented Reality can address these issues by bringing the flight planning process on-site and visualizing the spatial relationship between the planned or current positions of the vehicle and the physical environment. In this paper, we present Augmented Reality supported navigation and flight planning of micro aerial vehicles by augmenting the user’s view with relevant information for flight planning and live feedback for flight supervision. Furthermore, we introduce additional depth hints supporting the user in understanding the spatial relationship of virtual waypoints in the physical world and investigate the effect of these visualization techniques on the spatial understanding. PMID:24650983

  13. Aerial view looking southwest. Seaplane hangars buildings 29 and 68 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view looking southwest. Seaplane hangars buildings 29 and 68 at right. Location of seaplane ramps is just left of small boat docks in left center. Historic building district in center of photograph. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW FROM THE SW OF NORTH AVENUE BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW FROM THE SW OF NORTH AVENUE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. CHICAGO, MILWAUKEE AND ST PAUL 'Z-2' RAILROAD BRIDGE ON RIGHT. - North Avenue Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River at West North Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. Improved land cover mapping using aerial photographs and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Katalin; Szabó, Szilárd; Szabó, Gergely; Dévai, György; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-10-01

    Manual Land Cover Mapping using aerial photographs provides sufficient level of resolution for detailed vegetation or land cover maps. However, in some cases it is not possible to achieve the desired information over large areas, for example from historical data where the quality and amount of available images is definitely lower than from modern data. The use of automated and semiautomated methods offers the means to identify the vegetation cover using remotely sensed data. In this paper automated methods were tested on aerial photographs and satellite images to extract better and more reliable information about vegetation cover. These testswere performed by using automated analysis of LANDSAT7 images (with and without the surface model of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)) and two temporally similar aerial photographs. The spectral bands were analyzed with supervised (maximum likelihood) methods. In conclusion, the SRTM and the combination of two temporally similar aerial photographs from earlier years were useful in separating the vegetation cover on a floodplain area. In addition the different date of the vegetation season also gave reliable information about the land cover. High quality information about old and present vegetation on a large area is an essential prerequisites ensuring the conservation of ecosystems

  16. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  17. 4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view southwest, Adams Dam Road bottom left, State Route 100 center, back gates to Winterthur and Wilmington Country Club upper center, duck pond and reservoir bottom right and center, and State Route 92 center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  18. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  19. 1. Aerial view northnortheast, State Route 92 center left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view north-northeast, State Route 92 center left and State Route 100 on right, duck pond, reservoir and farm complex buildings center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  20. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  1. 5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Aerial view west, Adams Dam Road bottom center, State Route 100 center, duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 100 center right, State Route 92 below center right, Brandywine Creek State Park center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  2. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  3. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  4. 49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE OPEN BURNING AREA LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1951. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  5. 50. AERIAL VIEW OF HULLOAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL-OAKES LUMBER CO. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE WIGWAM REFUSE BURNER LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1955. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  6. Biological response of soybean and cotton to aerial glyphosate drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial application drift study was conducted in 2009 to determine biological effects of glyphosate on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Glyphosate at 866 g ae/ha was applied using an Air Tractor 402B agricultural aircraft in an 18.3 m spray swath to crops at the...

  7. 10. Historic view, Pier 10. Aerial view to east, 1943. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic view, Pier 10. Aerial view to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. BOSTS 8685, USN #SQA466, 8/17/43 - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic view, Pier 9, 10, 11. Aerial Views to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 9, Between Piers 8 & 10, along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 10. Historic view, Pier 11. Aerial view to east, 1943. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic view, Pier 11. Aerial view to east, 1943. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. Applicator Training Manual for: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overhults, Douglas G.

    This training manual discusses both the advantages and limitations of aerial application of pesticides. Other topics included are: agricultural aircraft equipment, dispersal accessories, drift control, calibration, spray testing, granular materials testing, operations, and personal safety. Safety check lists are given for pilots, ground crew, and…

  11. 1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, NAVAL INACTIVE SHIPS MAINTENANCE FACILITY, SINCLAIR ISLET, BREMERTON, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON WITH EX-USS HORNET CVS-12, THREE MINECRAFT ALONGSIDE TO PORT. OTHER INACTIVE SHIPS IN BACKGROUND. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 8. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED CA. 19201925, FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED CA. 1920-1925, FORT BLISS, ARROW POINTS TO 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  13. 52. Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW OF HEADHOUSE SECTIONS A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW OF HEADHOUSE SECTIONS A AND B-C, PIERS A AND B, LOOKING WEST. (Original negative #TP-1054 on file at Port Authority, New York, NY. Photographed by Stern, December 5, 1956) - Hoboken Piers Headhouse, River Street at Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  14. Genotoxicity Study of Polysaccharide Fraction from Astragalus membranaceus's Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeong-Chul; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Jung Woo; Kim, Jong-Bong; Lee, Jae Geun; Yu, Chang Yeon; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chung, Ill Min; Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Ri Na

    2014-01-01

    Radix Astragali, the root of Astragalus (A.) membranaceus, has been applied in a variety of diseases for a long time in Asian countries such as Korea and China. In addition, the aerial parts such as leaves and stems of A. membranaceus have received a great deal of attention. Recently, the polysaccharide fraction showing a potent immunomoduating activity was isolated from the aerial parts of A. membranaceus. Thus, the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be worthy enough for a food material and a dietary supplement. However, they should be safe even though valuable. In our previous study, it was estimated that NOAEL for female rats are 5000 mg/kg/day of the crude polysaccharide fraction from A. membranaceus-aboveground parts. As a series of safety evaluation, genotoxicity test for the crude polysaccharide fraction was carried out in this study. In conclusion, the three genotoxicity assays provided strong overall support that the crude polysaccharide fraction lacks mutagenic and/or clastogenic potential under the GLP-based test conditions. This indicates the aerial parts of A. membranaceus would be safe enough for a food material and a dietary supplement. PMID:25071923

  15. 3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL WORKS. THE OUTLET CONTROL TOWER AND THE PIER FOR THE SERVICE BRIDGE ARE SHOWN COMPLETED.... Volume XVIII, No. 11, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL 'BARREL' SHOT OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARDS JERSEY CITY. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND TO THE RIGHT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF THE VERTICAL LIFT BRIDGES SPANNING THE HACKENSACK RIVER, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PATH TRANSIT BRIDGE IS IN THE FOREGROUND, WITH THE CONRAIL (HAER No. NJ-43), NEWARK TURNPIKE, AND ERIE & LACKAWANNA RAILROAD (HAER No. NJ-42) BRIDGES BEHIND IT - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  18. 6. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  19. 5. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. TO THE RIGHT ARE THE NEWARK TURNPIKE AND THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43). THE PULASKI SKYWAY (HAER No. NJ-34) IS IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF SHOPS COMPLEX LOOKING EAST SHOWING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF SHOPS COMPLEX LOOKING EAST SHOWING WEST AND EAST ROUNDHOUSES, FROG AND SWITCH SHOP, AND MACHINE SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Martinsburg Repair Shops, West Side of Tuscarora Creek Opposite East End of Race Street, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV