Science.gov

Sample records for aerial exposure tolerance

  1. A fault-tolerant control architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozeski, Graham R.

    Research has presented several approaches to achieve varying degrees of fault-tolerance in unmanned aircraft. Approaches in reconfigurable flight control are generally divided into two categories: those which incorporate multiple non-adaptive controllers and switch between them based on the output of a fault detection and identification element, and those that employ a single adaptive controller capable of compensating for a variety of fault modes. Regardless of the approach for reconfigurable flight control, certain fault modes dictate system restructuring in order to prevent a catastrophic failure. System restructuring enables active control of actuation not employed by the nominal system to recover controllability of the aircraft. After system restructuring, continued operation requires the generation of flight paths that adhere to an altered flight envelope. The control architecture developed in this research employs a multi-tiered hierarchy to allow unmanned aircraft to generate and track safe flight paths despite the occurrence of potentially catastrophic faults. The hierarchical architecture increases the level of autonomy of the system by integrating five functionalities with the baseline system: fault detection and identification, active system restructuring, reconfigurable flight control; reconfigurable path planning, and mission adaptation. Fault detection and identification algorithms continually monitor aircraft performance and issue fault declarations. When the severity of a fault exceeds the capability of the baseline flight controller, active system restructuring expands the controllability of the aircraft using unconventional control strategies not exploited by the baseline controller. Each of the reconfigurable flight controllers and the baseline controller employ a proven adaptive neural network control strategy. A reconfigurable path planner employs an adaptive model of the vehicle to re-shape the desired flight path. Generation of the revised

  2. High-dose allergen exposure leads to tolerance.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A

    2005-02-01

    Reports of decreased sensitization to cat allergen (Fel d 1) among individuals living with a cat or subjects exposed to high-dose cat allergen may be explained by the development of a form of high-dose tolerance resulting from natural exposure to an inhalant allergen. Although the epidemiological data regarding the relationship between exposure and sensitization to Fel d 1 are conflicting, the ability for high-dose Fel d 1 to induce a characteristic nonallergic immune response with a distinctive serum antibody profile has been established. Definition of this modified T-helper (Th)2 response to cat allergen, coupled with the renewed interest in regulatory T cells within the immunology field, has provided an avenue for exploring the mechanism by which IgE antibody-mediated responses are controlled. There is mounting evidence to suggest that the modified Th2 response is a variation of the allergic response and that the modified Th2-allergic axis is influenced by allergen dose and genetics. This article discusses putative immune mechanisms of tolerance within the context of an allergen-specific system. The relevance of high-dose allergen exposure and alternate factors such as endotoxin to the development of tolerance is considered. Fel d 1 exhibits unique molecular and immunological characteristics that may contribute to its tolerogenic properties. Major T-cell epitopes of Fel d 1 that preferentially induce regulatory factors have been defined. Furthermore, high-titer IgE antibody responses associated with atopic dermatitis are characterized by a defect in the T-cell repertoire that is specific to these epitopes. Identification of Fel d 1 epitopes that induce interleukin-10 may provide new targets for treatment.

  3. EFFECT OF AMBIENT LIGHT, AERIAL EXPOSURE, AND SEASON ON EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) METRICS IN A NORTHEAST PACIFIC (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although light is the principal factor controlling the lower depth limit of seagrasses, little attention has been given to how reduced winter lighting may affect intertidal plants. In the present study intertidal light intensity, temperature, and aerial exposure were measured ove...

  4. Mortality of shallow reef corals in the western Arabian Gulf following aerial exposure in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, Y. H.; Allen, K. W.; Estudillo, R. A.

    1995-05-01

    Aerial exposure of patch reef corals occurred in Tarut Bay, western Arabian Gulf, (Saudi Arabia) between December 1991 and May 1992, and coincided with extreme low spring tides (below the predicted lowest astronomical tide-LAT). Colonies of Acropora and Stylophora occurring at the highest levels on the tops of patch reef platforms were most affected by the low tides. Corals fully exposed to air suffered total mortality, whereas those not fully exposed suffered tissue damage to their upper parts. Exposure occurred during winter months when air and water temperatures are at their lowest in the gulf. Coupling of extremely low spring tides with wind-induced negative surges (below LAT) are not regular events but are not infrequent. Cold temperatures and exposure may act in concert to produce disproportionate mortalities of reef flat corals in the shallow coastal areas of eastern Saudi Arabia. It is highly unlikely that the Gulf War oil spill played any role in the observed damage to reef corals in the Gulf in 1992.

  5. DESICCATION INDEX: A MEASURE OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY ADVERSE AERIAL EXPOSURE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN AN OREGON (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) blade necrosis resulting from intertidal aerial exposure is describe. A desiccation index was developed to quantitatively assess this damage. This index was then used to evaluate the extent of desiccation damage across intertidal bathymetric slopes (st...

  6. Fault Tolerance Analysis of L1 Adaptive Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Kiruthika

    Trajectory tracking is a critical element for the better functionality of autonomous vehicles. The main objective of this research study was to implement and analyze L1 adaptive control laws for autonomous flight under normal and upset flight conditions. The West Virginia University (WVU) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flight simulation environment was used for this purpose. A comparison study between the L1 adaptive controller and a baseline conventional controller, which relies on position, proportional, and integral compensation, has been performed for a reduced size jet aircraft, the WVU YF-22. Special attention was given to the performance of the proposed control laws in the presence of abnormal conditions. The abnormal conditions considered are locked actuators (stabilator, aileron, and rudder) and excessive turbulence. Several levels of abnormal condition severity have been considered. The performance of the control laws was assessed over different-shape commanded trajectories. A set of comprehensive evaluation metrics was defined and used to analyze the performance of autonomous flight control laws in terms of control activity and trajectory tracking errors. The developed L1 adaptive control laws are supported by theoretical stability guarantees. The simulation results show that L1 adaptive output feedback controller achieves better trajectory tracking with lower level of control actuation as compared to the baseline linear controller under nominal and abnormal conditions.

  7. Osmoregulation and salinity tolerance in the Antarctic midge, Belgica antarctica: seawater exposure confers enhanced tolerance to freezing and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Elnitsky, Michael A; Benoit, Joshua B; Lopez-Martinez, Giancarlo; Denlinger, David L; Lee, Richard E

    2009-09-01

    Summer storms along the Antarctic Peninsula can cause microhabitats of the terrestrial midge Belgica antarctica to become periodically inundated with seawater from tidal spray. As microhabitats dry, larvae may be exposed to increasing concentrations of seawater. Alternatively, as a result of melting snow or following rain, larvae may be immersed in freshwater for extended periods. The present study assessed the tolerance and physiological response of B. antarctica larvae to salinity exposure, and examined the effect of seawater acclimation on their subsequent tolerance of freezing, dehydration and heat shock. Midge larvae tolerated extended exposure to hyperosmotic seawater; nearly 50% of larvae survived a 10-day exposure to 1000 mOsm kg(-1) seawater and approximately 25% of larvae survived 6 days in 2000 mOsm kg(-1) seawater. Exposure to seawater drastically reduced larval body water content and increased hemolymph osmolality. By contrast, immersion in freshwater did not affect water content or hemolymph osmolality. Hyperosmotic seawater exposure, and the accompanying osmotic dehydration, resulted in a significant correlation between the rate of oxygen consumption and larval water content and induced the de novo synthesis and accumulation of several organic osmolytes. A 3-day exposure of larvae to hyperosmotic seawater increased freezing tolerance relative to freshwater-acclimated larvae. Even after rehydration, the freezing survival of larvae acclimated to seawater was greater than freshwater-acclimated larvae. Additionally, seawater exposure increased the subsequent tolerance of larvae to dehydration. Our results further illustrate the similarities between these related, yet distinct, forms of osmotic stress and add to the suite of physiological responses used by larvae to enhance survival in the harsh and unpredictable Antarctic environment.

  8. [RISK OF THE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES TO WORKERS AND ENVIRONMENT DURING THE AERIAL TREATMENTS].

    PubMed

    Artemova, O V

    2016-01-01

    Performed hygienic studies of conditions of the usage of various pesticides by an aerial method allowed to establish the admissible risk for the workers and the minimum risk for population upon compliance with both safety requirements and technological and hygienic regulations.

  9. Non-lethal heat shock increases tolerance to metal exposure in brine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Pestana, João L T; Novais, Sara C; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Vandegehuchte, Michiel B; Bossier, Peter; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-11-01

    Pollution and temperature increase are two of the most important stressors that aquatic organisms are facing. Exposure to elevated temperatures and metal contamination both induce heat shock proteins (HSPs), which may thus be involved in the induced cross-tolerance in various organisms. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that exposure to a non-lethal heat shock (NLHS) causes an increased tolerance to subsequent metal exposure. Using gnotobiotic cultures of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, the tolerance to Cd and Zn acute exposures was tested after a prior NLHS treatment (30min exposure to 37°C). The effects of NLHS and metal exposure were also assessed by measuring 70kDa-HSPs production, along with the analysis of epigenetic markers such as DNA methylation and histone H3 and histone H4 acetylation. Our results showed that heat-shocked Artemia had increased acute tolerance to Cd and Zn. However, different patterns of HSPs were observed between the two metal compounds and no epigenetic alterations were observed in response to heat shock or metal exposure. These results suggest that HSP production is a phenotypically plastic trait with a potential role in temperature-induced tolerance to metal exposure.

  10. Salt tolerance in soybean WF-7 is partially regulated by ABA and ROS signaling and involves withholding toxic Cl- ions from aerial tissues.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shuxin; Weeda, Sarah; Li, Haiwen; Whitehead, Brodie; Guo, Yangdong; Atalay, Asmare; Parry, John

    2012-08-01

    Salt tolerance in plants is a complex trait involving multiple mechanisms. Understanding these mechanisms and their regulation will assist in developing novel strategies to engineer salt-tolerant crops. In the current study, we investigated salt-tolerant mechanisms in soybean (Glycine max) cultivar WF-7 in comparison to salt-sensitive Union. In vivo and in vitro salt assays demonstrated the salt tolerance of WF-7 at the seedling stage and during germination. After a 10-day 200 mM NaCl treatment, chlorophyll content in Union was reduced by 50 % compared to a 17 % reduction in WF-7. WF-7 was also less affected by abscisic acid (ABA) and NaCl during germination than Union. Upon ABA and NaCl treatment, the ABA-responsive genes SCOF1, ASN1, bZIP44, and AAPK1 are differentially expressed in WF-7 and Union seedlings. These results suggest that salt tolerance in WF-7 is in part regulated through an ABA-dependent pathway. In addition, following a 4-day 200 mM NaCl treatment, WF-7 produced more H₂O₂ than Union indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating salt tolerance in WF-7. Yet another mechanism WF-7 employs is withholding toxic chloride (Cl⁻) ions from aerial tissues. Following 200 mM NaCl treatment, Cl⁻ accumulation was mostly localized to the roots of WF-7. In contrast, most of the Cl⁻ in Union was transported into the stems and leaves. Taken together, our results demonstrated a role of ABA and ROS in regulating salt tolerance in WF-7, and the critical role of Cl⁻ in NaCl-induced mortality in soybean. Key message Withholding toxic Cl⁻ ions from leaves and, to a lesser extent, stems, confers salt tolerance to soybean WF-7. In addition, ABA and ROS may be involved in salt-stress signal transduction.

  11. Tolerance of developing salmonid eggs and fry to nitrate exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kincheloe, John W.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Koch, David L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on tests which show significant effects on early salmonid life stages of nitrates at levels commonly found in groundwaters in geographical areas that are influenced by fertilizer application. It has long been known, from fish cultural experience, that in certain site specific locations, chronic problems can be expected with salmonid egg development and early fry mortality. However, fingerlings which survive usually grow normally. A complete explanation is lacking although several environmental factors have been proposed to account for this phenomenon. One, which has so far received little attention, is that nitrate levels in the ground and surface waters of many areas have been increasing significantly over historical background levels. Ammonia, urea, and other potential sources of nitrate can enter natural waters from a variety of sources, such as domestic or industrial sewage, animal feedlots, or seepage and return flows from agricultural lands. The latter may be the largest contributor, since billions of tons of nitrate fertilizers are applied to agricultural crops on a worldwide basis each year. In addition, intensive forest management techniques include the aerial application of nitrate fertilizer to increase the yield of wood products, while range management practices call for use of nitrates to increase forage production. The nitrate that is not taken up by plants ultimately appears in ground or surface waters.

  12. Tolerance of the invasive tunicate Styela clava to air exposure.

    PubMed

    Hillock, Kristina A; Costello, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Styela clava is a subtidal invasive marine species in Northern Europe, Atlantic Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It grows attached to solid substrata, including boat hulls, ropes, moorings, piers and aquaculture equipment, all of which can aid its spread to new locations. It interferes with feeding of mussels and oysters, and increases their harvesting costs. Being subtidal, it could be assumed that tunicates would rapidly die in air and thus exposure to air would be a practical method to prevent their spread on boats and equipment. This study tested their survival when exposed to air for up to (1) 120 h at a constant temperature of 10 °C, (2) shade ambient 15-27 °C, and (3) full sun ambient 15-29 °C. Humidity was consistently high (78-100%). The results indicated that survival was longer when the air temperature was cooler. Larger individuals of S. clava generally survived for longer out of seawater than smaller individuals. The results predict that two weeks of exposure to air for two weeks could be an effective management method to eradicate S. clava from marine equipment when the air temperature is 10 °C. However, drying time would be less under conditions of low humidity and under direct sunlight.

  13. Abundance of Plasma Antioxidant Proteins Confers Tolerance to Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Gayatri; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Ganju, Lilly

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Padhy, Gayatri, Niroj Kumar Sethy, Lilly Ganju, and Kalpana Bhargava. Abundance of plasma antioxidant proteins confers tolerance to acute hypobaric hypoxia exposure. High Alt Med Biol 14:289–297, 2013—Systematic identification of molecular signatures for hypobaric hypoxia can aid in better understanding of human adaptation to high altitude. In an attempt to identify proteins promoting hypoxia tolerance during acute exposure to high altitude, we screened and identified hypoxia tolerant and susceptible rats based on hyperventilation time to a simulated altitude of 32,000 ft (9754 m). The hypoxia tolerance was further validated by estimating 8-isoprotane levels and protein carbonyls, which revealed that hypoxia tolerant rats possessed significant lower plasma levels as compared to susceptible rats. We used a comparative plasma proteome profiling approach using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) combined with MALDI TOF/TOF for both groups, along with an hypoxic control group. This resulted in the identification of 19 differentially expressed proteins. Seven proteins (TTR, GPx-3, PON1, Rab-3D, CLC11, CRP, and Hp) were upregulated in hypoxia tolerant rats, while apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) was upregulated in hypoxia susceptible rats. We further confirmed the consistent higher expression levels of three antioxidant proteins (PON1, TTR, and GPx-3) in hypoxia-tolerant animals using ELISA and immunoblotting. Collectively, these proteomics-based results highlight the role of antioxidant enzymes in conferring hypoxia tolerance during acute hypobaric hypoxia. The expression of these antioxidant enzymes could be used as putative biomarkers for screening altitude adaptation as well as aiding in better management of altered oxygen pathophysiologies. PMID:24067188

  14. Exposure of Metarhizium acridum mycelium to light induces tolerance to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2016-03-01

    Metarhizium acridum is an entomopathogenic fungus commonly used as a bioinsecticide. The conidium is the fungal stage normally employed as field inoculum in biological control programs and must survive under field conditions such as high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure. Light, which is an important stimulus for many fungi, has been shown to induce the production of M. robertsii conidia with increased stress tolerance. Here we show that a two-hour exposure to white or blue/UV-A light of fast-growing mycelium induces tolerance to subsequent UV-B irradiation. Red light, however, does not have the same effect. In addition, we established that this induction can take place with as little as 1 min of white-light exposure. This brief illumination scheme could be relevant in future studies of M. acridum photobiology and for the production of UV-B resistant mycelium used in mycelium-based formulations for biological control.

  15. Plasticity in offspring contaminant tolerance traits: developmental cadmium exposure trumps parental effects.

    PubMed

    Plautz, Stephanie C; Salice, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Parental effects are non-genotypic influences on offspring phenotype that occur via parental phenotypes or environments, while developmental plasticity is phenotypic variation that arises during development in response to environmental cues. We evaluated the relative contribution of these two sources of phenotypic variation on offspring toxicant tolerance in Physa pomilia snails exposed to cadmium. We exposed adult snails to 0, 2, or 20 μg/L cadmium for 7 days, then exposed egg masses collected from these adults to 0 or 2 μg/L cadmium in a factorial design (adult cadmium exposure × egg mass cadmium exposure). Starting at 2 days old, we recorded time to death for hatchlings exposed to 150 μg/L cadmium for 72 h at 8 h intervals. Juveniles hatched from cadmium-exposed egg masses displayed higher cadmium tolerance than juveniles from unexposed egg masses. Among juveniles from egg masses not exposed to cadmium, offspring of parents exposed to 20 μg/L cadmium had higher cadmium tolerance than offspring of parents exposed to 0 or 2 μg/L cadmium. Our results show that both parental effects and developmental plasticity can impact offspring toxicant tolerance and point to the potential importance of both processes in understanding how offspring respond to chemical contaminants. When both parents and offspring are exposed to a toxicant, our results showed that the effects of parental exposure on offspring toxicant tolerance may be eclipsed by the effects of offspring exposure during development.

  16. Exposure to Corticosterone Affects Host Resistance, but Not Tolerance, to an Emerging Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Murone, Julie; DeMarchi, Joseph A.; Venesky, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses to pathogens include defenses that reduce infection burden (i.e., resistance) and traits that reduce the fitness consequences of an infection (i.e., tolerance). Resistance and tolerance are affected by an organism's physiological status. Corticosterone (“CORT”) is a hormone that is associated with the regulation of many physiological processes, including metabolism and reproduction. Because of its role in the stress response, CORT is also considered the primary vertebrate stress hormone. When secreted at high levels, CORT is generally thought to be immunosuppressive. Despite the known association between stress and disease resistance in domesticated organisms, it is unclear whether these associations are ecologically and evolutionary relevant in wildlife species. We conducted a 3x3 fully crossed experiment in which we exposed American toads (Anaxyrus [Bufo] americanus) to one of three levels of exogenous CORT (no CORT, low CORT, or high CORT) and then to either low or high doses of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (“Bd”) or a sham exposure treatment. We assessed Bd infection levels and tested how CORT and Bd affected toad resistance, tolerance, and mortality. Exposure to the high CORT treatment significantly elevated CORT release in toads; however, there was no difference between toads given no CORT or low CORT. Exposure to CORT and Bd each increased toad mortality, but they did not interact to affect mortality. Toads that were exposed to CORT had higher Bd resistance than toads exposed to ethanol controls/low CORT, a pattern opposite that of most studies on domesticated animals. Exposure to CORT did not affect toad tolerance to Bd. Collectively, these results show that physiological stressors can alter a host’s response to a pathogen, but that the outcome might not be straightforward. Future studies that inhibit CORT secretion are needed to better our understanding of the relationship between stress physiology

  17. Chronic exposure to ozone causes tolerance to airway hyperresponsiveness in guinea pigs: lack of SOD role.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M H; Romero, L; Sommer, B; Zamudio, P; Gustin, P; Montaño, L M

    1998-05-01

    Tolerance to respiratory effects of O3 has been demonstrated for anatomic and functional changes, but information about tolerance to O3-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is scarce. In guinea pigs exposed to air or O3 (0.3 parts/million, 4 h/day, for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, or 48 days, studied 16-18 h later), pulmonary insufflation pressure changes induced by intravenous substance P (SP, 0.032-3.2 micro ug/kg) were measured, then the animals were subjected to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Bronchial rings with or without phosphoramidon were also evaluated 3 h after air or a single O3 exposure. O3 caused in vivo AHR (increased sensitivity) to SP after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 days of exposure compared with control. However, after 48 days of exposure, O3 no longer caused AHR. Total cell, macrophage, neutrophil, and eosinophil counts in BAL were increased in most O3-exposed groups. When data from all animals were pooled, we found a highly significant correlation between degree of airway responsiveness and total cells (r = 0.55), macrophages (r = 0.54), neutrophils (r = 0.47), and eosinophils (r = 0.53), suggesting that airway inflammation is involved in development of AHR to SP. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in BAL fluids were increased (P < 0.05) after 1, 3, 6, and 12 days of O3 exposure and returned to basal levels after 24 and 48 days of exposure. O3 failed to induce hyperresponsiveness to SP in bronchial rings, and phosphoramidon increased responses to SP in air- and O3-exposed groups, suggesting that neutral endopeptidase inactivation was not involved in O3-induced AHR to SP in vivo. We conclude that chronic exposure to 0. 3 ppm O3, a concentration found in highly polluted cities, resulted in tolerance to AHR to SP in guinea pigs by an SOD-independent mechanism.

  18. Efficacy of methuselah gene mutation toward tolerance of dichlorvos exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Khatoon, Rehana; Saini, Sanjay; Vimal, Divya; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Narayan, Gopeshwar; Chowdhuri, Debapratim Kar

    2015-06-01

    Adverse reports on the exposure of organisms to dichlorvos (DDVP; an organophosphate insecticide) necessitate studies of organismal resistance/tolerance by way of pharmacological or genetic means. In the context of genetic modulation, a mutation in methuselah (mth; encodes a class II G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)) is reported to extend (~35%) the life span of Drosophila melanogaster and enhance their resistance to oxidative stress induced by paraquat exposure (short term, high level). A lack of studies on organismal tolerance of DDVP by genetic modulation prompted us to examine the protective efficacy of mth mutation in exposed Drosophila. Flies were exposed to 1.5 and 15.0 ng/ml DDVP for 12-48 h to examine oxidative stress endpoints and chemical resistance. After prolonged exposure of flies to DDVP, antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress, glutathione content, and locomotor performance were assayed at various days (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50) of age. Flies with the mth mutation (mth(1)) showed improved chemical resistance and rescued redox impairment after acute DDVP exposure. Exposed mth(1) flies exhibited improved life span along with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities and rescued oxidative perturbations and locomotor insufficiency up to middle age (~20 days) over similarly exposed w(1118) flies. However, at late (≥30 days) age, these benefits were undermined. Further, similarly exposed mth-knockdown flies showed effects similar to those observed in mth(1) flies. This study provides evidence of tolerance in organisms carrying a mth mutation against prolonged DDVP exposure and further warrants examination of similar class II GPCR signaling facets toward better organismal health.

  19. The effect of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on spatial memory in adolescent rats: the dissociation of metabolic and cognitive tolerances.

    PubMed

    Van Skike, Candice E; Novier, Adelle; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2012-05-09

    Using a rapid chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure paradigm, we demonstrate the dissociability of metabolic tolerance from cognitive tolerance in adolescent rats. Adolescent rats were trained to spatially navigate in the Morris Water Maze and then exposed to CIE vapor or air 16 h a day for 4 days. After a final 28 h withdrawal, all rats received a saline or ethanol challenge, followed by a test of spatial memory 30 min after administration. Results indicate that CIE vapor exposure did not significantly impair adolescent spatial memory. Although CIE-exposed rats developed metabolic tolerance to a subsequent ethanol administration, CIE exposure did not alter dose-dependent ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments. These data indicate that metabolic ethanol tolerance can be distinguished from cognitive ethanol tolerance during adolescence and suggest that blood alcohol levels alone do not fully explain ethanol-induced spatial memory impairments.

  20. Mechanisms of Orthostatic Tolerance Improvement Following Artificial Gravity Exposure Differ Between Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ferguson, C. R.; Ribiero, L. C.; Zhang, Q.; Moore, F. B.; Serrador, J.; Smith, J. D.; Knapp, C. F.

    2014-01-01

    We recently determined that a short exposure to artificial gravity (AG) improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects. We now seek to determine the mechanisms of that improvement in these hypovolemic men and women. Methods. We determined the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). In both cases (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide). Orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output and peripheral resistance (Finometer), cerebral artery blood velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) were measured during supine baseline, during OTL to presyncope and during supine recovery Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater on the day of AG exposure than on the HDBR day. Regression of OTL on these variables identified significant relationships on the HDBR day that were not evident on the AG day: resting TPR correlated positively while resting cerebral flow correlated negatively with OTL. On both days, women's resting stroke volume correlated positively with orthostatic tolerance. Higher group mean values of stroke volume and cerebral artery flow and lower values of blood pressure, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular resistance both at control and during OTL testing were observed on the AG day. Even though regression of OTL on resting stroke volume was significant only in women, presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women while the OTL test lasted 30% longer in men and 22% longer in women. Cerebral artery flow appeared to

  1. Extension of pulmonary O2 tolerance in man at 2 ATA by intermittent O2 exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, P. L.; Hall, D. A.; Hunter, W. L., Jr.; Haley, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    To study extension of O2 tolerance by interruption of hyperoxic exposure, five healthy volunteers were exposed to oxygen at 2 ATA on an intermittent schedule of 20 min breathing O2, alternating with 5 min on a normoxic N2-O2 mixture. The cycle was repeated until symptoms or signs of O2 toxicity caused cessation of the experiment. Tracheal irritation and burning on inspiration occurred after 6-9 'oxygen hours' of exposure and progressed to severe tracheobronchial burning sensation, chest pain, and dyspnea after 11-15 h of O2. With intermittent O2 administration, nearly a doubling of the average duration of actual oxygen breathing was required to induce marked vital capacity change (more than 10%) as compared to the previous studies of continuous O2 exposure.

  2. Basal tolerance to heat and cold exposure of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The spotted wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, is a new pest in Europe and America which causes severe damages, mostly to stone fruit crops. Temperature and humidity are among the most important abiotic factors governing insect development and fitness. In many situations, temperature can become stressful thus compromising survival. The ability to cope with thermal stress depends on basal level of thermal tolerance. Basic knowledge on temperature-dependent mortality of D. suzukii is essential to facilitate management of this pest. The objective of the present study was to investigate D. suzukii basal cold and heat tolerance. Adults and pupae were subjected to six low temperatures (−5–7.5 °C) and seven high temperatures (30–37 °C) for various durations, and survival-time-temperature relationships were investigated. Data showed that males were globally more cold tolerant than females. At temperature above 5 °C, adult cold mortality became minor even after prolonged exposures (e.g., only 20% mortality after one month at 7.5 °C). Heat tolerance of males was lower than that of females at the highest tested temperatures (34, 35 and 37 °C). Pupae appeared much less cold tolerant than adults at all temperatures (e.g., Lt50 at 5° C: 4–5 d for adults vs. 21 h for pupae). Pupae were more heat tolerant than adults at the most extreme high temperatures (e.g., Lt50 at 37 °C: 30 min for adults vs. 4 h for pupae). The pupal thermal tolerance was further investigated under low vs. high humidity. Low relative humidity did not affect pupal cold survival, but it reduced survival under heat stress. Overall, this study shows that survival of D. suzukii under heat and cold conditions can vary with stress intensity, duration, humidity, sex and stage, and the methodological approach used here, which was based on thermal tolerance landscapes, provides a comprehensive description of D. suzukiithermal tolerance and limits. PMID:28348931

  3. Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Sathanandam S. . E-mail: sanand@rx.uga.edu; Philip, Binu K.; Palkar, Prajakta S.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M. . E-mail: mehendale@ulm.edu

    2006-06-15

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Male Swiss Webster (SW) mice were given three dose levels of chloroform (150, 225, and 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage in aqueous vehicle for 30 days. Liver and kidney injury were measured by plasma ALT and BUN, respectively, and by histopathology. Tissue regeneration was assessed by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation into hepato- and nephro-nuclear DNA and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. In addition, GSH and CYP2E1 in liver and kidney were assessed at selected time points. The levels of chloroform were measured in blood, liver, and kidney during the dosing regimen (1, 7, 14, and 30 days). Kidney injury was evident after 1 day with all three doses and sustained until 7 days followed by complete recovery. Mild to moderate liver injury was observed from 1 to 14 days with all three dose levels followed by gradual decrease. Significantly higher regenerative response was evident in liver and kidney at 7 days, but the response was robust in kidney, preventing progression of injury beyond first week of exposure. While the kidney regeneration reached basal levels by 21 days, moderate liver regeneration with two higher doses sustained through the end of the dosing regimen and 3 days after that. Following repeated exposure for 7, 14, and 30 days, the blood and tissue levels of chloroform were substantially lower with all three dose levels compared to the levels observed with single exposure. Increased exhalation of {sup 14}C-chloroform after repeated exposures explains the decreased chloroform levels in circulation and tissues. These results suggest that toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (tissue regeneration) contribute to the tolerance observed in SW mice to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Neither bioactivation nor

  4. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, A J; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Mason, N S; Sands, R J N; Walker, M J

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects were found on the abundance of at least one group within each taxon studied. Numbers of butterflies in beet and spring oilseed rape and of Heteroptera and bees in beet were smaller under the relevant GMHT crop management, whereas the abundance of Collembola was consistently greater in all GMHT crops. Generally, these effects were specific to each crop type, reflected the phenology and ecology of the arthropod taxa, were indirect and related to herbicide management. These results apply generally to agriculture across Britain, and could be used in mathematical models to predict the possible long-term effects of the widespread adoption of GMHT technology. The results for bees and butterflies relate to foraging preferences and might or might not translate into effects on population densities, depending on whether adoption leads to forage reductions over large areas. These species, and the detritivore Collembola, may be useful indicator species for future studies of GMHT management. PMID:14561319

  5. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Haughton, A J; Champion, G T; Hawes, C; Heard, M S; Brooks, D R; Bohan, D A; Clark, S J; Dewar, A M; Firbank, L G; Osborne, J L; Perry, J N; Rothery, P; Roy, D B; Scott, R J; Woiwod, I P; Birchall, C; Skellern, M P; Walker, J H; Baker, P; Browne, E L; Dewar, A J G; Garner, B H; Haylock, L A; Horne, S L; Mason, N S; Sands, R J N; Walker, M J

    2003-11-29

    The effects of the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops on the abundances of aerial and epigeal arthropods were assessed in 66 beet, 68 maize and 67 spring oilseed rape sites as part of the Farm Scale Evaluations of GMHT crops. Most higher taxa were insensitive to differences between GMHT and conventional weed management, but significant effects were found on the abundance of at least one group within each taxon studied. Numbers of butterflies in beet and spring oilseed rape and of Heteroptera and bees in beet were smaller under the relevant GMHT crop management, whereas the abundance of Collembola was consistently greater in all GMHT crops. Generally, these effects were specific to each crop type, reflected the phenology and ecology of the arthropod taxa, were indirect and related to herbicide management. These results apply generally to agriculture across Britain, and could be used in mathematical models to predict the possible long-term effects of the widespread adoption of GMHT technology. The results for bees and butterflies relate to foraging preferences and might or might not translate into effects on population densities, depending on whether adoption leads to forage reductions over large areas. These species, and the detritivore Collembola, may be useful indicator species for future studies of GMHT management.

  6. Exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to green tea polyphenols enhances the tolerance to various environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Jianrong; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xiaoqiang

    2012-12-01

    Green tea polyphenols (GTP) are widely used as food preservatives and are considered to be extremely safe. However, the bacterial response to GTP has not been well studied. Here we investigated whether short exposure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to sub-lethal dose of GTP could lead to cross-resistance to some environmental stresses. One-hour exposure of P. aeruginosa to 1 mg/ml GTP significantly increased the tolerance to oxidants (2 mM H(2)O(2), 4 mM tert-butylhydroperoxide), low pH solution (pH 4.0) containing various organic acids (60 mM citric, acetic, propionic or lactic acid) and other stress conditions (47 °C, 25 % NaCl, 12 % ethanol and 150 μg/ml crystal violet). The development of H(2)O(2) tolerance in GTP-exposed cells was prevented by chloramphenicol, a well-known inhibitor of protein synthesis in prokaryotic cells. Furthermore, we observed significantly increased catalase activity after GTP exposure, suggesting that P. aeruginosa develops GTP-induced cross-resistance by increasing synthesis of protective protein. These observations raise concerns over the underlying risks associated with using GTP as food preservatives.

  7. Repeated exposure to noise increases tolerance in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Sophie L; Mills, Suzanne C; Lecchini, David; Nedelec, Brendan; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-09-01

    Some anthropogenic noise is now considered pollution, with evidence building that noise from human activities such as transportation, construction and exploration can impact behaviour and physiology in a broad range of taxa. However, relatively little research has considered the effects of repeated or chronic noise; extended exposures may result in habituation or sensitisation, and thus changes in response. We conducted a field-based experiment at Moorea Island to investigate how repeated exposure to playback of motorboat noise affected a coral reef fish (Dascyllus trimaculatus). We found that juvenile D. trimaculatus increased hiding behaviour during motorboat noise after two days of repeated exposure, but no longer did so after one and two weeks of exposure. We also found that naïve individuals responded to playback of motorboat noise with elevated ventilation rates, but that this response was diminished after one and two weeks of repeated exposure. We found no strong evidence that baseline blood cortisol levels, growth or body condition were affected by three weeks of repeated motorboat-noise playback. Our study reveals the importance of considering how tolerance levels may change over time, rather than simply extrapolating from results of short-term studies, if we are to make decisions about regulation and mitigation.

  8. Fish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations with different exposure histories differ in tolerance of creosote-contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Ownby, David R; Newman, Michael C; Mulvey, Margaret; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Unger, Michael A; Arzayus, L Felipe

    2002-09-01

    Prior studies suggest that field-collected fish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a creosote-contaminated Superfund site (Atlantic Wood Industries site, Elizabeth River, VA, USA) have enhanced tolerance to local, contaminated sediments. This study was designed to test whether other populations in the Elizabeth River at less contaminated sites also show similar tolerance and whether this tolerance is heritable. To test this, F. heteroclitus populations were sampled from four sites within the Elizabeth River with varying sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations (3.9-264 ng PAH/g dry wt 10(3)) and one reference site in a nearby, uncontaminated estuary (York River, VA, USA; 0.27 ng PAH/g dry wt x 10(3)). Embryo assays were performed to quantify population differences in teratogenic effects during contaminated sediment exposure. Atlantic Wood sediment was mixed with reference sediment to achieve a range of sediment concentrations. Minimal differences were observed in teratogenic effects among fish taken from sites within the Elizabeth River; however, embryos of fish collected from a nearby, uncontaminated York River site and exposed to contaminated sediments had a significantly higher proportion of embryos with cardiac abnormalities than those from the Elizabeth River sites. Embryos from wild-caught and laboratory-reared Elizabeth River F. heteroclitus were simultaneously exposed to contaminated sediments, and no significant tolerance differences were found between embryos from fish taken directly from the field and those reared for a generation in the lab. Differences between fish populations from the two estuaries were larger than differences within the Elizabeth River, and these differences in tolerance were heritable.

  9. Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants.

    PubMed

    Clemens, S

    2006-11-01

    Over the past 200 years emissions of toxic heavy metals have risen tremendously and significantly exceed those from natural sources for practically all metals. Uptake and accumulation by crop plants represents the main entry pathway for potentially health-threatening toxic metals into human and animal food. Of major concern are the metalloids arsenic (As) and selenium (Se), and the metals cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb). This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of toxic metal accumulation in plants and algae, the responses to metal exposure, as well as our understanding of metal tolerance and its evolution. The main emphasis will be on cadmium, which is by far the most widely studied of the non-essential toxic metals/metalloids. Entry via Zn2+, Fe2+, and Ca2+ transporters is the molecular basis of Cd2+ uptake into plant cells. Much less is known about the partitioning of non-essential metals and about the genes underlying the enormous diversity among plants with respect to Cd accumulation in different tissues. Numerous studies have described symptoms and responses of plants upon toxic metal exposure. Mysterious are primary targets of toxicity, the degree of specificity of responses, the sensing and the signaling events that lead to transcriptional activation. All plants apparently possess a basal tolerance of toxic non-essential metals. For Cd and As, this is largely dependent on the phytochelatin pathway. Not understood is the molecular biology of Cd hypertolerance in certain plant species such as the metallophytes Arabidopsis halleri or Thlaspi caerulescens.

  10. Reversible Antibiotic Tolerance Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Concurrent Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Haaber, Jakob; Friberg, Cathrine; McCreary, Mark; Lin, Richard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to beta-lactam antibiotics has led to increasing use of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin as a life-saving treatment for major S. aureus infections. Coinfection by an unrelated bacterial species may necessitate concurrent treatment with a second antibiotic that targets the coinfecting pathogen. While investigating factors that affect bacterial antibiotic sensitivity, we discovered that susceptibility of S. aureus to vancomycin is reduced by concurrent exposure to colistin, a cationic peptide antimicrobial employed to treat infections by Gram-negative pathogens. We show that colistin-induced vancomycin tolerance persists only as long as the inducer is present and is accompanied by gene expression changes similar to those resulting from mutations that produce stably inherited reduction of vancomycin sensitivity (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus [VISA] strains). As colistin-induced vancomycin tolerance is reversible, it may not be detected by routine sensitivity testing and may be responsible for treatment failure at vancomycin doses expected to be clinically effective based on such routine testing. Importance   Commonly, antibiotic resistance is associated with permanent genetic changes, such as point mutations or acquisition of resistance genes. We show that phenotypic resistance can arise where changes in gene expression result in tolerance to an antibiotic without any accompanying genetic changes. Specifically, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) behaves like vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) upon exposure to colistin, which is currently used against infections by Gram-negative bacteria. Vancomycin is a last-resort drug for treatment of serious S. aureus infections, and VISA is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Phenotypic and reversible resistance will not be revealed by standard susceptibility testing and may underlie treatment failure. PMID:25587013

  11. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  12. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult male rats: Effects on tolerance, social behavior and ethanol intake

    PubMed Central

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of the present study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Methods Adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10 day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), non-manipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10) or non-manipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, loss of righting reflex was tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and non-manipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hrs after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and non-manipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and non-manipulated animals using an 8 day 2 bottle choice, limited access ethanol intake procedure. Results Adolescents were less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than adults. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents drank significantly more ethanol than adults on a g/kg basis, with intake uninfluenced by prior ethanol exposure at both ages. Conclusion Adolescents and adults may differ in

  13. Effects of embryonic pre-exposure to methylmercury and Hg/sup 2 +/ on larval tolerance in Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, P.; Weis, J.S.

    1983-11-01

    Many reports demonstrate enhanced metal tolerance as a result of previous exposure to low concentrations. Pretreatment of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) eggs with cadmium made the larvae more resistant to subsequent Cd treatment. Larvae of the flagfish, Jordanella floridae, initially exposed as embryos to Zn and to mixtures of Zn and Cd were much more tolerant than those not previously exposed, indicating acclimation during embryonic exposure. Acclimation to metals after pre-exposure was attributed to stimulation of the synthesis of metal-binding proteins, or metallothioneins, in the liver, which form a nontoxic complex with the metal. In this paper we report on the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to methylmercury(meHf) and Hg/sup 2 +/ on larval susceptibility to these toxicants in the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

  14. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans.

  15. Children's Toleration of Real-Life Aggression after Exposure to Media Violence: A Replication of the Drabman and Thomas Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Fred; Hirsch, Kenneth William

    1994-01-01

    Results of four mid-1970s experiments continue to be used as evidence that exposure to media violence desensitizes children to real-life aggression. This study replicated procedures from those experiments using contemporary video materials, and results confirmed original findings that children tend to tolerate more the aggressive behaviors of…

  16. Deriving a provisional tolerable intake for intravenous exposure to silver nanoparticles released from medical devices.

    PubMed

    Savery, Laura C; Viñas, René; Nagy, Amber M; Pradeep, Prachi; Merrill, Stephen J; Hood, Alan M; Malghan, Subhas G; Goering, Peter L; Brown, Ronald P

    2017-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are incorporated into medical devices for their anti-microbial characteristics. The potential exposure and toxicity of AgNPs is unknown due to varying physicochemical particle properties and lack of toxicological data. The aim of this safety assessment is to derive a provisional tolerable intake (pTI) value for AgNPs released from blood-contacting medical devices. A literature review of in vivo studies investigating critical health effects induced from intravenous (i. v.) exposure to AgNPs was evaluated by the Annapolis Accords principles and Toxicological Data Reliability Assessment Tool (ToxRTool). The point of departure (POD) was based on an i. v. 28-day repeated AgNP (20 nm) dose toxicity study reporting an increase in relative spleen weight in rats with a 5% lower confidence bound of the benchmark dose (BMDL05) of 0.14 mg/kg bw/day. The POD was extrapolated to humans by a modifying factor of 1,000 to account for intraspecies variability, interspecies differences and lack of long-term toxicity data. The pTI for long-term i. v. exposure to 20 nm AgNPs released from blood-contacting medical devices was 0.14 μg/kg bw/day. This pTI may not be appropriate for nanoparticles of other physicochemical properties or routes of administration. The methodology is appropriate for deriving pTIs for nanoparticles in general.

  17. Hormone and Cytokine Responses to Repeated Endotoxin Exposures-No Evidence of Endotoxin Tolerance After 5 Weeks in Humans.

    PubMed

    Rittig, Nikolaj; Thomsen, Henrik H; Bach, Ermina; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L; Møller, Niels

    2015-07-01

    Endotoxin administrations are used in experimental models of inflammatory disease. Short-term endotoxin tolerance in response to repeated endotoxin exposure is well known, but the duration of endotoxin tolerance in humans remains unknown. The main purpose of this study was to test whether endotoxin tolerance is present in vivo when separating endotoxin exposures with more than 5 weeks, a time span often used between individual investigations in clinical experimental studies. Seventeen healthy young men were exposed twice to Escherichia coli endotoxin. The inflammatory response was calculated as area under the curve between the first and second endotoxin exposures for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, temperature, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. The median interval between exposures was 90 days (range, 37-244). The ratio between the inflammatory responses during the second and the first endotoxin exposures was 0.89 ± 0.09 (P = 0.28) for tumor necrosis factor α, 0.96 ± 0.07 (P = 0.53) for IL-1β, 0.97 ± 0.11 (P = 0.78) for IL-6, 1.30 ± 0.18 (P = 0.12) for IL-10, and 0.92 ± 0.04 (P = 0.10) for cortisol. Our data do not show evidence of in vivo tolerance to repeated endotoxin exposure when administrations are separated with at least 5 weeks. This observation is important in the planning and interpretation of future experimental endotoxin studies.

  18. Changes in protein expression in the salt marsh mussel Geukensia demissa: evidence for a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism during prolonged aerial exposure

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Peter A.; Eurich, Chris; Gao, William L.; Cela, Bekim

    2014-01-01

    During aerial exposure (emersion), most sessile intertidal invertebrates experience cellular stress caused by hypoxia, and the amount and types of hypoxia-induced stress will differ as exposure time increases, likely leading to altered metabolic responses. We examined proteomic responses to increasing emersion times and decreasing recovery (immersion) times in the mussel Geukensia demissa, which occurs in salt marshes along the east coast of North America. Individuals are found above mean tide level, and can be emersed for over 18 h during spring tides. We acclimated mussels to full immersion at 15°C for 4 weeks, and compared changes in gill protein expression between groups of mussels that were continually immersed (control), were emersed for 6 h and immersed during recovery for 18 h (6E/18R), were emersed for 12 h and recovered for 12 h (12E/12R), or were emersed for 18 h with a 6 h recovery (18E/6R). We found clear differences in protein expression patterns among the treatments. Proteins associated with anaerobic fermentation increased in abundance in 6E/18R but not in 12E/12R or 18E/6R. Increases in oxidative stress proteins were most apparent in 12E/12R, and in 18E/6R changes in cytoskeletal protein expression predominated. We conclude that G. demissa alters its strategy for coping with emersion stress over time, relying on anaerobic metabolism for short- to medium-duration exposure, but switching to an air-gaping strategy for long-term exposure, which reduces hypoxia stress but may cause structural damage to gill tissue. PMID:24501137

  19. Chronic aerial exposure to glucorticoids or beta-agonists affects avoidance learning and exploratory motivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Elías, Pedro C; Sagua, Delia; Alvarez, Edgardo O

    2004-02-04

    The purpose of the present work was to examine if the conventional asthma treatments in humans (inhalation of glucocorticoids or beta-agonists, administered in a chronic regimen) might affect behavioral processes (learning and exploratory motivation) in rats. Adult male rats were exposed to an atmosphere saturated with either saline, budesonide (a glucocorticoid), or salbutamol (a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) in a forced ventilation cage, connected to a nebulizer for 5 min twice a day for 15 days at the same hours of the day. Doses of budesonide in the nebulizing solution were 0.116, 1.16, and 11.6mM. Doses of salbutamol in the nebulizing solution were 1.3, 13, and 130 mM. Forty-eight hours after treatment, the different groups were subjected to exploration of an elevated asymmetric plus-maze (APM, model of exploratory motivation), and 24h later to learning of an avoidance response to an ultrasonic tone in a two-compartment cage (model of memory and learning). Results showed that budesonide induces moderate effects on exploratory motivation. In one of the fear-inducing arms (single wall arm), exploration decreased and this effect was not dose dependent. In the cognitive model, glucocorticoids affected slightly the latency to escape but with no interference in memory efficiency. On the other hand, at the lower dose in the APM, salbutamol increased significantly the exploration of both fear-inducing arms (no walls and single wall arms). In the learning model, the beta-agonist induced two opposing effects. The lower dose (1.3mM) facilitated learning and the higher dose (13 mM) inhibited learning instead. In conclusion, results are compatible with the notion that inhaled glucocorticoids or beta-agonists might cross the lung aerial barrier into the blood compartment, exerting effects on learning and motivation functions.

  20. Effect of aerial exposure on the antioxidant status in the subantarctic stone crab Paralomis granulosa (Decapoda: Anomura).

    PubMed

    Romero, M Carolina; Ansaldo, Martín; Lovrich, Gustavo A

    2007-01-01

    In Tierra del Fuego (Southern South America), the stone or false king crab, Paralomis granulosa represents one of the most important crab fisheries. After capture, animals are kept in baskets and exposed to dryness for several hours, when the water flow through the gills is interrupted. As a consequence a concomitant increase of reactive oxygen species begins, triggering oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities due to air exposure in different tissues of P. granulosa. Fifty crabs (carapace length >82 mm) were captured in Beagle Channel (54 degrees 50'S, 68 degrees 20'W) during winter 2004. Five groups of 10 crabs each were exposed to dryness at 6 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, respectively. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST) protein and lipid oxidation were measured in gills, muscle, hepatopancreas and haemolymph samples. Almost all analyzed tissues showed antioxidant enzymes activity, which varied with time of air exposure. The maximum enzyme activity was measured after 6 h of air exposure. Protein oxidation levels varied significantly in gills. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly in muscle and hepatopancreas. The critical time of air exposure probably occurs at 6 h. Thereafter animals were unable to induce the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes or proteins. This should be taken into account to minimize the stress generated by the commercial capture process.

  1. Pre-Natal Exposure to Mouse Parvovirus at Day 5 and 12 Gestation Does Not Induce Immune Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Allaband, Celeste; Henderson, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Parvoviruses have a predilection for rapidly dividing cells such as occurs during embryonic development. Potentially, in utero exposure could lead to immune tolerance in progeny mice. To determine if MPV infection in utero results in immune tolerance, pregnant mice were inoculated by oral gavage with 50 ID50 MPV1e or sham inoculated with phosphate buffered saline at day 5 and 12 gestation. Offspring were fostered to MPV-negative recipient dams prior to development of a milk spot. After confirming the offspring were seronegative for MPV by serology and not shedding by fecal PCR, they were challenged with 50 ID50 MPV1e by oral gavage at weaning or sham inoculated. At 4 weeks post inoculation, all weanlings exposed in utero developed antibodies to MPV, and MPV was detected by fecal PCR. Similarly, all weanlings from sham-inoculated dams challenged with MPV developed antibodies and MPV was detected by fecal PCR. None of the sham inoculated weanling mice from MPV infected dams or sham infected dams developed antibodies to MPV nor was MPV detected by fecal PCR. These results demonstrate that in utero exposure to MPV1e via oral gavage was insufficient to induce immune tolerance and provides greater confidence that rederivation techniques may successfully eliminate colonies of MPV. Furthermore, our findings do not provide evidence that MPV tolerance may contribute to hidden infections in mouse colonies. PMID:27219540

  2. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Aims ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Results Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. Conclusions ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. PMID:24215171

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of triclosan-susceptible and -tolerant Escherichia coli O157:H19 in response to triclosan exposure.

    PubMed

    Lenahan, Mary; Sheridan, Áine; Morris, Dermot; Duffy, Geraldine; Fanning, Séamus; Burgess, Catherine M

    2014-04-01

    Triclosan is an active agent that is commonly found in biocide formulations which are used by the food industry to control microbial contamination. The aim of this study was to use microarray analysis to compare gene expression between a triclosan-susceptible Escherichia coli O157:H19 isolate (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 6.25 μg/ml) and its in vitro generated triclosan-tolerant mutant (MIC >8,000 μg/ml). Gene expression profiling was performed on the wild-type and mutant isogenic pairs after 30 min exposure to the parent MIC for triclosan and an untreated control. Microarray analysis was carried out using the Affymetrix GeneChip E. coli Genome 2.0 Array, and differential expression of genes was analyzed using the pumaDE method in Bioconductor R software. Wild-type gene expression was found to be significantly different from the triclosan-tolerant mutant for a large number of genes, even in the absence of triclosan exposure. Significant differences were observed in the expression of a number of pathway genes involved in metabolism, transport, and chemotaxis. In particular, gene expression in the triclosan-tolerant mutant was highly up-regulated for 33 of 38 genes belonging to the flagellar assembly pathway. The presence of extended flagella in the mutant isolate was confirmed visually by transmission electron microscopy, although no significant difference was observed in the motility of the parent and mutant at low levels of triclosan. Data from this study show that at a transcriptomic level, a triclosan-tolerant E. coli O157:H19 mutant is significantly different from the wild-type strain in a number of different pathways, providing an increased understanding of triclosan tolerance.

  4. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  5. Acrolein Exposure Blocks Down-Regulation of Cytokines and IgE Antibody in a Mucosal Tolerance Model but does not Alter Phenotypic Markers of Allergic Lung Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrolein (ACR) is a highly reactive upper airway toxicant that humans are exposed in a variety of environmental situations. Here we examined the effect of ACR exposure on development of immune tolerance in mice. To induce tolerance, female BALB/C mice were intranasally inoculate...

  6. Effects of Cu exposure on enzyme activities and selection for microbial tolerances during swine-manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Zhang, Xuelian; Gao, Min; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A simulated experiment of aerobic composting was conducted on swine manure to evaluate the effects of Cu at two exposure levels (200 and 2000 mg kg(-1), corresponding to low-Cu and high-Cu treatments, respectively) on the activity of microorganisms. In addition, the microbial pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu and co-tolerance to selected antibiotics (tylosin and vancomycin) in the composted products were also investigated using the Biolog Ecoplates™ method. It was demonstrated that the enzymatic activities were significantly inhibited by the high-Cu treatment, with maximal inhibition rates of 56.8% and 65.1% for urease and dehydrogenase, respectively. In response to the PICT test, the IC50 (half-maximal inhibition concentrations) values on the microorganisms in the high-Cu-treated composts were clearly higher than those in the low-Cu-treated and control composts, for the toxicity tests on both Cu and antibiotics, including tylosin and vancomycin. The data demonstrated that high-Cu exposure to the microbial community during the composting not only selected for Cu resistance but also co-selected for antibiotic resistance, which was of significance because the tolerance might be transferred to the soil after the land application of composted manure.

  7. Recovery of soil nitrification after long-term zinc exposure and its co-tolerance to Cu in different soils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aiju; Fang, Dianmei; Wang, Chao; Li, Menghong; Young, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Soils sampled from different locations of China were used to manipulate soil microbial diversity and to assess the effect of the diversity of the soil nitrifying community on the recovery of the soil nitrification to metal stress (zinc). Ten treatments were either or not amended with ZnCl2. Subsequently, a spike-on-spike assay was set up to test for the tolerance of soil nitrification to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Initially, Zn amendment completely inhibited nitrification. After a year of Zn exposure, recovery of the potential nitrification rate in Zn-amended soils ranged from 28 to 126% of the potential nitrification rate in the corresponding Zn-nonamended soils. This recovery was strongly related to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and soil pH. Increased Zn tolerance of the soil nitrification was consistently observed in response to corresponding soil contamination. Co-tolerance to Cu was obtained in all 1,000-mg kg(-1) Zn-amended soils. This tolerance was also strongly related to the potential nitrification rate before Zn amendment and soil pH. Our data indicate that inherently microbial activity can be a significant factor for the recovery of soil functioning derived from metal contamination.

  8. The effect of wind exposure on the tree aerial architecture and biomechanics of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Brüchert, Franka; Gardiner, Barry

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports on the effect of wind loading below damaging strength on tree mechanical and physical properties. In a wind-exposed Sitka spruce stand in western Scotland, 60 trees at four different levels of wind exposure (10 m, 30 m, 50 m, 90 m from edge) were characterized for stem and crown size and shape and mechanical properties, including structural Young's modulus (E(struct)), natural frequency, and damping ratio. E(struct) increased from the stand edge to the mid-forest, but with a large inter-tree variation. Swaying frequency and damping ratio of the trees also increased with distance from edge. Wind-exposed edge trees grew shorter, but more tapered with an overall lower E(struct), allowing for greater flexural stiffness at the stem base due to the larger diameter and for higher flexibility in the crown region of the stem. The trees at the middle of the stand compensated for their increased slenderness with a higher E(struct). Thus, for the different requirements for wind-firmness at stand edge and mid-forest, an adapted combination of tree form and mechanical properties allows the best withstanding of wind loads. The results show the requirement to understand the different strategies of trees to adapt to environmental constraints and the heterogeneity of their growth reactions in response to these strategies.

  9. Continuous Exposure to L-Arginine Induces Oxidative Stress and Physiological Tolerance in Cultured Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Srinidi; Wu, Chia-Ching; Shin, Soyoung; Fung, Ho-Leung

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic benefits of L-arginine (ARG) supplementation in humans, often clearly observed in short-term studies, are not evident after long-term use. The mechanisms for the development of ARG tolerance are not known and cannot be readily examined in humans. We have developed a sensitive in vitro model using a low glucose/low arginine culture medium to study the mechanisms of ARG action and tolerance using two different human endothelial cells, i.e., Ea.hy926 and human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cultured cells were incubated with different concentrations of ARG and other agents to monitor their effects on eNOS expression and function, as well as glucose and superoxide (O2•−) accumulation. Short-term (2 h) exposure to at least 50 μM ARG moderately increased eNOS activity and intracellular glucose (p<0.05), with no change in eNOS mRNA or protein expression. In contrast, 7-day continuous ARG exposure suppressed eNOS expression and activity. This was accompanied by increase in glucose and O2•− accumulation. Co-incubation with 100 μM ascorbic acid, 300 U/ml PEG-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD), 100 μM L-lysine or 30 μM 5-chloro-2-(N-2,5-dichlorobenenesulfonamido))-benzoxazole (a fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase inhibitor) prevented the occurrence of cellular ARG tolerance. Short-term co-incubation of ARG with PEG-SOD improved cellular nitrite accumulation without altering cellular ARG uptake. These studies suggest that ARG-induced oxidative stress may be a primary causative factor for the development of cellular ARG tolerance. PMID:22130739

  10. Fatty acid composition and extreme temperature tolerance following exposure to fluctuating temperatures in a soil arthropod.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Suring, Wouter; Ellers, Jacintha

    2011-09-01

    Ectotherms commonly adjust their lipid composition to ambient temperature to counteract detrimental thermal effects on lipid fluidity. However, the extent of lipid remodeling and the associated fitness consequences under continuous temperature fluctuations are not well-described. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated temperature fluctuations on fatty acid composition and thermal tolerance. We exposed the springtail Orchesella cincta to two constant temperatures of 5 and 20°C, and a continuously fluctuating treatment between 5 and 20°C every 2 days. Fatty acid composition differed significantly between constant low and high temperatures. As expected, animals were most cold tolerant in the low temperature treatment, while heat tolerance was highest under high temperature. Under fluctuating temperatures, fatty acid composition changed with temperature initially, but later in the experiment fatty acid composition stabilized and closely resembled that found under constant warm temperatures. Consistent with this, heat tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was comparable to the constant warm treatment. Cold tolerance in the fluctuating temperature treatment was intermediate compared to animals acclimated to constant cold or warmth, despite the fact that fatty acid composition was adjusted to warm conditions. This unexpected finding suggests that in animals acclimated to fluctuating temperatures an additional underlying mechanism is involved in the cold shock response. Other aspects of homeoviscous adaptation may protect animals during extreme cold. This paper forms a next step to fully understand the functioning of ectotherms in more thermally variable environments.

  11. Novel dosing strategies increase exposures of the potent antituberculosis drug rifapentine but are poorly tolerated in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Kelly E; Savic, Radojka M; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Hafner, Richard; Hogg, Evelyn; Janik, Jennifer; Marzinke, Mark A; Patterson, Kristine; Benson, Constance A; Hovind, Laura; Dorman, Susan E; Haas, David W

    2015-01-01

    Rifapentine is a potent antituberculosis drug currently in phase III trials. Bioavailability decreases with increasing dose, yet high daily exposures are likely needed to improve efficacy and shorten the tuberculosis treatment duration. Further, the limits of tolerability are poorly defined. The phase I multicenter trial in healthy adults described here investigated two strategies to increase rifapentine exposures: dividing the dose or giving the drug with a high-fat meal. In arm 1, rifapentine was administered at 10 mg/kg of body weight twice daily and 20 mg/kg once daily, each for 14 days, separated by a 28-day washout; the dosing sequence was randomized. In arm 2, 15 mg/kg rifapentine once daily was given with a high-fat versus a low-fat breakfast. Sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on days 1 and 14. Population pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. This trial was stopped early for poor tolerability and because of safety concerns. Of 44 subjects, 20 discontinued prematurely; 11 of these discontinued for protocol-defined toxicity (a grade 3 or higher adverse event or grade 2 or higher rifamycin hypersensitivity). Taking rifapentine with a high-fat meal increased the median steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24ss) by 31% (relative standard error, 6%) compared to that obtained when the drug was taken with a low-fat breakfast. Dividing the dose increased exposures substantially (e.g., 38% with 1,500 mg/day). AUC0-24ss was uniformly higher in our study than in recent tuberculosis treatment trials, in which toxicity was rare. In conclusion, two strategies to increase rifapentine exposures, dividing the dose or giving it with a high-fat breakfast, successfully increased exposures, but toxicity was common in healthy adults. The limits of tolerability in patients with tuberculosis remain to be defined. (AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5311 has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no

  12. Novel Dosing Strategies Increase Exposures of the Potent Antituberculosis Drug Rifapentine but Are Poorly Tolerated in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Radojka M.; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Hafner, Richard; Hogg, Evelyn; Janik, Jennifer; Marzinke, Mark A.; Patterson, Kristine; Benson, Constance A.; Hovind, Laura; Dorman, Susan E.; Haas, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Rifapentine is a potent antituberculosis drug currently in phase III trials. Bioavailability decreases with increasing dose, yet high daily exposures are likely needed to improve efficacy and shorten the tuberculosis treatment duration. Further, the limits of tolerability are poorly defined. The phase I multicenter trial in healthy adults described here investigated two strategies to increase rifapentine exposures: dividing the dose or giving the drug with a high-fat meal. In arm 1, rifapentine was administered at 10 mg/kg of body weight twice daily and 20 mg/kg once daily, each for 14 days, separated by a 28-day washout; the dosing sequence was randomized. In arm 2, 15 mg/kg rifapentine once daily was given with a high-fat versus a low-fat breakfast. Sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on days 1 and 14. Population pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. This trial was stopped early for poor tolerability and because of safety concerns. Of 44 subjects, 20 discontinued prematurely; 11 of these discontinued for protocol-defined toxicity (a grade 3 or higher adverse event or grade 2 or higher rifamycin hypersensitivity). Taking rifapentine with a high-fat meal increased the median steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 h (AUC0–24ss) by 31% (relative standard error, 6%) compared to that obtained when the drug was taken with a low-fat breakfast. Dividing the dose increased exposures substantially (e.g., 38% with 1,500 mg/day). AUC0–24ss was uniformly higher in our study than in recent tuberculosis treatment trials, in which toxicity was rare. In conclusion, two strategies to increase rifapentine exposures, dividing the dose or giving it with a high-fat breakfast, successfully increased exposures, but toxicity was common in healthy adults. The limits of tolerability in patients with tuberculosis remain to be defined. (AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5311 has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration

  13. Comparative quantitative proteomics unveils putative mechanisms involved into mercury toxicity and tolerance in Tigriopus japonicus under multigenerational exposure scenario.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqun; Shi, Lin; Wang, Minghua

    2016-11-01

    In our earlier work, Tigriopus japonicus were subjected to different mercuric chloride treatments (0-50 μg/L in the seawater) for five generations (F0-F4), and they were subsequently resumed under clean environments for one generation, i.e., F5. Accumulative effects were hypothesized to participate in mercury (Hg) multigenerational toxicity, however phenotypic plasticity could be responsible for metal resistance in this copepod against the long term exposure. Here, we specifically investigated the proteome profiles in the F0, F2, and F5 copepods of the control and 50 μg/L metal treatment, respectively, so as to elucidate the action mechanisms for Hg toxicity/tolerance in T. japonicus under the long term exposure. Functional enrichment analysis showed that a quite different proteomic response was observed in F5 compared with F0 and F2. Namely, the vast majority of enrichments were correlated with the down-regulated proteins in F0 and F2, whereas the enrichments for F5 were mostly attributable to the up-regulated proteins, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for Hg toxicity and tolerance (i.e., phenotypic plasticity). Hg toxicity prohibited many proteins in F0 and F2 which are related to several critical processes/pathways, e.g., protein translation, macromolecule metabolic process, DNA replication, cell cycle, cuticle organization, vitellogenesis, etc. In F5, many up-regulated proteins were enriched into compensatory systems, such as carbohydrate metabolism, myosin reorganizations, and stress-related defense pathway. Notably, glycolysis (an oxygen-independent pathway) was enhanced for energy allocation into metal detoxification and tolerance. Taken together, proteomics provides novel mechanistic insights into phenotypic plasticity used by T. japonicus when challenged with cumulative effects due to Hg multigenerational toxicity.

  14. Previous Homologous and Heterologous Stress Exposure Induces Tolerance Development to Pulsed Light in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Victoria; Zunabovic, Marija; Petschnig, Alice; Müller, Horst; Lassenberger, Andrea; Reimhult, Erik; Kneifel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    As one of the emerging non-thermal technologies, pulsed light (PL) facilitates rapid, mild and residue-free microbial surface decontamination of food and food contact materials. While notable progress has been made in the characterization of the inactivation potential of PL, experimental data available on the tolerance development to the same (homologous) stress or to different (heterologous) stresses commonly applied in food manufacturing (e.g., acid, heat, salt) is rather controversial. The findings of the present study clearly indicate that both the homologous tolerance development against PL as well as the heterologous tolerance development from heat to PL can be triggered in Listeria monocytogenes. Further, conducted kinetic analysis confirmed that the conventionally applied log-linear model is not well suited to describe the inactivation of L. monocytogenes, when exposed to PL. Instead, the Weibull model as well as the log-linear + tail model were identified as suitable models. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) approaches allow suggestions on the morphological alterations in L. monocytogenes cells after being subjected to PL. PMID:27092137

  15. Tolerance of whitefish embryos to Pseudomonas fluorescens linked to genetic and maternal effects, and reduced by previous exposure.

    PubMed

    von Siebenthal, Beat A; Jacob, Alain; Wedekind, Claus

    2009-03-01

    Juvenile or adult fish can alter their behaviour and rely on an innate and adaptive immune system to avoid/counteract pathogens, while fish embryos have to depend on egg characteristics and may be partly protected by their developing immune system that is building up from a certain age on. We developed an infection protocol that allows testing the reaction of individual whitefish embryos (Coregonus palaea) to repeated exposures to Pseudomonas fluorescens, an opportunistic bacterial fish pathogen. We used a full-factorial in vitro breeding design to separately test the effects of paternal and maternal contributions to the embryos' susceptibility to different kinds of pathogen exposure. We found that a first non-lethal exposure had immunosuppressive effects: pre-exposed embryos were more susceptible to future challenges with the same pathogen. At intermediate and high levels of pathogen intensity, maternal effects turned out to be crucial for the embryos' tolerance to infection. Paternal (i.e. genetic) effects played a significant role at the strongest level of infection, i.e. the embryos' own genetics already explained some of the variation in embryo susceptibility. Our findings suggest that whitefish embryos are largely protected by maternally transmitted substances, but build up some own innate immunocompetence several days before hatching.

  16. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE IN DRINKING WATER IMPAIRS GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines in vivo diabetogenic effects of iAs in an animal model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice received deionized water containing iAs(III) (25 ...

  17. Exposure to Filmed Violence and Children's Tolerance of Real Life Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabman, Ronald S.; Thomas, Margaret Hanratty

    In order to measure the effects of exposure to filmed violence, 40 third-grade boys and girls were shown two television excerpts. One-half of the group viewed a segment from a violent detective series; the other half saw an exciting but nonviolent segment from a major league baseball game. Immediately afterward, each child was asked to "babysit"…

  18. Brief exposures of human body lice to sub-lethal amounts of ivermectin over transcribes detoxification genes involved in tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K. S.; Strycharz, J. P.; Baek, J. H.; Sun, W.; Kim, J.H.; Kang, J.S.; Pittendrigh, B. R.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling results, using our non-invasive induction assay [short exposure intervals (2–5 h) to sub-lethal amounts of insecticides (tolerance is still present (~LC90 in 2–4 h)], show that ivermectin-induced detoxification genes from body lice are identified by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and ATP binding cassette transporter genes induced by ivermectin, CYP6CJ1, CYP9AG1, CYP9AG2 and PhABCC4 were respectively most significantly over-expressed, had high basal expression levels and were most closely related to genes from other organisms that metabolized insecticides, including ivermectin. Injection of dsRNAs against either CYP9AG2 or PhABCC4 into non-induced female lice reduced their respective transcript level and resulted in increase sensitivity to ivermectin, indicating that these two genes are involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of ivermectin and in the production of tolerance. PMID:21895817

  19. Community response to noise in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Social surveys on noise annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft noise (three airports) and road traffic noise (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft noise in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the noise level are nearly identical to those presented in the European Noise Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive.htm]. For road traffic noise, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The noise levels can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission.

  20. Carbohydrate and carbon metabolite accumulation responses in leaves of ozone tolerant and ozone susceptible spinach plants after acute ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J M; Rowland, R A

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of plants to ozone (O3) increased the foliar levels of glucose, glucose sources, e.g., sucrose and starch, and glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), because in leaf cells, glucose is the precursor of the antioxidant, L-ascorbate, and glucose-6-phosphate is a source of NADPH needed to support antioxidant capacity. A further objective was to establish whether the response of increased levels of glucose, sucrose, starch and G6P in leaves could be correlated with a greater degree of plant tolerance to O3. Four commercially available Spinacia oleracea varieties were screened for tolerance or susceptibility to detrimental effects of O3 employing one 6.5 hour acute exposure to 25O nL O3 L(-1) air during the light. One day after the termination of ozonation (29 d post emergence), leaves of the plants were monitored both for damage and for gas exchange characteristics. Cultivar Winter Bloomsdale (cv Winter) leaves were least damaged on a quantitative grading scale. The leaves of cv Nordic, the most susceptible, were approximately 2.5 times more damaged. Photosynthesis (Pn) rates in the ozonated mature leaves of cv Winter were 48.9% less, and in cv Nordic, 66.2% less than in comparable leaves of their non-ozonated controls. Stomatal conductance of leaves of ozonated plants was found not to be a factor in the lower Pn rates in the ozonated plants. At some time points in the light, leaves of ozonated cv Winter plants had significantly higher levels of glucose, sucrose, starch, G6P, G1P, pyruvate and malate than did leaves of ozonated cv Nordic plants. It was concluded that leaves of cv Winter displayed a higher tolerance to ozone mediated stress than those of cv Nordic, in part because they had higher levels of glucose and G6P that could be mobilized during diminished photosynthesis to generate antioxidants (e.g., ascorbate) and reductants (e.g., NADPH). Elevated levels of both pyruvate and malate in the leaves of ozonated cv

  1. Enhanced co-tolerance and co-sensitivity from long-term metal exposures of heterotrophic and autotrophic components of fluvial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Ahmed; Maréchal, Marjorie; Bérard, Annette; Volat, Bernadette; Montuelle, Bernard

    2011-09-15

    Understanding the interactive effects of multiple stressors on ecosystems has started to become a major concern. The aim of our study was therefore to evaluate the consequences of a long-term exposure to environmental concentrations of Cu, Zn and As on the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of lotic biofilm communities in artificial indoor channels. Moreover, the specificity of the PICT was assessed by evaluating the positive and negative co-tolerance between these metals. Photosynthetic efficiency and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), targeting the autotrophic and heterotrophic communities respectively were used in short-term inhibition bioassays with Cu, Zn and As to assess sensitivities of pre-exposed biofilms to the metals tested. Diversity profiles of a phototrophic, eukaryotic and prokaryotic community in biofilms following the different treatments were determined and analyzed with principal component analysis. The results demonstrated that pre-exposure to metals induced structural shifts in the community and led to tolerance enhancements in the phototrophic and heterotrophic communities. On the other hand, whatever the functional parameter used (i.e. photosynthesis and SIR), communities exposed to Cu were more tolerant to Zn and vice versa. Furthermore, only phototrophic communities pre-exposed to As developed tolerance to Cu but not to Zn, whereas no co-tolerance between Cu and As was observed in the heterotrophic communities. Finally, phototrophic and heterotrophic communities exposed to Cu and Zn became more sensitive to As, reflecting a negative co-tolerance between these metals. Overall, our findings support the fact that although the mode of action of the different metals is an important driver for the structure and thus the tolerance of the communities, it appears that the detoxification modes are the most important factors for the occurrence of positive or negative co-tolerance.

  2. The influence of duckweed species diversity on ecophysiological tolerance to copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Shi, Huijuan; Duan, Dongzhu; Li, Hongmei; Lei, Tingwen; Wang, Maolin; Zhao, Hai; Zhao, Yun

    2015-07-01

    In excess, copper is toxic to plants. In the plants, Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor grown in mixed and monoculture, the effects of exposure to varying concentrations of copper (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1mgL(-1) Cu) for seven days were assessed by measuring changes in the chlorophyll, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. According to results, Cu levels in plants increased with increasing Cu concentration. The level of photosynthetic pigments and crude proteins decreased only upon exposure to high Cu concentrations. However, the starch and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased. These results suggested a stress alleviation that was possibly the result of antioxidants such as CAT and SOD, the activities of which increased with increasing Cu levels. APX activity increased in L. punctata, but decreased in L. minor, under monoculture or mixed culture conditions. In addition, the duckweed in mixed culture exhibited increased antioxidant enzyme activities which provide increased resistance to copper in moderate copper concentrations. As the copper concentration increased, the duckweed in the mixed culture limited the uptake of copper to avoid toxicity.

  3. Sexual behavior of Grapholita molesta and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in a flight tunnel after prolonged exposure to the aerial concentration of pheromone previously measured in orchards treated with pheromone for mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Trimble, R M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual behavior of male moths after prolonged exposure to the 1-ng pheromone/m(3) air previously measured in orchards treated with pheromone for mating disruption was examined in a flight tunnel. The exposure of Grapholita molesta (Busck) to 1-ng (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl acetate (Z8-12:OAc)/m(3) air for 15 min had no effect on their ability to fly upwind to a conspecific, virgin calling female. After 30 min of exposure, males exposed to a control treatment were 1.4× more likely orient to a female than males exposed to pheromone-treated air. Some G. molesta males retained the ability to orient to a female after a 30-min exposure period when the aerial concentration of Z8-12:OAc was increased 500,000× to 0.5 gm/m(3). Prolonged exposure to Z8-12:OAc did not affect response to a synthetic pheromone lure. The time required to initiate behavioral responses to a female or a lure was not affected by pheromone exposure. Male Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) exposed to a control treatment for 15 min were 38.5× more likely to orient to a conspecific, virgin calling female than males exposed to 1-ng (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-yl acetate (Z11-14:OAc)/m(3) air for 15 min. After 30 min of exposure males were unable to fly upwind to a female. Males exposed to a control treatment for 15 min were 4.3× more likely to fly upwind to a synthetic pheromone lure than males exposed to 1-ng Z11-14:OAc/m(3) air for 15 min. The time required to initiate behavioral responses to a female or a lure was not affected by exposure to pheromone.

  4. Epigenetic regulation of spinal cord gene expression contributes to enhanced postoperative pain and analgesic tolerance subsequent to continuous opioid exposure

    PubMed Central

    Liang, De-Yong; Shi, Xiao-You; Sun, Yuan; Clark, J David

    2016-01-01

    involving Bdnf and Pdyn may contribute to the enhanced postoperative nociceptive sensitization and analgesic tolerance observed after continuous opioid exposure. Treatments blocking the epigenetically mediated up-regulation of these genes or administration of TrkB or κ-opioid receptor antagonists may improve the clinical utility of opioids, particularly after surgery. PMID:27094549

  5. Change in algal symbiont communities after bleaching, not prior heat exposure, increases heat tolerance of reef corals.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Rachel N; Cunning, Ross; Baker, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic organisms can be particularly susceptible to climate change stress, as their survivorship is often limited by the most vulnerable partner. However, symbiotic plasticity can also help organisms in changing environments by expanding their realized niche space. Coral-algal (Symbiodinium spp.) symbiosis exemplifies this dichotomy: the partnership is highly susceptible to 'bleaching' (stress-induced symbiosis breakdown), but stress-tolerant symbionts can also sometimes mitigate bleaching. Here, we investigate the role of diverse and mutable symbiotic partnerships in increasing corals' ability to thrive in high temperature conditions. We conducted repeat bleaching and recovery experiments on the coral Montastraea cavernosa, and used quantitative PCR and chlorophyll fluorometry to assess the structure and function of Symbiodinium communities within coral hosts. During an initial heat exposure (32 °C for 10 days), corals hosting only stress-sensitive symbionts (Symbiodinium C3) bleached, but recovered (at either 24 °C or 29 °C) with predominantly (>90%) stress-tolerant symbionts (Symbiodinium D1a), which were not detected before bleaching (either due to absence or extreme low abundance). When a second heat stress (also 32 °C for 10 days) was applied 3 months later, corals that previously bleached and were now dominated by D1a Symbiodinium experienced less photodamage and symbiont loss compared to control corals that had not been previously bleached, and were therefore still dominated by Symbiodinium C3. Additional corals that were initially bleached without heat by a herbicide (DCMU, at 24 °C) also recovered predominantly with D1a symbionts, and similarly lost fewer symbionts during subsequent thermal stress. Increased thermotolerance was also not observed in C3-dominated corals that were acclimated for 3 months to warmer temperatures (29 °C) before heat stress. These findings indicate that increased thermotolerance post-bleaching resulted from

  6. Pulmonary tolerance in man to continuous oxygen exposure at 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.5 ATA in Predictive Studies V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, J. M.; Gelfand, R.; Flores, N. D.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Pisarello, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen effects on pulmonary function were measured in normal, resting men who breathed oxygen continuously at 3.0, 2.5, 2.0, and 1.5 ATA to predefined limits of CNS, cardiac, or pulmonary tolerance. Rates of pulmonary symptom intensification and decrease in vital capacity (VC) increased progressively with elevation of inspired oxygen pressure. Although VC decrements occurred concurrently with symptoms, the lung volume changes became prominent when symptoms were still mild. The observed effects were consistent with the interpretation that small airway function is impaired more selectively by oxygen exposure at 3.0 and 2.5 ATA than by exposure at 2.0 and 1.5 ATA. Despite similar VC changes after oxygen exposure at 2.0 ATA for nearly 10 hr and exposure at 1.5 ATA for almost 18 hr, the 2.0 ATA exposure caused greater impairment of pulmonary function and required a longer recovery period.

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive brivaracetam in patients with prior antiepileptic drug exposure: A post-hoc study.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Sperling, Michael R; Chung, Steve; Klein, Pavel; Diaz, Anyzeila; Elmoufti, Sami; Schiemann, Jimmy; Whitesides, John

    2017-02-27

    Brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults with epilepsy. This post-hoc analysis was conducted to explore the efficacy of adjunctive BRV in patients with prior levetiracetam (LEV) exposure and whether changes in efficacy were related to the similar mechanism of action of these two drugs. Data were pooled from three Phase III studies (NCT00490035; NCT00464269; NCT01261325) of adults with focal seizures taking 1-2 AEDs who received placebo or BRV 50-200mg/day without titration over a 12-week treatment period. Patients taking concomitant LEV at enrollment were excluded from this analysis. Patients were categorized by their status of prior exposure to LEV, carbamazepine (CBZ), topiramate (TPM), or lamotrigine (LTG), to investigate any consistent trend towards reduced response in AED-exposed subgroups compared to AED-naïve subgroups, regardless of the mechanism of action. Study completion rates, percent reduction from baseline in focal seizure frequency over placebo, ≥50% responder rates, and tolerability were evaluated for each subgroup. A total of 1160 patients were investigated. Study completion rates were similar in the AED-exposed subgroups and AED-naïve subgroups. In subgroups with (531 patients) or without (629 patients) prior LEV exposure, ≥50% responder rates for each dose of BRV compared with placebo were generally higher among the LEV-naïve subgroups than the previously LEV-exposed subgroups. LEV-exposed subgroups receiving BRV doses ≥50mg/day showed greater ≥50% responder rates than those receiving placebo. Similar results were observed for CBZ, TPM, and LTG. Previous treatment failure with commonly prescribed AEDs (LEV, CBZ, TPM, or LTG) is associated with a reduced response to BRV irrespective of the mechanism of action. Hence, this post-hoc analysis indicates that previous treatment failure with LEV

  8. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  9. Analysis of changes in leg volume parameters, and orthostatic tolerance in response to lower body negative pressure during 59 days exposure to zero gravity Skylab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, R. D.; Gowen, R. J.; Carroll, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of the Apollo crewmen associated with postflight evaluations indicate varying decrements of orthostatic tolerance. The postflight changes indicate a slightly diminished ability to the cardiovascular system to function effectively against gravity following exposure to weightlessness. The objective of the Skylab LBNP experiments (M092) was to provide information about the magnitude and time course of the cardiovascular changes associated with prolonged periods of exposure to weightlessness. This report details the equipment, signal processing and analysis of the leg volume data obtained from the M092 experiment of the Skylab 3 Mission.

  10. Effects of short-term acid and aluminum exposure on the parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Disruption of seawater tolerance and endocrine status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic acidification resulting in increased acidity and inorganic aluminum (Ali) is known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and has been implicated as a possible cause of population decline. To determine the extent and mechanism(s) by which short-term acid/Al exposure compromises smolt development, Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to either control (pH 6.7-6.9) or acid/Al (pH 5.4-6.3, 28-64 ??g l-1 Ali) conditions for 2 and 5 days, and impacts on freshwater (FW) ion regulation, seawater (SW) tolerance, plasma hormone levels and stress response were examined. Gill Al concentrations were elevated in all smolts exposed to acid/Al relative to controls confirming exposure to increased Ali. There was no effect of acid/Al on plasma ion concentrations in FW however, smolts exposed to acid/Al followed by a 24 h SW challenge exhibited greater plasma Cl- levels than controls, indicating reduced SW tolerance. Loss of SW tolerance was accompanied by reductions in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and Na+,K+,2Cl- (NKCC) cotransporter protein abundance. Acid/Al exposure resulted in decreased plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and 3,3???,5???-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) levels, whereas no effect of treatment was seen on plasma cortisol, growth hormone (GH), or thyroxine (T4) levels. Acid/Al exposure resulted in increased hematocrit and plasma glucose levels in FW, but both returned to control levels after 24 h in SW. The results indicate that smolt development and SW tolerance are compromised by short-term exposure to acid/Al in the absence of detectable impacts on FW ion regulation. Loss of SW tolerance during short-term acid/Al exposure likely results from reductions in gill NKA and NKCC, possibly mediated by decreases in plasma IGF-I and T3. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  11. A Randomized Male Tolerance Study of Dapivirine Gel Following Multiple Topical Penile Exposures (MTN 012/IPM 010)

    PubMed Central

    Hoesley, Craig; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Hendrix, Craig W.; Husnik, Marla; Levy, Lisa; Hall, Wayne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Nel, Annalene M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dapivirine (DPV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a favorable safety profile following vaginal application. A penile tolerance study was conducted prior to further development of DPV as a candidate vaginal microbicide. Twenty-four circumcised and 24 uncircumcised (N=48) healthy HIV-negative male participants aged 18 years or older were randomized 2:1:1 to apply DPV 0.05% gel, matched placebo gel, or universal placebo gel, respectively, to their penis once daily for 7 sequential days. The safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic profile of DPV 0.05% gel were assessed by the presence of Grade 2 or higher genitourinary adverse events (AEs) and systemic AEs, a behavioral questionnaire, and pharmacokinetic plasma blood draw, respectively, at the final clinic visit (FCV). There were no Grade 2 genitourinary AEs in 47 participants completing the FCV. One participant in the DPV arm failed to attend the FCV. There were 13 AEs reported; all were Grade 1 except one Grade 2 corneal laceration unrelated to study product. Participants liked the gel to a moderate extent, yet 72% reported they would be “very likely” to use a gel like the one they used in the study every time they have intercourse. DPV was detectable in plasma in all 23 DPV arm study participants at the FCV. On average, the circumcised participants' DPV concentrations were 54% of those in uncircumcised participants (p=0.07). Topical seven-day penile application of DPV 0.05% gel was locally and systemically safe, was acceptable to male participants, and resulted in systemic exposure to the drug. PMID:24070431

  12. Aerial radiological survey of Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1983-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Area 11's Plutonium Valley was conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 18 to 30 January 1982. Contour maps representing terrestrial exposure rates and soil concentrations of transuranics, /sup 235/U and /sup 137/Cs are presented on an aerial photograph. Inventories of the locale's transuranic and uranium activities are also included.

  13. Physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired seawater tolerance following exposure of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts to acid and aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monette, M.Y.; Yada, T.; Matey, V.; McCormick, S.D.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of impaired ion regulation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts following acute acid and aluminum (Al) exposure. Smolts were exposed to: control (pH 6.5, 3.4??gl-1 Al), acid and low Al (LAl: pH 5.4, 11??gl-1 Al), acid and moderate Al (MAl: pH 5.3, 42??gl-1 Al), and acid and high Al (HAl: pH 5.4, 56??gl-1 Al) for two and six days. At each time-point, smolts were sampled directly from freshwater treatment tanks and after a 24h seawater challenge. Exposure to acid/MAl and acid/HAl led to accumulation of gill Al, substantial alterations in gill morphology, reduced gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity, and impaired ion regulation in both freshwater and seawater. Exposure to acid/MAl for six days also led to a decrease in gill mRNA expression of the apical Cl- channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator I), increased apoptosis upon seawater exposure, an increase in the surface expression of mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) within the filament epithelium of the gill, but reduced abundance of gill NKA-positive MRCs. By contrast, smolts exposed to acid and the lowest Al concentration exhibited minor gill Al accumulation, slight morphological modifications in the gill, and impaired seawater tolerance in the absence of a detectable effect on freshwater ion regulation. These impacts were accompanied by decreased cell proliferation, a slight increase in the surface expression of MRCs within the filament epithelium, but no impact on gill apoptosis or total MRC abundance was observed. However, MRCs in the gills of smolts exposed to acid/LAl exhibited morphological alterations including decreased size, staining intensity, and shape factor. We demonstrate that the seawater tolerance of Atlantic salmon smolts is extremely sensitive to acute exposure to acid and low levels of Al, and that the mechanisms underlying this depend on the time-course and severity of Al exposure. We propose that when smolts are

  14. Freezing tolerance of winter wheat as influenced by extended growth at low temperature and exposure to freeze-thaw cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the seasons progress, autumn-planted winter wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) first gain, then progressively lose freezing tolerance. Exposing the plants to freeze-thaw cycles of -3/3°C results in increased ability to tolerate subsequent freezing to potentially damaging temperatures. This stu...

  15. Real men are made, not born! Incidental exposure to energy drinks may promote men's tolerance of physical pain.

    PubMed

    Abetkoff, Darren; Karlsson, Torulf; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2015-12-01

    The energy drink market has grown exponentially since the debut of Red Bull. Advertising of energy drinks tends to reinforce an emphasis on masculine identification. However, no previous study has addressed the symbolic effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance, that is, a particular masculine characteristic. We conducted a priming-based experiment to show that energy drink primes elevated men's pain tolerance. Induced conformity to masculinity norms mediated the priming effect of energy drinks on pain tolerance. These findings suggest that mere reminders of masculinity-related products can lead men to behave accordingly in seemingly irrelevant domains (i.e., pain tolerance). Besides distraction and placebo treatment, the connection between a symbolic masculinity prime and greater tolerance of pain may shed lights on an alternative route for pain control.

  16. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  17. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  18. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    PubMed

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures.

  19. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  20. Experimental evaluation of the contribution of acidic pH and Fe concentration to the structure, function and tolerance to metals (Cu and Zn) exposure in fluvial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Luís, Ana Teresa; Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Almeida, Salomé F P; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Figueira, Etelvina; Guasch, Helena

    2014-09-01

    An indoor channel system was colonised with fluvial biofilms to study the chronic effects of high Fe and SO4(2-) concentrations and acidic pH, the water chemistry in the surrounding streams of Aljustrel mining area (Alentejo, Portugal), and their contribution to community (in)tolerance to metal toxicity by short-term experiments with Cu and Zn. Biofilms were subjected to four different treatments during 8 weeks: high Fe and SO4(2-) concentrations (1 mg Fe l(-1)+ 700 mg SO4(2-) l(-1)) and acidic pH, high Fe and SO4(2-) at alkaline pH; lower Fe and SO4(2-) at acidic pH: and lower Fe and SO4(2-) concentrations at alkaline pH as negative control. During chronic exposure, acidic pH affected growth negatively, based on low values of algal biomass and the autotrophic index, high values of the antioxidant enzyme activities and low diversity diatom communities, dominated by acidophilic species (Pinnularia aljustrelica) in acidic treatments, being the effects more marked with high Fe and SO4(2-). Co-tolerance to metals (Cu and Zn) was also shown in biofilms from the acidic treatments, contrasting with the higher sensitivity observed in the alkaline treatments. We can conclude that the Aljustrel mining area acidic environment limits algal growth and exerts a strong selection pressure on the community composition which is in turn, more tolerant to metal exposure.

  1. Low, medium, and high heat tolerant strains of Listeria monocytogenes and increased heat stress resistance after exposure to sublethal heat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Jangam, Priyanka M; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Wes; Silva, Juan L

    2014-08-01

    A group of 37 strains representing all 13 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes with an initial cell density of 10(7) CFU/ml were analyzed for their heat tolerance at 60°C for 10 min. These L. monocytogenes strains were categorized into three heat tolerance groups: low (<2 log CFU/ml survival), medium (2 to 4 log CFU/ml survival), and high (4 to 6 log CFU/ml survival). Serotype 1/2a strains had relatively low heat tolerance; seven of the eight tested strains were classified as low heat tolerant. Of the two serotype 1/2b strains tested, one was very heat sensitive (not detectable) and the other was very heat resistant (5.4 log CFU/ml survival). Among the 16 serotype 4b strains, survival ranged from not detectable to 4 log CFU/ml. When one L. monocytogenes strain from each heat tolerance group was subjected to sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 30 or 60 min, the survival of heat-stressed cells at 60°C for 10 min increased by 5 log CFU/ml (D60°C-values nearly doubled) compared with the nonstressed control cells. Sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 60 or 90 min increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at room temperature by 3 to 5 h compared with nonstressed control cells. The heat stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was reversed after 2 h at room temperature but was maintained for up to 24 h at 4°C. Our results indicate a high diversity in heat tolerance among strains of L. monocytogenes, and once acquired this heat stress adaptation persists after cooling, which should be taken into account while conducting risk analyses for this pathogen.

  2. Analysis of changes in leg volume parameters, and orthostatic tolerance in response to lower body negative pressure during 28-days exposure to zero gravity Skylab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, R. D.; Gowen, R. J.; Carroll, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The design of the leg volume measuring system employed for the M092 portion of the Skylab missions required the development of a system sensitive to large and small volume changes at the calf of the leg. These changes in volume were produced in response to the orthostatic stress of a Lower Body Negative Pressure Device (LBNPD) or by venous occlusion. The cardiovascular responses of the Apollo crewman associated with the postflight evaluations indicate varying decrements of orthostatic tolerance. The postflight changes indicate a slightly diminished ability of the cardiovascular system to function effectively against gravity following exposure to weightlessness. The objective of the Skylab LBNP experiments (M092) was to provide information about the magnitude and time course of the cardiovascular changes associated with prolonged periods of exposure to weightlessness. The equipment, signal processing, and analysis of the leg volume data obtained from the M092 experiment of the Skylab 2 Mission are described.

  3. Changes in thermo-tolerance and survival under simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 in chicken breast meat after exposure to sequential stresses.

    PubMed

    Melo, Adma Nadja Ferreira de; Souza, Geany Targino de; Schaffner, Donald; Oliveira, Tereza C Moreira de; Maciel, Janeeyre Ferreira; Souza, Evandro Leite de; Magnani, Marciane

    2017-03-29

    This study assessed changes in thermo-tolerance and capability to survive to simulated gastrointestinal conditions of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 and Salmonella Typhimurium PT4 inoculated in chicken breast meat following exposure to stresses (cold, acid and osmotic) commonly imposed during food processing. The effects of the stress imposed by exposure to oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil (OVEO) on thermo-tolerance were also assessed. After exposure to cold stress (5°C for 5h) in chicken breast meat the test strains were sequentially exposed to the different stressing substances (lactic acid, NaCl or OVEO) at sub-lethal amounts, which were defined considering previously determined minimum inhibitory concentrations, and finally to thermal treatment (55°C for 30min). Resistant cells from distinct sequential treatments were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The exposure to cold stress did not result in increased tolerance to acid stress (lactic acid: 5 and 2.5μL/g) for both strains. Cells of S. Typhimurium PT4 and S. Enteritidis PT4 previously exposed to acid stress showed higher (p<0.05) tolerance to osmotic stress (NaCl: 75 or 37.5mg/g) compared to non-acid-exposed cells. Exposure to osmotic stress without previous exposure to acid stress caused a salt-concentration dependent decrease in counts for both strains. Exposure to OVEO (1.25 and 0.62μL/g) decreased the acid and osmotic tolerance of both S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium PT4. Sequential exposure to acid and osmotic stress conditions after cold exposure increased (p<0.05) the thermo-tolerance in both strains. The cells that survived the sequential stress exposure (resistant) showed higher tolerance (p<0.05) to acidic conditions during continuous exposure (182min) to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Resistant cells of S. Enteritidis PT4 and S. Typhimurium PT4 showed higher survival rates (p<0.05) than control cells at the end of the in vitro digestion. These results show

  4. Effects of natural exposure to copper and zinc on egg size and larval copper tolerance in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)

    SciTech Connect

    Munkittrick, K.R.; Dixon, D.G. )

    1989-08-01

    Sucker eggs were collected from a metal-contaminated site where previous collections had documented a maternal yolk factor associated with an increased larval copper tolerance during yolk nutrition. In this study, white sucker eggs were divided into groups which were water hardened and/or incubated at the contaminated site or a reference (control) site. Incubation at the contaminated site was associated with a decreased egg size and an increased deformity rate, but had no effect on fertilization rate or larval size. Incubation in contaminated streams increased the larval whole-body metal content, and decreased the tolerance and resistance of larvae exposed to copper in laboratory bioassays. An increase in water temperature accelerated the developmental rate of the larvae, but had no detectable effect on copper tolerance. Although metals did enter the eggs during water hardening, there was no difference in egg metallothionein content, and the lack of obvious hepatic activity until several days after hatching may prevent the formation of protective proteins. The authors hypothesize that the transfer of metals to white sucker eggs in association with yolk precursors, and the subsequent mobilization of these metals during yolk utilization, can account for the observed differences in larval tolerance and growth.

  5. Isolation of Novel Extreme-Tolerant Cyanobacteria from a Rock-Dwelling Microbial Community by Using Exposure to Low Earth Orbit▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccating conditions associated with space. Culture-independent (16S rRNA) and culture-dependent methods showed that the cyanobacterial community was composed of Pleurocapsales, Oscillatoriales, and Chroococcales. A single cyanobacterium, a previously uncharacterized extremophile, was isolated after exposure to LEO. We were able to isolate the cyanobacterium from the limestone cliff after exposing the rock-dwelling community to desiccation and vacuum (0.7 × 10−3 kPa) in the laboratory. The ability of the organism to survive the conditions in space may be linked to the formation of dense colonies. These experiments show how extreme environmental conditions, including space, can be used to select for novel microorganisms. Furthermore, it improves our knowledge of environmental tolerances of extremophilic rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. PMID:20154120

  6. Isolation of novel extreme-tolerant cyanobacteria from a rock-dwelling microbial community by using exposure to low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Olsson-Francis, Karen; de la Torre, Rosa; Cockell, Charles S

    2010-04-01

    Many cyanobacteria are known to tolerate environmental extremes. Motivated by an interest in selecting cyanobacteria for applications in space, we launched rocks from a limestone cliff in Beer, Devon, United Kingdom, containing an epilithic and endolithic rock-dwelling community of cyanobacteria into low Earth orbit (LEO) at a height of approximately 300 kilometers. The community was exposed for 10 days to isolate cyanobacteria that can survive exposure to the extreme radiation and desiccating conditions associated with space. Culture-independent (16S rRNA) and culture-dependent methods showed that the cyanobacterial community was composed of Pleurocapsales, Oscillatoriales, and Chroococcales. A single cyanobacterium, a previously uncharacterized extremophile, was isolated after exposure to LEO. We were able to isolate the cyanobacterium from the limestone cliff after exposing the rock-dwelling community to desiccation and vacuum (0.7 x 10(-3) kPa) in the laboratory. The ability of the organism to survive the conditions in space may be linked to the formation of dense colonies. These experiments show how extreme environmental conditions, including space, can be used to select for novel microorganisms. Furthermore, it improves our knowledge of environmental tolerances of extremophilic rock-dwelling cyanobacteria.

  7. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  8. Ontogeny of salinity tolerance and hyper-osmoregulation by embryos of the intertidal crabs Hemigrapsus edwardsii and Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Decapoda, Grapsidae): survival of acute hyposaline exposure.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H H; Seneviratna, Deepani

    2005-04-01

    The adults of Hemigrapsus edwardsii and Hemigrapsus crenulatus are euryhaline crabs and strong hyper-osmoregulators. Their embryos are carried externally attached to the abdominal pleopods of female crabs, where they are exposed to temporal and spatial changes in salinity associated with their intertidal and estuarine habitats. Although embryos lack the branchial and excretory organs responsible for adult osmoregulation, post-gastrula embryos were highly tolerant of exposure to hypo-osmotic sea water. Detached eggs (embryos+envelopes), of both species, at all developmental stages between gastrulation and hatching, exhibited 80-100% survival for periods up to 96 h in sea water (osmolality, 1050 mmol kg(-1)) and in dilutions to 50%, 10%, and 1%. Cleavage stages were less tolerant of dilution; H. edwardsii, <50% survived 24 h in 10% sea water; H. crenulatus <50% survived 6 h in 10% sea water. Post-gastrulation stages strongly hyper-osmoregulated but cleavage stages were hyper-osmoconformers (maintaining internal osmolality approximately 150 mmol kg(-1) above external). Osmoregulatory capacity was reduced just prior hatching, particularly in H. crenulatus, although salinity tolerance remained high. Gastrulation therefore marks a critical stage in the ontogeny of osmoregulation and salinity tolerance. Total Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity increased greatly during embryogenesis of H. crenulatus (undetectable in blastulae; gastrulae 0.31+/-0.05 pmol P(i) embryo(-1) min(-1); pre-hatching 16.4+/-1.0 pmol P(i) embryo(-1) min(-1)). Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity increased in embryos exposed to dilute sea water for 24 h implicating regulation of this transporter in a short-term acclimation response.

  9. Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Smith, Daniel G.

    2012-09-01

    Beginning with the seminal Dill papers of 1975, the aerial image has been essential for understanding the process of microlithography. From the aerial image, we can predict the performance of a given lithographic process in terms of depth of focus, exposure latitude, etc. As lithographic technologies improved, reaching smaller and smaller printed features, the sophistication of aerial image calculations has had to increase from simple incoherent imaging theory, to partial coherence, polarization effects, thin film effects at the resist, thick mask effects, and so on. This tutorial provides an overview and semihistorical development of the aerial image calculation and then provides a review of some of the various ways in which the aerial image is typically used to estimate the performance of the lithographic process.

  10. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  11. Effect of air exposure on lysosomal tissues of Mytilus edulis L. from natural intertidal wild beds and submerged culture ropes.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Broeg, K; Wilhelm, C; Buchholz, C; Koehler, A

    2012-03-01

    Blue mussels collected from suspended culture ropes and from three natural intertidal wild beds from different areas of the German Bight were tested for their ability to cope with hypoxic conditions. During the experiment mussels were exposed to air from 0 to 72h. Mussels from all sampling sites displayed high tolerance to aerial exposure with moderate levels of mortality after 12 to 48h of exposure. Lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), a biomarker of general stress, changed notably between minimum values after 12h and maximum values after 24h of aerial exposure in intertidal mussels. In contrast, labilization times of mussels from the hanging culture increased continuously up to 48h of exposure. Intertidal mussels from the island of Heligoland exhibited significantly decreased membrane stability after 72h of air exposure, correlating to higher mortality rates. Intertidal mussels, although adapted to daily aerial exposure in their natural environment, showed a similar pattern of mortality and lower LMS values during the experiment than mussels from the suspended culture site. The increase of LMS values of mussels under hypoxic conditions at the beginning of the experiment at all sites was tested for the influence of macro-autophagic processes using immune labelling techniques. With this approach it could be demonstrated that high LMS values significantly correlate with low autophagic activity. However, hypoxic conditions do not enhance autophagic processes during the early periods of aerial exposure. Only at the end of the experiment, high values for autophagy were measured in mussels from an intertidal site accompanied with high mortalities. The results indicate that autophagic processes are not involved in the early adaptive processes that enable the mussel to cope with periods of aerial exposure.

  12. Low, medium and high heat tolerant strains of Listeria monocytogenes and increased heat stress resistance after exposure to sublethal heat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes exhibits sophisticated adaptive mechanisms to counteract higher levels of lethal acid, heat, salt or oxidative stresses after pre-exposure to sublethal concentrations of homogenous stress. A group of 37 strains representing all 13 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes with initi...

  13. The effects of graduated exposure, modeling, and contingent social attention on tolerance to skin care products with two children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ellyn M; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla S; Glenn, Sigrid S; Rosales-Ruiz, Jesús; Greenspoon, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Children with autism may display unusual or fearful responses to common stimuli, such as skin care products. Parents of children with autism have often reported that their children will not allow the application of these types of substances to their skin and if the parent persists, the children become extremely upset and anxious. Such responding can interfere with adaptive functioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a treatment package involving graduated exposure to steps in an avoidance hierarchy, modeling, and social attention on the responding of two children with autism who displayed fearful responses to skin care products. Both avoidance and acceptance responses to skin care products were measured. Both changing criteria and multiple baseline experimental designs were employed to assess the effects of the intervention package. The results suggest that the package was successful in teaching tolerance of skin products for both children.

  14. Microwave attenuation of ethanol-induced hypothermia: ethanol tolerance, time course, exposure duration, and dose response studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hjeresen, D.L.; Francendese, A.; O'Donnell, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to quantify the reported attenuation by microwave (MW) irradiation of ethanol-induced hypothermia. In one experiment rats were irradiated (continuous wave 2.45 GHz, specific absorption rate = 0.3 W/kg) or sham irradiated for 45 min, injected with 3.6 g/kg, 20% (v/v) ethanol (EtOH) or saline (NaCl) i.p.. Colonic temperature was monitored at 20-min intervals for 2 h. This procedure was repeated for 8 days to determine the rate of tolerance development to the hypothermic effect of ethanol. While MW irradiation did significantly attenuate EtOH-induced hypothermia, it did not enhance or retard the rate of tolerance development. To determine the duration of irradiation necessary to attenuate EtOH-induced hypothermia, groups of rats were irradiated or sham irradiated for 5, 15, 30, or 60 min prior to EtOH injection and subsequent temperature measurements. The attenuation was apparent only after 60 min of irradiation. To determine the duration of the attenuation effect after irradiation, rats were injected with EtOH or NaCl at 0, 30, 60, 120, or 480 min after 45 min of irradiation or sham irradiation. The attenuation effect was apparent among rats injected 0 to 30 min after irradiation and for the first 40 min for groups injected at 120 min. Additional rats were injected with NaCl or 0.9, 1.8, or 2.7 g/kg of EtOH i.p. following 45 min of irradiation or sham irradiation to determine if the attenuation effect depends on the dose of EtOH administered. Attenuation of EtOH-induced hypothermia was more apparent at lower doses of EtOH than at higher doses. These results indicate that the effect is an acute response to irradiation, and rule out several other potential explanations.

  15. Selection for Cu-tolerant bacterial communities with altered composition, but unaltered richness, via long-term Cu exposure.

    PubMed

    Berg, Jeanette; Brandt, Kristian K; Al-Soud, Waleed A; Holm, Peter E; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Nybroe, Ole

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metal pollution affects the composition and metal tolerance of soil bacterial communities. However, there is virtually no knowledge concerning the responses of members of specific bacterial taxa (e.g., phyla or classes) to metal toxicity, and contradictory results have been obtained regarding the impact of metals on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. We used tag-coded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to elucidate the impacts of copper (Cu) on bacterial community composition and diversity within a well-described Cu gradient (20 to 3,537 μg g(-1)) stemming from industrial contamination with CuSO(4) more than 85 years ago. DNA sequence information was linked to analysis of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu, as determined by the [(3)H]leucine incorporation technique, and to chemical characterization of the soil. PICT was significantly correlated to bioavailable Cu, as determined by the results seen with a Cu-specific bioluminescent biosensor strain, demonstrating a specific community response to Cu. The relative abundances of members of several phyla or candidate phyla, including the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrumicrobia, Chloroflexi, WS3, and Planctomycetes, decreased with increasing bioavailable Cu, while members of the dominant phylum, the Actinobacteria, showed no response and members of the Acidobacteria showed a marked increase in abundance. Interestingly, changes in the relative abundances of classes frequently deviated from the responses of the phyla to which they belong. Despite the apparent Cu impacts on Cu resistance and community structure, bioavailable Cu levels did not show any correlation to bacterial OTU richness (97% similarity level). Our report highlights several bacterial taxa responding to Cu and thereby provides new guidelines for future studies aiming to explore the bacterial domain for members of metal-responding taxa.

  16. Selection for Cu-Tolerant Bacterial Communities with Altered Composition, but Unaltered Richness, via Long-Term Cu Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jeanette; Brandt, Kristian K.; Al-Soud, Waleed A.; Holm, Peter E.; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic metal pollution affects the composition and metal tolerance of soil bacterial communities. However, there is virtually no knowledge concerning the responses of members of specific bacterial taxa (e.g., phyla or classes) to metal toxicity, and contradictory results have been obtained regarding the impact of metals on operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness. We used tag-coded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to elucidate the impacts of copper (Cu) on bacterial community composition and diversity within a well-described Cu gradient (20 to 3,537 μg g−1) stemming from industrial contamination with CuSO4 more than 85 years ago. DNA sequence information was linked to analysis of pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) to Cu, as determined by the [3H]leucine incorporation technique, and to chemical characterization of the soil. PICT was significantly correlated to bioavailable Cu, as determined by the results seen with a Cu-specific bioluminescent biosensor strain, demonstrating a specific community response to Cu. The relative abundances of members of several phyla or candidate phyla, including the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrumicrobia, Chloroflexi, WS3, and Planctomycetes, decreased with increasing bioavailable Cu, while members of the dominant phylum, the Actinobacteria, showed no response and members of the Acidobacteria showed a marked increase in abundance. Interestingly, changes in the relative abundances of classes frequently deviated from the responses of the phyla to which they belong. Despite the apparent Cu impacts on Cu resistance and community structure, bioavailable Cu levels did not show any correlation to bacterial OTU richness (97% similarity level). Our report highlights several bacterial taxa responding to Cu and thereby provides new guidelines for future studies aiming to explore the bacterial domain for members of metal-responding taxa. PMID:22904046

  17. A comparison of a laboratory and field study of annoyance and acceptability of aircraft noise exposures. [human reactions and tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsky, P. N.

    1977-01-01

    Residents living in close, middle and distant areas from JFK Airport were included in a field interview and laboratory study. Judgments were made of simulated aircraft noise exposures of comparable community indoor noise levels and mixes of aircraft. Each group of subjects judged the levels of noise typical for its distance area. Four different numbers of flyovers were tested: less than average for each area, the approximate average, the peak number, or worst day, and above peak number. The major findings are: (1) the reported integrated field annoyance is best related to the annoyance reported for the simulated approximate worst day exposure in the laboratory; (2) annoyance is generally less when there are fewer aircraft flyovers, and the subject has less fear of crashes and more favorable attitudes toward airplanes; (3) beliefs in harmful health effects and misfeasance by operators of aircraft are also highly correlated with fear and noise annoyance; (4) in direct retrospective comparisons of number of flights, noise levels and annoyance, subjects more often said the worst day laboratory exposured more like their usual home environments; and (5) subjects do not expect an annoyance-free environment. Half of the subjects can accept an annoyance level of 5 to 6 from a possible annoyance range of 0 to 9, 28% can live with an annoyance intensity of 7, and only 5% can accept the top scores of 8 to 9.

  18. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  19. Effects of perinatal exposure to lead (Pb) on purine receptor expression in the brain and gliosis in rats tolerant to morphine analgesia.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Listos, Joanna; Gutowska, Izabela; Machoy-Mokrzyńska, Anna; Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Maciej; Puchałowicz, Kamila; Prokopowicz, Adam; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Piotr; Wąsik, Agnieszka; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-01-02

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular effects of perinatal exposure to lead (Pb) on protein and mRNA expression of purine receptors: P2X4, P2X7, adenosine receptor A1; and astrocytes (GFAP mRNA expression) and on microglia activation (Iba1 mRNA expression) in several structures of the mesolimbic system (striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex) in rats expressing tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine. Rat mothers were orally treated with 0.1% lead acetate from conception, through gestation, and postnatally, as well as to offspring up to day (PND) 28; subsequently molecular studies were conducted on adult (PND 60) male rats. Morphine tolerance developed more strongly in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of protein and mRNA P2X4 receptor expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex but not in the hippocampus; P2X7 protein and mRNA receptor expression in the striatum and hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex; A1 protein receptor expression in all investigated structures and A1 mRNA expression in the striatum and hippocampus; Iba1 mRNA expression in the striatum and hippocampus; and GFAP mRNA expression in the striatum and prefrontal cortex. Immunohistochemical analysis has also revealed significant alterations. Strong expressions of P2X4, P2X7, A1 receptors, astrocytes and microglia activation were observed in the hippocampus in Pb and/or morphine treated rats. The higher expression of purine receptors and glial cell activation are important markers of neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, we conclude that Pb-induced neuroinflammation may be responsible for the intensification of morphine tolerance in the Pb-treated rats. Additionally, the dysregulation of A1 adenosine receptors, mainly in the hippocampus, may also be involved in the intensification of morphine tolerance in Pb-treated rats. Our study demonstrates the significant participation of environmental factors in

  20. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  1. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  2. Tolerance of Myriophyllum aquaticum to exposure of industrial wastewater pretreatment with electrocoagulation and their efficiency in the removal of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Cano-Rodríguez, Claudia Teodora; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Valdés-Arias, Ricardo Antonio; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos Eduardo; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The wastewater used in this study was obtained from a treatment plant where it mixed with wastewater of 142 industries and was treated using electrocoagulation with iron electrode and phytoremediation with Myriophyllum aquaticum, likewise certain biomarkers of oxidative stress of the plant were evaluated to find out its resistance to contaminant exposure. Electrocoagulation was performed under optimum operating conditions at pH 8 and with a current density of 45.45 A m(-2) to reduce the COD by 42%, color 89% and turbidity 95%; the electrochemical method produces partial elimination of contaminants, though this was improved using phytoremediation. Thus the coupled treatment reduced the COD by 94%, color 97% and turbidity 98%. The exposure of M. aquaticum to electrocoagulated wastewater did not have an effect on the ratio of chlorophyll a/b (2.84 + 0.24); on the activity of SOD, CAT and lipoperoxidation. The results show the potential of M. aquaticum to remove contaminants from pretreated wastewater since the enzymatic system of the plants was not significantly affected.

  3. Microbial Diversity of Indian Ocean Hydrothermal Vent Plumes: Microbes Tolerant of Desiccation, Peroxide Exposure, and Ultraviolet and γ-Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Benardini, James N.; Kempf, Michael J.; Newcombe, David A.; Lubarsky, Michael; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2007-05-01

    The microbial diversity of Kali chimney plumes, part of a hydrothermal vent field in the Rodriguez Triple Junction, Indian Ocean (depth approximately 2,240 m), was examined in an attempt to discover ``extremotolerant'' microorganisms that have evolved unique resistance capabilities to this harsh environment. Water and sediment samples were collected from the vent and from sediments located at various distances (2-20 m) away from and surrounding the chimney. Samples were screened for hypertolerant microbes that are able to withstand multiple stresses. A total of 46 isolates were selected for exposure to a number of perturbations, such as heat shock, desiccation, H2O2, and ultraviolet (UV) and γ-irradiation. The survival of Psychrobacter sp. L0S3S-03b following exposure to >1,000 J/m2 UV254 radiation was particularly intriguing amid a background of varying levels of resistance. Vegetative cells of this non-spore-forming microbe not only survived all of the treatments, but also exhibited a 90% lethal dose of 30 s when exposed to simulated martian UV radiation and a 100% lethal dose of 2 min when exposed to full spectrum UV, which is comparable to findings for bacterial endospores.

  4. Microbial diversity of Indian Ocean hydrothermal vent plumes: microbes tolerant of desiccation, peroxide exposure, and ultraviolet and gamma-irradiation.

    PubMed

    La Duc, Myron T; Benardini, James N; Kempf, Michael J; Newcombe, David A; Lubarsky, Michael; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2007-04-01

    The microbial diversity of Kali chimney plumes, part of a hydrothermal vent field in the Rodriguez Triple Junction, Indian Ocean (depth approximately 2,240 m), was examined in an attempt to discover "extremotolerant" microorganisms that have evolved unique resistance capabilities to this harsh environment. Water and sediment samples were collected from the vent and from sediments located at various distances (2-20 m) away from and surrounding the chimney. Samples were screened for hypertolerant microbes that are able to withstand multiple stresses. A total of 46 isolates were selected for exposure to a number of perturbations, such as heat shock, desiccation, H(2)O(2), and ultraviolet (UV) and gamma-irradiation. The survival of Psychrobacter sp. L0S3S-03b following exposure to >1,000 J/m(2) UV(254) radiation was particularly intriguing amid a background of varying levels of resistance. Vegetative cells of this non-spore-forming microbe not only survived all of the treatments, but also exhibited a 90% lethal dose of 30 s when exposed to simulated martian UV radiation and a 100% lethal dose of 2 min when exposed to full spectrum UV, which is comparable to findings for bacterial endospores.

  5. Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2008-09-15

    A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3m x 3m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m(2). The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m(2) resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m(2) to 5(+) kW/m(2) (exposure times from 25s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m(2) and 5 kW/m(2)range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m(2) for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m(2) (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m(2) average heat flux.

  6. PRT062607 Achieves Complete Inhibition of the Spleen Tyrosine Kinase at Tolerated Exposures Following Oral Dosing in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Aradhana; Betz, Andreas; Pak, Yvonne; Haberstock‐Debic, Helena; Pandey, Anjali; Hollenbach, Stanley; Gretler, Daniel D.; Mant, Tim; Jurcevic, Stipo; Sinha, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) regulates immune cell activation in response to engagement of a variety of receptors, making it an intriguing target for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as certain B‐cell malignancies. We have previously reported on the discovery and preclinical characterization of PRT062607, a potent and highly selective inhibitor of SYK that exhibits robust anti‐inflammatory activity in a variety of animal models. Here we present data from our first human studies aimed at characterizing the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and safety of PRT062607 in healthy volunteers following single and multiple oral administrations. PRT062607 demonstrated a favorable PK profile and the ability to completely inhibit SYK activity in multiple whole‐blood assays. The PD half‐life in the more sensitive assays was approximately 24 hours and returned to predose levels by 72 hours. Selectivity for SYK was observed at all dose levels tested. Analysis of the PK/PD relationship indicated an IC50 of 324 nM for inhibition of B‐cell antigen receptor‐mediated B‐cell activation and 205 nM for inhibition of FcεRI‐mediated basophil degranulation. PRT062607 was safe and well tolerated across the entire range of doses. Clinical PK/PD was related to in vivo anti‐inflammatory activity of PRT062607 in the rat collagen‐induced arthritis model, which predicts that therapeutic concentrations may be safely achieved in humans for the treatment of autoimmune disease. PRT062607 has a desirable PK profile and is capable of safely, potently, and selectively suppressing SYK kinase function in humans following once‐daily oral dosing. PMID:27406873

  7. Effects of exposure to quaternary-ammonium-based biocides on antimicrobial susceptibility and tolerance to physical stresses in bacteria from organic foods.

    PubMed

    Gadea, Rebeca; Fernández Fuentes, Miguel Ángel; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio; Ortega, Elena

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a collection of 76 biocide-sensitive bacterial strains isolated from organically produced food were adapted by repeated exposure to increasing concentrations of the quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) benzalkonium chloride (BC) and hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HDP). The sensitivity of both wildtype strains and their corresponding QAC-adapted strains to other biocides and to antibiotics was studied. QAC tolerance increased in 88.2% of strains for BC and in 30.3% of strains for HDP, with increases in minimum inhibitory concentrations between 2 and over 100 fold. Adaptive resistance was stable after 20 subcultures in biocide-free medium for 7 and 5 of the BC- and HDP-adapted strains, respectively. Adaptation to BC and HDP also reduced the susceptibility to other biocides, mainly hexachlorophene (CF), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (AB), triclosan (TC) and chlorhexidine (CH). BC-adapted strains showed increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (AM) followed by sulfamethoxazol (SXT) and cefotaxime (CTX), and some showed increased sensitivity to ceftazidime (CAZ), CTX, AM and STX. Changes in antibiotic resistance in HDP-adapted strains were more heterogeneous and strain-dependent. Main efflux pump genes detected in QAC-adapted strains were acrB, sugE, norC, qacE and qacH, as well as antibiotic resistance genes aac(6_)-Ie-aph(2_)-Ia, aph(2_)-Ic, ant(4_)-Ia, lsa, mrsA/B, ereA, ermB and cat. Membrane anisotropy experiments revealed that QAC adaptation induced an increase in membrane rigidity in the case of BC, while response to HDP was more heterogeneous and strain-dependent. Growth capacity was significantly higher in some QAC-adapted strains and strain-dependent changes in heat tolerance were also detected in QAC-adapted strains. Gastric acid or bile resistances do not seem to be influenced by QAC adaptation.

  8. Characterization of brevetoxin (PbTx-3) exposure in neurons of the anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta).

    PubMed

    Cocilova, Courtney C; Milton, Sarah L

    2016-11-01

    Harmful algal blooms are increasing in frequency and extent worldwide and occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida where they affect both humans and wildlife. The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is a key organism in Florida red tides that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins collectively referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins bind to and open voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC), increasing cell permeability in excitable cells and depolarizing nerve and muscle tissue. Exposed animals may thus show muscular and neurological symptoms including head bobbing, muscle twitching, paralysis, and coma; large HABs can result in significant morbidity and mortality of marine life, including fish, birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles. Brevetoxicosis however is difficult to treat in endangered sea turtles as the physiological impacts have not been investigated and the magnitude and duration of brevetoxin exposure are generally unknown. In this study we used the freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta as a model organism to investigate the effects of the specific brevetoxin PbTx-3 in the turtle brain. Primary turtle neuronal cell cultures were exposed to a range of PbTx-3 concentrations to determine excitotoxicity. Agonists and antagonists of voltage-gated sodium channels and downstream targets were utilized to confirm the toxin's mode of action. We found that turtle neurons are highly resistant to PbTx-3; while cell viability decreased in a dose dependent manner across PbTx-3 concentrations of 100-2000nM, the EC50 was significantly higher than has been reported in mammalian neurons. PbTx-3 exposure resulted in significant Ca(2+) influx, which could be fully abrogated by the VGSC antagonist tetrodotoxin, NMDA receptor blocker MK-801, and tetanus toxin, indicating that the mode of action in turtle neurons is the same as in mammalian cells. As both turtle and mammalian VGSCs have a high affinity for PbTx-3, we suggest that the high resistance of the turtle

  9. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  10. Tolerance of ARPE 19 cells to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos is limited to concentration and time of exposure.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, Narayanan; Sumantran, Venil N; Shabna, A; Sulochana, K N

    2015-01-01

    Age related macular degeneration is a blinding disease common in elder adults. The prevalence of age related macular degeneration has been found to be 1.8% in the Indian population. Organophosphates are widely used insecticides with well documented neurological effects, and the persistent nature of these compounds in the body results in long term health effects. Farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides in USA had an earlier onset of age related macular degeneration when compared to unexposed controls. A recent study found significant levels of an organophosphate, termed chlorpyrifos, in the blood samples of Indian farmers. Therefore, in understanding the link between age related macular degeneration and chlorpyrifos, the need for investigation is important. Our data show that ARPE-19 (retinal pigment epithelial cells) exhibit a cytoprotective response to chlorpyrifos as measured by viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, superoxide dismutase activity, and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione, after 24 h exposure to chlorpyrifos. However, this cytoprotective response was absent in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the same range of concentrations of chlorpyrifos for 48 h. These results have physiological significance, since HPLC analysis showed that effects of chlorpyrifos were mediated through its entry into ARPE-19 cells. HPLC analysis also showed that chlorpyrifos remained stable, as we recovered up to 80% of the chlorpyrifos added to 6 different ocular tissues.

  11. Application of Acute Maximal Exercise to Enhance Mechanisms Underlying Blood Pressure Regulation and Orthostatic Tolerance After Exposure to Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Development of orthostatic hypotension and intolerance in astronauts who return to earth following a spaceflight mission represents a significant operational concern to NASA. Reduced plasma volume, vascular resistance, and baroreflex responsiveness following exposure to actual and ground-based analogs of microgravity have been associated with orthostatic instability, suggesting that these mechanisms may contribute alone or in combination to compromise of blood pressure regulation after spaceflight. It therefore seems reasonable that development of procedures designed to reverse or restore the effects of microgravity on regulatory mechanisms of blood volume, vascular resistance and cardiac function should provide some protection against postflight orthostatic intolerance. Several investigations have provided evidence that a single bout of exhaustive dynamic exercise enhances functions of mechanisms responsible for blood pressure stability. Therefore, the purpose of our research project was to conduct a series of experiments using ground-based analogs of reduced gravity (i.e., prolonged restriction to the upright standing posture) in human subjects to investigate the hypothesis that a single bout of dynamic maximal exercise would restore blood volume, vascular resistance and cardiac function and improve blood pressure stability.

  12. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  13. Accumulation and tolerance to cadmium heavy metal ions and induction of 14-3-3 gene expression in response to cadmium exposure in Coprinus atramentarius.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengjian; Hu, Liujie; Yang, Yongzhu; Liao, Dunxiu; Yang, Xingyong

    2017-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd), one of the most toxic heavy-metal pollutants, has a strong and irreversible tendency to accumulate. Bioremediation is a promising technology to remedy and control heavy metal pollutants because of its low cost and ability to recycle heavy metals. Coprinus atramentarius is recognized as being able to accumulate heavy metal ions. In this work, C. atramentarius is cultivated on a solid medium containing Cd(2+) ions to analyze its ability to tolerate different concentrations of the heavy metal ion. It is found that the growth of C. atramentarius is not significantly inhibited when the concentration of Cd(2+) is less than 0.6mgL(-1). The accumulation capacity of C. atramentarius at different Cd(2+) concentrations also was determined. The results show that 76% of the Cd(2+) present can be accumulated even when the concentration of the Cd(2+) is 1mgL(-1). The different proteins of C. atramentarius exposed to Cd(2+) were further analyzed using gel electrophoresis. A 14-3-3 protein was identified and shown to be significantly up-regulated. In a further study, a full-length 14-3-3 gene was cloned containing a 759bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide consisting of 252 amino acids and 3 introns. The gene expression work also showed that the 14-3-3 was significantly induced, and showed coordinated patterns of expression, with Cd(2+) exposure.

  14. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  17. Do copper tolerant fathead minnows produce copper tolerant adult offspring?

    PubMed Central

    Kolok, Alan S.; L’Etoile-Lopes, Darcy

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the relative Cu tolerance of fathead minnow parents determines the, relative Cu tolerance of their adult offspring. It was hypothesized that the adult offspring of Cu-tolerant minnows would inherit Cu tolerance from their parents. The relative Cu tolerance of 96 adult fish was determined based upon their reduction in swim performance following a sublethal exposure to 150 μg Cu/l. Control, Cu-tolerant and Cu-susceptible lines of fish were produced and fish within each line were allowed to breed. The offspring were raised to adults, then exposed to one of two sublethal Cu concentrations (150 or 225 (μg Cu/l) for 8 days. There were no significant differences in relative Cu tolerance, as measured by reduction in swim performance, among the three lines of fish at either dose. However, significant differences in whole body Na+ occurred among the fish lines after exposure to 150 μg Cu/l, but not after exposure to 225 μg Cu/l. Significant differences in whole body Cu occurred between Cu-tolerant and Cu-susceptible fish lines after exposure to either Cu dose. The offspring did not inherit the relative Cu tolerance of their parents, however, the selection lines had diverged from each other, particularly with respect to their whole body Cu concentrations after exposure. PMID:15820103

  18. Risks from occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R C; Formoli, T A; Silva, M H; Kellner, T P; Lewis, C M; Pfeifer, K F

    1996-01-01

    Mevinphos (trade name, Phosdrin), a category 1 organophosphorus insecticide, has been used mainly as a cleanup pesticide for vegetable crops. A risk assessment for occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos was initiated because of the high acute toxicity of the compound. Repetitive dosing with mevinphos did not cause any discernible histopathological effects in mice or rats, nor was it oncogenic in either species. The principal toxic effects of mevinphos, both short- and long term, were due to inhibition of cholinesterase activity. Consequently, potential adverse effects from short-term exposures were the primary concern. A human no-observed-effect level (0.025 mg/kg) for cholinergic signs was used as the regulatory basis for calculating margins of safety (MOSs) for potential acute dietary and short-term occupational exposures. Estimates of exposure to mixer/loaders, pilots, and flaggers associated with aerial application of mevinphos were based on passive dosimetry. Because no acceptable exposure studies for work tasks associated with ground application of mevinphos were available, surrogate data based on ground application of oxydemeton-methyl were used. Exposure estimates for field workers and harvesters relied on measured dislodgeable foliar residues of mevinphos and transfer factors generated from studies of other active ingredients. MOSs for mean acute occupational exposure of mixer/loader/applicators associated with ground application and of harvesters working in fruit trees were less than the value conventionally recommended to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. MOSs for the 95th percentile of short-term worker exposure for all mixer/loader work categories associated with mevinphos application were also inadequate. Calculated MOSs for potential acute dietary exposure to measured residue levels of mevinphos were adequate for the various population subgroups. However, 25 of the USEPA tolerances for mevinphos on agricultural commodities

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  20. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  1. 76 FR 16301 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include occupational exposure... water) exposure assessments were conducted using the Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model, Version 2.03... the date of issuance of these tolerances. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency...

  2. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  3. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  4. Focal cerebral ischemic tolerance and change in blood-brain barrier permeability after repetitive pure oxygen exposure preconditioning in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Kang, Kai; Wang, Shiquan; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Xijing

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this study was to demonstrate that repetitive pure oxygen exposure preconditioning (O2PC) for 8 hours per day for 3 or 7 days, a practicable preconditioning for clinical use, is able to induce cerebral ischemic tolerance (IT) and further clarify the accompanying changes in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that may be involved. METHODS A total of 68 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and eight 1-day-old rat pups were used in this study. The adult rats were exposed to pure O2 (38 rats) 8 hours a day for 3 or 7 days or to room air (in an identical setup) for 8 hours a day for 7 days as controls (30 rats). Arterial O2 tension (PaO2) was measured in 6 rats exposed to O2 and 3 controls. Focal cerebral ischemia was elicited by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in 37 rats, of which 21 had been exposed to pure O2 for 3 or 7 days and 16 to room air for 7 days as controls. Neurological behavior was scored with the Garcia score in 15 MCAO rats, of which 10 had been exposed to pure O2 for 3 or 7 days and 5 to room air for 7 days as controls, and cerebral infarct volumes were assessed with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride) staining in 10 rats (5 from each group) after 7 days of exposure. Formamide-extraction method was used to detect leakage of Evans blue (EB) dye in 7 rats exposed to pure O2 for 7 days and 7 exposed to room air for 7 days. Fluorescence microscopy was used to analyze the leaked EB in the nonischemic areas of 4 rats exposed to pure O2 for 7 days and 4 exposed to room air for 7 days before MCAO and the brain of the rats that had not been subjected to MCAO. Astrocyte changes associated with O2PC were evaluated by means of fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy in 14 rats that were exposed to the same O2 or control conditions as the MCAO rats but without MCAO. Astrocytes were also obtained from 8 rat pups and cultured; levels of AQP4 and VEGF were detected by Western blot and ELISA in cells with and without O2 treatment. RESULTS

  5. Repeated exposure of male mice to low doses of lipopolysaccharide: dose and time dependent development of behavioral sensitization and tolerance in an automated light-dark anxiety test.

    PubMed

    Banasikowski, Tomek J; Cloutier, Caylen J; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to examine immune behavior relationships there has been little consideration of the effects of low doses and the roles of sensitization and, or tolerance. Here low doses of LPS (1.0, 5.0 and 25.0 μg/kg) were peripherally administered to male mice on Days 1, 4, 28 and 32 after a baseline recording of anxiety-like behaviors in an automated light-dark apparatus (total time in the light chamber, number of light-dark transitions, nose pokes into the light chamber). LPS at 1.0 μg/kg, while having no significant effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark test on Days 1 and 4, displayed sensitization with the mice exhibiting significantly enhanced anxiety-like responses on Days 28 and 32. LPS at 5.0 μg/kg had no consistent significant effects on anxiety-like behavior on Days 1 and 4, with sensitization and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 28 followed by tolerance on Day 32. LPS at 25 μg/kg significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 1, followed by tolerance on Day 4, which was not evident by Day 28 and re-emerged on Day 32. There was a similar overall pattern of sensitization and tolerance for LPS-induced decreases in locomotor activity in the safe dark chamber, without, however, any significant effects on activity in the riskier light chamber. This shows that low doses of LPS induce anxiety-like behavior and these effects are subject to sensitization and tolerance in a dose, context, and time related manner.

  6. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  7. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  8. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  9. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  10. Lysosomal membrane stability, phagocytosis and tolerance to emersion in the mussel Perna viridis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) following exposure to acute, sublethal, copper.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, S

    2003-08-01

    The mytilid mussel Perna viridis is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region and is potentially a suitable candidate for biological effects (biomarker) monitoring in the subtropics. A suite of cytological and physiological responses to acute (48-72 h) copper exposures of 50-200 microgl(-1) were assessed in order to determine the suitability of P. viridis for marine pollution monitoring. Copper elicited significant destabilisation of the haemocyte lysosomal membranes and also impaired phagocytosis. Survival during emersion following exposure to copper was not related to the experimental copper exposures suggesting that higher metal concentrations may be required to interfere with anaerobic enzymes responsible for suppression of metabolism. Based on this preliminary study, cytological biomarkers evaluated in the haemocytes extracted from P. viridis should prove an effective non-destructive means of assessing metal pollution throughout the mussels subtropical range.

  11. Evidence for Lack of Acquisition of Tolerance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 after Exposure to Subinhibitory Amounts of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Nunes, Pollyana Campos; Magnani, Marciane

    2012-01-01

    Overnight exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal amounts of Origanum vulgare essential oil (OV) and carvacrol (CAR) did not result in direct and cross-bacterial protection. Cells subcultured with increasing amounts of OV or CAR survived up to the MIC of either compound, revealing few significant changes in bacterial susceptibility. PMID:22544235

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of submergence-tolerant and sensitive Brachypodium distachyon ecotypes reveals oxidative stress as a major tolerance factor

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Contreras, Irma Karla; Zamora-Hernández, Teresa; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana Arlene; Capataz-Tafur, Jacqueline; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca Estela; Juntawong, Piyada; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario

    2016-01-01

    When excessive amounts of water accumulate around roots and aerial parts of plants, submergence stress occurs. To find the integrated mechanisms of tolerance, we used ecotypes of the monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon to screen for genetic material with contrasting submergence tolerance. For this purpose, we used a set of previously studied drought sensitive/tolerant ecotypes and the knowledge that drought tolerance is positively associated with submergence stress. We decided to contrast aerial tissue transcriptomes of the ecotype Bd21 14-day-old plants as sensitive and ecotype Bd2-3 as tolerant after 2 days of stress under a long-day photoperiod. Gene ontology and the grouping of transcripts indicated that tolerant Bd2-3 differentially down-regulated NITRATE REDUCTASE and ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE under stress and constitutively up-regulated HAEMOGLOBIN, when compared with the sensitive ecotype, Bd21. These results suggested the removal of nitric oxide, a gaseous phytohormone and concomitant reactive oxygen species as a relevant tolerance determinant. Other mechanisms more active in tolerant Bd2-3 were the pathogen response, glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid cycle integration, and acetate metabolism. This data set could be employed to design further studies on the basic science of plant tolerance to submergence stress and its biotechnological application in the development of submergence-tolerant crops. PMID:27282694

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of submergence-tolerant and sensitive Brachypodium distachyon ecotypes reveals oxidative stress as a major tolerance factor.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Contreras, Irma Karla; Zamora-Hernández, Teresa; Huerta-Heredia, Ariana Arlene; Capataz-Tafur, Jacqueline; Barrera-Figueroa, Blanca Estela; Juntawong, Piyada; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario

    2016-06-10

    When excessive amounts of water accumulate around roots and aerial parts of plants, submergence stress occurs. To find the integrated mechanisms of tolerance, we used ecotypes of the monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon to screen for genetic material with contrasting submergence tolerance. For this purpose, we used a set of previously studied drought sensitive/tolerant ecotypes and the knowledge that drought tolerance is positively associated with submergence stress. We decided to contrast aerial tissue transcriptomes of the ecotype Bd21 14-day-old plants as sensitive and ecotype Bd2-3 as tolerant after 2 days of stress under a long-day photoperiod. Gene ontology and the grouping of transcripts indicated that tolerant Bd2-3 differentially down-regulated NITRATE REDUCTASE and ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE under stress and constitutively up-regulated HAEMOGLOBIN, when compared with the sensitive ecotype, Bd21. These results suggested the removal of nitric oxide, a gaseous phytohormone and concomitant reactive oxygen species as a relevant tolerance determinant. Other mechanisms more active in tolerant Bd2-3 were the pathogen response, glyoxylate and tricarboxylic acid cycle integration, and acetate metabolism. This data set could be employed to design further studies on the basic science of plant tolerance to submergence stress and its biotechnological application in the development of submergence-tolerant crops.

  14. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  15. Aerial radiological survey of Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, 8 August-2 September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzsche, A E

    1982-06-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over Yucca Flat during August 1978. A limited quantity of soil samples was obtained and evaluated in support of the aerial survey. Results are presented in the form of exposure rate isopleths from man-made isotopes and estimates of concentrations and inventories of /sup 152/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

  17. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  18. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  20. A review of aerial radiological surveys of Nevada Test Site fallout fields 1951 through 1970

    SciTech Connect

    1987-12-01

    Aerial surveys of offsite fallout radiation fields from the Nevada Test Site began in the early 1950s and continued throughout the above-ground testing period. The results of the aerial surveys were used to support ground data in determining the extent of the fallout patterns. For the series of tests conducted in 1953 and 1955, the primary uncertainty of the results was knowing the location of the aircraft. Navigation was made from aeronautical charts of a scale 1:1,000,000, and errors in location of several miles were experienced. Another problem was that exposure rate readings made in the aircraft of 1 milliroentgen per hour or lower were not reliable. Exposure rate measurements above 1 milliroentgen per hour were more accurate, however, and are considered reliable to within a factor of two or three in predicting 3-foot exposure rate levels. For the 1957 series, the aircraft position data were quite accurate. Ground-level exposure rates predicted from aerial data obtained by the United States Geological Survey aircraft for the five-detector array were considered reliable to within +-40% or better for most of the surveys. When the single detector was used, the accuracy decreased to about a factor of two. Relative count rates obtained by the aircraft operated by the Atomic Energy Commission, Raw Materials Division, are probably valid, but quantitative determination of 3-foot exposure rates are not. The Aerial Radiological Monitoring System performed all the aerial surveys in the 1960s. However, the air-to-ground conversion factors used were too low. Using a corrected conversion factor, the predicted 3-foot exposure rates should be valid to +-40% in most fallout fields if all other parameters are considered. 40 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  2. The physiological tolerance of the grey carpet shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) and the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) to anoxic exposure at three seasonal temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Clint A; Harahush, Blake K; Renshaw, Gillian M C

    2011-09-01

    The epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) and the grey carpet shark (Chiloscyllium punctatum) are commonly found in periodically hypoxic environments. The ecophysiological time available for these animals to safely exploit these niches during different seasonal temperatures was examined. The time to loss of righting reflex (T (LRR)) was examined in response to an open ended anoxic challenge at three seasonal temperatures (23, 25 and 27°C). Ventilation rates were measured in an open ended anoxic challenge at 23°C and during 1.5 h of anoxia followed by 2 h of re-oxygenation at 23 and 25°C. The mean T (LRR) of epaulette and grey carpet sharks was inversely proportional to temperature. The T (LRR) was similar between species at 23°C; however, grey carpet sharks had significantly reduced T (LRR) at higher temperatures. During the standardised anoxic challenge, epaulette sharks entered into ventilatory depression significantly earlier at 25°C. During re-oxygenation, epaulette sharks exposed to anoxia at 23°C had no significant increase in ventilation rates. However, after anoxic challenge and re-oxygenation at 25°C, epaulette sharks showed a significant increase in ventilation rates during re-oxygenation. Grey carpet sharks displayed no evidence of ventilatory depression during anoxia. However, during re-oxygenation, grey carpet sharks had significantly elevated ventilation rates above pre-experimental levels and control animals. These data demonstrate that the anoxia tolerance times of both species were temperature dependent, with a significant reduction in the T (LRR) occurring at higher temperatures. Epaulette sharks had a significantly greater T (LRR) at higher temperatures than grey carpet sharks, which did not enter into a ventilatory depression.

  3. Air exposure behavior of the semiterrestrial crab Neohelice granulata allows tolerance to severe hypoxia but not prevent oxidative damage due to hypoxia-reoxygenation cycle.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Tábata Martins; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Maciel, Fábio Everton

    2015-11-01

    The air exposure behavior of the semi-terrestrial crab Neohelice granulata during severe hypoxia was studied. This study also verified whether this behavior mitigates possible oxidative damage, namely lipoperoxidation, caused by hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles. The lethal time for 50% of the crabs subjected to severe hypoxia (0.5 mgO2 · L(-1)) with free access to air was compared to that of crabs subjected to severe hypoxia without access to air. Crabs were placed in aquaria divided into three zones: water (when the animal was fully submersed), land (when the animal was completely emerged) and intermediate (when the animal was in contact with both environments) zones. Then the crabs were held in this condition for 270 min, and the time spent in each zone was recorded. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) damage to the walking leg muscles was determined for the following four experimental conditions: a--normoxic water with free access to air; b--hypoxic water without access to air; c--hypoxic water followed by normoxic water without air access; and d--hypoxic water with free access to air. When exposed to hypoxic water, N. granulata spent significantly more time on land, 135.3 ± 17.7 min, whereas control animals (exposed to normoxic water) spent more time submerged, 187.4 ± 20.2 min. By this behavior, N. granulata was able to maintain a 100% survival rate when exposed to severe hypoxia. However, N. granulata must still return to water after periods of air exposure (~ 14 min), causing a sequence of hypoxia/reoxygenation events. Despite increasing the survival rate, hypoxia with air access does not decrease the lipid peroxidation damage caused by the hypoxia and reoxygenation cycle experienced by these crabs.

  4. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  5. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  6. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  7. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  10. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  12. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  13. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  14. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  15. ‘It would not be tolerated in any other profession except medicine’: survey reporting on undergraduates’ exposure to bullying and harassment in their first placement year

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine the extent to which undergraduate medical students experience (and/or witness) bullying and harassment during their first year on full-time placements and to compare with new General Medical Council (GMC) evidence on bullying and harassment of doctors in training. Setting A UK university offering medical and nursing undergraduate programmes. Participants 309 medical and nursing undergraduate students with 30–33 weeks’ placement experience (123 medical students and 186 nursing students); overall response rate: 47%. Primary and secondary outcome measures (A) students’ experience of bullying and harassment; (B) witnessing bullying and harassment; (C) actions taken by students; (D) comparison of medical and nursing students’ data. Results Within 8 months of starting clinical placements, a fifth of medical and a quarter of nursing students reported experiencing bullying and harassment. Cohorts differ in the type of exposure reported and in their responses. Whereas some nursing students follow incidences with query and challenge, most medical students acquiesce. Conclusions Bullying and harassment of medical (and nursing) students—as well as witnessing of such incidents—occurs as soon as students enter the clinical environment. This augments evidence published by the GMC in its first report on undermining of doctors in training (December 2013). The data suggest differences between nursing and medical students in how they respond to such incidents. PMID:25009133

  16. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  17. 77 FR 73940 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... tolerances, and revisions to tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This..., the primary target organ of flubendiamide exposure is the liver, with secondary effects reported in the thyroid and kidney at equivalent or higher doses; no-observed- adverse-effect-levels...

  18. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ....'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in residential settings, but does not include... and water that assumed tolerance-level residues, 100 percent crop treated (PCT), and the available... food and water assumed tolerance-level residues for some commodities, average field trial residues...

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 {mu}R/h plus an approximate 6 {mu}R/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey`s gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within {+-} 5%.

  20. In vivo sodium salicylate causes tolerance to acute morphine exposure and alters the ability of high frequency stimulation to induce long-term potentiation in hippocampus area CA1.

    PubMed

    Hosseinmardi, Narges; Azimi, Lila; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Javan, Mohammad; Naghdi, Naser

    2011-11-30

    Effects of morphine on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus area CA1 following in vivo sodium salicylate and the potential molecular mechanism were investigated. Population spikes (PS) were recorded from stratum pylamidale of area CA1 following stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in slices taken from control and sodium salicylate injected rats. To induce long term potentiation (LTP), a 100Hz tetanic stimulation was used. Acute in vitro morphine increased baseline PS amplitude in control slices but not in slices taken from sodium salicylate treated rats. In vivo chronic salicylate did slightly decrease and/or destabilize LTP of CA1 synaptic transmission. We also found that mRNA of NR2A subunit of NMDA receptor was reduced in the hippocampus of sodium salicylate treated rats as compared to control ones. Following LTP induction, the mRNA of NR2A and PP1 (protein phosphatase 1) in slices taken from salicylate-treated rats were more than those of control ones. After long-term exposure to in vitro morphine, high frequency stimulation (HFS) decreased NR2A mRNA level significantly in sodium salicylate treated slices. It is concluded that in vivo sodium salicylate causes tolerance to excitatory effect of morphine and changes the ability of HFS to induce PS LTP in the hippocampus area CA1 in vitro. These changes in synaptic response may be due to alterations in NR2A and PP1 expression.

  1. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  2. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  3. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  4. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  6. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  7. Nitrate tolerance.

    PubMed

    Parker, J O

    1987-11-16

    The organic nitrates are the most widely used agents in the management of patients with angina pectoris. When initially administered by the oral route, the nitrates produce profound changes in systemic hemodynamics and significant and prolonged improvement in exercise duration. It has been shown that during short periods of regular oral nitrate administration, the hemodynamic, antiischemic and antianginal effects of the nitrates are greatly reduced. Thus, when initially administered, oral isosorbide dinitrate prolongs exercise duration for a period of several hours, but during sustained 4-times-daily therapy, exercise tolerance is improved for only 2 hours after administration. Studies with transdermal preparations of isosorbide dinitrate and nitroglycerin also show improvement during short-term administration for up to 8 hours, but after several days of once-daily therapy, the effects of these agents are similar to placebo. It is apparent that nitrate tolerance is a clinically relevant problem. Although tolerance develops rapidly during nitrate therapy, it is reversed promptly during nitrate-free periods. Oral nitrates maintain their antianginal effects when given 2 or 3 times daily with provision of a nitrate-free period. Studies are currently underway to investigate the effects of intermittent administration schedules with transdermal nitrate preparations.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    SciTech Connect

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  9. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

  11. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  12. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  13. Biocular image misalignment tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; van de Pol, Corina; Rowe, Terri L.; Lont, Lisa M.; Peterson, R. David

    2003-09-01

    Biocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) design flexibility and cost are directly related to image misalignment tolerance standards. Currently recommended tolerance levels are based on highly variable data from a number of studies. This paper presents progress of an ongoing study to evaluate optometric measures sensitive to misalignment in partial-overlap biocular optical systems like that proposed for the Comanche RAH-66 helicopter helmet integrated display sighting system (HIDSS). Horizontal divergent and relative vertical misalignments (offsets) of see-through biocular symbology viewed against a simulated daytime background were chosen for this study. Misalignments within and just beyond current tolerance recommendations were evaluated using pre, pre and post, and during measures of visual performance. Data were obtained from seven experimental and four control subjects. The diplopia responses from experimental and control subjects were essentially the same. However, accommodative facility showed a rate decrement following exposure to both types of misalignment. Horizontal heterophorias showed definite post-misalignment increases. Subject responses to questionnaires universally indicated increased adaptation to (ease with) visual tasks over the testing period.

  14. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  15. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  16. 78 FR 78731 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... drinking water. These simulation models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate...) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or... exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all...

  17. 78 FR 36093 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/transport characteristics of fenpyroximate... to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if... pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for...

  18. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  19. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  20. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  1. Antibiotic tolerance facilitates the evolution of resistance.

    PubMed

    Levin-Reisman, Irit; Ronin, Irine; Gefen, Orit; Braniss, Ilan; Shoresh, Noam; Balaban, Nathalie Q

    2017-02-24

    Controlled experimental evolution during antibiotic treatment can help to explain the processes leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Recently, intermittent antibiotic exposures have been shown to lead rapidly to the evolution of tolerance-that is, the ability to survive under treatment without developing resistance. However, whether tolerance delays or promotes the eventual emergence of resistance is unclear. Here we used in vitro evolution experiments to explore this question. We found that in all cases, tolerance preceded resistance. A mathematical population-genetics model showed how tolerance boosts the chances for resistance mutations to spread in the population. Thus, tolerance mutations pave the way for the rapid subsequent evolution of resistance. Preventing the evolution of tolerance may offer a new strategy for delaying the emergence of resistance.

  2. Effect of acid tolerance response (ATR) on attachment of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A to stainless steel under extended exposure to acid or/and salt stress and resistance of sessile cells to subsequent strong acid challenge.

    PubMed

    Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Giaouris, Efstathios; Grigoraki, Ioanna; Skandamis, Panagiotis; Nychas, George-John

    2011-02-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential effect of adaptive stationary phase acid tolerance response (ATR) of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A cells on their attachment to stainless steel (SS) under low pH or/and high salt conditions and on the subsequent resistance of sessile cells to strong acid challenge. Nonadapted or acid-adapted stationary-phase L. monocytogenes cells were used to inoculate (ca. 10⁸ CFU/ml) Brain Heart (BH) broth (pH 7.4, 0.5% w/v NaCl) in test tubes containing vertically placed SS coupons (used as abiotic substrates for bacterial attachment). Incubation was carried out at 16 °C for up to 15 days, without any nutrient refreshment. L. monocytogenes cells, prepared as described above, were also exposed to low pH (4.5; adjusted with HCl) or/and high salt (5.5% w/v NaCl) stresses, during attachment. On the 5th, 10th and 15th day of incubation, cells attached to SS coupons were detached (through bead vortexing) and enumerated (by agar plating). Results revealed that ATR significantly (p<0.05) affected bacterial attachment, when the latter took place under moderate acidic conditions (pH 4.5, 0.5 or 5.5% w/v NaCl), with the acid-adapted cells adhering slightly more than the nonadapted ones. Regardless of acidity/salinity conditions during attachment, ATR also enhanced the resistance of sessile cells to subsequent lethal acid challenge (exposure to pH 2 for 6 min; pH adjusted with either hydrochloric or lactic acid). The trend observed with viable count data agreed well with conductance measurements, used to indirectly quantify remaining attached bacteria (following the strong acid challenge) via their metabolic activity. To sum, this study demonstrates that acid adaptation of L. monocytogenes cells during their planktonic growth enhances their subsequent attachment to SS under extended exposure (at 16 °C for up to 15 days) to mild acidic conditions (pH 4.5), while it also improves the resistance of sessile cells to extreme acid

  3. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  4. Effect Of Bed Rest On Tolerance To Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldwater, Danielle J.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes experimental comparative study of tolerance of aerobically fit men and sedentary men to +Gz acceleration. Designed to confirm or deny previous observations that long-term aerobic training reduces tolerance to acceleration. Data accumulated in study showed decrease in tolerance to acceleration caused by deconditioning effect of bed rest more pronounced in fit men than in sedentary men. Suggests physically fit people need additional measures to reduce loss of tolerance to acceleration during microgravity exposure.

  5. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  7. Can crops tolerate acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.K.

    1989-11-01

    This brief article describes work by scientists at the ARS Air Quality-Plant Growth and Development Laboratory in Raleigh, North Carolina, that indicates little damage to crops as a result of acid rain. In studies with simulated acid rain and 216 exposed varieties of 18 crops, there were no significant injuries nor was there reduced growth in most species. Results of chronic and acute exposures were correlated in sensitive tomato and soybean plants and in tolerant winter wheat and lettuce plants. These results suggest that 1-hour exposures could be used in the future to screen varieties for sensitivity to acid rain.

  8. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  9. The cleaning effects of mask aerial image after FIB repair in sub-80nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyemi; Jeong, Goomin; Jeong, Sookyeong; Kim, Sangchul; Han, Oscar

    2007-10-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement Tool (AIMS) can estimate the wafer printability without exposure to wafer by using scanner. Since measured aerial images are similar with wafer prints, using AIMS becomes normal for verifying issue points of a mask. Also because mask design rule continues to shrink, defects and CD uniformity are at issues as factors decreasing mask yield. Occurred defects on a mask are removed by existing mask repair techniques such as nanomachining, electron beam and focused ion beam. But damages and contaminants by chemical and physical action are found on the mask surface and contaminants above special size lead to defects on a wafer. So cleaning has been necessary after repair process and detergency has been important. Before AIMS measurement, cleaning is done to make same condition with shipped mask, which method brings repeated process - repair and cleaning - if aerial image was not usual. So cleaning effect after the FIB repair is tested by using the AIMS to find the optimized process minimizing the repeated process and to get similar scanner results. First, programmed defect mask that includes various defect size and type is manufactured on some kinds of patterns in DRAM device and sub-80nm tech. Next the defects on the programmed mask are repaired by FIB repair machine. And aerial images are compared after the chemical cleaning, non-chemical cleaning and without cleaning. Finally, approximate aerial images to scanner results are taken regardless of cleaning process. It means that residue originated from repair process doesn't affect aerial images and flexible process is possible between AIMS, repair and cleaning process. But as the effect of minute particles and contaminations will be increased if pattern size is much smaller, it needs to reconfirm the effect below the sub-60nm in DRAM device.

  10. Study of the tolerance of Hippochaete ramosissimum to Cu stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dengyi; Li, Ying; Chu, Ling; Wang, Guanglin; Wang, Lilong

    2005-05-01

    We investigated the tolerance of Hippochaete ramosissimum and the changes in physiological metabolism following exposure to copper using pot experiments and analyzing plant physiology and biochemistry. The results showed that Cu tolerance in Hippochaete ramosissimum varied significantly between different populations; the tolerance of plants living in Cu polluted areas for extended periods of time exceeded that of plants living in unpolluted areas. SOD and POD activities in highly Cu tolerant plants increased noticeably following exposure to Cu. This indicates that maintaining and increasing the two kinds of protective enzyme activities are the primary foundations of plant tolerance. However, no change in CAT activity was demonstrated following Cu exposure. In summary, there existed considerable differences in physiological metabolism between different populationsof Hippochaete ramosissimum following exposure to Cu.

  11. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  12. Detection of linear features in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rui

    Over the past decades, considerable progress had been made to develop automatic image interpretation tools in remote sensing. However, there is still a gap between the results and the requirements for accuracy and robustness. Noisy aerial image interpretation, especially for low resolution images, is still difficult. In this thesis, we propose a fully automatic system for linear feature detection in aerial images. We present how the system works on the application of extraction and reconstruction of road and pipeline networks. The work in this thesis is divided by three parts: line detection, feature interpretation, and feature tracking. An improved Hough transform based on orientation information is introduced for the line detection. We explore the Markov random field model and Bayesian filtering for feature interpretation and tracking. Experimental results show that our proposed system is robust and effective to deal with low resolution aerial images.

  13. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  14. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  15. Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

  16. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  17. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  18. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  19. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  20. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  1. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  2. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  3. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  4. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  5. Role of Regulatory Cells in Oral Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wawrzyniak, Marcin; O'Mahony, Liam

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is continuously exposed to great amounts of different antigens from both food and intestinal microbes. Immune tolerance to these antigens is very important for intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis. Oral tolerance is a specific type of peripheral tolerance induced by exposure to antigen via the oral route. Investigations on the role of intestinal immune system in preventing hypersensitivity reactions to innocuous dietary and microbial antigens have been intensively performed during the last 2 decades. In this review article, we discuss how food allergens are recognized by the intestinal immune system and draw attention to the role of regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells in the establishment of oral tolerance and tolerogenic features of intestinal dendritic cells. We also emphasize the potential role of tonsils in oral tolerance induction because of their anatomical location, cellular composition, and possible usage to develop novel ways of specific immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:28102055

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles DOD’s Acquisition Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Hunter System Is Not Appropriate for Navy Fleet Use (GAO/NSIAD-96-2, Dec. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Maneuver...System Schedule Includes Unnecessary Risk (GAO/NSIAD-95-161, Sept. 15, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : No More Hunter Systems...Should Be Bought Until Problems are Fixed (GAO/NSIAD-95-52, Mar. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Performance of Short-Range System in Question

  7. High sustained +Gz acceleration: physiological adaptation to high-G tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the early 1940s, a significant volume of research has been conducted in an effort to describe the impact of acute exposures to high-G acceleration on cardiovascular mechanisms responsible to maintaining cerebral perfusion and conscious in high performance aircraft pilots during aerial combat maneuvers. The value of understanding hemodynamic characteristics that underlie G-induced loss of consciousness has been instrumental in the evolution of optimal technology development (e.g., G-suits, positive pressure breathing, COMBAT EDGE, etc.) and pilot training (e.g., anti-G straining maneuvers). Although the emphasis of research has been placed on the development of protection against acute high +Gz acceleration effects, recent observations suggest that adaptation of cardiovascular mechanism associated with blood pressure regulation may contribute to a protective 'G-training' effect. Regular training at high G enhances G tolerance in humans, rats, guinea pigs, and dogs while prolonged layoff from exposure in high G profiles (G-layoff) can result in reduced G endurance. It seems probable that adaptations in physiological functions following chronically-repeated high G exposure (G training) or G-layoff could have significant impacts on performance during sustained high-G acceleration since protective technology such as G-suits and anit-G straining maneuvers are applied consistently during these periods of training. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of new data from three experiments that support the notion that repeated exposure on a regular basis to high sustained +Gz acceleration induces significant physiological adaptations which are associated with improved blood pressure regulation and subsequent protection of cerebral perfusion during orthostatic challenges.

  8. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS

  9. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  10. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  11. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  12. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  13. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  14. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  15. Multifunctional aerial display through use of polarization-processing display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Keitaro; Ito, Shusei; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We have realized a multifunctional aerial display. An aerial image of a polarization-processing display is formed through aerial imaging by retro-reflection. By changing the polarization modulation patterns, we can switch between a three-layered display and a secure display.

  16. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  17. Approach to engineer tomato by expression of AtHMA4 to enhance Zn in the aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Kendziorek, Maria; Barabasz, Anna; Rudzka, Justyna; Tracz, Katarzyna; Mills, Rebecca F; Williams, Lorraine E; Antosiewicz, Danuta Maria

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this work was to assess the potential for using AtHMA4 to engineer enhanced efficiency of Zn translocation to shoots, and to increase the Zn concentration in aerial tissues of tomato. AtHMA4, a P1B-ATPase, encodes a Zn export protein known to be involved in the control of Zn root-to-shoot translocation. In this work, 35S::AtHMA4 was expressed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Beta). Wild-type and transgenic plants were tested for Zn and Cd tolerance; Zn, Fe and Cd accumulation patterns, and for the expression of endogenous Zn/Fe-homeostasis genes. At 10μM Zn exposure, a higher Zn concentration was observed in leaves of AtHMA4-expressing lines compared to wild-type, which is promising in terms of Zn biofortification. AtHMA4 also transports Cd and at 0.25μM Cd the transgenic plants showed similar levels of this element in leaves to wild-type but lower levels in roots, therefore indicating a reduction of Cd uptake due to AtHMA4 expression. Expression of this transgene AtHMA4 also resulted in distinct changes in Fe accumulation in Zn-exposed plants, and Fe/Zn-accumulation in Cd-exposed plants, even though Fe is not a substrate for AtHMA4. Analysis of the transcript abundance of key Zn/Fe-homeostasis genes showed that the pattern was distinct for transgenic and wild-type plants. The reduction of Fe accumulation observed in AtHMA4-transformants was accompanied by up-regulation of Fe-deficiency marker genes (LeFER, LeFRO1, LeIRT1), whereas down-regulation was detected in plants with the status of Fe-sufficiency. Furthermore, results strongly suggest the importance of the up-regulation of LeCHLN in the roots of AtHMA4-expressing plants for efficient translocation of Zn to the shoots. Thus, the modifications of Zn/Fe/Cd translocation to aerial plant parts due to AtHMA4 expression are closely related to the alteration of the endogenous Zn-Fe-Cd cross-homeostasis network of tomato.

  18. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UAVs in the U .S . Department of D efense (D OD) inv entory as w ell as the traditional aircraft ctmently used for logistical pwposes. Then, using a...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Cost-benefit, Cost-based, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAV , UAS, PAGES Logistics, Supp01t...thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs )/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes

  19. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  20. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  1. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  2. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  3. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  4. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  5. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  6. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  7. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  8. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated {sup 137}Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the

  9. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  10. An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of Project Gasbuggy and surrounding area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Date of survey: October 27, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Gasbuggy site, 55 miles (89 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico, on October 27, 1994. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 16-square-mile (41-square-kilometer) area at a 150-foot (46-meter) altitude centered on the Gasbuggy site. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 14 to 20 {micro}R/h at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.

  12. THE EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  13. EPA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. FQPA requires exposure assessme...

  14. 77 FR 72226 - Picoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... observed effects of picoxystrobin exposure across species, genders, and treatment durations were decreased body weight, body weight gain and food consumption, and diarrhea. The effects on body weight and food... Nemours & Company requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)....

  15. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    .... These simulation models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/ transport... for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe... harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all...

  16. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    .... This simulation model took into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/transport...(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical... from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary...

  17. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... physical, chemical, and fate/ transport characteristics of trifloxystrobin. Further information regarding...)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical... from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary...

  18. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the... reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue... infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure...

  19. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  20. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  2. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    decades for crop dusting and other agricultural purposes.84 Historically, UAS were predominately operated by DoD in support of combat operations in...advocates state that in order for UAS to take an active role in homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveying, crop dusting, and other...isn’t ready for.93 The issue of when and how UAS will be allowed to operate in U.S. airspace continues to evolve, and continues to be of interest

  3. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    of Deer Island, the approaches open up into three deepwater channels and then into unrestricted waters. Using traditional aerial mine-laying...Boston’s inner harbor, showing two lucrative choke points—the channels south of Logan International or the Deer Island channel in the lower right. Areas...electric submarines yet leave commercial shipping unaffected. Some straits, such as Gibraltar, Lombok, or the Bab el Mandeb ( Red Sea) are too deep for

  4. Lactose tolerance tests

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen in the air you breathe out. ...

  5. Revoking Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA revokes pesticide tolerances when all registrations of a pesticide have been canceled in the U.S. and the tolerances are not needed for imported foods or when there are no registered uses for certain crops.

  6. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  7. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  8. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  9. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  10. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  11. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Southall, Brandon L; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7 degrees, 3.6 degrees, and 4.2 degrees for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  12. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  13. Immune tolerance elicited via unique ocular and oral routes.

    PubMed

    Ashour, H M

    2015-01-01

    Immune tolerance can be induced by numerous methods. This review article aims to draw lines of similarity and contrast between two unique models of immune tolerance, namely Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) and Nickel-induced oral tolerance. ACAID is an immune tolerance model that leads to the generation of CD4(+) T regulatory cells and CD8(+) T regulatory cells in the periphery after the injection of an antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye. Nickel-induced oral tolerance is another immune tolerance model that is induced by the contact allergen Nickel and leads to the generation of Nickel-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells after oral exposure. The goal of comparing different models of immune tolerance is to identify which mechanisms are universal and which mechanisms are model-specific. The knowledge of such mechanisms would allow scientists and clinicians to better intervene in different immune deregulation scenarios.

  14. Need for Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions for Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ingredients used in minimum risk products used on food, food crops, food contact surfaces, or animal feed commodities generally have a tolerance or tolerance exemption. Learn about tolerances and tolerance exemptions for minimum risk ingredients.

  15. Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally extreme temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally extreme temperature environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally extreme Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and temperatures as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore temperatures which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average temperatures exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating temperatures enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to extreme heat stress events.

  16. Limits to the thermal tolerance of corals adapted to a highly fluctuating, naturally extreme temperature environment

    PubMed Central

    Schoepf, Verena; Stat, Michael; Falter, James L.; McCulloch, Malcolm T.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally extreme temperature environments can provide important insights into the processes underlying coral thermal tolerance. We determined the bleaching resistance of Acropora aspera and Dipsastraea sp. from both intertidal and subtidal environments of the naturally extreme Kimberley region in northwest Australia. Here tides of up to 10 m can cause aerial exposure of corals and temperatures as high as 37 °C that fluctuate daily by up to 7 °C. Control corals were maintained at ambient nearshore temperatures which varied diurnally by 4-5 °C, while treatment corals were exposed to similar diurnal variations and heat stress corresponding to ~20 degree heating days. All corals hosted Symbiodinium clade C independent of treatment or origin. Detailed physiological measurements showed that these corals were nevertheless highly sensitive to daily average temperatures exceeding their maximum monthly mean of ~31 °C by 1 °C for only a few days. Generally, Acropora was much more susceptible to bleaching than Dipsastraea and experienced up to 75% mortality, whereas all Dipsastraea survived. Furthermore, subtidal corals, which originated from a more thermally stable environment compared to intertidal corals, were more susceptible to bleaching. This demonstrates that while highly fluctuating temperatures enhance coral resilience to thermal stress, they do not provide immunity to extreme heat stress events. PMID:26627576

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Evans Area, US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, R.J.

    1989-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Evans Area, US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, during the period November 14--18, 1988. The purposes of the survey were to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Evans site and surrounding area and to determine if there had been any radiological impact on the area due to past laboratory operations. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained at sites outside the survey perimeter. Similar ground-based measurements were also made at several locations on the Evans site and at the bank of the Shark River bordering the Evans Area. No evidence for contamination was identified by either radionuclide assay of soil samples or the aerial survey. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  19. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL31872 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background...00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and

  20. The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art A Monograph by Major Joel E Pauls USAF School of Advanced Military Studies...Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel E. Pauls Major, United States Air Force 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) by the United States

  1. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 29 OCTOBER 1959. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  2. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 19 SEPTEMBER 1978. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  3. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  4. THE EPA NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research in support of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. FQPA requires that children's risks to pesticide exposures be considered during the tolerance-setting process. The Act requires exposure...

  5. Radiation tolerance in water bears.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, D. D.; Sakashita, T.; Katagiri, C.; Watanabe, M.; Nakahara, Y.; Okuda, T.; Hamada, N.; Wada, S.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    Tardigrades water bears are tiny invertebrates forming a phylum and inhabit various environments on the earth Terrestrial tardigrades enter a form called as anhydrobiosis when the surrounding water disappears Anhyydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic dry state and followed by recovering their activity when rehydrated Anhydrobiotic tardigrades show incredible tolerance to a variety of extreme environmental conditions such as temperatures -273 r C to 151 r C vacuum high pressure 600 MPa and chemicals that include alcohols and methyl bromide In these views there have been some discussions about their potential for surviving outer space In the present study we demonstrated the survival limit not merely against gamma-rays but against heavy ions in the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum in order to evaluate the effects of radiations on them The animals were exposure to 500 to 7000 Gy of gamma-rays or 500 to 8000 Gy of heavy ions 4 He in their hydrated or anhydrobiotic state The results showed that both of hydrated and anhydrobiotic animals have high radio-tolerance median lethal dose LD50 48 h of gamma-rays or heavy ions in M tardigradum was more than 4000 Gy indicating that this species is categorized into the most radio-tolerant animals We suggest that tardigrades will be suitable model animals for extremophilic multicellular organisms and may provide a survival strategy in extraterrestrial environments

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels.

  7. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  8. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  9. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  10. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  11. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  12. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  13. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  14. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  15. Human Operator Modeling for Aerial Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    HUMAN OPERATOR MODELING FOR AERIAL TRACKING JONA THAN KORN ARTER. EPHRATH DA VLD L. KLEINMAN DBCXMBt 19MDTICSELECTE APR 3 1981.j B Approwd for pVA& u...8217the "Guid 8en th Cart end Use of laboratory Animals, "Inatitate of Laboratory Animl ReaNuWAes, National Rtesarch CouncL The voluntary Infomed consent...Continue. on reverse aide If necessary and identify hc block numbrh) ._Modern Optimal Control techniques are e:iployed to investigate and model human

  16. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  17. Adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguen, V. F.; Putov, A. V.; Nguen, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with design and comparison of adaptive control systems based on plant state vector and output for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with nonlinearity and uncertainty of parameters of the aircraft incomplete measurability of its state and presence of wind disturbances. The results of computer simulations of flight stabilization processes on the example of the experimental model UAV-70V (Aerospace Academy, Hanoi) with presence of periodic and non-periodic vertical wind disturbances with designed adaptive control systems based on plant state vector with state observer and plant output.

  18. Real-time observations of extreme-ultraviolet aerial images by fluorescence microimaging

    SciTech Connect

    La Fontaine, B. ); White, D.L. ); Wood, O.R. II ); MacDowell, A.A.; Tan, Z. ); Taylor, G.N. ); Tennant, D.M. ); Hulbert, S.L. )

    1994-11-01

    A new technique, fluorescence microimaging (FMI), using single-crystal phosphors was used to look directly at aerial images produced by an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) camera operating at a wavelength of 139 A. The achieved spatial resolution was estimated to be [similar to]0.2 [mu]m. A comparison of this technique with the usual resist-exposure scanning electron microscopy inspection technique as a means of focusing a 20[times]EUV Schwarzschild camera was performed. FMI could in principle be improved to view fluorescent images with features as small as 0.07 [mu]m, in real time.

  19. Carisoprodol Tolerance and Precipitated Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Gatch, Michael B.; Nguyen, Jacques D.; Carbonaro, Theresa; Forster, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant that acts at the GABAA receptor. Concerns about the abuse liability of carisoprodol are increasing, but evidence that carisoprodol produces tolerance and a significant withdrawal syndrome has yet to be established. The purpose of the current study was to determine if repeated administration of carisoprodol produces tolerance and withdrawal signs in a mouse model. Methods Carisoprodol (0, 100, 200, 300, or 500 mg/kg bid, i.p.) was administered to Swiss-Webster mice for 4 days and loss-of-righting reflex was measured 20 to 30 minutes following each administration. On the fourth day, bemegride (20 mg/kg), flumazenil (20 mg/kg), or vehicle was administered following carisoprodol and withdrawal signs were measured. Separate groups of mice receiving the same treatment regimen and dose range were tested for spontaneous withdrawal at 6, 12 and 24 hr after the last dose of carisoprodol. Results The righting reflex was dose-dependently impaired following the first administration of carisoprodol. A 75 to 100% decrease in the magnitude of the impairment occurred over the four days of exposure, indicating the development of tolerance to the carisoprodol-elicited loss-of-righting reflex. Withdrawal signs were not observed within 24 hours following spontaneous withdrawal; however, bemegride and flumazenil each precipitated withdrawal within 15 to 30 min of administration. Conclusions Carisoprodol treatment resulted in tolerance and antagonist-precipitated withdrawal, suggesting it may have an addiction potential similar to that of other long-acting benzodiazepine or barbiturate compounds. PMID:22055010

  20. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  1. Diffuse urban pollution increases metal tolerance of natural heterotrophic biofilms.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Lise C; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Bourgeault, Adeline; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2012-03-01

    This study is a first attempt to investigate the impact of urban contamination on metal tolerance of heterotrophic river biofilms using a short-term test based on β-glucosidase activity. Tolerance levels to Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni and Pb were evaluated for biofilms collected at three sites along an urban gradient in the Seine river (France). Metallic pollution increased along the river, but concentrations remained low compared to environmental quality standards. Biofilm metal tolerance increased downstream from the urban area. Multivariate analysis confirmed the correlation between tolerance and contamination and between multi-metallic and physico-chemical gradients. Therefore, tolerance levels have to be interpreted in relation to the whole chemical and physical characteristics and not solely metal exposure. We conclude that community tolerance is a sensitive biological response to urban pressure and that mixtures of contaminants at levels lower than quality standards might have a significant impact on periphytic communities.

  2. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  5. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  6. Droning On: American Strategic Myopia Toward Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS by Carlos S. Cabello December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Bradley Jay Strawser...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DRONING ON: AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS 5...the long-term. The thesis concludes with an assessment of whether strategic myopia has already set a dangerous international precedent, which

  7. Monitoring and Assuring the Quality of Digital Aerial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopherson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explains the USGS plan for monitoring and assuring the quality of digital aerial data. The contents include: 1) History of USGS Aerial Imaging Involvement; 2) USGS Research and Results; 3) Outline of USGS Quality Assurance Plan; 4) Other areas of Interest; and 5) Summary

  8. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  10. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-25

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been referred to in many ways: RPV (remotely piloted vehicle), drone, robot plane, and pilotless aircraft. Most...the DoD for UAVs, investments in unmanned aerial vehicles have been increasing every year. Congressional considerations include the proper pace, scope

  12. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  13. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Aerially released spray penetration of a tall coniferous canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial spray deposition project was designed to evaluate aerial application to an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) canopy to combat Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). This adelgid offers a difficult target residing in the forest canopy at the nodes of branchlets. The study collected 1680 ...

  15. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  18. Aerial video mosaicking using binary feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are becoming an increasingly attractive platform for many applications, as their cost decreases and their capabilities increase. Creating detailed maps from aerial data requires fast and accurate video mosaicking methods. Traditional mosaicking techniques rely on inter-frame homography estimations that are cascaded through the video sequence. Computationally expensive keypoint matching algorithms are often used to determine the correspondence of keypoints between frames. This paper presents a video mosaicking method that uses an object tracking approach for matching keypoints between frames to improve both efficiency and robustness. The proposed tracking method matches local binary descriptors between frames and leverages the spatial locality of the keypoints to simplify the matching process. Our method is robust to cascaded errors by determining the homography between each frame and the ground plane rather than the prior frame. The frame-to-ground homography is calculated based on the relationship of each point's image coordinates and its estimated location on the ground plane. Robustness to moving objects is integrated into the homography estimation step through detecting anomalies in the motion of keypoints and eliminating the influence of outliers. The resulting mosaics are of high accuracy and can be computed in real time.

  19. Sulfur tolerant anode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The goal of this program is the development of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) anode which is more tolerant of sulfur contaminants in the fuel than the current state-of-the-art nickel-based anode structures. This program addresses two different but related aspects of the sulfur contamination problem. The primary aspect is concerned with the development of a sulfur tolerant electrocatalyst for the fuel oxidation reaction. A secondary issue is the development of a sulfur tolerant water-gas-shift reaction catalyst and an investigation of potential steam reforming catalysts which also have some sulfur tolerant capabilities. These two aspects are being addressed as two separate tasks.

  20. Individual variation in whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is associated with cardiac hypoxia tolerance in a marine teleost.

    PubMed

    Joyce, William; Ozolina, Karlina; Mauduit, Florian; Ollivier, Hélène; Claireaux, Guy; Shiels, Holly A

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a pervasive problem in coastal environments and is predicted to have enduring impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Intraspecific variation in hypoxia tolerance is well documented in fish; however, the factors underlying this variation remain unknown. Here, we investigate the role of the heart in individual hypoxia tolerance of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). We found individual whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is a stable trait in sea bass for more than 18 months (duration of study). We next examined in vitro cardiac performance and found myocardial muscle from hypoxia-tolerant individuals generated greater force, with higher rates of contraction and relaxation, than hypoxic-sensitive individuals during hypoxic exposure. Thus, whole-animal hypoxia tolerance is associated with cardiac hypoxia tolerance. As the occurrence of aquatic hypoxia is expected to increase in marine ecosystems, our experimental data suggest that cardiac performance may influence fish survival and distribution.

  1. Ecological risk assessment in a large river-reservoir. 5: Aerial insectivorous wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, L.A.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1999-04-01

    Risks to aerial insectivores (e.g., rough-winged swallows, little brown bats, and endangered gray bats) were assessed for the remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek (CR/PC) system. Adult mayflies and sediment were collected from three locations and analyzed for contaminants. Sediment-to-mayfly contaminant uptake factors were generated from these data and used to estimate contaminant concentrations in mayflies from 13 additional locations. Contaminants of potential ecological concern (COPECs) were identified by comparing exposure estimates generated using point estimates of parameter values to NOAELs. To incorporate the variation in exposure parameters and to provide a better estimate of the potential exposure, the exposure model was recalculated using Monte Carlo methods. The potential for adverse effects was estimated based on the comparison of exposure distribution and the LOAEL. The results of this assessment suggested that population-level effects to rough-winged swallows and little brown bats are considered unlikely. However, because gray bats are endangered, effects on individuals may be significant from foraging in limited subreaches of the CR/PC system. This assessment illustrates the advantage of an iterative approach to ecological risk assessments, using fewer conservative assumptions and more realistic modeling of exposure.

  2. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  3. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  4. Improving crop salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Flowers, T J

    2004-02-01

    Salinity is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries where irrigation is an essential aid to agriculture. Although the tolerance of saline conditions by plants is variable, crop species are generally intolerant of one-third of the concentration of salts found in seawater. Attempts to improve the salt tolerance of crops through conventional breeding programmes have met with very limited success, due to the complexity of the trait: salt tolerance is complex genetically and physiologically. Tolerance often shows the characteristics of a multigenic trait, with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tolerance identified in barley, citrus, rice, and tomato and with ion transport under saline conditions in barley, citrus and rice. Physiologically salt tolerance is also complex, with halophytes and less tolerant plants showing a wide range of adaptations. Attempts to enhance tolerance have involved conventional breeding programmes, the use of in vitro selection, pooling physiological traits, interspecific hybridization, using halophytes as alternative crops, the use of marker-aided selection, and the use of transgenic plants. It is surprising that, in spite of the complexity of salt tolerance, there are commonly claims in the literature that the transfer of a single or a few genes can increase the tolerance of plants to saline conditions. Evaluation of such claims reveals that, of the 68 papers produced between 1993 and early 2003, only 19 report quantitative estimates of plant growth. Of these, four papers contain quantitative data on the response of transformants and wild-type of six species without and with salinity applied in an appropriate manner. About half of all the papers report data on experiments conducted under conditions where there is little or no transpiration: such experiments may provide insights into components of tolerance, but are not grounds for claims of enhanced tolerance at the whole plant level. Whether enhanced

  5. Comparative Investigation of Copper Tolerance and Identification of Putative Tolerance Related Genes in Tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Hygum, Thomas L; Fobian, Dannie; Kamilari, Maria; Jørgensen, Aslak; Schiøtt, Morten; Grosell, Martin; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals renowned for their tolerance toward extreme environmental conditions. The current study is the first to investigate their tolerance toward heavy metals and we present a novel tardigrade toxicant tolerance assay based on activity assessments as a measure of survival. Specifically, we compare tolerance toward copper in four species representing different evolutionary lineages, habitats and adaptation strategies, i.e., a marine heterotardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi, a limno-terrestrial heterotardigrade, Echiniscus testudo, a limno-terrestrial eutardigrade, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri, and a marine eutardigrade, Halobiotus crispae. The latter was sampled at a time of year, when the population is predominantly represented by aberrant P1 cysts, while the other species were in normal active states prior to exposure. Based on volume measurements and a general relation between body mass and copper tolerance, expected tardigrade EC50 values were estimated at 0.5-2 μg l(-1). Following 24 h of exposure, tolerance was high with no apparent link to lineage or habitat. EC50s (95% CI), 24 h after exposure, were estimated at 178 (168-186) and 310 (295-328) μg l(-1), respectively, for E. sigismundi and R. oberhaeuseri, whereas E. testudo and H. crispae were less affected. Highest tolerance was observed in H. crispae with a mean ± s.e.m. activity of 77 ± 2% (n = 3) 24 h after removal from ~3 mg l(-1) copper, suggesting that tardigrade cysts have increased tolerance toward toxicants. In order to identify putative tolerance related genes, an E. sigismundi transcriptome was searched for key enzymes involved in osmoregulation, antioxidant defense and copper metabolism. We found high expression of Na/K ATPase and carbonic anhydrase, known targets for copper. Our transcriptome, furthermore, revealed high expression of antioxidant enzymes, copper transporters, ATOX1, and a Cu-ATPase. In summary, our results indicate that tardigrades express

  6. Comparative Investigation of Copper Tolerance and Identification of Putative Tolerance Related Genes in Tardigrades

    PubMed Central

    Hygum, Thomas L.; Fobian, Dannie; Kamilari, Maria; Jørgensen, Aslak; Schiøtt, Morten; Grosell, Martin; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic aquatic animals renowned for their tolerance toward extreme environmental conditions. The current study is the first to investigate their tolerance toward heavy metals and we present a novel tardigrade toxicant tolerance assay based on activity assessments as a measure of survival. Specifically, we compare tolerance toward copper in four species representing different evolutionary lineages, habitats and adaptation strategies, i.e., a marine heterotardigrade, Echiniscoides sigismundi, a limno-terrestrial heterotardigrade, Echiniscus testudo, a limno-terrestrial eutardigrade, Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri, and a marine eutardigrade, Halobiotus crispae. The latter was sampled at a time of year, when the population is predominantly represented by aberrant P1 cysts, while the other species were in normal active states prior to exposure. Based on volume measurements and a general relation between body mass and copper tolerance, expected tardigrade EC50 values were estimated at 0.5–2 μg l−1. Following 24 h of exposure, tolerance was high with no apparent link to lineage or habitat. EC50s (95% CI), 24 h after exposure, were estimated at 178 (168–186) and 310 (295–328) μg l−1, respectively, for E. sigismundi and R. oberhaeuseri, whereas E. testudo and H. crispae were less affected. Highest tolerance was observed in H. crispae with a mean ± s.e.m. activity of 77 ± 2% (n = 3) 24 h after removal from ~3 mg l−1 copper, suggesting that tardigrade cysts have increased tolerance toward toxicants. In order to identify putative tolerance related genes, an E. sigismundi transcriptome was searched for key enzymes involved in osmoregulation, antioxidant defense and copper metabolism. We found high expression of Na/K ATPase and carbonic anhydrase, known targets for copper. Our transcriptome, furthermore, revealed high expression of antioxidant enzymes, copper transporters, ATOX1, and a Cu-ATPase. In summary, our results indicate that tardigrades

  7. Nitroglycerin Tolerance in Caveolin-1 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Mao; Varadarajan, Sudhahar; Fukai, Tohru; Bakhshi, Farnaz R.; Chernaya, Olga; Dudley, Samuel C.; Minshall, Richard D.; Bonini, Marcelo G.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate tolerance developed after persistent nitroglycerin (GTN) exposure limits its clinical utility. Previously, we have shown that the vasodilatory action of GTN is dependent on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) activity. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is known to interact with NOS3 on the cytoplasmic side of cholesterol-enriched plasma membrane microdomains (caveolae) and to inhibit NOS3 activity. Loss of Cav-1 expression results in NOS3 hyperactivation and uncoupling, converting NOS3 into a source of superoxide radicals, peroxynitrite, and oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that nitrate tolerance induced by persistent GTN treatment results from NOS3 dysfunction and vascular toxicity. Exposure to GTN for 48–72 h resulted in nitrosation and depletion (>50%) of Cav-1, NOS3 uncoupling as measured by an increase in peroxynitrite production (>100%), and endothelial toxicity in cultured cells. In the Cav-1 deficient mice, NOS3 dysfunction was accompanied by GTN tolerance (>50% dilation inhibition at low GTN concentrations). In conclusion, GTN tolerance results from Cav-1 modification and depletion by GTN that causes persistent NOS3 activation and uncoupling, preventing it from participating in GTN-medicated vasodilation. PMID:25158065

  8. Physiological responses of the hybrid larch (Larix × eurolepis Henry) to cadmium exposure and distribution of cadmium in plantlets.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Amandine; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne; Faugeron, Céline; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle

    2016-05-01

    Phytoextraction of Cd is a growing biotechnology although we currently know few Cd hyperaccumulators, i.e., plant species able to accumulate at least 0.1 mg Cd g(-1) dry weight in aerial organs. Owing their deep root system and high biomass, trees are more and more preferred to herbaceous species for phytoextraction. Assuming that conifers could be relevant models under cold climates, we investigated cadmium tolerance of the hybrid larch Larix × eurolepis Henry (Larix decidua × Larix kaempferi) and the efficiency of this species to store this metal. In vitro grown larches were chosen in order to reduce time of exposure and to more rapidly evaluate their potential efficiency to accumulate Cd. One-month-old plantlets were exposed for 2 and 4 weeks to 250 and 500 μM Cd. Results showed that they tolerated a 4-week exposure to 250 μM Cd, whereas the content of photosynthetic pigment strongly dropped in plantlets growing in the presence of 500 μM Cd. In the presence of 250 μM Cd, shoot growth slightly decreased but photosynthetic pigment and total soluble carbohydrate contents were not modified and no lipid peroxidation was detected. In addition, these plantlets accumulated proline, particularly in shoots (two to three times more than control). In roots, Cd concentration in the intracellular fraction was always higher than in the cell wall fraction contrary to shoots where Cd concentration in the cell wall fraction increased with time and Cd concentration in the medium. In shoots, Cd concentration was lower than in roots with a ratio of 0.2 after 4 weeks of exposure but stayed around 0.2 mg g(-1) dry weight, thus a value higher than the threshold requested for Cd hyperaccumulators. Hybrid larch would thus be a relevant candidate for field test of Cd phytoextraction.

  9. Biochemical, endocrine, and hematological factors in human oxygen tolerance extension: Predictive studies 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Clark, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The Predictive Studies VI (Biochemical, endocrine, and hematological factors in human oxygen tolerance extension) Program consisted of two related areas of research activity, integrated in design and performance, that were each based on an ongoing analysis of human organ oxygen tolerance data obtained for the continuous oxygen exposures of the prior Predictive Studies V Program. The two research areas effectively blended broad investigation of systematically varied intermittent exposure patterns in animals with very selective evaluation of specific exposure patterns in man.

  10. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  11. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  12. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  13. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  14. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  15. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  16. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  17. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  18. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  19. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  20. Fault-Tolerant and Reconfigurable Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-29

    01- I 0 5 10t 15 2 3 35 40 45 go Figure 23 - Weights profile of the funneling NN Project Publications 1. Bin Li, Zhao Sun, X. H. Liao, Liguo Weng...Southeast Symposium on Systems Theory, Cookeville, TN, pp. 406-410, March, 2006. 6. Liguo Weng, Wenchuan Cai, M. J. Zhang; X. H. Liao and David Song, "Neural...7. Yao Li, Zhao Sun, Ran Zhang, Liguo Weng, and David Y. Song, "Close Formation Flight Control of Multi-UAVs via Fuzzy Logic Technique," Advanced

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Medium Range System Components do not Fit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    enemy activities and identification of targets. uAv systems typically include an air vehicle, a Page 1 GAO/NSIAW.91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 91 4 15 026...the current system’s existing problems. -’-- Page 3 GAO/NSTAD-91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles B-242779 Recommendations We recommend that the Secretary...representative is still not a member of the KIAIzS configuration control board. Page 4 GAO/NSIAD-91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles B-242779 We continue to believe

  2. Combined aerial and ground technique for assessing structural heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William C.; Schott, John R.

    1994-03-01

    The results of a combined aerial and ground-based structural heat loss survey are presented. The aerial imagery was collected by a thermal IR line scanner. Enhanced quantitative analysis of the imagery gives the roof heat flow and insulation level. The ground images were collected by a video van and converted to still frames stored on a video disk. A computer based presentation system retrieves the images and other information indexed by street address for screening and dissemination to owners. We conclude that the combined aerial and ground survey effectively discriminates between well insulated and poorly insulated structures, and that such a survey is a cost-effective alternative to site audits.

  3. Some physiological aspects of artificial gravity. [gravitational effects on human orthostatic tolerance and physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of increasing artificial gravity exposure on four aspects of physiological fitness are examined in four young men who, prior to exposure, were deconditioned with bed rest and water immersion. The four aspects of physiological fitness are orthostatic tolerance, exercise tolerance, forearm endurance, and maximum strength. Orthostatic tolerance was sharply reduced by deconditioning and was substantially improved by walking in simulated lunar gravity (1/6 g) for 2.5 hours daily for 7 days or by walking in 1/2 g and 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days. Exercise tolerance was also sharply reduced by deconditioning but did not significantly improve with increasing g-exposure. Walking in 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days raised exercise tolerance only a little above the low produced by deconditioning. Forearm endurance and maximum strength were relatively unaffected by deconditioning and subsequent g-exposure.

  4. Adaptive acidification tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Foster, J W; Hall, H K

    1990-02-01

    Salmonella typhimurium can encounter a wide variety of environments during its life cycle. One component of the environment which will fluctuate widely is pH. In nature, S. typhimurium can experience and survive dramatic acid stresses that occur in diverse ecological niches ranging from pond water to phagolysosomes. However, in vitro the organism is very sensitive to acid. To provide an explanation for how this organism survives acid in natural environments, the adaptive ability of S. typhimurium to become acid tolerant was tested. Logarithmically grown cells (pH 7.6) shifted to mild acid (pH 5.8) for one doubling as an adaptive procedure were 100 to 1,000 times more resistant to subsequent strong acid challenge (pH 3.3) than were unadapted cells shifted directly from pH 7.6 to 3.3. This acidification tolerance response required protein synthesis and appears to be a specific defense mechanism for acid. No cross protection was noted for hydrogen peroxide, SOS, or heat shock. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of acid-regulated polypeptides revealed 18 proteins with altered expression, 6 of which were repressed while 12 were induced by mild acid shifts. An avirulent phoP mutant was 1,000-fold more sensitive to acid than its virulent phoP+ parent, suggesting a correlation between acid tolerance and virulence. The Mg2(+)-dependent proton-translocating ATPase was also found to play an important role in acid tolerance. Mutants (unc) lacking this activity were unable to mount an acid tolerance response and were extremely acid sensitive. In contrast to these acid-sensitive mutants, a constitutively acid-tolerant mutant (atr) was isolated from wild-type LT2 after prolonged acid exposure. This mutant overexpressed several acidification tolerance response polypeptides. The data presented reveal an important acidification defense modulon with broad significance toward survival in biologically hostile environments.

  5. Submerged conidiation and product formation by Aspergillus niger at low specific growth rates are affected in aerial developmental mutants.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Nielsen, Kristian F; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, Joohae; van den Hondel, Cees A; Frisvad, Jens C; Ram, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that this differentiation strongly affects product formation. Since conidiation is inherent in the aerial environment, we hypothesized that product formation near zero growth can be influenced by affecting differentiation or development of aerial hyphae in general. To investigate this idea, three developmental mutants (ΔfwnA, scl-1, and scl-2 mutants) that have no apparent vegetative growth defects were cultured in maltose-limited retentostat cultures. The secondary-metabolite profile of the wild-type strain defined flavasperone, aurasperone B, tensidol B, and two so far uncharacterized compounds as associated with conidium formation, while fumonisins B(2), B(4), and B(6) were characteristic of early response to nutrient limitation by the vegetative mycelium. The developmental mutants responded differently to the severe substrate limitation, which resulted in distinct profiles of growth and product formation. fwnA encodes the polyketide synthase responsible for melanin biosynthesis during aerial differentiation, and we show that conidial melanin synthesis in submerged retentostat cultures and aurasperone B production are fwnA dependent. The scl-1 and scl-2 strains are two UV mutants generated in the ΔfwnA background that displayed reduced asexual conidiation and formed sclerotium-like structures on agar plates. The reduced conidiation phenotypes of the scl-1 and scl-2 strains are reflected in the retentostat cultivation and are accompanied by elimination or severely reduced accumulation of secondary metabolites and distinctly enhanced accumulation of extracellular protein. This investigation shows that submerged conidiation and product formation of a mitosporic

  6. Exposure Nomographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissell, Ronald E.

    Correct exposure times may be determined from nomographs relating signal-to-noise ratio, exposure time, color, seeing, and magnitude. The equations needed to construct the nomographs are developed. Calibration techniques are discussed.

  7. Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  8. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  9. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  10. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  11. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY AND MAIN STREET IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  12. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED. (11/7/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  14. 262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN, NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ BRIDGE PRIOR TO DEVELOPMENT OF PORT ELIZABETH - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  16. 3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ANCHORAGE (EXTREME LEFT) TO WEST CABLE ANCHORAGE (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE FROM SOUTH. LOOKING NORTH. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  19. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  20. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  1. Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ROOSEVELT BASE LOOKING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Bounded by Ocean Boulevard, Pennsylvania Avenue, Richardson Avenue, & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. JUST SOUTH OF GLEN ECHO LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  4. 38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  5. 131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. AT CABIN JOHN LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  6. 122. AERIAL VIEW OF GLEN ECHO AND CLARA BARTON PARKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. AERIAL VIEW OF GLEN ECHO AND CLARA BARTON PARKWAY AND MACARTHUR BLVD. INTERCHANGE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  7. 6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD NORTHERN TIP OF SAN ANDREAS RANGE - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  8. 34. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  9. 35. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  10. 36. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station 1951 - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  11. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, LOOKING NORTH UP THE 14TH STREET AXIS FROM OVER THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF LAFAYETTE SQUARE, THE WHITE HOUSE GROUNDS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF LAFAYETTE SQUARE, THE WHITE HOUSE GROUNDS, THE ELLIPSE, AND MONUMENT GROUNDS, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG THE 16TH STREET AXIS. - White House Grounds & Ellipse, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP RIGHT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  18. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  19. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  20. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  1. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  2. 45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after automation and before construction of the parking lot.U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Photo - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  3. 22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT BOTTOM. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY EXIT. CHAVEZ RAVINE ON LEFT. ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER LEFT REAR. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT AT ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE, ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. NOTE PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO AT LOWER RIGHT OF CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  13. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF WALL. TRIPOD AND TENSION WEIGHTS AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  17. Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 by Mr. Lewis, and on file at the Edison National Historic Site, negative number 0-998 - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  18. 13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE SPILLWAY APRON.... Volume XVII, No. 12, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  19. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  20. 5. AERIAL VIEW, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ROOF OF CARPENTER'S FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ROOF OF CARPENTER'S FRONT STORE AND CARPENTER'S HALL IN CENTER BACKGROUND - Carpenters' Company, Front Store, 322 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, May 1981. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  2. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  4. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  5. 19. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO., AND GODWIN (HAMIL) MILL. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  6. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  8. 42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  9. 43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  10. 41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, July 12, 1980. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  11. 44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 15, 1977. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  12. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  13. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  14. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Construction on poles shall comply with applicable construction drawings for regular line construction. Aerial... strand shall be permitted in this situation. The bail of the automatic clamp shall be protected by a...

  15. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  16. 70. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP WITH SUSPENSION BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 69. Fred Benton, Photographer August 1998 HIGH AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Fred Benton, Photographer August 1998 HIGH AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP AND SAN FRANCISCO ON AND OFF RAMPS. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 65. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO APPROACH WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 71. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE SHORE IN FOREGROUND; GENE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. Some field observations on OSI aerial photography scales

    SciTech Connect

    Geil, R.

    1981-03-16

    The US, UK and USSR are attempting to negotiate a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in Geneva. One of the verification procedures presently proposed provides for the possibility of conducting an On-Site Inspection (OSI) if a violation is suspected. According to the terms of the draft treaty, the OSI team would be provided with either (1) stereoscopic aerial photographs with a scale of 1:2,500, or equivalent topographic maps (US version) or (2) a large scale aerial photograph (USSR version). In order to gain a better understanding of the aerial photograph issue, EG and G was asked to take stereoscopic aerial photographs of two areas at the NTS at four different scales, 1:2,500, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:25,000. The purpose of this paper is to present some field observations on the use for OSI type purposes of these different scale photos.

  4. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM OVER NINTH AND K STREETS, NE. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Florida Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF RADAR SITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF RADAR SITE IN FOREGROUND Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  10. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCIUS STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCI-US STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), BROKEN BOW OF VESSEL IN FOREGROUND Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  16. Aerial perspective of clock tower and roof line, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial perspective of clock tower and roof line, looking northeast toward the mountains. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  18. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  19. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  20. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  2. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  3. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN WHEN STRUCTURE WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-5409. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Impact Induced Aerial Bursts in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, V. V.; Trubetskaya, I.

    2008-03-01

    Aerial bursts are produced by comets and asteroids with sizes ranging from tens of meters to about one kilometer (energies from 10 Mt to 100 Gt of TNT equivalents). They produce strong devastation and fires on the Earth's surface.

  7. AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK CITY NEAR BROOKLYN BRIDGE ON HER WAY TO SEA TRIALS. NOTE THE BIRD CAGE TOWERS, 1918. - USS Arizona, Submerged off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  8. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER LAKE IN FOREGROUND. NOTE SILVER LAKE MINE AND MILL RUINS ON FAR SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  9. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE RUINS AT LEFT CENTER AND SILVER LAKE MINE RUINS BEYOND NORTHWEST SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  10. 2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October 26, 1966. Original photo in possession of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  12. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH 15 SEPTEMBER 1950. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  17. 3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS FROM THE ANACOSTIA RIVER TO THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  1. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF AN AERIAL RADIAC SURVEY SYSTEM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An aerial radiac monitor system was evaluated in manned and drone aircraft to determine the feasibility of automatically correcting gamma radiation...telemetry system relayed height-corrected information from drone aircraft to a ground station for recording. The equipment demonstrated the...feasibility of per forming aerial radiological survey, with automatic height correction, in manned and drone air craft of the surveillance types now in

  2. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  3. Use of simulated neural networks of aerial image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Frances I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1991-01-01

    The utility of one layer neural network in aerial image classification is examined. The network was trained with the delta rule. This method was shown to be useful as a classifier in aerial images with good resolution. It is fast, it is easy to implement, because it is distribution-free, nothing about statistical distribution of the data is needed, and it is very efficient as a boundary detector.

  4. Weakly-Supervised Multimodal Kernel for Categorizing Aerial Photographs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yingjie; Zhang, Luming; Liu, Zhenguang; Nie, Liqiang; Li, Xuelong

    2016-12-14

    Accurately distinguishing aerial photographs from different categories is a promising technique in computer vision. It can facilitate a series of applications such as video surveillance and vehicle navigation. In the paper, a new image kernel is proposed for effectively recognizing aerial photographs. The key is to encode high-level semantic cues into local image patches in a weakly-supervised way, and integrate multimodal visual features using a newly-developed hashing algorithm. The flowchart can be elaborated as follows. Given an aerial photo, we first extract a number of graphlets to describe its topological structure. For each graphlet, we utilize color and texture to capture its appearance, and a weakly-supervised algorithm to capture its semantics. Thereafter, aerial photo categorization can be naturally formulated as graphlet-to-graphlet matching. As the number of graphlets from each aerial photo is huge, to accelerate matching, we present a hashing algorithm to seamlessly fuze the multiple visual features into binary codes. Finally, an image kernel is calculated by fast matching the binary codes corresponding to each graphlet. And a multi-class SVM is learned for aerial photo categorization. We demonstrate the advantage of our proposed model by comparing it with state-of-the-art image descriptors. Moreover, an in-depth study of the descriptiveness of the hash-based graphlet is presented.

  5. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species. PMID:27873799

  6. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  7. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion.

  8. A line transect model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quang, Pham Xuan; Lanctot, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    We employ a line transect method to estimate the density of the common and Pacific loon in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge from aerial survey data. Line transect methods have the advantage of automatically taking into account “visibility bias” due to detectability difference of animals at different distances from the transect line. However, line transect methods must overcome two difficulties when applied to inaccurate recording of sighting distances due to high travel speeds, so that in fact only a few reliable distance class counts are available. We propose a unimodal detection function that provides an estimate of the effective area lost due to the blind strip, under the assumption that a line of perfect detection exists parallel to the transect line. The unimodal detection function can also be applied when a blind strip is absent, and in certain instances when the maximum probability of detection is less than 100%. A simple bootstrap procedure to estimate standard error is illustrated. Finally, we present results from a small set of Monte Carlo experiments.

  9. Visual signature reduction of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Z. W.; Ma, Z. X.; Jayawijayaningtiyas; Ngoh, J. H. H.

    2016-10-01

    With the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in multiple tactical defence missions, there was a need for an efficient visual signature suppression system for a more efficient stealth operation. One of our studies experimentally investigated the visual signature reduction of UAVs achieved through an active camouflage system. A prototype was constructed with newly developed operating software, Cloak, to provide active camouflage to the UAV model. The reduction of visual signature was analysed. Tests of the devices mounted on UAVs were conducted in another study. A series of experiments involved testing of the concept as well as the prototype. The experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and under normal environmental conditions. Results showed certain degrees of blending with the sky to create a camouflage effect. A mini-UAV made mostly out of transparent plastic was also designed and fabricated. Because of the transparency of the plastic material, the visibility of this UAV in the air is very small, and therefore the UAV is difficult to be detected. After re-designs and tests, eventually a practical system to reduce the visibility of UAVs viewed by human observers from the ground was developed. The system was evaluated during various outdoor tests. The scene target-to-background lightness contrast and the scene target-to-background colour contrast of the adaptive control system prototype were smaller than 10% at a stand-off viewing distance of 20-50 m.

  10. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5 degrees from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3 degrees to 15 degrees and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5 degrees ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  11. Quality assessment of digitized aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelbl, O.

    1998-09-01

    Manufacturer of photogrammetric instruments have developed specific scanners for aerial photographs, in parallel to printing industry. Main objective of this specific scanners is to guarantee a high geometric precision of plus or minus 0.001 to 0.002 mm for a standard format of original film documents of 23 X 23 cm and to scope with the high image resolution of the original images. Within a study of OEEPE (European Organisation for Experimental Photogrammetric Research) the most important photogrammetric scanners used in practice have been tested. Standard procedures are in development to analyze the dynamic range of the scanners, the image noise, the image sharpness and the color fidelity. Practical all photogrammetric scanners are based on CCD technology. The article presents the techniques applied for the testing of the scanners concerning the determination of the MTF of the scanners, the image noise, the dynamic range and the color fidelity and gives typical results for various scanners. The scanners tested are manufactured by Intergraph, Zeiss, Agfa, Helava and Wehrli.

  12. Computational analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudarag, Sakhr; Yagoub, Rashid; Elfatih, Hassan; Filipovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    A computational analysis has been performed to verify the aerodynamics properties of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV-SUST has been designed and fabricated at the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at Sudan University of Science and Technology in order to meet the specifications required for surveillance and reconnaissance mission. It is classified as a medium range and medium endurance UAV. A commercial CFD solver is used to simulate steady and unsteady aerodynamics characteristics of the entire UAV. In addition to Lift Coefficient (CL), Drag Coefficient (CD), Pitching Moment Coefficient (CM) and Yawing Moment Coefficient (CN), the pressure and velocity contours are illustrated. The aerodynamics parameters are represented a very good agreement with the design consideration at angle of attack ranging from zero to 26 degrees. Moreover, the visualization of the velocity field and static pressure contours is indicated a satisfactory agreement with the proposed design. The turbulence is predicted by enhancing K-ω SST turbulence model within the computational fluid dynamics code.

  13. Aerial view of the KSC crawler transporters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view the Crawler Transporter Maintenance Building (center) sits between two crawler transporters. The KSC crawlers are the largest tracked vehicles known. Once used to move assembled Apollo/Saturn from the VAB to the launch pad, they are now used for transporting Shuttle vehicles. They move the Mobile Launcher Platform into the Vehicle Assembly Building and then to the Launch Pad with an assembled space vehicle. Maximum speed is 1.6 km (one mile) per hour loaded, about 3.2 km (2 miles) per hour unloaded. Launch Pad to VAB trip time with the Mobile Launch Platform is about 5 hours. The crawler burns 568 liters (150 gallons) of diesel oil per mile. KSC's two crawlers have accumulated 1,243 miles since 1977. Including the Apollo years, the transporters have racked up 2,526 miles, about the same distance as a one-way trip from KSC to Los Angeles by interstate highway or a round trip between KSC and New York City.

  14. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  15. A Rapid Transcriptome Response Is Associated with Desiccation Resistance in Aerially-Exposed Killifish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5–1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical “stress” proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  16. A rapid transcriptome response is associated with desiccation resistance in aerially-exposed killifish embryos.

    PubMed

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Lozano, Juan-José; Zapater, Cinta; Otero, David; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Cerdà, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Delayed hatching is a form of dormancy evolved in some amphibian and fish embryos to cope with environmental conditions transiently hostile to the survival of hatchlings or larvae. While diapause and cryptobiosis have been extensively studied in several animals, very little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the sensing and response of fish embryos to environmental cues. Embryos of the euryhaline killifish Fundulus heteroclitus advance dvelopment when exposed to air but hatching is suspended until flooding with seawater. Here, we investigated how transcriptome regulation underpins this adaptive response by examining changes in gene expression profiles of aerially incubated killifish embryos at ∼100% relative humidity, compared to embryos continuously flooded in water. The results confirm that mid-gastrula embryos are able to stimulate development in response to aerial incubation, which is accompanied by the differential expression of at least 806 distinct genes during a 24 h period. Most of these genes (∼70%) appear to be differentially expressed within 3 h of aerial exposure, suggesting a broad and rapid transcriptomic response. This response seems to include an early sensing phase, which overlaps with a tissue remodeling and activation of embryonic development phase involving many regulatory and metabolic pathways. Interestingly, we found fast (0.5-1 h) transcriptional differences in representatives of classical "stress" proteins, such as some molecular chaperones, members of signalling pathways typically involved in the transduction of sensor signals to stress response genes, and oxidative stress-related proteins, similar to that described in other animals undergoing dormancy, diapause or desiccation. To our knowledge, these data represent the first transcriptional profiling of molecular processes associated with desiccation resistance during delayed hatching in non-mammalian vertebrates. The exceptional transcriptomic plasticity

  17. The submergence tolerance regulator SUB1A mediates crosstalk between submergence and drought tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Takeshi; Yeung, Elaine; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Submergence and drought are major constraints to rice (Oryza sativa) production in rain-fed farmlands, both of which can occur sequentially during a single crop cycle. SUB1A, an ERF transcription factor found in limited rice accessions, dampens ethylene production and gibberellic acid responsiveness during submergence, economizing carbohydrate reserves and significantly prolonging endurance. Here, we evaluated the functional role of SUB1A in acclimation to dehydration. Comparative analysis of genotypes with and without SUB1A revealed that SUB1A enhanced recovery from drought at the vegetative stage through reduction of leaf water loss and lipid peroxidation and increased expression of genes associated with acclimation to dehydration. Overexpression of SUB1A augmented ABA responsiveness, thereby activating stress-inducible gene expression. Paradoxically, vegetative tissue undergoes dehydration upon desubmergence even though the soil contains sufficient water, indicating that leaf desiccation occurs in the natural progression of a flooding event. Desubmergence caused the upregulation of gene transcripts associated with acclimation to dehydration, with higher induction in SUB1A genotypes. SUB1A also restrained accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aerial tissue during drought and desubmergence. Consistently, SUB1A increased the abundance of transcripts encoding ROS scavenging enzymes, resulting in enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. Therefore, in addition to providing robust submergence tolerance, SUB1A improves survival of rapid dehydration following desubmergence and water deficit during drought.

  18. Ecological risk assessment of aerial insectivores of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, L.A.; Sample, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Risks to aerial insectivores (species that consume flying insects; rough-winged swallows, little brown bats, and endangered gray bats) were assessed for the CERCLA remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system. Adult mayflies and sediment were collected from four locations and analyzed for contaminants. Sediment-to-mayfly contaminant transfer factors were generated from these data and used to estimate contaminant concentrations in mayflies from thirteen additional locations. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) were identified by comparing exposure estimates, generated using point estimates of parameter values, to NOAELS. COPCs included mercury, arsenic, and PCBs. Exposure to COPCs was re-estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Adverse population effects were assumed likely if > 20% of the estimated exposure distribution was greater than the LOAEL. Exposure of swallows to mercury was a significant risk at two locations. Exposure of bats to mercury was a significant risk at only one location. While consideration of movement and foraging territory did not reduce estimated risks to swallows, when exposures for gray and little brown bats were re-estimated, population-level risks from mercury were no longer considered likely. As an endangered species however, protection is extended to individual gray bats. While less than 20% of the mercury exposure distribution for gray bats was > LOAEL, > 99% of the distribution was >NOAEL. Therefore, adverse effects may occur among maximally exposed individual gray bats. Available data indicate that contaminants in Poplar Creek are likely to present a risk to the swallow population, do not present a risk to the little brown bat population, and may present a risk to individual gray bats.

  19. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  20. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  1. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  2. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  3. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  4. Dietary immunomodulatory factors in the development of immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    West, Christina E; D'Vaz, Nina; Prescott, Susan L

    2011-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that exposures during pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease propensity. Diet is a major environmental exposure, and dietary factors, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, oligosaccharides, antioxidants, folate, and other vitamins, have effects on immune function. Some also have been implicated in reduced risk of allergy in observational studies. Intervention trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids, probiotics, and oligosaccharides suggest preliminary but as-of-yet-unconfirmed benefits. Food allergen avoidance during pregnancy, lactation, or infancy has provided no consistent evidence in allergy prevention and is no longer recommended. Rather, there is now a focus on food allergens in tolerance induction. Specific nutrients can induce changes in gene expression during early development and have been implicated in potentially heritable "epigenetic" changes in disease predisposition. Collectively, these observations emphasize that early exposures may modify tolerance development and that further research on these exposures should remain a priority.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  6. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  7. Military Exposures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (Agent Orange, contaminated water…) Radiation (nuclear weapons, X-rays…) Air Pollutants (burn pit smoke, dust…) Occupational Hazards (asbestos, lead…) Warfare Agents (chemical and biological weapons) Exposure ...

  8. Aerial Image Microscopes for the Inspection of Defects in EUV Masks

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, A; Taylor, J S; Hudyma, R; Spiller, E; Sweeney, D W; Shelden, G; Urbach, J-P

    2002-10-22

    The high volume inspection equipment currently available to support development of EUV blanks is non-actinic. The same is anticipated for patterned EUV mask inspection. Once potential defects are identified and located by such non-actinic inspection techniques, it is essential to have instrumentation to perform detailed characterization, and if repairs are performed, re-evaluation. The ultimate metric for the acceptance or rejection of a mask due to a defect, is the wafer level impact. Thus measuring the aerial image for the site under question is required. An EUV Aerial Image Microscope (''AIM'') similar to the current AIM tools for 248nm and 193nm exposure wavelength is the natural solution for this task. Due to the complicated manufacturing process of EUV blanks, AIM measurements might also be beneficial to accurately assessing the severity of a blank defect. This is an additional application for an EUV AIM as compared to today's use In recognition of the critical role of an EUV AIM for the successful implementation of EUV blank and mask supply, International SEMATECH initiated this design study with the purpose to define the technical requirements for accurately simulating EUV scanner performance, demonstrating the feasibility to meet these requirements and to explore various technical approaches to building an EUV AIM tool.

  9. Presence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in rainwater suggests aerial dispersal is possible

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Sara D. Ramirez,; Lee Berger,; Griffin, Dale W.; Merlijn Jocque,; Lee F. Skerratt,

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Global spread of the pathogenic amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) may involve dispersal mechanisms not previously explored. Weather systems accompanied by strong wind and rainfall have been known to assist the dispersal of microbes pathogenic to plants and animals, and we considered a similar phenomenon might occur with Bd. We investigated this concept by sampling rainwater from 20 precipitation events for the presence of Bd in Cusuco National Park, Honduras: a site where high Bd prevalence was previously detected in stream-associated amphibians. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the presence of Bd in rainwater in one (5 %) of the weather events sampled, although viability cannot be ascertained from molecular presence alone. The source of the Bd and distance that the contaminated rainwater traveled could not be determined; however, this collection site was located approximately 600 m from the nearest observed perennial river by straight-line aerial distance. Although our results suggest atmospheric Bd dispersal is uncommon and unpredictable, even occasional short-distance aerial transport could considerably expand the taxonomic diversity of amphibians vulnerable to exposure and at risk of decline, including terrestrial and arboreal species that are not associated with permanent water bodies.

  10. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  11. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3).

  12. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  13. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  14. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOEpatents

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  15. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  16. Human radiation tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome in man is clinically bounded by death at high dose levels and by the prodromal syndrome of untoward physiological effects at minimal levels of clinically effective exposure. As in lower animals, man experiences principally three acute modes of death from radiation exposure (Bond et al., 1965). These are known collectively as the lethal radiation syndromes: central nervous system death, gastrointestinal death, and hematopoietic death. The effect of multiple exposure on lethality, the effect of multiple exposure on hematopoietic recovery, and quantitative aspects of cell and tissue repair are discussed.

  17. Animal aloft: the origins of aerial behavior and flight.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert; Yanoviak, Stephen P

    2011-12-01

    Diverse taxa of animals exhibit remarkable aerial capacities, including jumping, mid-air righting, parachuting, gliding, landing, controlled maneuvers, and flapping flight. The origin of flapping wings in hexapods and in 3 separate lineages of vertebrates (pterosaurs, bats, and birds) greatly facilitated subsequent diversification of lineages, but both the paleobiological context and the possible selective pressures for the evolution of wings remain contentious. Larvae of various arboreal hemimetabolous insects, as well as many adult canopy ants, demonstrate the capacity for directed aerial descent in the absence of wings. Aerial control in the ancestrally wingless archaeognathans suggests that flight behavior preceded the origins of wings in hexapods. In evolutionary terms, the use of winglets and partial wings to effect aerial righting and maneuvers could select for enhanced appendicular motions, and ultimately lead to powered flight. Flight behaviors that involve neither flapping nor wings are likely to be much more widespread than is currently recognized. Further characterization of the sensory and biomechanical mechanisms used by these aerially capable taxa can potentially assist in reconstruction of ancestral winged morphologies and facilitate our understanding of the origins of flight.

  18. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders

    PubMed Central

    Yanoviak, Stephen P.; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. PMID:26289654

  19. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  20. Colorimetric Determination of Color of Aerial Mycelium of Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Allister J.; Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    Lyons, Allister J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and Thomas G. Pridham. Colorimetric determination of color of aerial mycelium of streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:159–169. 1965.—For some time, streptomycete taxonomists have been seeking to describe more accurately the colors of aerial mycelium. Some of the descriptive systems involve many different color names and groups. Others combine many colors into a few groups. All the systems and methods leave much to be desired. To obtain an accurate description, a colorimeter with a reflectance attachment was used to examine streptomycete aerial mycelium of 37 strains, representing all of the major aerial mycelium color groups. Each color was characterized by three values: dominant wavelength in millimicrons, and purity and brightness in percentages. All colors of aerial mycelium were of low purity (< 25%). Most of the dominant wavelengths were in the yellow to yellow-green bands of the spectrum. Most of the color tabs matched visually with the streptomycete strains had purities of a higher value than those of the cultures. The reflectance instrument seems to allow an objective description, and its use may help to clarify the color problem with streptomycetes. It is concluded that present color descriptions are inadequate and that the significance of color in speciation requires critical examination. PMID:14255657

  1. MAPPING EELGRASS SPECIES ZOSTERA ZAPONICA AND Z. MARINA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETATION HABITATS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary were conducted during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2000. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communit...

  2. MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...

  3. EXPOSURE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This proceedings chapter presents the state of the science regarding the evaluation of exposure as it relates to WQC, SQGs, and wildlife criteria (WC). . . . In summary, the exposure workgroup concluded the following: There should be greater use of mechanistic models to predict b...

  4. Cuphea tolerates clopyralid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea is a new crop of temperate regions that produces seed oil with medium-chain length fatty acids, which can substitute for imported coconut and palm kernels oils. Only four herbicides are known to be tolerated by cuphea to date. More herbicides, especially POST products, are needed for continue...

  5. Teaching Tolerance Magazine, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, Jim, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This magazine provides teachers with classroom learning materials to help children learn to be tolerant with others. Articles in the magazine are: "A Standard to Sustain" (Mary M. Harrison); "Let's Just Play" (Janet Schmidt); "Who's Helen Keller?" (Ruth Shagoury Hubbard); "Margins of Error" (Joe Parsons);…

  6. Biocide tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortega Morente, Elena; Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Biocides have been employed for centuries, so today a wide range of compounds showing different levels of antimicrobial activity have become available. At the present time, understanding the mechanisms of action of biocides has also become an important issue with the emergence of bacterial tolerance to biocides and the suggestion that biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria might be linked. While most of the mechanisms providing antibiotic resistance are agent specific, providing resistance to a single antimicrobial or class of antimicrobial, there are currently numerous examples of efflux systems that accommodate and, thus, provide tolerance to a broad range of structurally unrelated antimicrobials, both antibiotics and biocides. If biocide tolerance becomes increasingly common and it is linked to antibiotic resistance, not only resistant (even multi-resistant) bacteria could be passed along the food chain, but also there are resistance determinants that can spread and lead to the emergence of new resistant microorganisms, which can only be detected and monitored when the building blocks of resistance traits are understood on the molecular level. This review summarizes the main advances reached in understanding the mechanism of action of biocides, the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to both biocides and antibiotics, and the incidence of biocide tolerance in bacteria of concern to human health and the food industry.

  7. Pesticide tolerance in amphibians: induced tolerance in susceptible populations, constitutive tolerance in tolerant populations.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jessica; Morehouse, Nathan I; Relyea, Rick

    2013-11-01

    The role of plasticity in shaping adaptations is important to understanding the expression of traits within individuals and the evolution of populations. With increasing human impacts on the environment, one challenge is to consider how plasticity shapes responses to anthropogenic stressors such as contaminants. To our knowledge, only one study (using mosquitoes) has considered the possibility of induced insecticide tolerance. Using populations of wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) located close to and far from agricultural fields, we discovered that exposing some populations of embryos and hatchlings to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide carbaryl induced higher tolerance to a subsequent lethal concentration later in life. Interestingly, the inducible populations were located >800 m from agricultural areas and were the most susceptible to the insecticide. In contrast, the noninducible populations were located close to agricultural areas and were the least susceptible. We also found that sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tadpole AChE concentrations in several cases. This is the first study to demonstrate inducible tolerance in a vertebrate species and the pattern of inducible and constitutive tolerance among populations suggests the process of genetic assimilation.

  8. Fault tolerant magnetic bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Maslen, E.H.; Sortore, C.K.; Gillies, G.T.; Williams, R.D.; Fedigan, S.J.; Aimone, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    A fault tolerant magnetic bearing system was developed and demonstrated on a large flexible-rotor test rig. The bearing system comprises a high speed, fault tolerant digital controller, three high capacity radial magnetic bearings, one thrust bearing, conventional variable reluctance position sensors, and an array of commercial switching amplifiers. Controller fault tolerance is achieved through a very high speed voting mechanism which implements triple modular redundancy with a powered spare CPU, thereby permitting failure of up to three CPU modules without system failure. Amplifier/cabling/coil fault tolerance is achieved by using a separate power amplifier for each bearing coil and permitting amplifier reconfiguration by the controller upon detection of faults. This allows hot replacement of failed amplifiers without any system degradation and without providing any excess amplifier kVA capacity over the nominal system requirement. Implemented on a large (2440 mm in length) flexible rotor, the system shows excellent rejection of faults including the failure of three CPUs as well as failure of two adjacent amplifiers (or cabling) controlling an entire stator quadrant.

  9. Oilseed cuphea tolerates bromoxynil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed management is a critical feature of all crop production, but especially for new and alternative crops with which most growers have little experience. Oilseed cuphea is a new annual crop for temperate regions and, at present, it is known to tolerate only a narrow spectrum of herbicides. Addition...

  10. Tolerant (parallel) Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Bailey, David H. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    In order to be truly portable, a program must be tolerant of a wide range of development and execution environments, and a parallel program is just one which must be tolerant of a very wide range. This paper first defines the term "tolerant programming", then describes many layers of tools to accomplish it. The primary focus is on F-Nets, a formal model for expressing computation as a folded partial-ordering of operations, thereby providing an architecture-independent expression of tolerant parallel algorithms. For implementing F-Nets, Cooperative Data Sharing (CDS) is a subroutine package for implementing communication efficiently in a large number of environments (e.g. shared memory and message passing). Software Cabling (SC), a very-high-level graphical programming language for building large F-Nets, possesses many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, array operations). Finally, L2(sup 3) is a CASE tool which facilitates the construction, compilation, execution, and debugging of SC programs.

  11. Glucose Tolerance and Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langseth, Lillian; Dowd, Judith

    Examined were medical records of 265 hyperkinetic children (7-9 years old). Clinical blood chemistries, hematology, and 5-hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) results indicated that hematocrit levels were low in 27% of the Ss, eosinophil levels were abnormally high in 86% of the Ss, and GTT results were abnormal in a maority of Ss. (CL)

  12. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 ...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 27-06-2003 2. REPORT TYPE SBIR...Tolerant Embedded Memory 1 Table of Contents: Table of Contents

  13. A little toleration, please

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, C.

    2000-01-01

    Value pluralism does not imply relativism or subjectivism about values. What it does is allow respect for an at least limited toleration of values with which one may profoundly disagree. Thus a doctor can respect the autonomy of a patient whose values he does not share. Key Words: Pluralism • multiculturalism • relativism • subjectivism • patient autonomy PMID:11129842

  14. Zero Tolerance versus Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In a case involving questionable canine search-and-seizure practices, a circuit court upheld a school board's decision to terminate a teacher's contract. While touting zero tolerance, the board fired an honored teacher 3 years from retirement who may not have known about the marijuana cigarette in her car. (MLH)

  15. Issues on human acceleration tolerance after long-duration space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. Vasantha; Norfleet, William T.

    1992-01-01

    This report reviewed the literature on human tolerance to acceleration at 1 G and changes in tolerance after exposure to hypogravic fields. It was found that human tolerance decreased after exposure to hypokinetic and hypogravic fields, but the magnitude of such reduction ranged from 0 to 30 percent for plateau G forces and 30 to 70 percent for time tolerance on sustained G forces. A logistic regression model of the probability of individuals with 25 percent reduction in +Gz tolerance after 1 to 41 days of hypogravic exposures was constructed. The estimated values from the model showed a good correlation with the observed data. A brief review of the need for in-flight centrifuge during long-duration missions was also presented. Review of the available data showed that the use of countermeasures (such as anti-G suits, periodic acceleration, and exercise) reduced the decrement in acceleration tolerance after long-duration space flights. Areas of further research include quantification of the effect of countermeasures on tolerance, and methods to augment tolerance during and after exposures to hypogravic fields. Such data are essential for planning long-duration human missions.

  16. Tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens, reproductive microchimerism and regulatory T cell memory: 60 years after ‘Evidence for actively acquired tolerance to Rh antigens’

    PubMed Central

    Kinder, Jeremy M.; Jiang, Tony T.; Ertelt, James M.; Xin, Lijun; Strong, Beverly S.; Shaaban, Aimen F.; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Compulsory exposure to genetically foreign maternal tissue imprints in offspring sustained tolerance to noninherited maternal antigens (NIMA). Immunological tolerance to NIMA was first described by Dr. Ray D. Owen for women genetically negative for erythrocyte rhesus (Rh) antigen with reduced sensitization from developmental Rh exposure by their mothers. Extending this analysis to HLA haplotypes has uncovered the exciting potential for therapeutically exploiting NIMA-specific tolerance naturally engrained in mammalian reproduction for improved clinical outcomes after allogeneic transplantation. Herein, we summarize emerging scientific concepts stemming from tolerance to NIMA that includes postnatal maintenance of microchimeric maternal origin cells in offspring, expanded accumulation of immune suppressive regulatory T cells with NIMA-specificity, along with teleological benefits and immunological consequences of NIMA-specific tolerance conserved across mammalian species. PMID:26517600

  17. Ethanol tolerance in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Casey, G P; Ingledew, W M

    1986-01-01

    It is now certain that the inherent ethanol tolerance of the Saccharomyces strain used is not the prime factor regulating the level of ethanol that can be produced in a high sugar brewing, wine, sake, or distillery fermentation. In fact, in terms of the maximum concentration that these yeasts can produce under batch (16 to 17% [v/v]) or fed-batch conditions, there is clearly no difference in ethanol tolerance. This is not to say, however, that under defined conditions there is no difference in ethanol tolerance among different Saccharomyces yeasts. This property, although a genetic determinant, is clearly influenced by many factors (carbohydrate level, wort nutrition, temperature, osmotic pressure/water activity, and substrate concentration), and each yeast strain reacts to each factor differently. This will indeed lead to differences in measured tolerance. Thus, it is extremely important that each of these be taken into consideration when determining "tolerance" for a particular set of fermentation conditions. The manner in which each alcohol-related industry has evolved is now known to have played a major role in determining traditional thinking on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces yeasts. It is interesting to speculate on how different our thinking on ethanol tolerance would be today if sake fermentations had not evolved with successive mashing and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of rice carbohydrate, if distillers' worts were clarified prior to fermentation but brewers' wort were not, and if grape skins with their associated unsaturated lipids had not been an integral part of red wine musts. The time is now ripe for ethanol-related industries to take advantage of these findings to improve the economies of production. In the authors' opinion, breweries could produce higher alcohol beers if oxygenation (leading to unsaturated lipids) and "usable" nitrogen source levels were increased in high gravity worts. White wine fermentations could also, if

  18. Lake Superior water quality near Duluth from analysis of aerial photos and ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS imagery of Lake Superior in the late summer of 1972 shows dirty water near the city of Duluth. Water samples and simultaneous photographs were taken on three separate days following a heavy storm which caused muddy runoff water. The water samples were analyzed for turbidity, color, and solids. Reflectance and transmittance characteristics of the water samples were determined with a spectrophotometer apparatus. This same apparatus attached to a microdensitometer was used to analyze the photographs for the approximate colors or wavelengths of reflected energy that caused the exposure. Although other parameters do correlate for any one particular day, it is only the water quality parameter of turbidity that correlates with the aerial imagery on all days, as the character of the dirty water changes due to settling and mixing.

  19. Use of a spectroradiometer to study aerial photographs of ozone-treated soybeans

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.J.; Cure, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    A scanning spectroradiometer was used to measure the optical densities of an aerial photograph of an experimental field in which soybeans were growing in response to different concentrations of ozone, an air pollutant. The plants were growing in 3 m diameter, 2.4 m high open-top exposure chambers. Correlation coefficients among the film densities, plant yield and visual estimates of non-green leaf area for the 16 test plots were highly significant (p<0.0); those with ozone treatment concentrations were significant (p<0.05). The early senescence induced by this form of environmental stress can thus be detected by film density differences, and these differences are well correlated with ground indicators of crop condition.

  20. 77 FR 48902 - S-Metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... physical, chemical, and fate/transport characteristics of S-metolachlor. Further information regarding EPA... Model/Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/ EXAMS) Screening Concentration in Ground Water (SCI-GROW... chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe.'' Section...