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Sample records for aerial flowering parts

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oil of the flowering aerial Parts of Pimpinella monoica.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil composition of the flowering aerial parts of Pimpinella monoica Dalzell was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Fifty four compounds were identified, representing 94.7% of the total oil. The main constituents were bornyl acetate (26.2%), beta-caryophyllene (24.0%), limonene (6.7%) and amorpha-4, 11-dien (4.9%). The oil was dominated by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (40.7%), followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (27.2%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (15.6%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (7.6%) and others (3.6%).

  2. Content of phenolic compounds in aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Püssa, Tõnu; Sepp, Janne; Malmiste, Birgit; Arak, Elmar

    2011-08-01

    The content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and coumarins in the aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.), growing wild in Estonia, was determined chromato-spectrophotometrically, and individual polyphenols were quantified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. The total content of polyphenols was rather similar in flowers (9.1-11.5%) and in whole aerial parts (8.4-10.9%) of pineapple weed. The upper one-third (1/3) and upper two-thirds (2/3) of the aerial parts contained more flavonoids (0.15 - 0.20%) than the flowers (0.12%). The content of coumarins showed no significant difference between the flowers and the upper 1/3 and 2/3 of the aerial parts. The main polyphenols in the flowers were dicaffeoylquinic acids (202-380 mkg/mL), chlorogenic acids (75-185 mkg/mL), and ferulic acid glycoside (61-124 mkg/mL). Also found were quercetin galactoside, apigenin acetylglucoside, malonylapigenin glucoside, as well as luteolin, quercetin and apigenin glycosides.

  3. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant capacity of the aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta L.

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Nesrine Ouda; Bouzouina, Mohamed; Berkani, Abdellah; Lotmani, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess antioxidant activities of different aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta (T. hirsuta) from west Algeria, and to search for new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants. Methods Samples of leaves, stems and flowers from T. hirsuta were tested for total phenolic content, flavonoids content, and evaluation its total antioxidant activity, were done using the spectrophotometric analyses. Results Results of preliminary phytochemical screening of leaf, flower and stem of T. hirsuta revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, coumarins, reducteurs compound and anthraquinones. The total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated. The aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of T. hirsuta showed potent in vitro antioxydant activities using various models viz, DPPH scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Conclusions On the basis of the results obtained, T. hirsuta extracts are rich sources of natural antioxidants appears to be an alternative to synthetic antioxidants and this justifies its therapeutic usage.

  4. Patterns in Volatile Emission of Different Aerial Parts of Caper (Capparis spinosa L.).

    PubMed

    Ascrizzi, Roberta; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Giusti, Giulia; Pistelli, Luisa; Flamini, Guido

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the spontaneous volatile emission of different aerial parts of the caper (Capparis spinosa L.) by HS-SPME-GC/MS. We identified 178 different compounds of which, in different proportions based on the sample type, the main ones were (E)-β-ocimene, methyl benzoate, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene B, (E)-nerolidol, isopropyl tetradecanoate, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone. The multivariate statistical analyses seem to point out that the parameter leading the emission patterns is the function of the analyzed sample; the flower samples showed differences in the emission profile between their fertile and sterile portions and between the other parts of the plant. The green parts emission profiles group together in a cluster and are different from those of seeds and fruits. We also hydrodistilled fully bloomed caper flowers, whose volatile oil showed significant differences in the composition from those of other parts of the plant reported.

  5. Essential oil constituents of the aerial parts and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides (Apiaceae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, N; Shamkhani, H; Ghelichpour, Z; Mohammadi, M A; Sonboli, A

    2017-04-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts at different growing stages and root of Cymbocarpum anethoides DC., from Iran were investigated. The oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Forty-five, 52, 40 and 36 components were identified in the essential oils of aerial parts (vegetative, flowering and fruit) and root representing of the 99.2, 99.0, 99.8 and 99.6% of the total oils, respectively. The essential oil of the aerial parts of the plant in vegetative stage was dominated by n-decanal (36.5%) and n-dodecanal (25.3%). n-Decanal (35.8%) and 2E-decenal (25.1%) were the main constituents of the plant oil in flowering stage whereas 2E-decenal (32.1%) and 2E-dodecenal (21.5%) were characterised as the main components of the plant oil in fruit stage. In the essential oil of root, the major identified components were 2-dodecenoic acid (29.8%) and 2E-Dodecenol (12.7%).

  6. Composition of essential oil of aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Sepp, Janne; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati; Arak, Elmar; Raal, Ain

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.) growing wild in Estonia, were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. Forty-four components were identified, representing over 90% of the total oil. Nine compounds have not been mentioned in the literature before. The principal biologically active compounds in C. suaveolens oils were (Z)-en-yne-dicycloether (17.0-40.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (19.5-32.2%), geranyl isovaleriate (8.4-18.4%), palmitic acid (0.3-9.4%) and myrcene (1.1-7.9%). The investigation seems to approve the benefit of using aerial parts of pineapple weed as the substitute for flowers.

  7. Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Aerial Parts as a Source of Bioactive Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-08-01

    The bark and stems of red maple (Acer rubrum) are reported to contain bioactive phenolics but its aerial parts, namely, flowers and leaves, remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate considering that various parts of the red maple were used for traditional medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of eastern North America, where this species is found. Herein, we report the identification of twenty-five (1-25) phenolics, including two new galloyl derivatives (1 and 2), from red maple flowers and leaves. Of these, ten compounds (1-10), including the new compounds, were isolated and identified by NMR and HRESIMS data while the remaining fifteen compounds (11-25) were identified by HPLC-DAD analyses (by comparison with chemical standards). The isolates (1-10), along with the clinical drug, acarbose, were evaluated for their alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities.

  8. Comparative essential oil composition of aerial parts of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss. from Southern Zagros, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarian, Gholam Abbas; Naseri, Mahmood; Hatami, Ahmad; Jafari, Efat

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of leaves and flowers of Tanacetum dumosum Boiss., an endemic medicinal shrub, were extracted by using hydrodistillation method and analysed using GC and GC-MS. A total of 43 and 44 compounds were identified in the essential oils from the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum, respectively. The major chemical constituents of leaves oil were borneol (27.9%), bornyl acetate (18.4%), 1,8-cineol (17.5%), α-terpineol (5.3%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (3.3%), camphene (2.7%) and terpinene-4-ol (1.9%), while the main components of the flower oil were isobornyl-2-methyl butanoate (41.1%), trans-linalyl oxide acetate (11.9%), 1,8-cineole (7.7%), thymol (4.2%), linalool (3.9%), camphor (2.9%), isobornyl propanoate (2.9%), α-terpineol (2.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.0%). Major qualitative and quantitative variations for some main chemical compounds among different aerial parts of T. dumosum were identified. High contents of borneol, bornyl acetate, 1,8-cineol and linalool in the leaves and flowers of T. dumosum show its potential for use in the food and perfumery industry.

  9. Volatile Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Salvia apiana Jepson

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of the aerial parts of fresh white sage (Salvia apiana) were isolated by extraction with diethyl ether followed by high vacuum distillation with a solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) apparatus. The isolated volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 84 constit...

  10. 6. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF NORTH PART OF COAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF NORTH PART OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. Photographer unknown. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 20. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF NORTH PART OF COAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF NORTH PART OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO. 30X20 inch black and white silver gelatin print. Photographers unknown. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. A new diterpenoid from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Li, Wen; Qiu, Rui-Xia; Jiang, Miao-Miao; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    One new and seven known diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis, as well as chemical methods. The in vitro antiviral activities of these compounds against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were assayed.

  13. 22. AERIAL VIEW OF SOUTH PART OF THE COAST GUARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW OF SOUTH PART OF THE COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING PART OF BUILDING H IN THE LOWER RIGHT CORNER (DOES NOT SHOW BUILDING F). 30X24 inch black and white silver gelatin print. Photographer unknown. Date unknown. 304 - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Bachelor Officer Quarters, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Rosa Huang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Du, Ying-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-12-05

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1-3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  15. 3. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF NORTH PART OF COAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW TO NORTH OF NORTH PART OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING PAN AMERICAN WORLD AIRWAYS HANGAR IN BACKGROUND. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard Official Photograph, 12th District, File No. 62751-21 A.S. Date unknown. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Antimicrobial biflavonoids from the aerial parts of Ouratea sulcata.

    PubMed

    Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Mbing, Josephine Ngo; de Théodore Atchadé, Alex; Tih, Raphael Ghogomu; Sondengam, Beiban Lucas; Blond, Alain; Bodo, Bernard

    2005-08-01

    Investigation of the aerial parts of Ouratea sulcata led to the isolation of a biflavonoid named sulcatone A, together with the known compounds, 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydroapigenyl-[I-4',O,II-3']-dihydrokaempferol, amentoflavone, lophirone A, agathisflavone, stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structure of the compound was assigned as apigenyl-[I-4',O,II-3']-dihydrokaempferol, by means of spectroscopic analysis. Sulcatone A and 3-hydroxy-2,3-dihydroapigenyl-[I-4',O,II-3']-dihydrokaempferol exhibited significant in vitro antimicrobial activities against a range of microorganisms.

  17. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Mangelinckx, Sven; Adams, An; Li, Wei-Lin; Wang, Zheng-Tao; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Gynura bicolor (Willd.) DC., is used in folk recipes for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan province in the south of China. A previous pharmacological study proved that the plant showed significant hypoglycemic activity on normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. In this study, two terpenes, four megastigmane-type norisoprenoids and two glycosides were isolated from the aqueous ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor and characterized mainly by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Thes e compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and no evidence could be found for the previous reported presence of megastigmane-type norisoprenoids in the genus Gynura.

  18. A new flavonoid from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Xia; He, Hao; Xia, Gui-Yang; Zhou, Kai-Lan; Qiu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new flavonoid, 7,8-dimethoxy-2'-hydroxy-5-O-β-d-glucopyranosyloxyflavone (1), along with 15 known flavonoids (2-16), was isolated from the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata Nees. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses. Most of them have uncommon O-substitution patterns involving 5-, 7-, 8-, 2'-, 3'-, 4'- and 5'-O-substituents. The antiproliferative effects of these flavonoids against human leukaemia HL-60 cells were investigated. Among them, 13 was the most active, displaying potent antiproliferative activity with IC50 of 3.50 μM. The structure-activity relationships of these isolated compounds were discussed.

  19. Caffeoylquinic Acids from the Aerial Parts of Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Chunpeng; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Lin; Chen, Chuying; Fan, Shuying

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the chemical compositions of the aerial parts of Chrysanthemum coronarium L., the ethanol extracts of Ch. coronarium L. were firstly isolated by the MCI-gel resin column. The caffeoylquinic acid-rich fractions were further purified by various chromatographic columns including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC to yield the compounds. The purified compounds were characterized by 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), 13C-NMR, and high resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectral (HR-ESI-MS) spectroscopy. Seven caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) compounds were isolated from this plant. Their structures were clarified by spectrometric methods and identified as 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (2), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (6), and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7). Caffeoylquinic acids were the major constituents present in the aerial parts of Ch. coronarium L. All of the isolates except for compounds 2 and 6 were reported for the first time from this species. Moreover, compounds 3–5, and 7 were identified from the Chrysanthemum genus for the first time. PMID:28218654

  20. Mutagenic Activity of Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Tamara Regina; Cardoso, Cássia Regina Primila; da Silva Moura, Adriana Candido; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Colus, Ilce Mara Syllos; Vilegas, Wagner; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa, are used as a source of indigo dye and to treat several diseases. The mutagenic activity of the methanolic extracts from aerial parts, glycerolipid, flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of the extract were evaluated by means of Salmonella/microsome assays using TA100, TA98, TA102 and TA97a strains. The methanolic extract of I. truxillensis showed mutagenic activity in the TA98 strain without S9 while glycerolipid fraction was devoid of activity. The flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of both plants showed mutagenicity. Chemical analysis of flavonoid fractions of I. truxillensis and I. suffruticosa resulted in the identification of kaempferol, quercetin and their derivatives. The alkaloid fraction of both the species contained indigo and indirubin and indigo was found mainly responsible for the mutagenic activity. PMID:19696193

  1. Cytotoxic terpene hydroperoxides from the aerial parts of Aster spathulifolius.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ok; Choi, Sang Zin; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Gun Hee; Kim, Young Choong; Lee, Kang Ro

    2006-10-01

    Three new sesquiterpene hydroperoxides, 1-[3-(2-hydroperoxy-3-methylbut-3-en)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethanone (2), 7beta-hydroperoxy-eudesma-11-en-4-ol (3), and 7alpha-hydroperoxymanool (4), together with three known compounds, germacrone (1), ent-germacra-4(15),5,10(14)-trien-1alpha-ol (5) and teucdiol A (6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Aster spathulifolius (Compositae). Their structures were characterized using chemical and spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines in vitro using a SRB method. The two new compounds, 3 and 4, showed moderate cytotoxicity against human cancer cells with ED50 values ranging from 0.24 to 13.27 microg/mL.

  2. Triterpene glycosides from the aerial parts of Gouania longipetala.

    PubMed

    Gossan, Diane Patricia Apie; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Yao-Kouassi, Philomène Akoua; Ahibo Coffy, Antoine; Josse, Jérome; Gangloff, Sophie C; Morjani, Hamid; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence

    2017-02-01

    Six previously undescribed triterpenoid saponins, gouaniaside I-VI, were isolated from the aerial parts of Gouania longipetala Hemsl. (Rhamnaceae), in addition to four known triterpenes. The structure elucidation of these compounds was based on analyses of spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS techniques. The inhibitory activity of isolated compounds against promyelocytic leukemia HL60 and human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia K562 cell lines was evaluated and jujuboside I exhibited moderate cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 13.5 and 21.0 μM, respectively. Among the isolated triterpenes, alphitolic acid exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (MICs 32, 64 and 128 μg/mL, respectively).

  3. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time.

  4. Chemical Constituents of the Aerial Parts of Euphorbia nematocypha.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Jia, Hai-Yang; Zuo, Bo; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Ji, Lan-Ju; Sun, Hong-Fa; Wang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Chemical constituents of the dried aerial parts of Euphorbia nematocypha were investigated. A new oleanane triterpenoid, trans, trans-2',4'- hexadienedioicacid-1'-β-amyrin ester (1), together with, β-amyrin (2), β-amyrin acetate (3), betulinic acid (4), ellagic acid (5), oleanolic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7), kaempferol (8), quercetin (9), lupeol (10) and pseudo-taraxasterol (11) were isolated from the methylene chloride extract. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (1D- & 2D-NMR) and ESI-MS analysis and comparison with data reported in the literature. The new isolated triterpenoid showed moderate cytotoxic activities against HeLa and MCF-7cell lines.

  5. Susceptibility of blackberry flower parts to subfreezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops in later winter to early spring frosts. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at various maturity ranging from tight bud to green drupe stage was determined using two freezing methods. On...

  6. Antinociceptive effect of extracts of Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    Kahkeshani, Niloofar; Gharedaghi, Milad; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The genus Marrubium is used for treatment of joint pain, gout, stomach-ache and colic in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Marrubium astracanicum Jacq. (M. astracanicum) is a native species in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive properties of various extracts of aerial parts of M. astracanicum. Materials and Methods: Antinociceptive activities of total hydroalcoholic extract (THE) and its n-hexane (non-polar) and residual partition (polar) fractions were analyzed using formalin test in mice. Morphine (5 mg/kg) and normal saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results: Intraperitoneal administration of THE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), non-polar fraction (200 mg/kg) and polar fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg), 30 min before formalin injection, caused significant analgesic activity in acute phase (0-5 min after formalin injection) of formalin test (p<0.05 as compared to control and p>0.05 in comparison with morphine). In chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection), non-polar and polar fractions (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant analgesic activity (p<0.001 as compared to control and p>0.05 in comparison with morphine). Conclusion: Different extracts of M. astracanicum demonstrated antinociceptive activity that support the traditional usage of Marrubium genus for the treatment of arthritis, gout and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:28265549

  7. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future. PMID:24959414

  8. Eleutherosides in aerial parts of Eleutherococcus species cultivated in Poland.

    PubMed

    Załuski, Daniel; Smolarz, Helena Danuta; Szpilewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Many Eleutherococcus species grow in Siberia, China, Korea, Japan, and the Philippines. The most well known is Eleutherococcus senticosus, which contains pharmacologically active compounds, such as eleutherosides, flavonoids, vitamins, and complex polysaccharides. E. senticosus owes its medicinal properties mainly to eleutherosides. The objective of this study was to determine eleutherosides B, E, and E1 in the aerial parts of different Eleutherococcus species. The eleutherosides were extracted with ethanol, and the extracts were cleaned by SPE on C18 columns, and then analyzed by HPTLC. Silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator, designated F254, were used with chloroform-methanol-water (70 + 30 + 4, v/v/v) and chloroform-methanol-toluene-ammonium hydroxide (9 + 6 + 3 + 2, v/vv/v) mobile phases. Two-step elution with these mobile phases was used for the development of chromatograms. Eleutherosides were visualized by derivatization with Liebermann-Burchard reagent. This reagent was used for the first time to detect eleutherosides. Eleutherosides B, E, and E1 were detected in the fruits of the investigated species. E. senticosus contained three of the investigated compounds, and E. sessiliflorus, E. gracilistylus, and E. divaricatus two compounds each.

  9. Anticonvulsant effect of Satureja hortensis aerial parts extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Farzaneh; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Regarding the anticonvulsant effects of Satureja hortensis (S. hortensis) in Avicenna’s book: canon of medicine; the present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti- eplileptic effects of S. hortensis aqueous and ethanolic aerial part extracts. Furthermore, the mechanisms of their anticonvulsant activities were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Seizure was induced by Pentylentetrazol (PTZ) and MES (maximal electroshock) models. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups; negative control (normal saline, 10ml/Kg), positive control (diazepam, 2 mg/kg), S. hortensis aqueous and ethanolic extracts (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg). In PTZ test, latency to the first minimal clonic seizure (MCS), latency to the first generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTCS), the total duration of seizures and protection against mortality were evaluated. In MES test, the stretching length of extremities and protection against mortality were recorded. Results: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts (400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly increased MCS and GTCS latencies in PTZ model. Three doses of the extracts decreased the total duration of seizure. These extracts did not show any protective effects on seizure induced by MES model. In PTZ model, flumazenil, an antagonist of benzodiazepine (BZD) site in the GABAA-BZD receptor complex and 7- nitroindazole (7- NI), a selective nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) inhibitor, reduced the prolongation of seizure latency. Conclusion: S. hortensis showed anticonvulsant activity in PTZ model and this effect may be mediated, at least partly, through interacting with nitric oxide and GABAA-BZD receptor complex. PMID:27462553

  10. Flowers, Beautiful Flowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

  11. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Cosentino, Sofia; Viale, Silvia; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Esposito, Francesca; Tramontano, Enzo; Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria; Pintus, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer's disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods. PMID:27314007

  12. A source of almost pure methyl chavicol: volatile oil from the aerial parts of Tagetes lucida (Asteraceae) cultivated in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Cicció, José F

    2004-12-01

    The plant Tagetes lucida Cav. (syn. T. florida Sweet, T. schiedeana Less.) is an aromatic herb distributed naturally from Mexico to Honduras, at elevations between 1 000 and 2 000 m. It is used as a spice, for medicine, as insecticide and as ornamental plant. It is cultivated commercially in Costa Rica as a spice herb; it contains an oil having an anise-like odor, and the fresh aerial parts of this plant are sold in the supermarket as a substitute of tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.). The essential oils isolated from aerial parts bought, at May and October, in a supermarket in San José (Costa Rica). Fresh flowering aerial parts, flowers and leaves plus stems, were subjected to hydrodistillation for 3 hr using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The distilled oils were collected and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and stored in a freezer (0-10 degrees C). The light yellow green oil yield was about 0.07% (v/w). GC/MS analyses were performed using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP5050 apparatus and CLASS 5000 software with Wiley 139 computer database. Identification of the components of the oil was performed using the retention indices, which were calculated in relation to a homologous series of hydrocarbons, and by comparison of their mass spectra with those published in the literature or those of our own database. Thirty compounds were identified, of which methyl chavicol (95-97%) was the major constituent. From flower oil, two bithienyls were detected as minor constituents.

  13. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect of aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Han, EunByeol; Chang, BoYoon; Kim, DaeSung; Cho, HyoungKwon; Kim, SungYeon

    2015-01-01

    Melanin is major factor that determines skin color as well as one of the defense systems that prevent the UV-induced damage. In case of abnormal concentration of melanin, skin diseases or problems occur such as albinism, leukoplakia, melasma, freckles, moles, and lentigo. With the lifespan of humans has been extended, importance of 'life quality' has been increased. White and clean skin is very important part of the satisfaction of appearance, especially for Asia women. The aim of this study was to find an anti-melanogenesis activity for which the aerial part of Pueraria thunbergiana can be utilized based on the increase in demands for cosmetics, particularly natural products. We demonstrated anti-pigmentation effects of aerial part of P. thunbergiana by measuring melanin content and through staining in the B16F10 melanoma cell line. The aerial part of P. thunbergiana decreased tyrosinase activity significantly in B16F10 cell cultures, while there is no direct effect on enzyme in cell-free conditions. To define the mechanisms, real-time PCR, western blot, glucosidase activity and antioxidant activity assay were implemented. As results, we demonstrated that aerial part of P. thunbergiana has anti-melanogenesis activity via two mechanisms. One is downgrading microphthalmia-associated transcription factor by activating Akt/GSK-3β. Consequently, transcription of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 is decreased. Another is interrupting maturation of tyrosinase through inhibiting α-glucosidase. Furthermore, aerial part of P. thunbergiana showed great efficacy on pigmentation in vivo. These results suggest that aerial part of P. thunbergiana can be used as an anti-melanogenic agent.

  14. COMPARATIVE MICROBIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF ROOTS AND AERIAL PARTS OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Suresh; Perumal, P.; Boopathy, D.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Suresh, B.

    2003-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of roots and aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera was investigated for its antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, and Proteus vulgaris and anti fungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus at 100 mg/disc using diffusion method. The comparative studies shown that ethanolic extract of roots and aerial parts of Achyranthes aspera have exhibited moderately equal action when compared to Cotrimoxazole (30 mg/disc) for antibacterial and Clotrimazole (30 mg/disc) for antifungal activity. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for this herb. PMID:22557101

  15. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Bioactive Properties of Aerial Parts of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.).

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Ruvini; Nadeeshani, Harshani; Jayathilake, Chathuni; Visvanathan, Rizliya; Wimalasiri, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to determine the nutritional and functional properties of T. cucumerina. Water extracts of freeze dried flowers, fruits, and leaves of T. cucumerina were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and fiber and mineral contents. Antioxidant activity, TPC, and TFC were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaves than in flowers and fruits. A significant linear correlation was observed between the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of plant extracts. Although, leaves and flower samples showed a significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) amylase inhibitory activity than the fruit samples, the overall amylase inhibition was low in all three parts of T. cucumerina. Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in fruits than in flowers and leaves. Ca and K contents were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaf followed by fruit and flower and Mg, Fe, and Zn contents were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaves followed by flowers and fruits. In conclusion, T. cucumerina can be considered as a nourishing food commodity which possesses high nutritional and functional benefits for human health.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Nutritional and Bioactive Properties of Aerial Parts of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Nadeeshani, Harshani; Jayathilake, Chathuni; Wimalasiri, Swarna

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to determine the nutritional and functional properties of T. cucumerina. Water extracts of freeze dried flowers, fruits, and leaves of T. cucumerina were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant activity, α-amylase inhibitory activity, and fiber and mineral contents. Antioxidant activity, TPC, and TFC were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaves than in flowers and fruits. A significant linear correlation was observed between the TPC, TFC, and antioxidant activities of plant extracts. Although, leaves and flower samples showed a significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) amylase inhibitory activity than the fruit samples, the overall amylase inhibition was low in all three parts of T. cucumerina. Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber contents were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in fruits than in flowers and leaves. Ca and K contents were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaf followed by fruit and flower and Mg, Fe, and Zn contents were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in leaves followed by flowers and fruits. In conclusion, T. cucumerina can be considered as a nourishing food commodity which possesses high nutritional and functional benefits for human health. PMID:27995134

  17. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Methods Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Key Results Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Conclusions Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in

  18. Onboard and Parts-based Object Detection from Aerial Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    reduced operator workload. Additionally, a novel parts- based detection method was developed. A whole-object detector is not well suited for deformable and...reduced operator workload. Additionally, a novel parts- based detection method was developed. A whole-object detector is not well suited for deformable and...Methodology This chapter details the challenges of transitioning from ground station processing to onboard processing, the part- based detection method

  19. Nematicidal natural products from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    PubMed

    Qamar, F; Begum, S; Raza, S M; Wahab, A; Siddiqui, B S

    2005-09-01

    Lantanilic acid, camaric acid and oleanolic acid possessing nematicidal activity were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn. through bio-assay guided fractionation. These compounds exhibited 98%, 95% and 70% mortality respectively against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita at 0.5% concentration. Conventional nematicide furadan showed 100% mortality at this concentration.

  20. Anti-arthritic activity of various extracts of Sida rhombifolia aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S R; Nirmal, S A; Patil, R Y; Asane, G S

    2009-01-01

    Aerial parts of the plant Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) were extracted successively to produce various extracts. These extracts were screened for various parameters of anti-arthritic activity, such as adjuvant-induced arthritis, motor performance, mean distance travelled, and histopathological study. Results showed that the polar constituents (ethanol and aqueous extracts) of the plant S. rhombifolia were useful in the treatment of arthritis.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Solenostemon monostachyus aerial part extract in mice

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Fiom; Davis, Koofreh; Nwidu, Lucky Legbosi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Solenostemon monostachyus is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as ulcer, hypertension, pains and inflammatory diseases. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of S. monostachyus aerial parts was carried out to ascertain its uses in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of S. monostachyus was cold extracted by soaking the dried powdered material in ethanol. The aerial parts crude extract (75 –225 mg/kg) of S. monostachyus was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using various experimental models; acetic acid, formalin and thermal- induced pains models for analgesic study and carrageenin, egg albumin and xylene – induced edema models for anti-inflammatory investigation. Results: The extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different phlogistic agents used. These effects were comparable to those of the standard drug, (ASA, 100 mg/kg) used in some models. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of this plant may in part be mediated through the chemical constituents of the plant and the results of the analgesic action suggest central and peripheral mechanisms. The findings of this work confirm the ethno medical use of this plant to treat inflammatory conditions. PMID:27462551

  2. Pharmacognostical study and establishment of quality parameters of aerial parts of Costus speciosus-a well known tropical folklore medicine

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan Lal; Srivastava, Shruti; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri Kishor; Srivastava, Sourabh; Sangeeta; Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Tahseen, Mohd Adil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic pharmacognostical characters of Costus speciosus (aerial parts) along with their physico-chemical parameters and fluorosence analysis. Method The pharmacognostical characters were determined in terms of macroscopy, microscopy, powder microscopy, leaf constant, fluorescence analysis and preliminary phytochemical investigation. Results The findings of macroscopy revealed that leaves elliptic to oblong or oblong-lancoelate, thick, spirally arranged, with stem clasping sheaths up to 4 cm, flowers large, white, cone-like terminal spikes, with bright red bracts. Transverse section of leaflet showed the presence of cuticularised epidermis with polygonal cells on adaxial surface and bluntly angled cells on abaxial surface of lamina, mesophyll cells differentiated in to single layered palisade cells on each surface and 2-3 layered spongy parenchyma, unicellular and uniseriate multicellular covering trichomes, paracytic stomata and vascular bundles surrounded by sclerenchymatous multicellular sheath. Preliminary phytochemical screening exhibited the presence of various phytochemical groups like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, phenolic constituents. Further, the leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence characteristics indicated outstanding results from this investigation Conclusions Various pharmacognostical and physico-chemical parameters have pivotal roles in identification, authentication and establishment of quality parameters of the species. PMID:25182951

  3. [Anti-HIV chemical constituents of aerial parts of Caragana rosea].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-xun; Qi, Jian-bin; Cheng, Ke-jun; Hu, Chang-qi

    2007-02-01

    This study was intended to look for anti-HIV chemical constituents of aerial parts of Caragana rosea Turcz. Column chromatographic technique was used for the isolation and purification of constituents of Caragana rosea under the guide of anti-HIV assay. The structures were established on the basis of physical and chemical properties and spectroscopic data. Five compounds were obtained from the EtOAc fraction of aerial parts of Caragana rosea and identified as myricetin (1), mearnsetin (2), p-hydroxy cinnamic acid (3), cararosinol A (4) and cararosinol B (5). At the same time, one possible transformation route between cararosinol B and kobophenol A, another resveratrol tetramer isolated from this plant previously, was proposed. Compounds 4, 5 are new resveratrol tetramers, compounds 1 -3 were isolated from this plant for the first time. All compounds showed no activities in an in vitro assay against HIV-1.

  4. The new steroidal glycosides from the aerial parts of Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hua; Jiang, Hai; Liu, Zhu-Xiang; Li, Gui; Long, Hua; He, Jian-Wu; Chen, Gong-Xi; Yang, Jun-Shan; Ma, Guo-Xu

    2016-09-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides ponasteroside C (1) and ponasteroside D (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lepidogrammitis drymoglossoides. Their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques (IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HeLa and HCT-8 cell lines, and compounds 1 and 2 showed mild activity against all the test cell lines.

  5. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Grindelia robusta from Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Giamperi, Laura; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2007-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from Grindelia robusta aerial parts from central Italy was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and 45 components were identified. Borneol (15.2%), alpha pinene (10.3%), trans-pinocarveol (7.0%), bornyl acetate (4.5%), limonene (4.3%) were the main components. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated using the DPPH and 5-lipoxygenase tests.

  6. A new 28-noroleanane triterpenoid from the aerial parts of Lantana camara Linn.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Ayub, Anjum; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen

    2010-08-01

    A new 28-norolean-12,17-diene triterpene lantigdienone (1) oxidised at C-11 and C-22 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara, along with two known compounds, camarinin (2) and camangeloyl acid (3). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-[beta,betadimethylacryloyloxy]-11-oxo-28-norolean-12,17-diene, with the help of spectral studies.

  7. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Constituents Isolated from Aerial Part of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa.

    PubMed

    Uto, Takuhiro; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Taniyama, Risa; Miyanowaki, Tosihide; Morinaga, Osamu; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the resources of medicinal plants have been exhausting. The root of Angelica acutiloba is one of the most important ingredients in Japanese Kampo medicine for the treatment of gynecological diseases. In our search for alternative medicinal plant resources of the root of A. acutiloba, we found that its aerial part has the anti-inflammatory potency as well as the root. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial part resulted in the isolation of four compounds including a new dimeric phthalide, namely tokiaerialide (2), along with Z-ligustilide (1), falcarindiol (3), and bergaptol (4). Next, we investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of 1-4 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 1 exhibited the most potent inhibition against lipopolysaccharide-induced production of prostaglandin E2 , nitric oxide, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α). Compounds 3 and 4 also inhibited all inflammatory mediators, but their inhibitory abilities were weaker than those of 1. Furthermore, 1, 3, and 4 strongly also induced heme oxygenase-1. These results suggest that 1, 3, and 4 potentially exert anti-inflammatory activity, and the aerial part of A. acutiloba may be considered to be a useful medicinal resource for inflammatory diseases.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Ferulic Acid From Aerial Parts of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff.

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Shokoohinia, Yalda; Moayedi, Narjess-Sadat

    2012-01-01

    Background Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. is one of the newest genera of Umbelliferae which is represented by only one species. This sweet-smelling, self-growing monotypic medicinal plant is endemic to a restricted area in west of Iran and is locally called Karafse-koohi. The aerial parts of the plant are commonly used as a popular garnish and a sedative medicinal plant. There are several reports concerning antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic and hypolipidemic activities of aerial parts of K. odoratissima. Objectives The current research aimed to evaluate some phenolic contents of the plant for the first time .It is confirmed that secondary metabolites and especially phenolic compounds have important role in the biological activities of the plant. Available information indicates that phenolic contents of K. odoratissima have not been the subject of any investigation Material and Methods Aerial parts of K. odoratissima were extracted with acetone by maceration method. Normal and reversed phase vacuum liquid chromatography used to fractionate the extract. 1H-NMR, 13CNMR, EI-Mass and IR spectra were used to elucidate isolated compound. Results The phenolic acid isolated compound was identified as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid). Conclusions Compared with previous reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of ferulic acid, a chemical-biological relation can be postulated. PMID:24624175

  9. Geminivirus-Mediated Delivery of Florigen Promotes Determinate Growth in Aerial Organs and Uncouples Flowering from Photoperiod in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Roisin C.; Ayre, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant architecture and the timing and distribution of reproductive structures are fundamental agronomic traits shaped by patterns of determinate and indeterminate growth. Florigen, encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) in tomato, acts as a general growth hormone, advancing determinate growth. Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a highly inbred, compact day-neutral plant that is managed as an annual row-crop. This dramatic change in plant architecture provides a unique opportunity to analyze the transition from perennial to annual growth. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore these architectural changes, we addressed the role of day-length upon flowering in an ancestral, perennial accession and in a domesticated variety of cotton. Using a disarmed Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV) as a transient expression system, we delivered FT to both cotton accessions. Ectopic expression of FT in ancestral cotton mimicked the effects of day-length, promoting photoperiod-independent flowering, precocious determinate architecture, and lanceolate leaf shape. Domesticated cotton infected with FT demonstrated more synchronized fruiting and enhanced “annualization”. Transient expression of FT also facilitated simple crosses between wild photoperiodic and domesticated day-neutral accessions, effectively demonstrating a mechanism to increase genetic diversity among cultivated lines of cotton. Virus was not detected in the F1 progeny, indicating that crosses made by this approach do not harbor recombinant DNA molecules. Conclusions These findings extend our understanding of FT as a general growth hormone that regulates shoot architecture by advancing organ-specific and age-related determinate growth. Judicious manipulation of FT could benefit cotton architecture to improve crop management. PMID:22615805

  10. Senescence of aerial parts is impeded by exogenous gibberellic acid in herbaceous perennial Paris polyphylla.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun; Wei, Jianrong; Ma, Qing; Yu, Dan; Li, Jiaru

    2009-05-15

    The effects of gibberellin A(3) (GA(3)) on natural senescence and the relationship between gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA), and senescence are not fully understood. For example, it is still unclear whether GA and ABA act antagonistically. There are only few reports on senescence-related changes in physiological parameters of herbaceous perennials. This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous GA(3) on the senescence of aerial parts in a herbaceous perennial species, Paris polyphylla, and to test the hypothesis that GA and ABA display antagonistic effects in this process. Physiological changes associated with senescence, in particular of the hormonal and oxidative metabolisms, were also investigated. GA(3) was sprayed on mature leaves at weekly intervals, which significantly impeded senescence of aerial parts and slowed the decline of pigments and total soluble protein. Treated plants suffered less oxidative stress as revealed by reduced lipid peroxidation, a lower hydrogen peroxide level and modified activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and their respective isozyme profiles. In GA(3) treated plants GA(4)+GA(7) (GAs) levels increased progressively and became significantly higher than those of control plants, whereas ABA increased in controls. When plants were treated with GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PCB), GAs decreased, ABA increased, and senescence was promoted. Application of a mixture of GA(3) and PCB restored the accumulation of GAs, reduced ABA, and ultimately senescence was delayed. These results suggest that GA and ABA play antagonistic roles in the senescence of aerial parts in P. polyphylla, and this process is associated with oxidative stress and regulated by endogenous hormones and extrinsic factors. Possible mechanisms that control this GA(3)-mediated inhibition of senescence are discussed.

  11. Highly oxygenated stigmastane-type steroids from the aerial parts of Vernonia anthelmintica Willd.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lei; Qi, Wei-Yan; Hussain, Syed Hamid; Gao, Kun; Arfan, Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Nine new highly oxygenated stigmastane-type steroids, vernoanthelcin A-I (1-9), and two new stigmastane-type steroidal glycosides, vernoantheloside A and B (10 and 11) were isolated from the aerial parts of Vernonia anthelmintica Willd. The structures of compounds 1-11 were determined on the basis of IR, MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR, and their absolute configurations were deduced using single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the CD exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 5, 7, 9 and 10 were tested for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like cells (KGN cells).

  12. Phenylpropanoid and lignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Lespedeza cuneata.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Chuang-Jun; Yang, Jing-Zhi; Ma, Jie; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Four phenylpropanoid glucosides (1-4) and five lignan glycosides (5-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lespedeza cuneata, together with three known lignan glycosides (10-12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations of compounds 5-9 were determined from the CD spectra. In addition, the compounds were tested for their ability to activate the transcription effect on xbp1 promoter. Compounds 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 12 could activate the transcription of xbp1 to varying degrees, with EC50 values ranging from 0.18 to 0.64 μM.

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. aerial parts in production of nanoparticles and the effect of the extraction solvent on the produced nanoparticles. Methanol and dichloromethane extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. Both the extracts of P. gnaphalodes (Vent.) Boiss. successfully produced small and polydispersed nanoparticles with low aggregates in early hours of the biotransformation. Methanol extract produced spherical and many single nanoparticles, whereas dichloromethane produced porous polyhedral and more aggregated nanoparticles. Methanol extract of this plant seems to be quiet useful for industrial scale production of nanoparticles.

  14. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 4. Withanolides from the aerial parts of Physalis angulata.

    PubMed

    Nagafuji, Shinya; Okabe, Hikaru; Akahane, Hiroshige; Abe, Fumiko

    2004-02-01

    The constituents of the aerial parts of Physalis angulata (Solanaceae) were investigated based on the plant's trypanocidal activity against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent for Chagas' disease. Four new withanolides were isolated, along with six known ones, from the active fraction. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Trypanocidal activity against trypomastigotes, an infectious form of T. cruzi, was also estimated, as well as cytotoxic activity against human uterine carcinoma (HeLa) cells in vitro. Evaluation of trypanocidal activity using the colorimetric reagent Cell Counting Kit-8 was also examined.

  15. A new flavonol glucoside from the aerial parts of Sida glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Das, Niranjan; Achari, Basudev; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Dinda, Biswanath

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation on the dried aerial parts of Sida glutinosa has led to the isolation of a new flavonol glucoside, glutinoside (1), along with seven known compounds, 24(28)-dehydromakisterone A (2), 1,2,3,9-tetrahydropyrrolo[2,1-b]-quinazolin-3-amine (3), docosanoic acid, 1-triacontanol, campesterol, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic techniques as well as GC/MS analysis (for sterols) and comparison with the literature data. All these seven known compounds are reported from this plant for the first time.

  16. In vitro Antiviral Activity of Rubia cordifolia Aerial Part Extract against Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Gong, Xuepeng; Tan, Jia Y.; Kang, Lifeng; Li, Dongyan; Vikash; Yang, Jihong; Du, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The root of Rubia cordifolia has been used traditionally as a hemostatic agent, while the aerial part of the plant consisting of leaf and stem is known to exhibit anti-diarrheal properties and has been widely used as a remedy in many parts of China. As rotavirus is one of the most commonly associated diarrhea-causing pathogen, this study aims to investigate the anti-rotaviral effect of R. cordifolia aerial part (RCAP). The cytotoxicity of RCAP toward MA-104 cells was evaluated using the WST-8 assay. Colloidal gold method and real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay were used to confirm the findings of the antiviral assay. Then, 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining method was subsequently used to investigate the mode of death among the cells. And the representative components of aqueous extract were isolated and identified. It was shown that both the viability of MA-104 cells and the viral load were reduced with increasing concentration of the extract. DAPI staining showed that virus-induced apoptosis was the cause of the low cell viability and viral load, an effect which was accelerated with incubation in the aqueous herbal extract. The major compounds postulated to exhibit this activity were isolated from the aqueous herbal extract and identified to be compounds Xanthopurpurin and Vanillic Acid. This study showed that RCAP extract effectively inhibited rotavirus multiplication by promoting virus-induced apoptosis in MA-104 cells. PMID:27679574

  17. Flavonoids from the aerial parts of Houttuynia cordata attenuate lung inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hee; Ahn, Jongmin; Kim, Jin Woong; Lee, Sang Gook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2015-07-01

    The aerial parts of Houttuynia cordata used for treating inflammation-related disorders contain flavonoids as major constituents. Since certain flavonoids possess anti-inflammatory activity, especially in the lung, the pharmacological activities of H. cordata and the flavonoid constituents were evaluated using in vitro and in vivo models of lung inflammation. The 70 % ethanol extract of the aerial parts of H. cordata inhibited the production of inflammatory biomarkers IL-6 and NO in lung epithelial cells (A549) and alveolar macrophages (MH-S), respectively. And the same plant material, administered orally (100 and 400 mg/kg), significantly inhibited lung inflammatory response in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. From the extract, major flavonoids including afzelin, hyperoside and quercitrin were successfully isolated and they also attenuated LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice by oral administration. In particular, quercitrin showed most potent activity at 100 mg/kg. These results demonstrate for the first time that H. cordata and three flavonoid constituents have a therapeutic potential for treating lung inflammatory disorders.

  18. Novel flavonol glycosides from the aerial parts of lentil (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Żuchowski, Jerzy; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-11-06

    While the phytochemical composition of lentil (Lens culinaris) seeds is well described in scientific literature, there is very little available data about secondary metabolites from lentil leaves and stems. Our research reveals that the aerial parts of lentil are a rich source of flavonoids. Six kaempferol and twelve quercetin glycosides were isolated, their structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and chemical methods. This group includes 16 compounds which have not been previously described in the scientific literature: quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-β-D-galacto-pyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucuropyranoside (3), their derivatives 4-10,12-15,17,18 acylated with caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, or 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid and kaempferol 3-O-{[(6-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)}-β-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (11). Their DPPH scavenging activity was also evaluated. This is probably the first detailed description of flavonoids from the aerial parts of lentil.

  19. Carbon balance of the aerial parts of a young hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) stand.

    PubMed

    Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Yokota, Taketo; Hagihara, Akio

    1996-01-01

    The aerial carbon balance of a 9-year-old hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) stand with an aerial biomass of 24.6 Mg(DW) ha(-1) was studied over a 1-year period. Various components that constitute gross production were measured on the basis of the summation method. Respiration of the aerial parts of six sample trees was measured at monthly intervals by an enclosed standing-tree method. The aerial respiration of sample trees was partitioned into growth and maintenance respiration by a two-component model. The growth coefficient varied between 1.2791 and 1.7957 g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) giving a mean value of 1.5223 +/- 0.0729 (SE) g CO(2) g(DW) (-1), whereas the maintenance coefficient ranged between 0.0200 and 0.0373 g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) month(-1) with a mean value of 0.0299 +/- 0.0031 (SE) g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) month(-1). Growth and maintenance respiration of the stand were estimated to be 8.62 and 10.52 Mg CO(2) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. An open-top cloth trap method was employed to measure the death of the parts of five sample trees. The death of leaves and total organs in the stand were assessed to be 6.26 and 7.60 Mg(DW) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Tree mortality and biomass increment were 1.47 and 4.64 Mg(DW) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. In terms of carbon, respiration, death, grazing and biomass increment were equivalent to 5.22, 4.53, 0.04 and 2.32 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Net production and gross production were estimated to be 6.89 and 12.11 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Biomass accumulation ratio (biomass/net production) and overall efficiency (net production/gross production) were 1.8 and 0.57, respectively.

  20. Flavonoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Acacia pennata in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Anna; Choi, Janggyoo; Htwe, Khin Myo; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Jinwoong; Yoon, Kee Dong

    2015-10-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the aerial parts of Acacia pennata (Mimosaceae) from Myanmar led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides and six known compounds. The new compounds were identified as (2R,3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, (2S)-5,7-dihydroxyflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-(4α → 8)-epiafzelechin-3-O-gallate, (2R)-4',7-dihydroxyflavan-(4α → 8)-(2R,3S)-3,5,7-trihdyroxyflavan-3″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 6-C-β-boivinopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-8-C-β-boivinopyranoside based on interpretation of spectroscopic data.

  1. Two New Stilbenoids from the Aerial Parts of Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Auberon, Florence; Olatunji, Opeyemi Joshua; Krisa, Stéphanie; Antheaume, Cyril; Herbette, Gaëtan; Bonté, Frédéric; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2016-10-27

    Two new phenanthrene derivatives, a phenanthrenequinone named arundiquinone (1) and a 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene named arundigramin (2) together with a known lignin dimer (3) and seven known stilbenoids (4-10) were isolated from the aerial parts of the Asian orchid Arundina graminifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including extensive 1D, 2D NMR (heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation spectroscopy (HMBC), and HR-ESI-MS techniques, as well as comparison with respective literature reports. The cytoprotective activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their ability to reduce beta amyloid induced toxicity on undifferentiated PC12 cells. Compound 8 showed moderate cytoprotective activity at 0.5 µmol/L (71% of cell viability) while the other compounds showed no significant activity at the highest concentration tested.

  2. Anti-tumor-promoting activity of lignans from the aerial part of Saussurea medusa.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, M; Konoshima, T; Komatsu, K; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    2000-09-29

    In the course of our continuing search for novel cancer chemopreventive agents from natural sources, several kinds of Compositae plants were screened. Consequently, the lignans, arctiin (ARC) and arctigenin (ARC-G), were obtained from the aerial part of Saussurea medusaas active constituents. These compounds exhibited the remarkable anti-tumor-promoting effect on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse skin tumors induced by 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene as an initiator and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate as a promoter by both topical application and oral administration. Furthermore, ARC-G exhibited potent anti-tumor-promoting activity on two-stage carcinogenesis test of mouse pulmonary tumors induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide as an initiator and glycerol as a promoter.

  3. A new sesquiterpene hydroperoxide from the aerial parts of Aster oharai.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Zin; Lee, Sung Ok; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2003-07-01

    Phytochemical works on the aerial parts of Aster oharai (Compositae) led to the isolation of a new sesquiterpene hydroperoxide, 7alpha-hydroperoxy-3,11-eudesmadiene (2) and seven known compounds, teucdiol B (1), alpha-spinasterol (3), oleanolic acid (4), alpha-spinasterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), methyl 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (7), 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (8). The chemical structures of 1-8 were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Compound 2 showed cytotoxicity against cultured human tumor cell lines in vitro, SK-OV-3 (ovarian), SK-MEL-2 (skin melanoma), and HCT15 (colon) with ED50 values ranging from 3.86-17.21 microg/mL.

  4. Tyrosinase inhibitor and radical scavenger fractions and isolated compounds from aerial parts of Peucedanum knappii Bornm.

    PubMed

    Sarkhail, Parisa; Sarkheil, Pantea; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Shafiee, Abbas; Ostad, Naser

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated tyrosinase inhibitory and radical scavenger activities of the hydroalcoholic extract from Peucedanum knappii Bornm aerial parts, together with its fractions. The EtOAc fraction showed the highest antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity was selected for the isolation and identification of major active compound(s). Two flavonol glycosides, named rhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 showed the most active radical scavenging and potential anti-tyrosinase activity with SC50 values of 2.9 µg mL(-1) on the DPPH test and IC50 27.95 µg mL(-1) in mushroom tyrosinase method. Therefore, isolated flavonoids from P. knappii can be considered as antioxidant and effective tyrosinase inhibitors.

  5. Pharmacological evaluation of antihypertensive effect of aerial parts of Thymus linearis benth.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Haroon-Ur-Rash; Karim, Sabeha; Rasool, Shahid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Khan, Kifayatullah; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally Thymus linearis Benth. have been used for treatment of various diseases including hypertension. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hypotensive and antihypertensive effect of aqueous methanolic extract of aerial parts of Thymus linearis Benth. in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Acute and subchronic studies were also conducted. The aqueous methanolic extract produced a significant decrease in SBP, DBP, MBP and heart rate of both normotensive and hypertensive rats. LDv, of the extract was found to be 3000 mg/kg. The extract also exhibited a reduction in serum ALT, AST, ALP, cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels, while a significant increase in HDL level was observed. It is conceivable therefore, that Thymus linearis Benth. contains certain active compound(s) that are possibly responsible for the observed antihypertensive activity. Moreover, these findings further authenticate the traditional use of this plant in folklore medicine.

  6. Phenolic constituents from the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza inflata and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Biao; Wan, Chuan-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation on 90% ethanol extracts of the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza inflata afforded two new phenolic constituents, 2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-bibenzyl (1) and (2S)-6-[(E)-3-hydroxymethyl-2-butenyl]-3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-dihydroflavanone (2) along with seven known dihydroflavanones (3-9). Compounds 1-9 were tested for their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Compound 1 showed moderate antibacterial activities against both S. aureus (MIC of 50.00 μg/ml) and S. epidermidis (MIC of 12.50 μg/ml). The analysis of structure-activity relationships revealed that the antibacterial activity of dihydroflavanones (2-9) was significantly affected by the position of prenyl group.

  7. Isolation, chemical and free radical scavenging characterization of phenolics from Trifolium scabrum L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Iwona; Jedrejek, Dariusz; Ciesla, Lukasz; Pecio, Lukasz; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-05-08

    For the first time Trifolium scabrum L. was researched for its phenolic profile. Sixteen phenolics (isoflavones and flavonoids) were isolated and identified in the aerial parts of T. scabrum L. Their structures were established by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Quantitative analysis of individual phenolics performed by means of ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was based on calibration curves obtained for previously isolated standard compounds. Additionally, the free radical scavenging potential of these substances was assessed by means of a simple benchtop thin-layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (TLC-DPPH(•)) bioassay. Thus, T. scabrum L. can be regarded as a potential source of estrogenic and antioxidant compounds, both of significance in the pharmaceutical as well as the food industry. The results show that T. scabrum L. can be considered as a natural and very good commercial source of phenolic compounds (mainly isoflavones).

  8. The plant pathogen Rhodococcus fascians colonizes the exterior and interior of the aerial parts of plants.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, K; Ritsema, T; Nijsse, J; Holsters, M; Goethals, K; Jaziri, M

    2001-05-01

    Rhodococcus fascians is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes malformations on aerial plant parts, whereby leafy galls occur at axillary meristems. The colonization behavior on Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants was examined. Independent of the infection methods, R. fascians extensively colonized the plant surface where the bacteria were surrounded by a slime layer. R. fascians caused the collapse of epidermal cells and penetrated intercellularly into the plant tissues. The onset of symptom development preceded the extensive colonization of the interior. The meristematic regions induced by pathogenic strain D188 were surrounded by bacteria. The nonpathogenic strain, D188-5, colonized the exterior of the plant equally well, but the linear plasmid (pFiD188) seemed to be involved in the penetration efficiency and colonization of tobacco tissues.

  9. New flavonol glycoside from Scabiosa prolifera L. aerial parts with in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; Otoom, Noor K; Al-Jaber, Hala I; Saleh, Ayman M; Abu Zarga, Musa H; Afifi, Fatma U; Abu Orabi, Sultan T

    2017-03-24

    Phytochemical investigation of the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Scabiosa prolifera L. led to the isolation of one new flavonol glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-(4″,6″-di-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1), along with ten other known compounds including luteolin-7-O-(2″-O-ethyl-β-glucopyranoside), β-sitosterol, β-sitosterylglucoside, ursolic acid, corosolic acid, ursolic acid 3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, apigenin, methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside and isoorientin. The structures of all isolated compounds were established using chemical methods and spectroscopic methods including IR, UV, NMR (1D and 2D) and HRESIMS. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the plant. The antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of antihyperglycemic and analgesic activity of Alternanthera sessilis aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternanthera sessilis is used by folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh for alleviation of severe pain. The objective of this study was to scientifically analyze the analgesic (non-narcotic) property of aerial parts of the plant along with antihyperglycemic activity. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests. Analgesic (non-narcotic) activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal writhings in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results Administration of methanol extract of aerial parts led to dose-dependent and significant reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract reduced blood sugar levels by 22.9, 30.7, 45.4 and 46.1%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 48.9%. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at the above four doses reduced the number of abdominal writhings by 27.6, 37.9, 41.4, and 44.8%, respectively. A standard analgesic drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 31.0 and 51.7%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion The results validate the folk medicinal use of the plant to alleviate pain. At the same time, the antihyperglycemic activity result suggests that the plant may be a potential source for blood sugar lowering drug(s). PMID:24885344

  11. Phytochemical and Antioxidant Investigation of the Aerial Parts of Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Mey.

    PubMed Central

    Delnavazi, Mohammad-Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Delazar, Abbas; Ajani, Yousef; Tavakoli, Saeed; Yassa, Narguess

    2015-01-01

    Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Apiaceae) is a monocarpic perennial plant distributed in southern Caucasus. In Azerbaijan Republic folk medicine, the gum-resin of this species is used as a diuretic and anti-diarrheal agent. It is also traditionally used for the treatment of bronchitis and catarrh. In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of D. glabrum aerial parts were investigated and their free radical scavenging potentials were assessed. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of the plant essential oil resulted in identifying twenty compounds, out of which elemicin (38.6%) and myristicin (14.3%) were main compounds. Seven compounds including daucosterol (1), chlorogenic acid (2), a mixture of cynarin (3) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), isoquercetin (6) and astragalin (7) were also isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. glabrum aerial parts using different chromatographic methods on silica gel (normal and reversed-phase) and sephadex LH20. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using UV and 1H, 13C-NMR spectrain comparison with those reported in respective published data. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay method. Among the fractions, methanol fraction (IC50=53.3 ±4.7μg mL-1) and among the isolated compounds, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity (IC50= 2.2-2.6 μg mL-1). PMID:26330882

  12. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  13. Evaluation of the phenolic content in the aerial parts of different varieties of Cichorium intybus L.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Marzia; Gallori, Sandra; Giaccherini, Catia; Ieri, Francesca; Vincieri, Franco F; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2005-08-10

    Fresh aerial parts of different chicory varieties: green chicory (c.v. "Catalogna"), two red chicory varieties ("radicchio rosso di Chioggia" and "radicchio rosso di Treviso"), and Witloof or Belgian endive were analyzed by HPLC/DAD/MS. The chromatographic fingerprint was diagnostic for each variety. A monocaffeoyl tartaric acid, chlorogenic acid, and chicoric acid were detected in all the varieties, while cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3-O-(6'' malonyl) glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-(6'' malonyl) glucoside were the main phenolic compounds in the red varieties. The flavonoidic compounds, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, were absent in the Witloof sample. The phenolic compounds from total leaves were the same as those obtained from only the colored parts; nevertheless, the total amount was remarkably lower with a decrease of up to 80% for Belgian endive. Chemical stability at high temperature was observed for the phenolic fraction from the green variety after decoction at 100 degrees C for 30 min.

  14. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 6. 1) Minor withanolides from the aerial parts of Physalis angulata.

    PubMed

    Abe, Fumiko; Nagafuji, Shinya; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei

    2006-08-01

    Further study of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Physalis angulata (Solanaceae) resulted in the isolation of new withanolides, designated physagulins L, M and N, together with known withanolide, physagulin D and flavonol glycoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1-->6)-galactoside. The chemical structures of these new withanolides were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses to be (20R,22R)-15alpha-acetoxy-5alpha,6beta,14beta,17beta,27-pentahydroxy-1-oxo-witha-2, 24-dienolide, (20S,22S)-15alpha-acetoxy-5alpha,6beta,14alpha,23beta-tetrahydroxy-1-oxo-witha-2,16,24-trienolide and (20S,22R)-15alpha-acetoxy-5beta,6beta-epoxy-14alpha-hydoxy-3beta-methoxy-1-oxo-witha-16,24-dienolide, respectively. All these compounds showed weak trypanocidal activity against trypomastigotes, an infectious form of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent for Chagas' disease. Withanolides obtained in the previous paper showed considerable trypanocidal activity, suggesting the structure-activity relationships.

  15. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the aerial parts of Lantana camara and their nematicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Ramzan, Musarrat

    2008-09-01

    Two new olean-12-ene triterpenoids, camarolic acid (1) and lantrigloylic acid (2), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara, along with ten known triterpenes, namely, camaric acid, lantanolic acid, lantanilic acid, pomolic acid, camarinic acid, lantoic acid, camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid. The new compounds have been characterized as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-{[(S)-3-hydroxy-2-methylidenebutanoyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1) and 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-[(3-methylbut-2-enoyl)oxy]olea-9(11),12-dien-28-oic acid (2) through spectroscopic studies and a chemical transformation. Seven of the constituents, namely pomolic acid, lantanolic acid, lantoic acid, camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid, were tested for nematicidal activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Pomolic acid, lantanolic acid, and lantoic acid showed 100% mortality at 1 mg/ml concentration after 24 h, while camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid exhibited 100% mortality at this concentration after 48 h. These results are comparable to those obtained with the conventional nematicide furadan (100% mortality at 1 mg/ml concentration after 24 h).

  16. Phytochemical analysis with the antioxidant and aldose reductase inhibitory capacities of Tephrosia humilis aerial parts' extracts.

    PubMed

    Plioukas, Michael; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Lazari, Diamanto; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    The aerial parts of Tephrosia humilis were tested about their antioxidant potential, their ability to inhibit the aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes and their phenolic content. The plant material was exhaustively extracted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol, consecutively. The concentrated methanol extract was re-extracted, successively, with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All extracts showed significant antioxidant capacity, but the most effective was the ethyl acetate extract. As about the aldose reductase inhibition, all fractions, except the aqueous, were strong inhibitors of the enzyme, with the n-butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions to inhibit the enzyme above 75%. These findings provide support to the ethnopharmacological usage of the plant as antioxidant and validate its potential to act against the long-term diabetic complications. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 1,4-dihydroxy-3,4-(epoxyethano)-5-cyclohexene(1), cleroindicin E(2), lupeol(3), methyl p-coumarate(4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate(5), prunin(6), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone 7-rutinoside(7), protocatechuic acid(8), luteolin 7-glucoside(9), apigenin(10), naringin(11), rhoifolin(12) and luteolin 7-glucuronate(13).

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Triglyceride Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Wang, Sijian; Ruan, Jingya; Yang, Shengcai; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-17

    Sixteen flavonoids (1-16) including two new ones, named officinoflavonosides A (1) and B (2) were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis. Among the known ones, 6, 10, and 13 were isolated from the rosmarinus genus for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the effects on sodium oleate-induced triglyceride accumulation (TG) in HepG2 cells of the above-mentioned compounds and 16 other isolates (17-32) reported previously to have been obtained in the plant were analyzed. Results show that eight kinds of flavonoids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 6-9 and 11) and seven kinds of other known isolates (compounds 17-20, 23, 26 and 31) possessed significant inhibitory effects on intracellular TG content in HepG2 cells. Among them, the activities of compounds 1 and 20 were comparable to that of orlistat, which suggested that these compounds in this plant might be involved in lipid metabolism.

  18. Xanthone and lignan glycosides from the aerial parts of Polygonum bellardii all growing in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abd El-kader, Adel M.; Ahmed, Amany S.; Nafady, Alaa M.; Ibraheim, Zedan Z.

    2013-01-01

    A new long chain fatty alcohol acetate identified as 17-hydroxypentacosanyl acetate, (1) together with a new xanthone identified as 1,8-Dihydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-xanthone-5-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1′′→2′)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), as well as two new lignans identified as (+)-Lyoniresinol-3a-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1′′′→6′′)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and (+)-Isolariciresinol-3a-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1′′′→2′′)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1′′′′→6′′)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), in addition to β-sitosterol-3-O-acetate (2) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Polygonum bellardii growing in Egypt. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of different chemical and spectroscopic evidences. The total extract and its fractions, in addition to compounds (3, 4 and 5) showed significant antioxidant potential by DPPH· scavenging activity technique. PMID:23772109

  19. Isolation, chemical characterization, and free radical scavenging activity of phenolics from Triticum aestivum L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Iwona; Pecio, Lukasz; Ciesla, Lukasz; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2014-11-19

    Fourteen phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids) were isolated and 19 were identified in the aerial parts of Triticum aestivum L. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of the data obtained by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. T. aestivum L. was found to be rich in flavones, especially in luteolin derivatives. Three of the isolated compounds, including luteolin 6-C-[6Glc″-O-E-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], luteolin 6-C-[5Rib″-O-E-feruoyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl(1″→2)-β-glucopyranoside], and 3',4',5'-O-trimethyltricetin 7-O-[β-D-glucuropyranosyl(1″→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside], have been reported for the first time in the plant kingdom. The amount of individual phenolics, in winter wheat, was also determined. Additionally, the free radical scavenging potential of the isolated compounds was tested in a simple and rapid thin-layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical test (TLC-DPPH•) with image processing.

  20. Antinociceptive effect of some extracts from Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ssp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech. f. aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Ajuga is used for the treatment of joint pain, gout, and jaundice in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM). Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella is an exclusive subspecies of Ajuga chamaecistus in the flora of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate antinociceptive properties of some extracts from aerial parts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella. Methods Antinociceptive activities of total water and 80% methanol extracts, hexane, diethyl ether and n-butanolic partition fractions of the methanolic extract were analyzed using the formalin test in mice. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results Oral administration of all extracts (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) 30 min before formalin injection had no effect against the acute phase (0–5 min after formalin injection) of the formalin-induced licking time, but hexane fraction (200 mg/kg) caused a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the chronic phase (15–60 min after formalin injection). Total water and diethyl ether extracts at a dose of 400 mg/kg showed a very significant analgesic activity on the chronic phase (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the extracts of A. chamaecistus ssp. tomentella have an analgesic property that supports traditional use of Ajuga genus for joint pain and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:25022284

  1. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Tamarix balansae J. Gay aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Benmerache, Abbes; Benteldjoune, Mounira; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Abedini, Amin; Berrehal, Djemaa; Kabouche, Ahmed; Gangloff, Sophie C; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-03-10

    A previously undescribed phenolic sulphate ester, potassium 34-dihydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester-5-sulphate (1), along with nine known flavonoids, kaempferol-3-O-potassium sulphate-4',7-dimethyl ether (2), kaempferol-4',7-dimethyl ether (3), rhamnocitrin-3-O-potassium sulphate (4), rhamnocitrin (5), kaempferol (6), quercetin (7), afzelin (8), quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (9) and luteolin-3'-O-potassium sulphate (10) were isolated from the aerial parts of Tamarix balansae. Structures elucidation was performed by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, mass spectrometry and by comparison with literature data. The antibacterial assay against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria showed a good activity for 2, 3, 7 and 9, with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 250 μg/mL. The abilities of these compounds to scavenge the DPPH were evaluated. Compounds 1, 7, 9 and 10 exhibited a good antiradical activity potential with IC50 values ranging from 3.0 to 115.5 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (IC50 7.4 μg/mL) which was used as positive control.

  2. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

  3. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the essential oils from the aerial parts of Pimpinella anagodendron Bolle and Pimpinella rupicola Svent., two endemic species to the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Negueruela, A; Pérez-Alonso, M J; de Paz, P L Pérez; Palá-Paúl, J; Sanz, J

    2005-11-18

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Pimpinella anagodendron Bolle and Pimpinella rupicola Svent., two endemic species growing in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, were studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of the flowering tops (flowers+unripe fruits) of P. rupicola (PRFT) were found to be beta-bisabolene (34.8%), limonene (10.9%) and alpha-zingiberene (10.5%), whereas in the flowering tops of P. anagodendron (PAFT), the main constituents were alpha-zingiberene (32.9%), beta-bisabolene (17.9%), beta-pinene (15.8%) and ar-curcumene (11.5%). The major compounds found in the stems+leaves of P. rupicola (PRSL) were beta-bisabolene (31.6%), alpha-zingiberene (11.4%) and limonene (10.8%), whereas those of P. anagodendron (PASL) were alpha-zingiberene (32.3%), beta-bisabolene (14.0%) and ar-curcumene (12.6%). In all the oils were found the characteristic constituents of genus Pimpinella, the pseudoisoeugenol esters. In accordance with the morphological, chorological and chemical differences between both species, we suggest that P. rupicola Svent. is a good taxon and not a synonym of P. anagodendron.

  4. [Constituents relating to anti-oxidative and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities in Yacon aerial part extract].

    PubMed

    Terada, Sumio; Ito, Kikuo; Yoshimura, Akira; Noguchi, Naoto; Ishida, Takashi

    2006-08-01

    Hot water extract of the aerial part of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolia, Compositae) showed potent free radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate. The most potent antioxidative activity focused on the 50% MeOH-eluted fraction on DIAION HP-20 column chromatography. The structure of the major component in the fraction was identified as 2,3,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid (TCAA) based on spectroscopic evidence. The antioxidative activity of TCAA is superior to that of natural antioxidants such as (+/-)-catechin, alpha-tocopherol, and ellagic acid, and TCAA also showed selective maltase-inhibitory activity (IC(50) 49 microg/ml). As the hypoglycemic activity of Yacon extract was described in a previous report, the present results showing that the aerial part of Yacon has strong antioxidative activity may encourage its potential use as a food supplement to prevent type II diabetes.

  5. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from aerial parts of Korean salad plants.

    PubMed

    Heo, Buk-Gu; Park, Yong-Seo; Chon, Sang-Uk; Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Ja-Yong; Gorinstein, Shela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 11 Korean medicinal salad plants. The highest total phenolic content of the methanol extracts was found in Aster scaber (17.1 mg 100 g(-1)), followed by Ixeris dentate (16.4 mg 100 g(-1)), Aster yomena (12.0 mg 100 g(-1)) and Sedum sarmentosum (9.1 mg 100 g(-1)) of FW. Methanol extracts of Ixeris dentate and Aster scaber at 50 microg mL(-1) exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity by 86.4 and 83.3%, respectively. It was registered a dose-dependent increase of DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content of the studied plant extracts was correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. It was found by means of MTT assay, that cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts was the highest against HCT-116. Methanol extracts from Petasites japonicus (IC(50)<25.0 microg mL(-1)) showed the highest activity against HCT-116, following by Angelica gigas (34.75 microg mL(-1)), Erythronium japonicum (44.06 microg mL(-1)), and Aster scaber (54.87 microg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the studied salad plants have high total phenolics content and high antioxidant activity. These plants dose-dependently increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The total phenolics level was highly correlated with the free radical scavenging activity. Most of the studied salad plants have potent cytotoxicity activity. The results of this investigation suggest that the extracts of studied salad plants could be an addition to basic medicine for some diseases.

  6. Thiophenes, polyacetylenes and terpenes from the aerial parts of Eclipata prostrate.

    PubMed

    Xi, Feng-Min; Li, Chun-Tong; Han, Jun; Yu, Shi-Shan; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Wan-Sheng

    2014-11-15

    One new bithiophenes, 5-(but-3-yne-1,2-diol)-50-hydroxy-methyl-2,20-bithiophene (2), two new polyacetylenic glucosides, 3-O-b-D-glucopyranosyloxy-1-hydroxy-4E,6E-tetradecene-8,10,12-triyne (8), (5E)-trideca-1,5-dien-7,9,11-triyne-3,4-diol-4-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (9), six new terpenoid glycosides, rel-(1S,2S,3S,4R,6R)-1,6-epoxy-menthane-2,3-diol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (10), rel-(1S,2S,3S,4R,6R)-3-O-(6-O-caffeoyl-b-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,6-epoxy menthane-2,3-diol (11), (2E,6E)-2,6,10-trimethyl-2,6,11-dodecatriene-1,10-diol-1-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (12), 3b,16b,29-trihydroxy oleanane-12-ene-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (13), 3,28-di-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-3b,16b-dihydroxy oleanane-12-ene-28-oleanlic acid (14), 3-O-b-D-glucopyranosyl-(1?2)-b-D-glucopyranosyl oleanlic-18-ene acid-28-O-b-D-glucopyranoside (15), along with fifteen known compounds (1, 3–7, and 16–24), were isolated from the aerial parts of Eclipta prostrata. Their structures were established by analysis of the spectroscopic data. The isolated compounds 1–9 were tested for activities against dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV), compound 7 showed significant antihyperglycemic activities by inhibitory effects on DPP-IV in human plasma in vitro, with IC50 value of 0.51 lM. Compounds 10–24 were tested in vitro against NF-jB-luc 293 cell line induced by LPS. Compounds 12, 15, 16, 19, 21, and 23 exhibited moderate anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. Volatile oils from the aerial parts of Eremophila maculata and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Fadia S; Hamoud, Razan; Ashour, Mohamed L; Singab, Abdel Nasser; Wink, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils isolated from the fresh flowers, fresh leaves, and both fresh and air-dried stems of Eremophila maculata (Scrophulariaceae) were characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Sabinene was the major component in most of the oils, followed by limonene, α-pinene, benzaldehyde, (Z)-β-ocimene, and spathulenol. The leaf and flower essential oils showed antibacterial and antifungal activity against five Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacterial strains, multi-resistant clinical isolates from patients, i.e., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), as well as two yeasts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum microbicidal concentrations (MMCs) were between 0.25 and 4 mg/ml.

  8. Variability of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers content in aerial parts of some Vaccinium species and cultivars.

    PubMed

    Toomik, Peeter; Püssa, Tõnu; Raal, Ain

    2014-06-01

    Based on the ethnopharmacological data showing that either wild bilberry leaves or whole aerial parts of the plants have been used as antidiabetic drugs, it can be hypothesized that the controversial results of various clinical and animal investigations may be caused by different contents of the active principles in different aerial parts of the bilberry/blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) plants, as well as by their geographical and seasonal variability. The aim of this study was to compare the content of procyanidin type A- and -B trimers in different parts of wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) cultivars. Stems (60 samples) and leaves (30 samples) of wild bilberries and northern highbush blueberry cultivars 'Ama' and 'North Blue' were collected at different locations in Estonia around the year, and analyzed for the concentration of the target polyphenols by HPLC-MS/MS. The highest content of type A doubly linked trimer, a known antidiabetic substance, was established in the stems of V. myrtillus. These contained up to 100 times more of the active substance than the leaves of V. myrtillus and at least 1000 times more than the leaves of V. corymbosum, whereas the seasonal/geographical variation was nearly tenfold. We suggest using stems of V. myrtillus for future animal and clinical investigations of bilberry preparations against diabetes.

  9. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development.

    PubMed

    Krizek, Beth A

    2015-08-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) is an important regulator of Arabidopsis flower development that has overlapping functions with the related AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) gene in floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. Two other AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) genes, AIL5 and AIL7, are expressed in developing flowers in spatial domains that partly overlap with those of ANT. Here, it is shown that AIL5 and AIL7 also act in a partially redundant manner with ANT. The results demonstrate that AIL genes exhibit unequal genetic redundancy with roles for AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 only revealed in the absence of ANT function. ant ail5 and ant ail7 double mutant flowers show alterations in floral organ positioning and growth, sepal fusion, and reductions in petal number. In ant ail5, petals are often replaced by filaments or dramatically reduced in size. ant ail7 double mutants produce increased numbers of carpels, which have defects in valve fusion and a loss of apical tissues. The distinct phenotypes of ant ail5, ant ail7 and the previously characterized ant ail6 indicate that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 make unique contributions to flower development. These distinct roles are also supported by genetic analyses of ant ail triple mutants. While ant ail5 ail6 triple mutants closely resemble ant ail6 double mutants, ant ail5 ail7 triple mutants exhibit more severe deviations from the wild type than either ant ail5 or ant ail7 double mutants. Furthermore, it is shown that AIL5, AIL6, and AIL7 act in a dose dependent manners in ant and other mutant backgrounds.

  10. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  11. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy.

  12. Anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga Linn. aerial parts in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Mishra, Garima; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, Keshri K.; Khosa, Ratan L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Alpinia galanga Linn. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae has been used as a traditional medicine in China for relieving stomach ache, treating cold, invigorating the circulatory systems, diabetes, and reducing swelling. Aim: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of A. galanga aerial parts on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg bodyweight. Test drug methanolic extract of A. galanga (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.w.) as standard drug was administered orally for 21 consecutive days in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profiles, as well as initial and final changes in body weight were assessed along with histopathology. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t-test. Results: Experimental findings showed significant dose dependent antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract in terms of reduction of fasting blood glucose level and various biochemical parameters in diabetic rats when compared with that of the diabetic control group, which might be due to the stimulatory effect of methanolic extracts on the regenerating β-cells and also on the surviving β-cells. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. galanga was effective in controlling blood glucose level and improve lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats. PMID:26730146

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Saururus chinensis aerial parts in murine macrophages via induction of heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xue; Kim, Inhye; Jeong, Yong Joon; Cho, Young Mi; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-02-01

    Saururus chinensis (Lour.) Baill. is a perennial plant distributed throughout Northeast Asia and its roots have been widely used as a traditional medicine for hepatitis, asthma, pneumonia, and gonorrhea. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of an extract of S. chinensis of the aerial parts (rather than the root), and the signaling pathway responsible for this effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages. The subfraction 4 (SCF4) from the n-hexane layer of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of S. chinensis exhibited the highest nitrite-inhibitory activity. SCF4 significantly inhibited the production of nitrite and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. SCF4 caused significant phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt, which subsequently induced the nuclear translocation of p-p65 nuclear factor-κB and Nrf2. SCF4 also suppressed the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (p-STAT1). The heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin attenuated the inhibitory effect of SCF4 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitrite production and expression of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and p-STAT1. We identified sauchinone as the active compound in S. chinensis extract and SCF4. Sauchinone was shown to significantly inhibit nitrite production and inflammatory mediators expression via heme oxygenase-1 upregulation. These results suggest that S. chinensis extract, SCF4, and its active compound, sauchinone, could be used as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. Variety-based research on the phenolic content in the aerial parts of organically and conventionally grown buckwheat.

    PubMed

    Žvikas, V; Pukelevičienė, V; Ivanauskas, L; Pukalskas, A; Ražukas, A; Jakštas, V

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different farming types-organic and conventional-on phenolic content in buckwheat varieties grown in Lithuania. Rutin was identified as the dominant phenolic compound in contrast to both phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids) and other flavonoids (quercetin and quercitrin). It was determined that variety had the highest impact (p<0.05) on the phenolic content of various aerial parts of buckwheat. In most cases, farming practice significantly (p<0.05) affected the accumulation of phenolics in buckwheat. Organically grown plants usually contained higher amounts of phenolics than those grown under conventional farming conditions. According to a cluster analysis, varieties Panda, Zaleika, and VB Nojai were found to accumulate the highest amounts of phenolics.

  15. Chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis with protein glycation and aldose reductase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Lee, Yun Mi; Lee, Byong Won; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-02-24

    Two new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene glucosides, 9β-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1β,6β-dihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 9α-O-(E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-1α,6α-11-trihydroxy-trans-eudesm-3-en-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated by the activity-guidedfractionation of an EtOAc-soluble fraction from the aerial parts of Aster koraiensis. A new dihydrobenzofuran glucoside, (2R,3S)-6-acetyl-2-[1-O-(β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-propenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran (3), was also isolated, in addition to 15 known compounds. The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation. All of the isolates were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against the formation of advanced glycation end-products and rat lens aldose reductase.

  16. Crystal structure elucidation and anticancer studies of (-)-pseudosemiglabrin: a flavanone isolated from the aerial parts of Tephrosia apollinea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Hassan, Loiy Elsir; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B; Abdul Majid, Aman Shah; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Al Suede, Fouad Saleih R; Haque, Rosenani A; Ismail, Zhari; Ein, Oon Chern; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia apollinea is a perennial shrublet widely distributed in Africa and is known to have medicinal properties. The current study describes the bio-assay (cytotoxicity) guided isolation of (-)-pseudosemiglabrin from the aerial parts of T. apollinea. The structural and stereochemical features have been described using spectral and x-ray crystallographic techniques. The cytotoxicity of isolated compound was evaluated against nine cancer cell lines. In addition, human fibroblast was used as a model cell line for normal cells. The results showed that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on most of the tested cancer cell lines. Selectively, the compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of leukemia, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Further studies revealed that, the compound exhibited proapoptotic phenomenon of cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the compound did not display toxicity against the normal human fibroblast. It can be concluded that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin is worthy for further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent.

  17. Crystal Structure Elucidation and Anticancer Studies of (-)-Pseudosemiglabrin: A Flavanone Isolated from the Aerial Parts of Tephrosia apollinea

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Hassan, Loiy Elsir; Khadeer Ahamed, Mohamed B.; Abdul Majid, Aman Shah; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Al Suede, Fouad Saleih R.; Haque, Rosenani A.; Ismail, Zhari; Ein, Oon Chern; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia apollinea is a perennial shrublet widely distributed in Africa and is known to have medicinal properties. The current study describes the bio-assay (cytotoxicity) guided isolation of (-)-pseudosemiglabrin from the aerial parts of T. apollinea. The structural and stereochemical features have been described using spectral and x-ray crystallographic techniques. The cytotoxicity of isolated compound was evaluated against nine cancer cell lines. In addition, human fibroblast was used as a model cell line for normal cells. The results showed that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on most of the tested cancer cell lines. Selectively, the compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of leukemia, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Further studies revealed that, the compound exhibited proapoptotic phenomenon of cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the compound did not display toxicity against the normal human fibroblast. It can be concluded that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin is worthy for further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:24608571

  18. Antioxidant capacity and amino acid analysis of Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Maheshu, Vellingiri; Priyadarsini, Deivamarudhachalam Teepica; Sasikumar, Jagathala Mahalingam

    2014-10-01

    Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) Haw var. fimbriata (wall.) Grav. & Mayur. is a traditional food consumed as vegetable or pickle in arid regions of India and eaten during famines. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used to treat diabetes, inflammation and etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties (DPPH, TEAC, TAA, FRAP, OH˙ and NO˙ radical scavenging activities) of the different extracts from aerial parts. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids of the extracts were also determined. The extracts were found to have different levels of antioxidant properties in the test models used. Methanol and water extracts had good total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant activity was correlated well with the amount of total phenolics present in the extracts. The extracts and its components may be used as an additive in food preparations and nutraceuticals.

  19. Anti-spasmodic action of crude methanolic extract and a new compound isolated from the aerial parts of Myrsine africana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myrsine africana is an herbaceous plant that is traditionally used as appetizer and carminative. Locally, it is used for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, rheumatism and diarrhea by healers. The aims of the current study were to screen the crude methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts (leaves and stem) of M. africana, for antispasmodic actions on isolated tissues and further to subject the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of plant to column chromatography for isolation of pure compounds. Methods The antispasmodic action of the crude methanol extract was measured on the spontaneous rabbit's jejunum preparations at concentration 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. The crude extract was also applied, in similar concentrations, on KCl (80 mM) induced contractions to explain its possible mode of action. Results A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of M. africana. The structure of the compound was identified with the help of 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, HMBC, HMQC, NOESY and COSY. The plant crude methanol extract showed a significant antispasmodic action on rabbit jejunum and abolished the tissue contraction completely at concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Conclusion The study concludes that the methanol crude extract of aerial parts of M. africana has antispasmodic action possibly through the calcium channel blocking mechanisms. A new compound Myrsigenin was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the plant. PMID:21733176

  20. The Analgesic Effects of Different Extracts of Aerial Parts of Coriandrum Sativum in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fatemeh Kazempor, Seyedeh; Vafadar langehbiz, Shabnam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Naser Shafei, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourganji, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the effects of Coriandrum sativum (C. sativum) on central nervous system, in the present study analgesic properties of different extracts of C. sativum aerial partswere investigated. The mice were treated by saline, morphine, three doses (20, 100 and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous, ethanolic, choloroformic extracts of C. sativum and one dose (100 mg/kg) of aqueous, two doses of ethanolic (100 and 500 mg/kg) and one dose of choloroformic (20 mg/kg) extracts of C. sativum pretreated by naloxone. Recording of the hot plate test was performed 10 min before injection of the drugs as a base and it was consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the extracts injection. The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the groups treated by three doses of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts were significantly higher than saline group which were comparable to the effect of morphine. The effects of most effective doses of extracts were reversed by naloxone. The results of present study showed analgesic effect of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of C. sativum extract. These effects of the extracts may be mediated by opioid system. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact responsible mechanism(s) and the effective compound(s).

  1. Chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination of pregnanes from aerial parts of caralluma species using HPLC-UV and identification by LC-ESI-TOF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A HPLC method is developed for the quantitative determination of five pregnane derivatives from aerial parts of Caralluma species and dietary supplements. The method is validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). The limits of detection and l...

  2. Simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids from aerial parts of Passiflora species and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV-MS and HPTLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid UPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of five indole alkaloids (harmalol, harmol, harmane, harmaline and harmine) and four flavonoids (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin) from the aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloracea), different species of Pass...

  3. Extracts from Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum aerial parts as modulators of blood platelet adhesion and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Malinowska, Joanna; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of reports indicate that some species of clover (Trifolium) may have remarkable medical importance; however, the effects of these plants on blood platelets and hemostasis are inadequately recognized. This work was designed to study the effects of Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum extracts on the functions of human blood platelets in vitro. Platelet suspensions were preincubated with extracts from aerial parts of T. pallidum (phenolic fraction and clovamide fraction) and T. scabrum (phenolic fraction) at the final concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 µg/ml. Then, for platelet activation thrombin (0.1 U/ml), thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP; 20 µM), or adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 1 µM) were used. The effects of Trifolium extracts on adhesion of blood platelets to fibrinogen and collagen were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Platelet aggregation was monitored on a dual-channel Chronolog aggregometer. In these studies, we also compared the action of tested plant extracts with the effects of another antiplatelet plant-derived compound - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The performed assays demonstrated that the tested extracts might influence the platelet functions in vitro. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of all tested extracts on adhesion of thrombin-stimulated platelets to collagen was found. Both extracts from T. pallidum and from T. scabrum reduced the thrombin-induced platelet adhesion to fibrinogen. Furthermore, in the presence of all three extracts, the platelet aggregation induced by thrombin was slightly inhibited. Our results also indicate that the tested plant extracts (at the highest concentrations used of 50 µg/ml), similar to purified resveratrol, inhibit selected steps of platelet activation stimulated by both proteolytic (thrombin) and nonproteolytic agonists (TRAP or ADP). In the comparative studies, T. pallidum and T. scabrum extracts was not found

  4. Identification of repellent and insecticidal constituents of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Li, Yin Ping; Li, He Qin; Deng, Zhi Wei; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan

    2013-09-03

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%), spathulenol (10.65%), α-terpineol (10.09%), and linalool (7.56%), followed by 4-terpineol (3.92%) and patchoulol (3.05%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD₅₀ value of 414.48 µg/cm². α-Terpinyl acetate (LD₅₀ = 92.59 µg/cm²) exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 140.30 µg/cm²), 4-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 211.35 µg/cm²), and linalool (LD5₅₀ = 393.16 µg/cm²). The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC₅₀ = 6.67 mg/L air) also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC₅₀ values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  5. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

  6. A bioassay-guided fractionation scheme for characterization of new antibacterial compounds from Prosopis cineraria aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    Neghabi-Hajiagha, Mahdieh; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Ghassempour, Alireza; Irajian, Gholamreza; Rezadoost, Hassan; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Due to the importance of finding of new antibacterial agents, the antibacterial properties of Prosopis cineraria aerial parts were investigated using a bioassay guided fractionation scheme. Materials and Methods: The organic extract was prepared via maceration in methanol, followed by the fractionation using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The MICs of fractions were determined against some human pathogenic bacteria using broth micro-dilution assay. The primary characterization and identification of bioactive substance(s) was based on a bio-autographical method using HPTLC and flash chromatography in parallel with agar overlay assays. Finally the exact mass of effective compound(s) was determined by LC-MS. Results: The best antibacterial activities were related to the ethyl acetate fraction. The effective antibacterial compound of the plant were 2 substances with molecular weight of 348 and 184 Dalton that inhibited the growth of assessed Gram positive bacteria with MIC values lower than 125 to 62.5 μg/ml synergistically. Conclusion: Further analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance could reveal the exact structure of these two antibacterial substances. These 2 effective antibacterial compounds could be applied as lead compound for synthesis of new antibacterial agents. PMID:27092218

  7. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.

  8. Antiulcerogenic activity of crude ethanol extract and some fractions obtained from aerial parts of Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Dias, P C; Foglio, M A; Possenti, A; Nogueira, D C; de Carvalho, J E

    2001-12-01

    The resulting enriched sesquiterpene lactone fraction and the crude ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. aerial parts, showed antiulcerogenic activity when administered orally, on the indomethacin induced ulcer in rats. The sesquiterpene lactone fraction yielded three different polarity fractions on column chromatography as follows: non-polar, medium polarity and polar fraction, When submitted to the same indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats they resulted in different levels of inhibition of the ulcerative lesion index. The participation of nitric oxide was evaluated on an ethanol-induced ulcer model which had a previous administration of L-NAME, a NO-synthase inhibitor. Under these conditions, the medium polarity fraction maintained the antiulcerogenic activity, suggesting that nitric oxide could not be involved in the antiulcerogenic activity. When the animal groups were treated with N-ethylmaleimide, an alkylator of sulphhydryl groups, using the same experimental model, the medium polarity fraction maintained its antiulcerogenic activity, suggesting that the pharmacological mechanism is not related to non-protein sulphydryl compounds. On the ethanol-induced ulcer with previous indomethacin treatment, the medium polarity fraction lost its antiulcerogenic activity indicating that the active compounds of Artemisia annua L. increase the prostaglandin levels in the gastric mucosa. This hypothesis was reinforced by an increase of adherent mucus production by the gastric mucosa, produced by the medium polarity fraction on the hypothermic restraint stress induced ulcer model.

  9. Isolation of a new β-carboline alkaloid from aerial parts of Triclisia sacleuxii and its antibacterial and cytotoxicity effects.

    PubMed

    Samita, Fidelis; Ochieng, Charles Otieno; Owuor, Philip Okinda; Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Midiwo, Jacob Ogweno

    2017-03-01

    A new β-carboline alkaloid named sacleuximine A (1) together with known compounds palmatine (2), isotetrandrine (3), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (4), trans-N-caffeoyltyramine (5), yangambin (6), syringaresinol (7), sesamin (8), (+) epi-quercitol (9), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), β-sitosterol (11), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (12) and myricetin 3-O-β-glucose (1→6) α-rhamnoside (13) have been isolated from methanol extract of Triclisia sacleuxii aerial parts. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human hepatocarcinoma (Hep3B) and human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells lines and also for antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The cytotoxicity (IC50) values ranged between 0.15 and 36.7 μM while the minimum inhibitory concentrations were found to be in the range of 3.9 and 125 μM, respectively. This is the first report of antibacterial compounds and the isolation of lignans together with a β-carboline alkaloid from T. sacleuxii.

  10. Oxidative stress and apoptosis induction in human thyroid carcinoma cells exposed to the essential oil from Pistacia lentiscus aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    Catalani, Simona; Palma, Francesco; Battistelli, Serafina; Benedetti, Serena

    2017-01-01

    Background Essential oils from the aerial parts (leaves, twigs and berries) of Pistacia lentiscus (PLEO) have been well characterized for their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; however, poor information exists on their potential anticancer activity. Methods Increasing concentrations of PLEO (0.01–0.1% v/v, 80–800 μg/ml) were administered to a wide variety of cultured cancer cells from breast, cervix, colon, liver, lung, prostate, and thyroid carcinomas. Fibroblasts were also included as healthy control cells. Cell viability was monitored by WST-8 assay up to 72 hours after PLEO administration. The intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the induction of apoptosis, and the enhancement of chemotherapeutic drug cytotoxicity by PLEO were further investigated in the most responsive cancer cell line. Results A dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability was observed upon PLEO exposure; while no cytotoxic effect was revealed in healthy fibroblasts. FTC-133 thyroid cancer cells were found to be the most sensitive cells to PLEO treatment; accordingly, an intracellular accumulation of ROS and an activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were evidenced in FTC-133 cells after PLEO administration. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect of the antineoplastic drugs cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and etoposide was enhanced in PLEO-exposed FTC-133 cells. Conclusion Taking into account its mode of action, PLEO might be considered as a promising source of natural antitumor agents which might have therapeutic potential in integrated oncology. PMID:28196126

  11. Approach to engineer tomato by expression of AtHMA4 to enhance Zn in the aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Kendziorek, Maria; Barabasz, Anna; Rudzka, Justyna; Tracz, Katarzyna; Mills, Rebecca F; Williams, Lorraine E; Antosiewicz, Danuta Maria

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this work was to assess the potential for using AtHMA4 to engineer enhanced efficiency of Zn translocation to shoots, and to increase the Zn concentration in aerial tissues of tomato. AtHMA4, a P1B-ATPase, encodes a Zn export protein known to be involved in the control of Zn root-to-shoot translocation. In this work, 35S::AtHMA4 was expressed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Beta). Wild-type and transgenic plants were tested for Zn and Cd tolerance; Zn, Fe and Cd accumulation patterns, and for the expression of endogenous Zn/Fe-homeostasis genes. At 10μM Zn exposure, a higher Zn concentration was observed in leaves of AtHMA4-expressing lines compared to wild-type, which is promising in terms of Zn biofortification. AtHMA4 also transports Cd and at 0.25μM Cd the transgenic plants showed similar levels of this element in leaves to wild-type but lower levels in roots, therefore indicating a reduction of Cd uptake due to AtHMA4 expression. Expression of this transgene AtHMA4 also resulted in distinct changes in Fe accumulation in Zn-exposed plants, and Fe/Zn-accumulation in Cd-exposed plants, even though Fe is not a substrate for AtHMA4. Analysis of the transcript abundance of key Zn/Fe-homeostasis genes showed that the pattern was distinct for transgenic and wild-type plants. The reduction of Fe accumulation observed in AtHMA4-transformants was accompanied by up-regulation of Fe-deficiency marker genes (LeFER, LeFRO1, LeIRT1), whereas down-regulation was detected in plants with the status of Fe-sufficiency. Furthermore, results strongly suggest the importance of the up-regulation of LeCHLN in the roots of AtHMA4-expressing plants for efficient translocation of Zn to the shoots. Thus, the modifications of Zn/Fe/Cd translocation to aerial plant parts due to AtHMA4 expression are closely related to the alteration of the endogenous Zn-Fe-Cd cross-homeostasis network of tomato.

  12. Iridoids and phenylethanoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Ajuga tenorei, an endemic Italian species.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Claudio; Venditti, Alessandro; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2017-01-01

    We report the first analysis in absolute, and in particular, concerning the phytochemical pattern, about an endemic Italian species, Ajuga tenorei C. Presl. The analysis, performed by means of techniques such as Column Chromatography and NMR spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry, led to the isolation and the identification of five compounds namely verbascoside (1), echinacoside (2), ajugoside (3), harpagide (4) and 8-O-acetylharpagide (5). The presence of these compounds is important from both chemotaxonomic and ethno-pharmacological point of view. For what concerns the first point is confirmed the correct botanical classification of the species. The isolated compounds are also known to exert peculiar pharmacological activities and their presence may give a rationale to the historical medicinal properties associated to the Ajuga genus in general, since these plants have a long traditional use in many parts of the world. Such fact might suggest the use of also this species in this sense.

  13. Validation of a method for the determination of sterols and triterpenes in the aerial part of Justicia anselliana (Nees) T. Anders by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kpoviéssi, Dossou Sika Salomé; Gbaguidi, Fernand; Gbénou, Joachim; Accrombessi, Georges; Moudachirou, Mansourou; Rozet, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2008-12-01

    An accurate and sensitive method, combining soxhlet extraction, solid phase-extraction and capillary gas chromatography is described for the quantitative determination of one triterpene (lupeol) and three sterols (stigmasterol, campesterol and beta-sitosterol) and the detection of another triterpene (alpha-amyrin) from the aerial part of Justicia anselliana. This is the first method allowing the quantification of sterols and triterpenes in this plant. It has been fully validated in order to be able to compare the sterol and triterpene composition of different samples of J. anselliana and therefore help to explain the allelopathic activity due to these compounds. This method showed that the aerial part of J. anselliana contained (292+/-2)mg/kg of lupeol, (206+/-1)mg/kg of stigmasterol, (266+/-2)mg/kg of campesterol and (184+/-9)mg/kg of beta-sitosterol.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Activities of Methanol Extract from Aerial Part of Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiu-Shi; Yang, Li; Cui, Wen-Yao; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Yan-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity of the methanol extract from the aerial part of Phlomis younghusbandii (MEAP) and to explore the possible related mechanisms. Anti-inflammatory effects of MEAP were evaluated by using the ear edema test induced by dimethylbenzene and vascular permeability test induced by acetic acid. Anti-nociceptive activities of MEAP were evaluated by the chemical nociception in models of acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced hind paw licking, and by the thermal nociception in hot plate tests. Mechanisms of MEAP activities also were explored by evaluating expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS induced by LPS using real-time fluorogenic PCR and expression of COX-2 using Western blotting and an open-field test. The results indicated that the MEAP administered orally could significantly decrease ear edema induced by dimethylbenzene and increase vascular permeability induced by acetic acid. Additionally, the nociceptions induced by acetic acid and formalin were significantly inhibited. The anti-nociceptive effect could not be decreased by naloxone in the formalin test, and MEAP did not affect the normal autonomic activities of mice. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS) induced by LPS were decreased obviously by treatment with MEAP. Furthermore, COX-2 expression in the spinal dorsal horns of the pain model mice induced by formalin was significantly down-regulated by MEAP. In conclusion, MEAP has significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, and the mechanisms may be related to the down-regulated expression of TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS and COX-2. PMID:24598860

  15. Blob Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  16. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA News Release: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Protection Agency Urge Commonwealth of Puerto Rico to Consider Aerial Spraying as Part of Integrated Mosquito Control to Reduce Zika-Associated Birth Defects

  17. Isolation and Quantification of Oligomeric and Polymeric Procyanidins in the Aerial Parts of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum).

    PubMed

    Hellenbrand, Nils; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Sendker, Jandirk; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    mg/g. The highest proanthocyanidin content was found in young leaves and flowers, while the fruits were proanthocyanidin-free; older parts of the stem and the herb had a lower proanthocyanidin content. From these data, it can be concluded that proanthocyanidins serve as part of the plant defense system in the reproductive organs.

  18. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  19. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV–vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2–4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of −31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus

  20. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel aerial part extract and assessment of their antioxidant, anticancer, and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Soheil; Shandiz, Seyed Ataollah Sadat; Ghanbar, Farinaz; Darvish, Mohammad Raouf; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mirzaie, Amir; Jafari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    A rapid phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an extract from the aerial parts of Artemisia marschalliana Sprengel was investigated in this study. The synthesized AgNPs using A. marschalliana extract was analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Characteristic absorption bands of AgNPs were found near 430 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of AgNPs in the energy range 2-4 keV confirmed the silver signal due to surface plasmon resonance. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results revealed that the AgNPs were mostly spherical with an average size ranging from 5 nm to 50 nm. The zeta potential value of -31 mV confirmed the stability of the AgNPs. AgNPs produced using the aqueous A. marschalliana extract might serve as a potent in vitro antioxidant, as revealed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay. The present study demonstrates the anticancer properties of phytosynthesized AgNPs against human gastric carcinoma AGS cells. AgNPs exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the investigation of Bax and Bcl-2 gene expression in cancer and normal cell lines. Our findings show that the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic Bax gene expression were significantly upregulated, while the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was declined in cells treated with AgNPs compared to normal cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of early and late apoptotic AGS cells was significantly enhanced following treatment with AgNPs as compared to untreated cells. In addition, the AgNPs showed strong antibacterial properties against tested pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter

  1. Response of reproductive parts of peanut genotypic variation and their contributions to yield after pre-flowering drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-flowering drought (PFD) has been observed to increase yield of peanut. There is limited information on genotypic variation in reproductive response to PFD and contributions to yield under PFD and their contributions to yield. The objective of this study was to determine the variability in repr...

  2. Antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects of aerial parts extract from Korean crowberry (Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum)

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kim, Hyoun-Chol; Ko, Yeong-Jong; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) is a wild berry commonly found in the northern hemisphere. Crowberry fruits have been suggested as good resources for functional applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, but the high polyphenolic content in crowberry leaves also indicates crowberry aerial parts as potential dietary health supplements. In this study, therefore, the biological activities of the aerial parts of Korean crowberry (E. nigrum var. japonicum) were investigated. Antioxidant activity was measured by three different assays on DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacities. Dose-dependent antioxidant activities were exhibited by crude methanol extract and its fractions, suggesting that the crude methanol extract and EtOAc fraction possessed strong antioxidant activities and capacities. In addition, the crude methanol extract and EtOAc strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity and suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediator and nitrite oxide from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These findings provide valuable evidence for the potential of such parts as good dietary sources of natural antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory components, suggesting that using the non-edible parts (e.g., leaves and stems) of crowberry can be a potential natural avenue for improving human health. PMID:26980998

  3. GC-MS analysis of the essential oils, and the isolation of phenylpropanoid derivatives from the aerial parts of Pimpinella aurea.

    PubMed

    Delazar, Abbas; Biglari, Fahimeh; Esnaashari, Solmaz; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Talebpour, Amir-Hossein; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2006-10-01

    A combination of vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC) of the dichloromethane extract of the aerial parts of the Iranian plant Pimpinella aurea afforded two phenylpropanoids, erythro-1'-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propan-1',2'-diol (1) and erythro-1'-[4-(sec-butyl)-phenyl]-propan-1',2'-diol (2), the latter being a natural product. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic means. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were assessed by the DPPH assay. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oils of P. aurea provided a chemical profile that was significantly different from the previously published reports.

  4. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  5. Eucalyptus oleosa essential oils: chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oils from different plant parts (stems, leaves, flowers and fruits).

    PubMed

    Ben Marzoug, Hajer Naceur; Romdhane, Mehrez; Lebrihi, Ahmed; Mathieu, Florence; Couderc, François; Abderraba, Manef; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2011-02-17

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the different parts (stems, adult leaves, immature flowers and fruits) of Eucalyptus oleosa were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their chemical composition. According to GC-FID and GC-MS, the principal compound of the stem, immature flowers and the fruit oils was 1,8-cineole, representing 31.5%, 47.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Spathulenol (16.1%) and γ-eudesmol (15.0%) were the two principal compounds of adult leaves oil. In the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay, the oils of the four parts showed moderate antioxidant activity. In the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) assay, the most active part was the adult leaves, with a IC(50) value 13.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, followed by stems (IC(50) = 43.5 ± 1.4 mg/L). The essential oils showed a better antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and a significant antifungal activity also was observed against yeast-like fungi. A strong correlations between oxygenated monoterpenes and antimicrobial activity (especially 1,8-cineole) were noted (R2 = 0.99, 0.97 and 0.79 for B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, respectively).

  6. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory effects and acute toxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis L. Aerial parts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Khoshdel, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Myrtus communis L. aerial parts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disease. In this study 350 mice were divided into three main groups: negative (saline), positive (morphine or diclofenac) controls, and test groups. The acute toxicity was assessed for 2 days. Antinociceptive activity was performed using hot plate and writhing tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using xylene-induced ear edema and a cotton pellet test. According to phytochemical screening, the extracts contained tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 0.473 and 0.79 g/kg, respectively. In hot plate test, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed significant antinociceptive activity that was inhibited by naloxone. The extracts exhibited antinociceptive activity against acetic acid-induced writhing and also showed significant activity against acute inflammation which was dose dependent for aqueous extract. The ethanolic (0.05 g/kg) and aqueous extracts (0.005, 0.015, and 0.03 g/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects against chronic inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of M communis L. showed antinociceptive effects and these may be mediated by opioid receptors.

  7. Evaluation of polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of Tribulus pterocarpus on biological properties of blood platelets in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The antiplatelet and antioxidative activity of polyphenolic fraction isolated from aerial parts of Tribulus pterocarpus in blood platelets stimulated by thrombin was studied. Thrombin as a strong physiological agonist induces the enzymatic peroxidation of endogenous arachidonic acid, the formation of different reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion radicals ([Formula: see text](·)) and the platelet aggregation. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess if the polyphenolic fraction from aerial parts of T. pterocarpus may change the biological properties of blood platelets activated by thrombin. We used cytochrome c reduction method to test the ability of this fraction to change [Formula: see text](·) generation in platelets. Arachidonic acid metabolism was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and by the production of 8-epi-prostaglandin (8-EPI) F(2). Moreover, we determined the effects of the fraction on blood platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. We observed that the polyphenolic fraction from T. pterocarpus reduced [Formula: see text](·), 8-EPI and TBARS production in these cells. The ability of the fraction to decrease the [Formula: see text](·) generation in blood platelets supports the importance of free radicals in platelet functions, including aggregation process. This study may suggest that the tested plant fraction might be a good candidate for protecting blood platelets against changes of their biological functions, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of different cardiovascular disorders.

  8. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of the volatile constituents from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl grown in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Tantawy, Mona E; Shams, Manal M; Afifi, Manal S

    2016-01-01

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Nephrolepis exaltata and Nephrolepis cordifolia obtained by hydro-distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The essential oils exhibited potential antibacterial and antifungal activities against a majority of the selected microorganisms. NEA oil showed promising cytotoxicity in breast, colon and lung carcinoma cells. The results presented indicate that NEA oil could be useful alternative for the treatment of dermatophytosis. Comparative investigation of hydro-distilled volatile constituents from aerial parts (A) of Nephrolepis exaltata (NE) and Nephrolepis cordifolia (NC) (Family Nephrolepidaceae) was carried out. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed that oils differ in composition and percentages of components. Oxygenated compounds were dominant in NEA and NCA. 2,4-Hexadien-1-ol (16.1%), nonanal (14.4%), β-Ionone (6.7%) and thymol (2.7%) were predominant in NEA. β-Ionone (8.0%), eugenol (7.2%) and anethol (4.6%) were the main constituents in NCA. Volatile samples were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities using agar diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using viability assay in breast (MCF-7), colon (HCT-116) and lung carcinoma (A-549) cells by the MTT assay. The results revealed that NEA oil exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against most of the tested organisms and showed promising cytotoxicity.

  9. Flower scents from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, exotic scents from the islands of the South Pacific have universally been appreciated. Most frequently, fragrant flowers (e.g., frangipani, jasmine sambac, tiaré, pua kenikeni) are used locally for ornamental purposes such as flower garlands (leis). Despite their powerful and delightful fragrance, very few of these flowers have been commercially employed in this part of the world for perfume manufacturing. Creative perfumers are nevertheless strongly interested to better understand these fragrances and to use them, either genuine or artificially reconstituted. Analytical results on the fragrance of these flowers are reported, together with some economical considerations.

  10. Flowers & Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  11. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  12. Winter 2016, Part B—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Assateague Island, Virginia, to Montauk Point, New York, March 8–9, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On March 8–9, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Assateague Island, Virginia, to Montauk Point, New York, aboard a Cessna 182 aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,200 feet offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  13. Acaricidal activity of extracts from the leaves and aerial parts of Neoglaziovia variegata (Bromeliaceae) on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Dantas, A C S; Machado, D M R; Araujo, A C; Oliveira-Junior, R G; Lima-Saraiva, S R G; Ribeiro, L A A; Almeida, J R G S; Horta, M C

    2015-06-01

    This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of Neoglaziovia variegata against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The mortality and fecundity of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of ethanol, hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts obtained from the leaves and aerial parts of N. variegata were evaluated, using three treatments with concentrations of 5, 10 e 25 mg/ml; two controls (distilled water and distilled water with drops of cremophor); with three replicates. The hexane extract of the leaves demonstrated significant results, presenting 94.1% inhibition of oviposition; 0.33% the average percentage of eclosion of eggs; and 99.8% of effectiveness. These results indicate N. variegata, particularly the hexane extract of leaves, as potential alternative control agents of R. (B.) microplus. Pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism responsible for this effect.

  14. Winter 2016, Part A—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, February 18–19, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On February 18–19, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, aboard a Cessna 182 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  15. Quantitative determination of pregnanes from aerial parts of Caralluma species using HPLC-UV and identification by LC-ESI-TOF.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Shukla, Yatin J; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method was developed for the quantitative determination of five pregnane derivatives from aerial parts of Caralluma species and dietary supplements. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, LOD, and LOQ. The LOD and LOQ of five pregnane compounds were found to be in the range of 1-5 and 3-15 microg/mL, respectively, by HPLC using photodiode array detection. This method was applied to the identification of three plant materials of Caralluma species (C. fimbriata, C. umbellate, and C. attentuata) and seven dietary supplements claiming to contain C. fimbriata. An LCIMS coupled with electrospray ionization interface method was used for the identification of compounds and involved the use of [M+Na]+ ions in the positive ion mode with extracted ion chromatogram.

  16. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Pimpinella junoniae Ceb. & Ort., gathered in La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Negueruela, A; Pérez-Alonso, M J; Pérez de Paz, P L; Paúl-Palá, J; Sanz, J

    2003-09-05

    The essential oil from the aerial parts of Pimpinella junoniae Ceb. & Ort., growing in La Gomera, Canary Islands, Spain, was studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 43 constituents were identified. The major components were found to be alpha-zingiberene (20.6%), alpha-pinene (17.9%), (E)-beta-farnesene (9.3%), ar-curcumene (7.4%), beta-phellandrene (7.0%), beta-bisabolene (6.1%) and epoxypseudoisoeugenyl 2-methylbutyrate (6.0%). The decomposition product of epoxypseudoisoeugenol derivatives, 5-methoxy-2-methylbenzofuran (5.7%), moderate amounts of other arylpropanoids with the pseudoisoeugenol skeleton (total percentage, 5.2%) and other compounds such as beta-sesquiphellandrene (3.0%), cis-beta-guaiene (1.5%), alpha-phellandrene (1.5%) and alpha-bisabolol (1.3%), were also found.

  17. Profiling and elucidation of the phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata collected from different Chinese origins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Mangelinckx, Sven; Lü, Han; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Li, Wei-Lin; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata are not only known to be nutritive as cultured vegetables, but also beneficial as folk medicines in East Asia. As demonstrated by the current phytochemical knowledge, the genus Gynura is a promising source of phenolics with multiple medicinal activities. To expand this phytochemical knowledge, the phenolic secondary metabolites of G. bicolor and G. divaricata were studied. From the aerial parts of these two species, collected in five different Chinese locations, two fractions of phenolic compounds with different polarity were obtained by extraction and chromatographic separation. Using UPLC/MS/MS analysis, a total of 53 phenolics were either identified by comparison with respective reference compounds or tentatively characterized by their chromatographic behavior, UV-absorption patterns, and MS fragmentations. Some naturally existing positional isomers of O-caffeoylquinic acid, O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, O-feruloylquinic acid, and dicaffeoylquinic acid as well as their methyl esters were qualitatively characterized by their specific fragmentation patterns in targeted MS/MS. In addition, the aerial parts of the two Gynura species contained kaempferol, quercetin oligoglycosides, and a variety of derivatives of benzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, and caffeic acid. Furthermore, the distribution of phenolic compounds in the two species from different Chinese origins was discussed. Finally, an investigation of the total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of the various phenolic fractions was completed, to evaluate the potential of the extracts of these species for medicinal development. The free-radical-scavenging activities of the extracts derived from plants originating from Nanjing were proven to be higher than those of the other extracts, which correlated well with their total phenolic content.

  18. A Comparative In Vitro Study on the Antioxidant and Anti-acetylcholinesterase Properties of Aerial Parts of Strophanthus preusii Engl & Pax

    PubMed Central

    Adaramoye, OA; Olajuyin, A

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory properties of aerial parts of Strophanthus preussii (leaves, stem and root named as SPL, SPS and SPR, respectively) while catechin served as standard. Methods: The antioxidant and AChE-inhibitory properties of the methanol extracts of Strophanthus preussii were evaluated by standard in vitro methods viz DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine), nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl radical (OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) radical scavenging assays as well as reducing power, iron (II) [Fe2+]/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) and AChE inhibition assays. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extracts were also estimated. Results: High phenolic and flavonoid contents were found in the aerial parts of Strophanthus preussii. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents followed the order SPL > SPR > SPS at 250–1000 µg/ml. The results revealed that all the extracts showed antioxidant activities in vitro. However, SPL had the highest DPPH, H2O2 and OH radical scavenging abilities while the reducing power of the extracts followed the order SPR > SPL > SPS at 1000 µg/ml. In addition, SPL, SPS and SPR significantly inhibited LPO in rat liver by 42%, 23%, 35% and in rat brain by 68%, 31% and 51%, respectively. The LPO inhibitory activities of SPL were statistically similar to the standard. Only SPS produced significant NO scavenging effects among the extracts. The percentage inhibition of AChE activity was significant for SPL and SPR at 750 and 1000 µg/ml. Conclusion: The leaves and root of Strophanthus preusii proved to be potent natural antioxidants and could justify their traditional use in the management of stress-related diseases. PMID:25781275

  19. Phenolic fractions from Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum aerial parts in human plasma protect against changes induced by hyperhomocysteinemia in vitro.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Joanna; Kołodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2012-11-01

    Elevated concentration of homocysteine (Hcy) in human plasma, defined as hyperhomocysteinemia has been correlated with some diseases, such as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and kidney disorders. Homocysteine occurs in human plasma in several forms, including the most reactive form of Hcy - its cyclic thioester - homocysteine thiolactone (HTL), which represents up to 0.29% of plasma total Hcy. It is suggested that Hcy and HTL may also act as oxidants, but various polyphenolic antioxidants are able to inhibit the oxidative damage induced by Hcy or HTL. The aim of our present study was to investigate in vitro oxidative changes in human plasma induced by the model of hyperhomocysteinemia in the presence of the phenolic fractions from selected clovers (Trifolium pallidum and Trifolium scabrum aerial parts). Hyperhomocysteinemia was stimulated by a reduced form of Hcy (final dose 100 μM) or HTL (final dose 1 μM). The aim of our study was also to explain the effect of the phenolic fractions on the coagulation activity of human plasma treated with Hcy and its thiolactone. Tested phenolic fractions significantly inhibited the oxidative stress (measured by the total antioxidant level - TAS) in plasma treated with Hcy or HTL. The phenolic fractions from T. pallidum and T. scabrum also caused a distinct reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation (measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) induced by the model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Moreover, tested fractions modulated the coagulation properties of plasma treated with homocysteine and its thiolactone. It seems that antioxidative activities of the phenolic fractions from T. pallidum and T. scabrum aerial parts may be responsible for their medicinal properties during hyperhomocysteinemia.

  20. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo; Gholamzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. is a monotypic endemic plant of Apiaceae growing wild in Iran. The aerial parts of this plant are used for treatment of hypertension, ulcer, and inflammatory conditions in folk medicine. In this study, the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of K. odoratissima were evaluated in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: For induction of hypertension, Dex (30 μg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously for 14 days. In a prevention study, rats received oral K. odoratissima extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) from 4 days before Dex administration and during the test period (days 1–18). In a reversal study, K. odoratissima extract was administered orally from day 8 to 14. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using tail-cuff method. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in plasma samples. Results: Administrations of Dex significantly induced an increase in SBP and in plasma H2O2 and a decrease in body and thymus weights, and in FRAP value (P < 0.001). K. odoratissima extract dose-dependently prevented and reversed hypertension (P < 0.001). It also prevented and reduced the plasma H2O2 concentration and prevented the body weight loss upon Dex administration at all doses (100–400 mg/kg, P < 0.001) but failed to improve FRAP value. Conclusions: These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of K. odoratissima extract in Dex-induced hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the antihypertensive effect of this herbal medicine. PMID:27014652

  1. Chemical Variability of the Essential Oil Isolated from Aerial Parts of Tetraclinis articulata from North-Western Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boussaïd, Maghnia; Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Beddou, Fawzia; Sari, Daoudi Chabane; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the yield and chemical composition of 50 essential oil samples isolated from leaves and flowers of Tetraclinis articulata harvested in eight locations (coastal township and highlands) of Tlemcen Province (North-Western Algeria). Essential oil yields varied drastically from sample to sample (0.03 to 0.86%, w/w). No direct correlation was observed between the yield and the altitude of the harvest areas. The oils consisted mainly of monoterpenes: α-pinene (9.2-56.5%), bornyl acetate (1.2-45.1%), camphor (0.5-40.3%), borneol (0.2-12.9%), limonene (3.6-12.5%), and myrcene (1.6-9.7%). Sesquiterpenes were represented by germacrene D (up to 14.2%) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (up to 13.3%). PCA analysis of the data allowed the distinction of two groups within the samples. The composition of group I (9 samples) was dominated by camphor, (Mean = 30.9%) followed by α-pinene (M = 19.1%) and bornyl acetate (M = 11.4%). Group II was divided into two sub-groups. Samples of sub-group IIA (8 samples) contained mainly α-pinene (M = 45.4%). Samples of the largest group IIB (33 samples) were characterized by similar contents of α-pinene (M = 28.2%) and bornyl acetate (M = 24.5%) and the occurrence of camphor to a lesser extent (M = 10.0%).

  2. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  3. Anticonvulsant effects of aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Shariati-Rad, Schwann; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh

    2007-01-01

    Background Passion flower (Passiflora incarnata) is used in traditional medicine of Europe and South America to treat anxiety, insomnia and seizure. Recently, it has shown antianxiety and sedative effects in human. Methods In this study, anticonvulsant effects of hydro- alcoholic extract of Passiflora, Pasipay, were examined by using pentylentetrazole model (PTZ) on mice. Pasipay, diazepam, and normal saline were injected intraperitoneally at the doses 0.4–0.05 mg/kg, 0.5–1 mg/kg and 10 ml/kg respectively 30 minutes before PTZ (90 mg/kg, i.p). The time taken before the onset of clonic convulsions, the duration of colonic convulsions, and the percentage of seizure and mortality protection were recorded. For investigating the mechanism of Pasipay, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p) and naloxone (5 mg/kg, i.p) were also injected 5 minutes before Pasipay. Results An ED50 value of Pasipay in the PTZ model was 0.23 mg/kg (%95 CL: 0.156, 0.342). Pasipay at the dose of 0.4 mg/kg prolonged the onset time of seizure and decreased the duration of seizures compared to saline group (p < 0.001). At the dose of 0.4 mg/kg, seizure and mortality protection percent were 100%. Flumazenil and naloxone could suppress anticonvulsant effects of Pasipay. Conclusion It seems that Pasipay could be useful for treatment absence seizure and these effects may be related to effect of it on GABAergic and opioid systems. More studies are needed in order to investigate its exact mechanism. PMID:17686156

  4. Unmanned Aerial Systems as Part of a Multi-Component Assessment Strategy to Address Climate Change and Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been established as versatile tools for different applications, providing data and observations for atmospheric and Earth-Systems research. They offer an urgently needed link between in-situ ground based measurements and satellite remote sensing observations and are distinguished by significant versatility, flexibility and moderate operational costs. UAS have the proven potential to contribute to a multi-component assessment strategy that combines remote-sensing, numerical modelling and surface measurements in order to elucidate important atmospheric processes. This includes physical and chemical transformations related to ongoing climate change as well as issues linked to aerosol-cloud interactions and air quality. The distinct advantages offered by UAS comprise, to name but a few: (i) their ability to operate from altitudes of a few meters to up to a few kilometers; (ii) their capability to perform autonomously controlled missions, which provides for repeat-measurements to be carried out at precisely defined locations; (iii) their relative ease of operation, which enables flexible employment at short-term notice and (iv) the employment of more than one platform in stacked formation, which allows for unique, quasi-3D-observations of atmospheric properties and processes. These advantages are brought to bear in combining in-situ ground based observations and numerical modeling with UAS-based remote sensing in elucidating specific research questions that require both horizontally and vertically resolved measurements at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Employing numerical atmospheric modelling, UAS can provide survey information over spatially and temporally localized, focused areas of evolving atmospheric phenomena, as they become identified by the numerical models. Conversely, UAS observations offer urgently needed data for model verification and provide boundary conditions for numerical models. In this presentation, we will

  5. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production. PMID:22301976

  6. Medicinal foodstuffs. XVIII. Phytoestrogens from the aerial part of Petroselinum crispum MIll. (Parsley) and structures of 6"-acetylapiin and a new monoterpene glycoside, petroside.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Uemura, T; Shimoda, H; Kishi, A; Kawahara, Y; Matsuda, H

    2000-07-01

    In the course of our screening for natural estrogenic compounds from Occidental medicinal herbs, the extracts of several herbs were found to show proliferative activity in MCF-7 (an estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell line). Among these active herbs, the methanolic extract from the aerial parts of Petroselinum crispum (parsley) showed potent estrogenic activity, which was equal to that of isoflavone glycosides from soybean. Through bioassay-guided separation, we isolated several flavone glycosides and a new flavone glycoside, 6"-acetylapiin, with estrogenic activity together with a new monoterpene glucoside, petroside. The structures of 6"-acetylapiin and petroside were characterized by the chemical and physicochemical evidence. Estrogenic activities of these flavone glycosides were found to be enhanced by removal of their glycoside moieties. The EC50 values (concentration needed to enhance the MCF-7 proliferation 50% compared to non-estrogen treated cell) of their aglycones are as follows, apigenin (1.0 microM), diosmetin (2.9 microM), and kaempferol (0.56 microM). The estrogenic activities of these flavones are nearly equal to those of the isoflavones, daidzein (0.61 microM) and genistein (0.60 microM). The methanolic extract of parsley, apiin, and apigenin restored the uterus weight in ovariectomized mice when orally administered for consecutive 7 days.

  7. Water-deficit impact on fatty acid and essential oil composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Bettaieb, Iness; Knioua, Sana; Hamrouni, Ibtissem; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

    2011-01-12

    This study is designed to examine the effect of water deficit on growth, fatty acid and essential oil composition, and antioxidant activities of Cuminum cyminum aerial part extracts. Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control (C), moderate water deficit (MWD), and severe water deficit (SWD). Plant growth (height, fresh and dry matter weights) as well as yield components were significantly increased under moderate water deficit and conversely reduced at severe level. Total fatty acid content decreased significantly with severity of constraint. Drought reduced considerably the proportions of major fatty acids and the unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The essential oil yield was 0.14% (based on the dry weight); it increased by 2.21-fold at MWD but decreased by 42.8% under SWD in comparison to the control. Drought results in the modification of the essential oil chemotype from 1-phenyl-1-butanol to 1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol. Antioxidant activities of the acetone extracts were determined by two complementary test systems, namely, DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid. The highest activity was exhibited by moderately stressed plants and was reduced significantly under SWD. In control plants, the total phenolic amount was 10.23 mg GAE/g DW, which increased by 1.5-fold under MWD and decreased by 42% under SWD.

  8. Supercritical CO₂ extract and essential oil of aerial part of Ledum palustre L.--Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Baananou, Sameh; Bagdonaite, Edita; Marongiu, Bruno; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Boughattas, Naceur A

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of two extracts from the aerial parts of Ledum palustre has been reported. The volatile oil was obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and the essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD). The oils were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to monitor their composition. Both extracts shared as main compound (41.0-43.4%) ledol (23.3-26.7%) and ascaridole (15.1-4.5%). The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the subcutaneous carrageenan injection-induced hind paw oedema. The treated animals received essential oil (SFE and HD), the reference group received ketoprofen or piroxicam and the control group received NaCl 0.9%. A statistical analysis was performed by the Student t-test. The results show that L. palustre essential oil enhanced a significant inhibition of oedema (50-73%) for HD oil and (52-80%) for SFE oil. These results were similar to those obtained with piroxicam (70%) and ketoprofen (55%).

  9. Antimicrobial activity, growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines, and phytochemical characterization of the hydromethanolic extract obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Khaled N; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin.

  10. Variations in chemical composition, vasorelaxant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli pallasii Besser (Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Suručić, Relja; Kundaković, Tatjana; Lakušić, Branislava; Drakul, Dragana; Milovanović, Slobodan R; Kovačević, Nada

    2016-12-10

    The present paper describes environmental and seasonal-related chemical composition variations, vasorelaxant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activities of essential oil from aerial parts of Seseli pallasii Besser. The composition was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Monoterpens were found to be the most abundant chemical class with α-pinene (42.7-48.2%) as the most prevalent component. Seseli pallasi essential oil relaxed isolated endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries rings precontracted with phenylephrine with IC50 = 3.10 nl/ml (IC50 =2.70 μg/ml). Also, S. pallasii essential oil was found to exhibit a dose-dependent ACE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.33 mg/ml. In silico evaluation of ACE inhibitory activity of the individual components showed that spathulenol exhibited the best binding affinity with ACE, and the lowest binding energy of -7.5 kcal/mol. The results suggested that combination of vasorelaxing and ACE inhibitory effects of the analyzed S. pallasii essential oil might have the potential therapeutic significance in hypertension. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids from aerial parts of Passiflora species and dietary supplements using UPLC-UV-MS and HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Rumalla, Chidananda Swamy; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-09-01

    A rapid UPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of five indole alkaloids (harmalol, harmol, harmane, harmaline and harmine) and four flavonoids (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin) from the aerial parts of Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae), other species of Passiflora (P. violacea Veil., P. edulis Sims., P. suberosa L., P. morifolia Mast. and P. quadrangularis L.), Peganum harmala, and dietary supplements that claim to contain Passiflora. The separation was achieved within eight minutes by using C-18 column, a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 35 degrees C. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection (LOD), and limits of quantification (LOQ). The wavelength used for quantification with the diode array detector was 340 nm for flavonoids and alkaloids. The developed method is simple, economic, fast and especially suitable for quality control analysis of flavonoids and alkaloids in plant samples and dietary supplements. The compounds (including isoschaftoside and schaftoside) in plant samples and commercial products of Passiflora were identified and confirmed by UPLC-MS. A HPTLC method was also developed for the chemical fingerprint analysis of Passiflora samples.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity, Growth Inhibition of Human Tumour Cell Lines, and Phytochemical Characterization of the Hydromethanolic Extract Obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin. PMID:24455713

  13. Chemical composition and anticandidal properties of the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of Cotula cinerea: a rare and threatened medicinal plant in Morocco.

    PubMed

    El Bouzidi, Leila; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Fattarsi, Karine; Hassani, Lahcen; Leach, David; Markouk, Mohammed; Legendre, Laurent; Bekkouche, Khalid

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition and anticandidal properties of the essential oil of Moroccan Cotula cinerea aerial parts have been examined. GC-MS data were used to identify 24 constituents. Oxygenated monoterpenes constituted the main fraction with trans-thujone (41.4%), cis-verbenyl acetate (24.7%), 1,8-cineole (8.2%) and camphor (5.5%) as the major components. The anticandidal activity of the essential oil was evaluated using a panel of human pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans CCMM L4 and CCMM L5, C. krusei CCMM L10, C. glabrata CCMM L7 and C. parapsilosis CCMM L18). The oil showed high anticandidal activity against all investigated strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 3.2 to 4.7 mg/mL depending on the tested yeast and 5.9 mg/mL as a minimal candidicidal concentration value. These findings add significant information to the pharmacological activity of Cotula cinerea essential oil, which may present a good alternative to antibiotics for the treatment of resistant strains of Candida.

  14. The essential oils of the aerial parts of two Hypericum taxa (Hypericum triquetrifolium and Hypericum aviculariifolium subsp. depilatum var. depilatum (Clusiaceae)) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Ebru; Bagci, Eyup

    2012-11-01

    In this study, essential oil compositions of two Hypericum L. taxa (Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra. and Hypericum aviculariifolium Jaub. et Spach subsp. depilatum var. depilatum (Freyn et Bornm.) Robson) naturally grown in Turkey were determined using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of plants. A total of 45 compounds were identified in the essential oils of H. triquetrifolium; 1-hexanal (18.8%), 3-methylnonane (12.5%) and α-pinene (12.3%). In this study, 41 components were identified in H. aviculariifolium subsp. depilatum var. depilatum oil; α-pinene (52.1%), germacrene D (8.5%) and β-pinene (3.6%) were the predominant constituents. The essential oil analysis showed that monoterpene concentrations were higher than that of the sesquiterpenes in both oils. The results were discussed in the meaning of the usefulness of these plants and their chemicals as natural products and potential usage in chemotaxonomy.

  15. A facile and green strategy for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis extract and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Godipurge, S S; Yallappa, S; Biradar, Naveen J; Biradar, J S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gajanan; Jagadish, K; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    A facile and green strategy is reported here to synthesize gold (Au), silver (Ag) and gold-silver (Au-Ag) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) through bio-reduction reactions of aqueous corresponding metal precursors mediated by extracts of aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents, under microwave irradiation. UV-vis spectrophotometer, XRD, FT-IR, FESEM/TEM, TGA and EDAX analysis were used to characterize the obtained NPs. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance peak observed at λmax=∼550, 450 and 500nm for Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs respectively. XRD pattern revealed that fcc structure, while FT-IR spectra signify the presence of phytochemicals adsorbed on NPs. Such a biofunctionalized NPs were characterized by their weight loss, 30% due to thermal degradation of plant phytochemicals observed in TG analysis. The spherical shape of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs (∼10-50nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images. EDAX analysis confirms the expected elemental composition. Moreover, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, though it is more pronounced for Au-Ag alloy NPs, which is due to the combining effect of phytochemicals, Au and Ag metals. Thus, the biosynthesized NPs could be applied as effective growth inhibitors for various biomedical applications.

  16. GC-MS analysis and in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of essential oil from aerial parts of endemic Thymus spathulifolius Hausskn. et Velen.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Ramazan; Zengin, Gokhan; Uysal, Sengul; Ilhan, Veli; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Kandemir, Ali; Anwar, Farooq

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities and chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil (0.35% yield) from aerial parts of Thymus spathulifolius. Antioxidant capacity of the oil was assessed by different methods including free radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC) and phosphomolybdenum assay. Inhibitory activities were analyzed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase. Twenty-one constituents were identified representing 97.2% of the total oil with thymol (50.5%), borneol (16.7%) and carvacrol (7.7%) as the major components. The essential oil exhibited good antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 3.82 and 0.22 mg/mL determined by free radical scavenging DPPH and ABTS, respectively. EC50 values of FRAP and CUPRAC were found to be 0.12 and 0.34 mg/mL, respectively. The results of the present study support the uses of T. spathulifolius essential oil as a source of natural antioxidants and bioactivities for functional foods and phytomedicines.

  17. Recent advances of flowering locus T gene in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.

  18. Flowers in Their Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

  19. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae).

    PubMed

    Abotsi, W K M; Ainooson, G K; Woode, E

    2012-01-01

    Various parts of the perennial herb Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Family: Phytolaccaceae) are used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of several inflammatory-related disorders. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (HLE) in acute and chronic inflammation models. Since free radicals and reactive oxygen species are implicated in inflammatory diseases, the antioxidant potential of HLE was also investigated in in vitro experimental models. HLE (10-300 mg kg(-1), p.o.), either preemptively or curatively, significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced foot oedema in 7-day old chicks. Similarly, the NSAID diclofenac (10-100 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and the steroidal anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) dose-dependently reduced the oedema in both pre-emptive and curative treatments. In the Freund's adjuvant induced-arthritis model in rats, HLE as well as the positive controls, dexamethasone and methotrexate, showed significant anti-arthritic properties when applied to established adjuvant arthritis. HLE (10-300 mg kg(-1), p.o.) significantly reduced oedema in the ipsilateral paw of rats but failed to prevent systemic arthritic spread. The DMARD methotrexate (0.1-1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced significantly the total polyarthritic oedema as well as the spread of the arthritis from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws of the treated animals. The extract (0.03-1.00 mg ml(-1)) exhibited Fe(3+) reducing activity, scavenged DPPH and prevented lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that the extract exerts in vivo anti-inflammatory activity after oral administration and also has antioxidant properties which may contribute to its activity.

  20. The EAR motif controls the early flowering and senescence phenotype mediated by over-expression of SlERF36 and is partly responsible for changes in stomatal density and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Asmita; Ranjan, Sanjay; Singh, Ruchi; Pathre, Uday V; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Aniruddha P

    2014-01-01

    The EAR motif is a small seven amino acid motif associated with active repression of several target genes. We had previously identified SlERF36 as an EAR motif containing gene from tomato and shown that its over-expression results in early flowering and senescence and a 25-35% reduction of stomatal density, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in transgenic tobacco. In order to understand the role of the EAR motif in governing the phenotypes, we have expressed the full-length SlERF36 and a truncated form, lacking the EAR motif under the CaMV35S promoter, in transgenic Arabidopsis. Plants over-expressing the full-length SlERF36 show prominent early flowering under long day as well as short day conditions. The early flowering leads to an earlier onset of senescence in these transgenic plants which in turn reduces vegetative growth, affecting rosette, flower and silique sizes. Stomatal number is reduced by 38-39% while photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decrease by about 30-40%. Transgenic plants over-expressing the truncated version of SlERF36 (lacking the C-terminal EAR motif), show phenotypes largely matching the control with normal flowering and senescence indicating that the early flowering and senescence is governed by the EAR motif. On the other hand, photosynthetic rates and stomatal number were also reduced in plants expressing SlERF36ΔEAR although to a lesser degree compared to the full- length version indicating that these are partly controlled by the EAR motif. These studies show that the major phenotypic changes in plant growth caused by over-expression of SlERF36 are actually mediated by the EAR motif.

  1. Flower colour adaptation in a mimetic orchid.

    PubMed

    Newman, Ethan; Anderson, Bruce; Johnson, Steven D

    2012-06-22

    Although the tremendous variability in floral colour among angiosperms is often attributed to divergent selection by pollinators, it is usually difficult to preclude the possibility that floral colour shifts were driven by non-pollinator processes. Here, we examine the adaptive significance of flower colour in Disa ferruginea, a non-rewarding orchid that is thought to attract its butterfly pollinator by mimicking the flowers of sympatric nectar-producing species. Disa ferruginea has red flowers in the western part of its range and orange flowers in the eastern part--a colour shift that we hypothesized to be the outcome of selection for resemblance to different local nectar-producing plants. Using reciprocal translocations of red and orange phenotypes as well as arrays of artificial flowers, we found that the butterfly Aeropetes tulbaghia, the only pollinator of the orchid, preferred both the red phenotype and red artificial flowers in the west where its main nectar plant also has red flowers, and both the orange phenotype and orange artificial flowers in the east, where its main nectar plant has orange flowers. This phenotype by environment interaction demonstrates that the flower colour shift in D. ferruginea is adaptive and driven by local colour preference in its pollinator.

  2. Chemical fingerprint and simultaneous determination of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum indigenous to China based on HPLC-UV: application of analysis on secondary metabolites accumulation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Cheng, Xuemei; Liu, Wei; Xuan, Min; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Shan, Meng; Li, Yan; Teng, Liang; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-12-01

    The aerial parts of genus Peganum are officially used in traditional Chinese medicine. The paper aims to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for fingerprint analysis and simultaneous determination of three alkaloids and two flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum, and to analyze accumulative difference of secondary metabolites in inter-species, individuals of plants, inter-/intra-population and from different growing seasons. HPLC analysis was performed on a C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% trifloroacetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase and detected at 265 nm, by conventional methodology validation. For fingerprint analysis, the RSDs of relative retention time and relative peak area of the characteristic peaks were within 0.07-0.78 and 0.94-9.09%, respectively. For simultaneous determination of vasicine, harmaline, harmine, deacetylpeganetin and peganetin, all calibration curves showed good linearity (r > 0.9990) within the test range. The relative standard deviations of precision, repeatability and stability test did not exceed 2.37, 2.68 and 2.67%, respectively. The average recoveries for the five analytes were between 96.47 and 101.20%. HPLC fingerprints play a minor role in authenticating and differentiating the herbs of different species of genus Peganum. However, the secondary metabolites levels of alkaloids and flavonoids in aerial parts of genus Peganum rely on species-, habitat-, and growth season-dependent accumulation.

  3. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian, A.; Ghannadi, A.; Mohebi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents. PMID:25657780

  4. Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Jafarian, A; Ghannadi, A; Mohebi, B

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA-MB-468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol/water (70/30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly-phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT-29 and MDA-MB-468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA-MB-468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 μg/ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

  5. Kinetic modeling and optimization of maceration and ultrasound-extraction of resinoid from the aerial parts of white lady's bedstraw (Galium mollugo L.).

    PubMed

    Milić, Petar S; Rajković, Katarina M; Stamenković, Olivera S; Veljković, Vlada B

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, extraction of resinoid from the aerial parts of white lady's bedstraw (Galium mollugo L.) using an aqueous ethanol solution (50% by volume) was studied at different temperatures in the absence and the presence of ultrasound. This study indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction was effective for extracting the resinoid and gave better resinoid yields at lower extraction temperature and in much shorter time than the maceration. A phenomenological model was developed for modeling the kinetics of the extraction process. The model successfully describes the two-step extraction consisting of washing followed by diffusion of extractable substances and shows that ultrasound influences only the first step. The extraction process was optimized using response surface methodology (RMS) and artificial neural network (ANN) models. For the former modeling, the second-order polynomial equation was applied, while the second one was performed by an ANN-GA combination. The high coefficient of determination and the low MRPD between the ANN prediction and the corresponding experimental data proved that modeling the extraction process in the absence and the presence of ultrasound using ANN was more accurate than RSM modeling. The optimum extraction temperature was determined to be 80 and 40 °C, respectively for the maceration and the ultrasound-assisted extraction, ensuring the highest resinoid yield of 22.0 g/100g in 4h and 25.1g/100g in 30 min, which agreed with the yields obtained experimentally for the same time (21.7 and 25.3g/100g, respectively).

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Potential of Cistus salviifolius (L.) and Cistus monspeliensis (L.) Aerial Parts Extracts against Key Enzymes Linked to Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Marmouzi, Ilias; Cherrah, Yahia; Faouzi, My El Abbes

    2017-01-01

    Cistus genus (Cistaceae) comprises several medicinal plants used in traditional medicines to treat several pathological conditions including hyperglycemia. These include Cistus salviifolius L. (CS) and Cistus monspeliensis L. (CM), still not fully explored as a source of metabolites with therapeutic potential for human diseases. In this study, the antioxidant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory effects of aqueous and hydromethanolic extracts from the aerial parts of Moroccan CS and CM were investigated. Antioxidant activity has been assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radicals and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity has been assessed using an in vitro model. Moreover, mineral and phenolic contents of CS and CM were analyzed. The extracts of both species exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all used systems and possess strong inhibitory effect towards α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.95 ± 0.14 to 14.58 ± 1.26 μg/mL) and significant inhibitory potential against α-amylase (IC50: 217.10 ± 0.15 to 886.10 ± 0.10 μg/mL). Furthermore, the result showed high levels of phenolic content and unexpectedly some higher levels of mineral content in CS. The results suggest that the phenolic rich extracts of CS and CM may have a therapeutic potential against diseases associated with oxidative stress and may be useful in the management of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. PMID:28116307

  7. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus. PMID:23244493

  8. Anti-spasmodic assessment of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of aerial part of Pycnocycla caespitosa Boiss. & Hausskn on rat ileum contractions.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Alipour, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Pycnocycla caespitosa is an essential oil-containing plant naturally growing in southwest of Iran. The extract of this plant has been used as remedy in traditional medicine. Another species of Pycnocyla (P. spinosa) possessed antispasmodic activity. The pharmacological objective of this study was to look for relaxant effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of P. caespitosa on rat isolated ileum contractions for comparison with loperamide. The essential oil and the hydroalcoholic extract were prepared by hydrodistillation and percolation techniques, respectively. For antispasmodic studies a section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl (80 mM) and acetylcholine (ACh 0.5 μM). The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. The essential oil content in the aerial parts of P. caespitosa was found to be 0.16 % ml/g. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy constituents, representing 97 % of the oil were identified. The major components of the oil were carvacrol (7.1%), β-eudesmol (6.4 %), ρ-cymene (5.7%), caryophyllene oxide (3.6%), α-pinine (1.4%) and α-phelandrene (1.1%). The hydroalcoholic extract of P. caespitosa inhibited the response to KCl (IC50 = 48 ± 3 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 61 ± 14.7 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 77 ± 17 μg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. The essential oil of P. caespitosa also inhibited rat ileum contractions. The IC50 values for KCl, ACh and EFS were 9.2 ± 1.2 μg/ml, 7.6 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/ml, respectively. The inhibitory effect of both the essential oil and the extract were reversible. This research confirms the anti-spasmodic activity of both the essential oil and the extract of P. caespitosa on smooth muscle contraction of ileum.

  9. Therapeutic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Aerva javanica aerial parts in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, Ahmed H.; Parvez, Mohammad K.; Al-Dosari, Mohammed S.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.; Ibrahim, Khalid E.; Alam, Perwez; Alsaid, Mansour S.; Rafatullah, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Background Liver diseases, the fifth most common cause of global death, can be metabolic, toxin-induced, or infective. Though approximately 35 Saudi medicinal plants are traditionally used to treat liver disorders, the hepatoprotective potential of Aerva javanica has not been explored. Objective To investigate the antioxidative and hepatoprotective effect of Aerva javanica. Design Total ethanol extract of A. javanica aerial parts was prepared and tested on DCFH-toxicated HepG2 cells ex vivo, and in CCl4-injured Wistar rats in vivo. MTT assay was used to determine cell viability and the serum biochemical markers of liver injury as well as histopathology was performed. In vitro 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene free-radical scavenging assay and phytochemical screening of the extract were done. Furthermore, A. javanica total extract was standardized and validated by high-performance thin layer chromatographic method. Results MTT assay showed that, while DCFH-injured cells were recovered to ~56.7% by 100 µg/ml of the extract, a 200 µg/ml dose resulted in hepatocytes recovery by ~90.2%. Oral administration of the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg.bw/day) significantly normalized the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and malondialdehyde levels, including tissue nonprotein sulfhydryl and total protein in CCl4-injured rats. In addition, the histopathology of dissected liver also revealed that A. javanica cured the tissue lesion compared to silymarin treatment. In vitro assays revealed strong free-radical scavenging ability of the extract and presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins where rutin, a well-known antioxidant flavonoid, was identified. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the potential of A. javanica in the attenuation

  10. Laserpitium zernyi Hayek Flower and Herb Extracts: Phenolic Compounds, and Anti-edematous, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Popović, Višnja B; Tomić, Maja A; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Micov, Ana M; Milenković, Marina T; Petrović, Silvana D; Ušjak, Ljuboš J; Niketić, Marjan S

    2016-12-16

    Phenolic compounds and different biological activities of the dry methanol extracts of the flowers and the herb (aerial parts without flowers) of Laserpitium zernyi Hayek (Apiaceae) were investigated. The total phenolic contents in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. In both extracts, apigenin, luteolin, their 7-O-glucosides and chlorogenic acid were detected by HPLC. Identified phenolics were quantified in both extracts, except luteolin in L. zernyi herb extract. The extracts (p.o.) were tested for anti-edematous activity in a model of carrageenan (i.pl.) induced rat paw edema. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed by FRAP assay and DPPH and 'OH radicals scavenging tests. Antimicrobial activity was investigated using broth microdilution test against five Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria, as well as against two strains of Candida albicans. The polyphenol-richer flower extract exerted higher anti-edematous and antioxidant activities. The herb extract exhibited better antimicrobial effect against Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while against other tested microorganisms the activity of both extracts was identical. Demonstrated biological activities of L. zernyi flower and herb extracts represent a good basis for their further investigation as potential new herbal medicinal raw materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  12. Do consecutive flower visits within a crown diminish fruit set in mass-flowering Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae)?

    PubMed

    Pinto, C E; Oliveira, R; Schlindwein, C

    2008-05-01

    Hancornia speciosa is a self-incompatible, mass-flowering, sphingophilous fruit crop (mangaba) of northeast and central Brazil. The flowers have a precise pollination apparatus, which optimizes pollen transfer between flower and pollinator. While the pollination mechanism avoids self-pollination, mass-flowering promotes geitonogamy. During a flower visit, almost half of the exogenous pollen grains adhering to the proboscis are deposited on the stigma surface. A pollination experiment with a nylon thread simulating six consecutive flower visits within a crown revealed that only the first two flowers visited (positions 1 and 2) are highly likely to set fruit. Super-production of flowers, and consequently obligate low fruit set, seem to be part of the reproductive strategy of the obligate outcrossing plant, Hancornia speciosa.

  13. Stress-induced flowering

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Kaede C

    2010-01-01

    Many plant species can be induced to flower by responding to stress factors. The short-day plants Pharbitis nil and Perilla frutescens var. crispa flower under long days in response to the stress of poor nutrition or low-intensity light. Grafting experiments using two varieties of P. nil revealed that a transmissible flowering stimulus is involved in stress-induced flowering. The P. nil and P. frutescens plants that were induced to flower by stress reached anthesis, fruited and produced seeds. These seeds germinated, and the progeny of the stressed plants developed normally. Phenylalanine ammonialyase inhibitors inhibited this stress-induced flowering, and the inhibition was overcome by salicylic acid (SA), suggesting that there is an involvement of SA in stress-induced flowering. PnFT2, a P. nil ortholog of the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) of Arabidopsis thaliana, was expressed when the P. nil plants were induced to flower under poor-nutrition stress conditions, but expression of PnFT1, another ortholog of FT, was not induced, suggesting that PnFT2 is involved in stress-induced flowering. PMID:20505356

  14. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  15. Live confocal imaging of Arabidopsis flower buds.

    PubMed

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Jack, Thomas P; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in confocal microscopy, coupled with the development of numerous fluorescent reporters, provide us with a powerful tool to study the development of plants. Live confocal imaging has been used extensively to further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the formation of roots, shoots and leaves. However, it has not been widely applied to flowers, partly because of specific challenges associated with the imaging of flower buds. Here, we describe how to prepare and grow shoot apices of Arabidopsis in vitro, to perform both single-point and time-lapse imaging of live, developing flower buds with either an upright or an inverted confocal microscope.

  16. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data - Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Schwarz, P.; Birnbaum, G.; Scharien, R.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences for the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, shipborne and in situ campaign data. The results show the best correlation for landfast and multiyear ice of high ice concentrations. For broadband albedo, R2 is equal to 0.85, with the RMS (root mean square) being equal to 0.068; for the melt pond fraction, R2 is equal to 0.36, with the RMS being equal to 0.065. The correlation for lower ice concentrations, subpixel ice floes, blue ice and wet ice is lower due to ice drift and challenging for the retrieval surface conditions. Combining all aerial observations gives a mean albedo RMS of 0.089 and a mean melt pond fraction RMS of 0.22. The in situ melt pond fraction correlation is R2 = 0.52 with an RMS = 0.14. Ship cruise data might be affected by documentation of varying accuracy within the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol, which may contribute to the discrepancy between the satellite value and the observed value: mean R2 = 0.044, mean RMS = 0.16. An additional dynamic spatial cloud filter for MERIS over snow and ice has been developed to assist with the validation on swath data.

  17. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003-2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction.

  18. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Franklin, Scott B.; Lu, Zhijun; Rude, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis) in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a 5-year period (2003–2007) after a mast flowering event (2003). We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the 5 years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves). Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction. PMID:26909094

  19. Photosynthate partitioning during flowering in relation to senescence of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Sklensky, D.; Davies, P.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Male spinach plants are frequently cited as a counter-example to the nutrient drain hypothesis. Photosynthate partitioning in both male and female plants was examined. Leaves just below the inflorescences in plants at various stages of flowering were labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and the photosynthate allowed to partition for three hours. The leaves, flowers and stems of the inflorescence, and the other above ground vegetative tissue were harvested. These parts were combusted in a sample oxidizer for the collection of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Allocation to the male and female flowers at very early stages are similar. As the flowers develop further, male flowers receive more photosynthate than do female flowers in early fruit production. Thus it is possible that nutrient drain to the flowers in male spinach plants is sufficient to account for senescence.

  20. Grass flower development.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Hiro-Yuki; Tanaka, Wakana; Toriba, Taiyo

    2014-01-01

    Grasses bear unique flowers lacking obvious petals and sepals in special inflorescence units, the florets and the spikelet. Despite this, grass floral organs such as stamens and lodicules (petal homologs) are specified by ABC homeotic genes encoding MADS domain transcription factors, suggesting that the ABC model of eudicot flower development is largely applicable to grass flowers. However, some modifications need to be made for the model to fit grasses well: for example, a YABBY gene plays an important role in carpel specification. In addition, a number of genes are involved in the development of the lateral organs that constitute the spikelet. In this review, we discuss recent progress in elucidating the genes required for flower and spikelet development in grasses, together with those involved in fate determination of the spikelet and flower meristems.

  1. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis Orchids: Developmental Expression of Alkaloid-Specific Homospermidine Synthase in Root Tips and Young Flower Buds1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Anke, Sven; Gondé, Daniela; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Hänsch, Robert; Theuring, Claudine; Ober, Dietrich

    2008-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are typical compounds of plant secondary metabolism and are believed to be part of the plant's chemical defense. Within the monocotyledonous plants, PAs have been described in only a few genera, mainly orchids, including Phalaenopsis. Because phylogenetic analyses suggest an independent origin of PA biosynthesis within the monocot lineage, we have analyzed the developmentally regulated expression of homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis, at the cell level. HSS is expressed in the tips of aerial roots exclusively in mitotically active cells. Raphide crystal idioblasts present within the root apical meristem do not show HSS expression. In addition, young flower buds, but not mature flowers, express HSS and have been shown by tracer feeding experiments to be able to catalyze PAs. This second site of PA biosynthesis ensures high concentrations of PAs in the reproductive structures of the Phalaenopsis flower, even after the flower opens. Thus, in spite of its identical function in PA biosynthesis, HSS shows in Phalaenopsis a completely different spatial and developmental expression pattern in comparison to other PA-producing species. These results show that the proverbial diversity of plant secondary metabolism is not just a matter of structural diversity, but is also multifaceted in terms of pathway regulation and expression. PMID:18701671

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in Phalaenopsis orchids: developmental expression of alkaloid-specific homospermidine synthase in root tips and young flower buds.

    PubMed

    Anke, Sven; Gondé, Daniela; Kaltenegger, Elisabeth; Hänsch, Robert; Theuring, Claudine; Ober, Dietrich

    2008-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are typical compounds of plant secondary metabolism and are believed to be part of the plant's chemical defense. Within the monocotyledonous plants, PAs have been described in only a few genera, mainly orchids, including Phalaenopsis. Because phylogenetic analyses suggest an independent origin of PA biosynthesis within the monocot lineage, we have analyzed the developmentally regulated expression of homospermidine synthase (HSS), the first pathway-specific enzyme of PA biosynthesis, at the cell level. HSS is expressed in the tips of aerial roots exclusively in mitotically active cells. Raphide crystal idioblasts present within the root apical meristem do not show HSS expression. In addition, young flower buds, but not mature flowers, express HSS and have been shown by tracer feeding experiments to be able to catalyze PAs. This second site of PA biosynthesis ensures high concentrations of PAs in the reproductive structures of the Phalaenopsis flower, even after the flower opens. Thus, in spite of its identical function in PA biosynthesis, HSS shows in Phalaenopsis a completely different spatial and developmental expression pattern in comparison to other PA-producing species. These results show that the proverbial diversity of plant secondary metabolism is not just a matter of structural diversity, but is also multifaceted in terms of pathway regulation and expression.

  3. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  4. A petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flower senescence is mediated in part by changes of plant hormones, such as ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA). Ethylene is known to control flower senescence in many species, especially ethylene sensitive flowers, like petunia, carnation and rose. During flower senescence in petunia and ot...

  5. All about Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds. Plant Life for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Flowers are not only pretty, they are also one of the key elements in the process of plant pollination and reproduction that goes from flowers to fruits to seeds! In All About Plant Pollination: Fruit, Flowers & Seeds, young scientists learn about the different parts of a flower through the use of microscopic photography and detailed diagrams.…

  6. De novo regeneration of Scrophularia yoshimurae Yamazaki (Scrophulariaceae) and quantitative analysis of harpagoside, an iridoid glucoside, formed in aerial and underground parts of in vitro propagated and wild plants by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Sagare, A P; Kuo, C L; Chueh, F S; Tsay, H S

    2001-11-01

    A protocol for de novo regeneration and rapid micropropagation of Scrophularia yoshimurae (Scrophulariaceae) has been developed. Multiple shoot development was achieved by culturing the shoot-tip, leaf-base, stem-node and stem-internode explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 microM N6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.07 microM alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Stem-node and shoot-tip explants showed the highest response (100%) followed by stem-internode (74.4%) and leaf-base (7.7%) explants. The shoots were multiplied by subculturing on the same medium used for shoot induction. Shoots were rooted on growth regulator-free MS basal medium and the plantlets were transplanted to soil and acclimatized in the growth chamber. The content of harpagoside, a quantitatively predominant iridoid glycoside, in different plant material was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis revealed that the content of harpagoside in the aerial and underground parts of S. yoshimurae was significantly higher than the marketed crude drug (underground parts of Scrophularia ningpoensis).

  7. I Can Count the Petals of a Flower. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, John; Wahl, Stacey

    This book introduces children to the numbers 1 through 16 (and some basic mathematical concepts) using the petals of a variety of flowers. The first part of the book contains 16 full-color photographs, each photograph showing a flower with 1 to 16 petals, with the number printed below the photograph. These pages can be used to introduce or…

  8. Developmental Regulation of a Plasma Membrane Arabinogalactan Protein Epitope in Oilseed Rape Flowers.

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, RI; Janniche, L; Kjellbom, P; Scofield, GN; Peart, JM; Roberts, K

    1991-01-01

    We have identified and characterized the temporal and spatial regulation of a plasma membrane arabinogalactan protein epitope during development of the aerial parts of oilseed rape using the monoclonal antibody JIM8. The JIM8 epitope is expressed by the first cells of the embryo and by certain cells in the sexual organs of flowers. During embryogenesis, the JIM8 epitope ceases to be expressed by the embryo proper but is still found in the suspensor. During differentiation of the stamens and carpels, expression of the JIM8 epitope progresses from one cell type to another, ultimately specifying the endothecium and sperm cells, the nucellar epidermis, synergid cells, and the egg cell. This complex temporal sequence demonstrates rapid turnover of the JIM8 epitope. There is no direct evidence for any cell-inductive process in plant development. However, if cell-cell interactions exist in plants and participate in flower development, the JIM8 epitope may be a marker for one set of them. PMID:12324592

  9. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  10. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  11. Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 μg/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 μg/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica.

  12. Detection of linear features in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rui

    Over the past decades, considerable progress had been made to develop automatic image interpretation tools in remote sensing. However, there is still a gap between the results and the requirements for accuracy and robustness. Noisy aerial image interpretation, especially for low resolution images, is still difficult. In this thesis, we propose a fully automatic system for linear feature detection in aerial images. We present how the system works on the application of extraction and reconstruction of road and pipeline networks. The work in this thesis is divided by three parts: line detection, feature interpretation, and feature tracking. An improved Hough transform based on orientation information is introduced for the line detection. We explore the Markov random field model and Bayesian filtering for feature interpretation and tracking. Experimental results show that our proposed system is robust and effective to deal with low resolution aerial images.

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  14. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  15. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  16. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a...

  17. Profiles of gamma-ray and magnetic data for aerial surveys over parts of the Western United States from longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and from latitude 34 to 49 degrees N.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1995-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains images generated from geophysical data, software for displaying and analyzing the images and software for displaying and examining profile data from aerial surveys flown as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The images included are of gamma-ray data (uranium, thorium, and potassium channels), Bouguer gravity data, isostatic residual gravity data, aeromagnetic anomalies, topography, and topography with bathymetry. This publication contains image data for the conterminous United States and profile data for the conterminous United States within the area longitude 108 to 126 degrees W. and latitude 34 to 49 degrees N. The profile data include apparent surface concentrations of potassium, uranium, and thorium, the residual magnetic field, and the height above the ground. The images on this CD-ROM include graytone and color images of each data set, color shaded-relief images of the potential-field and topographic data, and color composite images of the gamma-ray data. The image display and analysis software can register images with geographic and geologic overlays. The profile display software permits the user to view the profiles as well as obtain data listings and export ASCII versions of data for selected flight lines.

  18. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  19. Blood pressure lowering effect of the extract of aerial parts of Capparis aphylla is mediated through endothelium-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was aimed to provide pharmacological evidences for the medicinal use of Capparis aphylla in hypertension. In normotensive anesthetized rats, intravenous administration of the crude extract of Capparis aphylla (Ca.Cr; 3-100 mg/kg) caused a fall in mean arterial pressure (MAP), which was partially blocked in the presence of atropine (2 mg/kg). In isolated rabbit aortic rings, Ca.Cr inhibited phenylephrine (1 μM) and high K(+) (80 mM) precontractions with respective EC(50) values of 0.10 (0.07-0.15) and 1.22 mg/mL (1.00-1.50), suggesting calcium channel blocking (CCB) activity with a predominant inhibitory effect on receptor operated Ca(2+) channels. Pretreatment of the arotic rings with Ca.Cr (0.1-1 mg/mL) caused a rightward shift in the Ca(2+) concentration response curves, similar to verapamil. In isolated rat aorta preparations, Ca.Cr caused a partial endothelium-dependent L-NAME/atropine-sensitive vasodilator effect. In guinea-pig atria, Ca.Cr suppressed both rate and force of spontaneous atrial contractions with respective EC(50) values of 1.35 (1.01-1.79) and 1.60 mg/mL (1.18-2.17), which remained unchanged in the presence of atropine (1 μM). These data indicate that the blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of the crude extract of Capparis aphylla is mediated through a vasodilator and cardiac depressant effect. The vasodilator effect is partly mediated by an endothelium-dependent, atropine-sensitive NO pathway, while the CCB effect is partly responsible for endothelium-independent vasodilatation and also for the cardiac depressant effect; thus, this study provides pharmacologic evidence with respect to the medicinal use of the plant in hypertension.

  20. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies.

  1. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  2. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  3. In vitro flowering of orchids.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun

    2014-03-01

    Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place.

  4. Warming Contracts Flowering Phenology in an Alpine Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabis, M. D.; Winkler, D. E.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    In alpine ecosystems where temperature increases associated with anthropogenic climate change are likely to be amplified, the flowering phenology of plants may be particularly sensitive to changes in environmental signals. For example, earlier snowmelt and higher temperature have been found to be important factors driving plant emergence and onset of flowering. However, few studies have examined the interactive role of soil moisture in response to warming. Using infrared heating to actively warm plots crossed with manual watering over the growing season in a moist alpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, our preliminary results indicate that community-level phenology (length of flowering time across all species) was contracted with heating but was unaffected by watering. At the species level, additional water extended the length of the flowering season by one week for almost half (43%) of species. Heating, which raised plant and surface soil temperatures (+1.5 C) advanced snowmelt by ~7.6 days days and reduced soil moisture by ~2%, advanced flowering phenology for 86% of species. The response of flowering phenology to combined heating and watering was predominantly a heating effect. However, watering did appear to mitigate advances in end of flowering for 22% of species. The length of flowering season, for some species, appears to be tied, in part, to moisture availability as alleviating ambient soil moisture stress delayed phenology in unheated plots. Therefore, we conclude that both temperature and moisture appear to be important factors driving flowering phenology in this alpine ecosystem. The relationship between flowering phenology and species- or community-level productivity is not well established, but heating advanced community peak productivity by 5.4 days, and also reduced peak productivity unless additional water was provided, indicating some consistency between drivers of productivity and drivers of flowering phenology.

  5. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    SciTech Connect

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-09-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs.

  6. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Dulac, François; Berthet, Gwenaël; Lurton, Thibaut; Vignelles, Damien; Jégou, Fabrice; Tonnelier, Thierry; Jeannot, Matthieu; Couté, Benoit; Akiki, Rony; Verdier, Nicolas; Mallet, Marc; Gensdarmes, François; Charpentier, Patrick; Mesmin, Samuel; Duverger, Vincent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Elias, Thierry; Crenn, Vincent; Sciare, Jean; Zieger, Paul; Salter, Matthew; Roberts, Tjarda; Giacomoni, Jérôme; Gobbi, Matthieu; Hamonou, Eric; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Camy-Peyret, Claude; Mazel, Christophe; Décamps, Thierry; Piringer, Martin; Surcin, Jérémy; Daugeron, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In the companion (Part I) paper, we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter), based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. That allows for some typology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size-segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 µm up to possibly more than 100 µm depending on sampling conditions (Renard et al., 2016). Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 µm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from a UAV and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  7. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  8. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  9. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  10. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  11. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  12. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  13. Gloss, Colour and Grip: Multifunctional Epidermal Cell Shapes in Bee- and Bird-Pollinated Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R.; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower

  14. Colour cues facilitate learning flower refill schedules in wild hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2014-11-01

    Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.

  15. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  16. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  17. Microlenses of smectic flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Francesca; Gharbi, Mohamed-Amine; Liu, Iris B.; Luo, Yimin; Bade, Nathan D.; Kamien, Randall D.; Yang, Shu; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    2015-03-01

    The search for new and tunable optical components finds suitable candidates in liquid crystals, which have both reconfigurability and unique optical properties. Here we discuss smectic liquid crystals arranged in focal conic domains (FCDs), which can work as gradient-refractive index microlenses. We exploit this property to create an assembly of microlenses that resembles an insect compound eye. The system consists of a thin layer of smectics on a substrate patterned with microposts. The smectic film is pinned at the microposts, creating a curved interface that induces a hierarchical assembly of FCDs called the ''flower pattern'': each FCD resembles the petal of a flower around the micropost. The arrangement of FCDs, with the largest FCDs pinned at the top of the microposts and the smallest FCDs in the low-curvature regions far from the post, is mirrored into a hierarchy of focal lengths of the microlenses. This structure is reconfigurable by melting and cooling and it allows visualizing objects placed at different distances, hence it can be exploited for 3D image reconstruction. Similarly to the insect eyes, the flower pattern is sensitive to light polarization: the large FCDs, with the largest eccentricity, only work as microlenses for one direction of light polarization. We thank the MRSEC NSF Grant DMR11-20901.

  18. Chemical control of flowering time.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2016-12-10

    Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence the transition to flowering as well as flower opening. Increased emphasis on research within this area has the potential to counteract the negative effects of global warming on flowering time, especially in perennial crop plants. Perennial crops have a requirement for winter chill, but winters become increasingly warm in temperate regions. This has dramatic effects on crop yield. Different strategies are therefore being developed to engineer flowering time to match local growing conditions. The majority of these efforts are within plant breeding, which benefits from a substantial amount of knowledge on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit farming to date, as well as endogenous growth substances and metabolites that can influence flowering time of annuals and perennials.

  19. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  2. Airborne Compositae dermatitis: monoterpenes and no parthenolide are released from flowering Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) plants.

    PubMed

    Christensen, L P; Jakobsen, H B; Paulsen, E; Hodal, L; Andersen, K E

    1999-01-01

    The air around intact feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants was examined for the presence of airborne parthenolide and other potential allergens using a high-volume air sampler and a dynamic headspace technique. No particle-bound parthenolide was detected in the former. Among volatiles emitted from the aerial parts of feverfew plants and collected by the dynamic headspace technique a total of 41 compounds, mainly monoterpenes, were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS. Alpha-Pinene, camphene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, p-cymene, (E)-chrysanthenol, camphor and (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate were the predominant monoterpenes accounting for nearly 88% of the total volatiles emitted. The average total yield of volatiles emitted over 24 h was 18,160 ng/g fresh weight of leaves and flowers, corresponding to the emission of approximately 8 mg volatiles per day from one full-grown feverfew plant. No parthenolide or other sesquiterpene lactones were detected. The present investigation does not support the theory of airborne sesquiterpene lactone-containing plant parts or of direct release of sesquiterpene lactones from living plants as the only explanations for airborne Compositae dermatitis. Potential allergens were found among the emitted monoterpenes and their importance in airborne Compositae dermatitis is discussed.

  3. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    PubMed

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  4. Flower senescence: some molecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Shahri, Waseem; Tahir, Inayatullah

    2014-02-01

    Some molecular aspects of flower senescence have been reviewed. The isolation, identification and characterization of different genes from various flowers (mainly from petals) associated with senescence have been discussed. The isolated genes were divided into different groups. A large proportion of genes have been found to be upregulated during flower senescence while some genes were also found to be downregulated indicating that there exists a complex interplay between the expression patterns of various genes. The genes involved in petal expansion are found to be upregulated during normal flower development from anthesis to open flower stage, but XTH (Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase hydrolase) is found to be involved in petal expansion as well as abscission. Cysteine proteases or the genes encoding cysteine proteases (assigned a central role in protein degradation) have been identified from various flower systems, but no cysteine protease has been identified from senescing Mirabilis jalapa flowers. In addition to proteases, the genes encoding ubiquitin (exhibiting proteasomal degradation by 26S proteasomes) have also been identified suggesting the two alternate pathways for protein degradation. Genes encoding specific nucleases have also been identified, but they displayed an early increase in transcript abundance before the senescence symptoms become evident and characterize the involvement of PCD during flower senescence. A range of transcription factors are described and their possible role in flower senescence has been discussed. A detailed description of genes involved in ethylene synthesis and the components involved in ethylene signaling have been presented.

  5. Bilabiate Flowers: The Ultimate Response to Bees?

    PubMed Central

    Westerkamp, Christian; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Bilabiate flowers have evolved in many lineages of the angiosperms, thus representing a convincing example of parallel evolution. Similar to keel blossoms, they have obviously evolved in order to protect pollen against pollen-collecting bees. Although many examples are known, a comprehensive survey on floral diversity and functional constraints of bilabiate flowers is lacking. Here, the concept is widened and described as a general pattern. Methods The present paper is a conceptional review including personal observations of the authors. To form a survey on the diversity of bilabiate blossoms, a search was made for examples across the angiosperms and these were combined with personal observations collected during the last 25 years, coupled with knowledge from the literature. New functional terms are introduced that are independent of morphological and taxonomic associations. Key Results Bilabiate constructions occur in at least 38 angiosperm families. They are characterized by dorsiventral organization and dorsal pollen transfer. They are most often realised on the level of a single flower, but may also be present in an inflorescence or as part of a so-called ‘walk-around flower’. Interestingly, in functional terms all nototribic blossoms represent bilabiate constructions. The great majority of specialized bee-flowers can thus be included under bilabiate and keel blossoms. The syndrome introduced here, however, also paves the way for the inclusion of larger animals such as birds and bats. The most important evolutionary trends appear to be in the saving of pollen and the precision of its transfer. With special reference to the Lamiales, selected examples of bilabiate flowers are presented and their functional significance is discussed. Conclusions Bilabiate blossoms protect their pollen against pollen-collecting bees and at the same time render their pollination more precisely. The huge diversity of realised forms indicate the high selection

  6. Dead Slow: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Loitering in Battlespace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned (or Uninhabited) Aerial Vehicles are a key part of the American military's so-called revolution in military affairs (RMA) as practiced over Iraq. They are also part of the drive to shift agency away from humans and toward machines. This article considers the ways in which humans have, in calling on high technologies to distance them from…

  7. It's time to flower: the genetic control of flowering time.

    PubMed

    Putterill, Jo; Laurie, Rebecca; Macknight, Richard

    2004-04-01

    In plants, successful sexual reproduction and the ensuing development of seeds and fruits depend on flowering at the right time. This involves coordinating flowering with the appropriate season and with the developmental history of the plant. Genetic and molecular analysis in the small cruciform weed, Arabidopsis, has revealed distinct but linked pathways that are responsible for detecting the major seasonal cues of day length and cold temperature, as well as other local environmental and internal signals. The balance of signals from these pathways is integrated by a common set of genes to determine when flowering occurs. Excitingly, it has been discovered that many of these same genes regulate flowering in other plants, such as rice. This review focuses on recent advances in how three of the signalling pathways (the day-length, vernalisation and autonomous pathways) function to control flowering.

  8. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  9. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  10. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of

  11. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  12. Chloroplast retrograde signal regulates flowering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Peiqiang; Guo, Hailong; Chi, Wei; Chai, Xin; Sun, Xuwu; Xu, Xiumei; Ma, Jinfang; Rochaix, Jean-David; Leister, Dario; Wang, Haiyang; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Light is a major environmental factor regulating flowering time, thus ensuring reproductive success of higher plants. In contrast to our detailed understanding of light quality and photoperiod mechanisms involved, the molecular basis underlying high light-promoted flowering remains elusive. Here we show that, in Arabidopsis, a chloroplast-derived signal is critical for high light-regulated flowering mediated by the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). We also demonstrate that PTM, a PHD transcription factor involved in chloroplast retrograde signaling, perceives such a signal and mediates transcriptional repression of FLC through recruitment of FVE, a component of the histone deacetylase complex. Thus, our data suggest that chloroplasts function as essential sensors of high light to regulate flowering and adaptive responses by triggering nuclear transcriptional changes at the chromatin level. PMID:27601637

  13. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  14. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  15. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Southall, Brandon L; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7 degrees, 3.6 degrees, and 4.2 degrees for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  16. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  17. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  18. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary M.; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; O'Neil, Patrick D.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.

    This document contains four papers on aeronautics education, research, and partnerships that partly supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). The paper "2002 AERIAL Monograph" (Brent D. Bowen, Jocelyn S. Nickerson, Mary M. Fink, et al.) presents an overview of research and development in the…

  19. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  20. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  1. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  2. Difference in defense strategy in flower heads and leaves of Asteraceae: multiple-species approach.

    PubMed

    Oguro, Michio; Sakai, Satoki

    2014-01-01

    Although a vast number of studies have investigated defenses against herbivores in leaves, relatively little is known about defenses in flowers. Using wild individuals of 34 species of Asteraceae, we investigated differences in five traits that are thought to affect the intensity of herbivory (C, N, P, water, and total phenolic contents). Combinations of these traits between flower heads and leaves were studied as well. We also evaluated phylogenetic patterns of flower head and leaf traits. Flower heads had higher P and lower total phenolics than leaves. Water and C contents were negatively correlated both in the flower heads and leaves. N, P, and water contents were positively correlated in the flower heads, whereas this pattern was not found in the leaves. Thus, the traits we measured were more tightly inter-correlated in flower heads than in leaves. Because the flower heads had a lower total phenolic content, the relative allocation of defensive compounds could not be explained solely by fitness values of the organs. Perhaps plants employ an escape strategy rather than a defense strategy to cope with floral herbivores and higher allocation in P may enhance their escape from herbivores by improving the growth rate of flower heads, though our result might be affected in part by the plasticity of plants growing at different sites. Moreover, we found weak phylogenetic signals in the defensive traits. Because we found significant differences in the flower head traits, these weak signals may imply that the traits we measured evolved frequently.

  3. Is 'peak N' key to understanding the timing of flowering in annual plants?

    PubMed

    Guilbaud, Camille S E; Dalchau, Neil; Purves, Drew W; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2015-01-01

    Flowering time in annual plants has large fitness consequences and has been the focus of theoretical and empirical study. Previous theory has concluded that flowering time has evolved over evolutionary time to maximize fitness over a particular season length. We introduce a new model where flowering is cued by a growth-rate rule (peak nitrogen (N)). Flowering is therefore sensitive to physiological parameters and to current environmental conditions, including N availability and the presence of competitors. The model predicts that, when overall conditions are suitable for flowering, plants should never flower after 'peak N', the point during development when the whole-plant N uptake rate reaches its maximum. Our model further predicts correlations between flowering time and vegetative growth rates, and that the response to increased N depends heavily on how this extra N is made available. We compare our predictions to observations in the literature. We suggest that annual plants may have evolved to use growth-rate rules as part of the cue for flowering, allowing them to smoothly and optimally adjust their flowering time to a wide range of local conditions. If so, there are widespread implications for the study of the molecular biology behind flowering pathways.

  4. High generalization in flower-visiting networks of social wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Marco A. R.; Santos, Gilberto Marcos de Mendonça; Mechi, Maria Rita; Hermes, Marcel G.

    2011-01-01

    Flower-visiting interactions, such as nectarivory and pollination, are considered to form networks with higher interaction specialization than other plant-animal facultative mutualisms. However, subsets within each network sometimes are different from the complete system. Social wasps are one subset within flower-visiting networks; they use nectar as a secondary food of adults. Some of the visited plants depend on wasps for pollination, and many are further benefited through predation of herbivores captured to feed wasp larvae. Therefore, mutual dependence is lower in the wasp subset compared to complete pollination networks, so we expected wasp-flower networks to exhibit more generalistic interactions. Quantitative datasets were built by recording wasp visits to flowers in six Brazilian localities in four ecoregions, and comparisons were made with complete pollination networks from the literature (with different taxa included). Nestedness (NODF = 0.39 ± 0.06) was similar in wasp-flower and complete pollination networks (NODF = 0.32 ± 0.18). Interaction specialization in wasp-flower networks was lower (median H2' = 0.31 ± 0.09) than in complete pollination networks (median H2' = 0.55 ± 0.17). Modularity in wasp-flower networks (M = 0.36 ± 0.05) was also lower than in complete pollination networks (M = 0.47 ± 0.09); there were on average 5 ± 1 modules on each network formed by species of different genera. In summary, our findings confirm that wasps that feed on nectar interact with similar subsets of plants; therefore, wasp-flower networks are more generalistic than other pollination networks. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that, despite some universal properties found in facultative mutualisms, parts of a system differ from the complete system. Furthermore, mutual dependence influences interaction specialization, and so it is an important structuring factor of mutualistic networks.

  5. Seeing History: Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" Painting and Pan-African Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Maureen G.

    2010-01-01

    Malaika Favorite's "Furious Flower Poetry Quilt" (2004) is an acrylic painting that depicts 24 portraits of leading poets of the African Diaspora. Commissioned by Dr Joanne Gabbin, English professor and director of the Furious Flower Poetry Center at James Madison University, the painting is part of a larger programme of poetry…

  6. Teaching Flower Structure & Floral Formulae--A Mix of the Real & Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    The study of flower structure is essential in plant identification and in understanding sexual reproduction in plants, pollination syndromes, plant breeding, and fruit structure. Thus, study of flower structure and construction of floral formulae are standard parts of first-year university botany and biology courses. These activities involve…

  7. Indexing Flower Patent Images using Domain Knowledge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    approach is illustrated by using it to provide a solution to the problem of indexing images of flowers for searching a flower patents database by color...The flower region is isolated from the background by using an automatic iterative segmentation algorithm with domain knowledge driven feedback. The...color of the flower is defined by the color names present in the flower region and their relative proportions. The database can be queried by example

  8. Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses agricultural pesticide application equipment. The three sections of the publication are Power Sprayers, Power Dusters, and Aerial Equipment. In the section discussing power sprayers, subtopics include hydraulic sprayers, component parts, multi-purpose farm…

  9. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  10. Spirit Has Flower Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image with its hazard-avoidance camera on sol 86 (March 31, 2004), after the rover's rock abrasion tool had brushed for three minutes on each of six locations on the rock named 'Mazatzal' to create a flower-shaped mosaic.

    The goal for this operation was to create a brushed area big enough for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to capture within one of its pixels, which are 11 centimeters (4.3 inches) in diameter at the distance between the rock and the instrument. Because the rock abrasion tool creates individual brushed areas only about 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter, the team designed this six-location series of tool placements in order to brush 92 percent to 95 percent of the spectrometer's pixel size.

    This operation was only the second time the rock abrasion tool has created a brushing mosaic. The first time was a three-spot brushing on the rock called 'Humphrey.' The brush was originally designed to be used as an aide during full grinding operations, however it has been very effective in brushing the top layer off of dusty martian rocks to allow scientists a multi-depth look into the rocks on Mars.

  11. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6, blast measurements. Part 3. Pressure near ground level. Section 4. Blast asymmetry from aerial photographs. Section 5. Ball-crusher-gauge measurements of peak pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    Aerial motion pictures from manned aircraft were taken of the Dog, Easy, and George Shots and from a drone aircraft on Dog Shot to determine whether asymmetries in the blast waves could be detected and measured. Only one film, that taken of Dog Shot from a drone, was considered good enough to warrant detailed analysis, but this failed to yield any positive information on asymmetries. The analysis showed that failure to obtain good arrival-time data arose from a number of cases, but primarily from uncertainities in magnification and timing. Results could only be matched with reliable data from blast-velocity switches by use of large corrections. Asymnetries, if present, were judged to have been too small or to have occurred too early to be detected with the slow-frame speed used. Recommendations for better results include locating the aircraft directly overhead at the time of burst and using a camera having greater frame speed and provided with timing marks.

  12. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, J.-B.; Dulac, F.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Vignelles, D.; Jégou, F.; Tonnelier, T.; Thaury, C.; Jeannot, M.; Couté, B.; Akiki, R.; Verdier, N.; Mallet, M.; Gensdarmes, F.; Charpentier, P.; Mesmin, S.; Duverger, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Elias, T.; Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Giacomoni, J.; Gobbi, M.; Hamonou, E.; Olafsson, H.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Mazel, C.; Décamps, T.; Piringer, M.; Surcin, J.; Daugeron, D.

    2015-09-01

    In the companion paper (Renard et al., 2015), we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60° that allows some topology identification of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 μm depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overpass those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 μm in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC's light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Vienna (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  13. Understanding the unique flowering sequence in Dipsacus fullonum: Evidence from geometrical changes during head development

    PubMed Central

    Naghiloo, Somayeh; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2017-01-01

    The genus Dipsacus is characterized by a remarkable bidirectional flowering sequence and a rare phyllotactic pattern. Considering that flower initiation and flowering sequence may be interconnected, we document the development of the head meristem in Dipsacus fullonum. Our results indicate a gradual change in the geometry of the head meristem beginning with a dome shaped stage, continuing with a remarkable widening in the middle part of the head meristem and ending in a spindle-like form. Quantitative data confirm that meristem expansion is higher in the middle part than at the base of the meristem. Likewise, the size of the flower primordia in the middle part of the young head is significantly larger than at the base soon after initiation. We conclude that the change in the geometry of the meristem and the availability of newly generated space result in the promotion of the middle flowers and the bidirectional flowering sequence at anthesis. Our investigation on phyllotactic patterns reveals a high tendency (30%) of the head meristem to insert or lose parastichies. This finding can also be attributed to changes in the expansion rate of the meristem. Dependent on the spatio-temporal relation between meristem expansion and primordia initiation, either flower primordia are promoted or additional parastichies appear. Our results emphasize the important role of geometry in flower development and phyllotactic pattern formation. PMID:28328952

  14. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  15. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  16. Genetic Architecture of Flowering-Time Variation in Brachypodium distachyon1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bednarek, Ryland; Garvin, David F.

    2017-01-01

    The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a nondomesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was used to develop SNP markers for genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control differences in flowering time were identified. Many of the flowering-time QTLs are detected across a range of photoperiod and vernalization conditions, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering within this population is robust. The two major QTLs identified in undomesticated B. distachyon colocalize with VERNALIZATION1/PHYTOCHROME C and VERNALIZATION2, loci identified as flowering regulators in the domesticated crops wheat and barley. This suggests that variation in flowering time is controlled in part by a set of genes broadly conserved within pooid grasses. PMID:27742753

  17. Flower diversity and angiosperm diversification.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    The flower itself, which comprises most of the evolutionary innovations of flowering plants, bears special significance for understanding the origin and diversification of angiosperms. The sudden origin of angiosperms in the fossil record poses unanswered questions on both the origins of flowering plants and their rapid spread and diversification. Central to these questions is the role that the flower, and floral diversity, played. Recent clarifications of angiosperm phylogeny provide the foundation for investigating evolutionary transitions in floral features and the underlying genetic mechanisms of stasis and change. The general features of floral diversity can best be addressed by considering key patterns of variation: an undifferentiated versus a differentiated perianth; elaboration of perianth organs in size and color; merosity of the flower; and phyllotaxy of floral organs. Various models of gene expression now explain the regulation of floral organization and floral organ identity; the best understood are the ABC(E) model and its modifications, but other gene systems are important in specific clades and require further study. Furthermore, the propensity for gene and genome duplications in angiosperms provides abundant raw material for novel floral features--emphasizing the importance of understanding the conservation and diversification of gene lineages and functions in studies of macroevolution.

  18. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH, OF BUILDING 371 BASEMENT UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE BASEMENT HOUSES HEATING, VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT AND MECHANICAL UTILITIES, THE UPPER PART OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT AND MAINTENANCE BAY, AND SMALL PLUTONIUM PROCESSING AREAS. THE BASEMENT LEVEL IS DIVIDED INTO NEARLY EQUAL NORTH AND SOUTH PARTS BY THE UPPER PORTION OF THE PLUTONIUM STORAGE VAULT. (10/7/74) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. The Antioxidants Changes in Ornamental Flowers during Development and Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of antioxidant compounds is constitutive and variable from species to species and is also variable considering the development of the plant tissue. In this review, we take into consideration the antioxidant changes and the physiological, biochemical and molecular factors that are able to modulate the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in ornamental flowers during the whole development process until the senescence. Many ornamental flowers are natural sources of very important bioactive compounds with benefit to the human health and their possible role as dietary components has been reported. The most part of antioxidants are flower pigments such as carotenoids and polyphenols, often present in higher concentration compared with the most common fruits and vegetables. The antioxidants content changes during development and during senescence many biochemical systems and molecular mechanisms are activated to counteract the increase of reactive oxygen species and free radicals. There is a tight correlation between antioxidants and senescence processes and this aspect is detailed and appropriately discussed. PMID:26784342

  20. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  1. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  2. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  3. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-10-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years.

  4. FLOBOTS: ROBOTIC FLOWERS FOR BEE BEHAVIOUR EXPERIMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Essenberg, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of pollinator foraging behaviour often require artificial flowers that can refill themselves, allowing pollinators to forage for long periods of time under experimental conditions. Here I describe a design for inexpensive flowers that can refill themselves upon demand and that are easy enough to set up and clean that they can be used in arrays of 30 or more flowers. I also summarize of a variety of artificial flower designs developed by other researchers. PMID:25722755

  5. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  6. Spectral indices for yellow canola flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive growth, such as flowers, may contribute to a canopy-level signal yet there are not currently any indices that measure variation in flowering. This study was conducted to determine how flowers influence the overall canopy signal and what bands of light may be useful for estimating varia...

  7. Insect-Flower Interaction Network Structure Is Resilient to a Temporary Pulse of Floral Resources from Invasive Rhododendron ponticum

    PubMed Central

    Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Stout, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive alien plants can compete with native plants for resources, and may ultimately decrease native plant diversity and/or abundance in invaded sites. This could have consequences for native mutualistic interactions, such as pollination. Although invasive plants often become highly connected in plant-pollinator interaction networks, in temperate climates they usually only flower for part of the season. Unless sufficient alternative plants flower outside this period, whole-season floral resources may be reduced by invasion. We hypothesized that the cessation of flowering of a dominant invasive plant would lead to dramatic, seasonal compositional changes in plant-pollinator communities, and subsequent changes in network structure. We investigated variation in floral resources, flower-visiting insect communities, and interaction networks during and after the flowering of invasive Rhododendron ponticum in four invaded Irish woodland sites. Floral resources decreased significantly after R. ponticum flowering, but the magnitude of the decrease varied among sites. Neither insect abundance nor richness varied between the two periods (during and after R. ponticum flowering), yet insect community composition was distinct, mostly due to a significant reduction in Bombus abundance after flowering. During flowering R. ponticum was frequently visited by Bombus; after flowering, these highly mobile pollinators presumably left to find alternative floral resources. Despite compositional changes, however, network structural properties remained stable after R. ponticum flowering ceased: generality increased, but quantitative connectance, interaction evenness, vulnerability, H’2 and network size did not change. This is likely because after R. ponticum flowering, two to three alternative plant species became prominent in networks and insects increased their diet breadth, as indicated by the increase in network-level generality. We conclude that network structure is robust to

  8. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  9. Pyrethrum flowers and pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Casida, J E

    1980-01-01

    The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins. PMID:6993201

  10. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.700 Section 334.700 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.700 Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Aerial gunnery range in west part of Choctawhatchee...

  11. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.700 Section 334.700 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.700 Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Aerial gunnery range in west part of Choctawhatchee...

  12. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.700 Section 334.700 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.700 Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Aerial gunnery range in west part of Choctawhatchee...

  13. MISSING FLOWERS gene controls axillary meristems initiation in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, Marco; Cionini, Giuliano; Bertini, Daniele; Michelotti, Vania; Conti, Alessio; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2003-05-01

    The initiation and growth of axillary meristems are fundamental components of plant architecture. Here, we describe the mutant missing flowers (mf) of Helianthus annuus characterized by the lack of axillary shoots. Decapitation experiments and histological analysis indicate that this phenotype is the result of a defect in axillary meristem initiation. In addition to shoot branching, mutation affects floral differentiation. The indeterminate inflorescence of sunflower (capitulum) is formed of a large flat meristem which produces floret primordia in multiple spirals. In wildtype plants a bisecting crease divides each primordium in two distinct bumps that adopt different fate. The peripheral (abaxial) part of the primordium becomes a small leaf-like bract and the adaxial part becomes a flower. In the mf mutant, the formation of flowers at the axil of bracts is precluded. Histological analyses show that in floret primordia of the mutant a clear subdivision in dyads is not established. The primordia progressively bend inside and only large involucral floral bracts are developed. The results suggest that the MISSING FLOWERS gene is essential to provide or perceive an appropriate signal to the initiation of axillary meristems during both vegetative and reproductive phases.

  14. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  15. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  16. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  18. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  19. 20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PLANT WAS COMPOSED OF FOUR WIDELY SEPARATED AREAS, EACH ONE PERFORMING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORK. PLANT A (44), SOUTHWEST, FABRICATED PARTS FROM DEPLETED URANIUM, PLANT B (81), SOUTH, WAS ENRICHED URANIUM OPERATIONS, PLANT C (71), NORTH, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS, AND PLANT D (91), EAST, WAS FINAL ASSEMBLY, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING (2/6/66). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. LOFT complex, aerial view taken on same on same day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT complex, aerial view taken on same on same day as HAER photo ID-33-E-376. Camera facing south. Note curve of rail track toward hot shop (TAN-607). Earth shielding on control building (TAN-630) is partly removed, showing edge of concrete structure. Great southern butte on horizon. Date: 1975. INEEL negative no. 75-3693 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Pistillate flowers experience more pollen limitation and less geitonogamy than perfect flowers in a gynomonoecious herb.

    PubMed

    Mamut, Jannathan; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Tan, Dun-Yan; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gynomonoecy, a sexual system in which plants have both pistillate (female) flowers and perfect (hermaphroditic) flowers, occurs in at least 15 families, but the differential reproductive strategies of the two flower morphs within one individual remain unclear. Racemes of Eremurus anisopterus (Xanthorrhoeaceae) have basal pistillate and distal perfect flowers. To compare sex allocation and reproductive success between the two flower morphs, we measured floral traits, pollinator preferences, and pollen movement in the field. Pollen limitation was more severe in pistillate flowers; bee pollinators preferred to visit perfect flowers, which were also capable of partial self-fertilization. Pollen-staining experiments indicated that perfect flowers received a higher proportion of intra-plant pollen (geitonogamy) than pistillate flowers. Plants with greater numbers of pistillate flowers received more outcross pollen. The differential reproductive success conformed with differential floral sex allocation, in which pistillate flowers produce fewer but larger ovules, resulting in outcrossed seeds. Our flower manipulations in these nectarless gynomonoecious plants demonstrated that perfect flowers promote seed quantity in that they are more attractive to pollinators, while pistillate flowers compensate for the loss of male function through better seed quality. These results are consistent with the outcrossing-benefit hypothesis for gynomonoecy.

  2. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  3. Flower development: from morphodynamics to morphomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a small population of stem cells that continuously generates organs and tissues. We will discuss here flower formation at the SAM, which involves a complex network of regulatory genes and signalling molecules. A major downstream target of this network is the extracellular matrix or cell wall, which is a local determinant for both growth rates and growth directions. We will discuss here a number of recent studies aimed at analysing the link between cell wall structure and molecular regulation. This has involved multidisciplinary approaches including quantitative imaging, molecular genetics, computational biology and biophysics. A scenario emerges where molecular networks impact on both cell wall anisotropy and synthesis, thus causing the rapid outgrowth of organs at specific locations. More specifically, this involves two interdependent processes: the activation of wall remodelling enzymes and changes in microtubule dynamics. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Systems morphodynamics: understanding the development of tissue hardware’. PMID:28348258

  4. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  5. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-02-02

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  7. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  8. A functional role for the colleters of coffee flowers

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Juliana Lischka Sampaio; Carmello-Guerreiro, Sandra Maria; Mazzafera, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Colleters are protuberances or trichomes that produce and release an exudate that overlays vegetative or reproductive buds. Colleters have a functional definition, as they are thought to protect young tissues against dehydration and pest attack. Decaffeinated coffee plants, named Decaffito®, have recently been obtained through chemical mutagenesis, and in addition to the absence of the alkaloid, the flowers of these plants open precociously. Decaffito mutants exhibit minimal production and secretion of the exudate by the colleters. We compared these mutants with normal coffee plants to infer the functional role of colleters and the secreted exudate covering flower buds. Decaffito mutants were obtained by sodium azide mutagenesis of Coffea arabica cv. Catuaí seeds. Wild-type plants were used as controls and are referred to as Catuaí. The flower colleters were analysed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in addition to histochemical analysis. Histochemical analysis indicated the presence of heterogeneous exudate in the secretory cells of the colleters of both variants of coffee trees. Alkaloids were detected in Catuaí but not in Decaffito. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the secretory cells in the Catuaí colleters possessed the normal and common characteristics found in secretory structures. In the secretory cells of the Decaffito colleters, it was not possible to identify any organelles or even the nucleus, but the cells had a darkened central cytoplasm, indicating that the secretion is produced in low amounts but not released. Our results offer a proof of concept of colleters in coffee, strongly indicating that the exudate covering the flower parts works as an adhesive to keep the petals together and the flower closed, which in part helps to avoid dehydration. Additionally, the exudate itself helps to prevent water loss from the epidermal cells of the petals.

  9. From Flower to Honey Bouquet: Possible Markers for the Botanical Origin of Robinia Honey

    PubMed Central

    Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; Sacchi, Raffaele; De Micco, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Flowers are complex structures devoted to pollinator attraction, through visual as well as chemical signals. As bees collect nectar on flowers to produce honey, some aspects of floral chemistry are transferred to honey, making chemical markers an important technique to identify the botanical and geographical origins of honey. We applied a new approach that considers the simultaneous analysis of different floral parts (petals, stamens + pistils, calyxes + nectarines, and nectar) and the corresponding unifloral honey. We collected fresh flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust), selected five samples of Robinia honey from different geographical origins, applied SPME-GC/MS for volatile analyses, and defined the chemical contribution added by different floral parts to the honey final bouquet. Our results show that honey blends products from nectar as well as other flower parts. Comparing honey and flower profiles, we detected compounds coming directly from flower parts but not present in the nectar, such as hotrienol and β-pinene. These may turn out to be of special interest when selecting floral markers for the botanical origin of honey. PMID:25478595

  10. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  11. A preliminary study of CT imaging of water in a carnation flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, T. M.; Furukawa, J.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-11-01

    We present the trial to determine the water deletion part in a carnation flower tissue while drying by neutron computer tomography (CT). The flower part was fixed on a rotating disk and thermal neutrons were irradiated for 4 s per projection. The total neutron dose was 6.0×10 8 n/cm 2 per projection. The neutrons penetrating the sample were converted to photons by a fluorescence converter. The photon image was guided to a cooled CCD camera using two mirrors. The sample was rotated, stepwise, every 1°, up to 180°, i.e. 180 images were obtained for the CT construction. Horizontal CT images of several slices of the flower were taken before and after the drying treatment. Vertical CT images of the flower were also constructed based on horizontal CT images. It was found that the water around the ovule was selectively removed by the drying treatment.

  12. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  13. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, João Marcelo; Andreata, Regina Helena Potsch; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon); while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns occur in nodes and

  14. Flower size and longevity influence florivory in the large-flowered shrub Cistus ladanifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixido, Alberto L.; Méndez, Marcos; Valladares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    Plants with larger and longer-lived flowers receive more pollinator visits and increase reproductive success, though may also suffer more from antagonistic interactions with animals. Florivores can reduce fruit and seed production, so selection on flower size, floral longevity and/or number of flowers may thus be determined by the relative effects of both pollinators and florivores. In this study flowers of Cistus ladanifer, a large-flowered Mediterranean shrub, were monitored to evaluate the effects of flower size, floral longevity and number of flowers on levels of florivory in four populations. Number of flowers was variable but did not differ among populations. Both flower size and floral longevity of C. ladanifer showed broad variation and significantly differed among populations. Overall, 7% of flowers suffered attack by florivores, which were mainly ants picking the stamens and beetles consuming petals and pollen. Within-populations, larger and longer-lived flowers tended to be affected by florivores more frequently. The low overall incidence of florivores and its lack of between-population variation suggest that florivory may not influence intraspecific variation of these floral traits. However, moderate florivory levels on the largest and longest-lived flowers open the possibility of exerting selection towards smaller and shorter-lived flowers in some of the populations studied.

  15. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  16. Male flowers are better fathers than hermaphroditic flowers in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Can; Galloway, Laura F

    2012-02-01

    • The diversity of plant breeding systems provides the opportunity to study a range of potential reproductive adaptations. Many mechanisms remain poorly understood, among them the evolution and maintenance of male flowers in andromonoecy. Here, we studied the role of morphologically male flowers ('male morph') in andromonoecious Passiflora incarnata. • We measured morphological differences between hermaphroditic and male morph flowers in P. incarnata and explored the fruiting and siring ability of both flower types. • Male morph flowers in P. incarnata were of similar size to hermaphroditic flowers, and there was little evidence of different resource allocation to the two flower types. Male morph flowers were less capable of producing fruit, even under ample pollen and resource conditions. By contrast, male morph flowers were more successful in siring seeds. On average, male morph flowers sired twice as many seeds as hermaphroditic flowers. This difference in male fitness was driven by higher pollen export from male morph flowers as a result of greater pollen production and less self-pollen deposition. • The production of male morph flowers in P. incarnata appears to be a flexible adaptive mechanism to enhance male fitness, which might be especially beneficial when plants face temporary resource shortages for nurturing additional fruits.

  17. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  18. Wavelet Analysis of Near-Inertial Currents at the East Flower Garden Bank

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-11

    at the East Flower Garden Bank (EFGB), part of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. The EFGB, one of several submerged coral reefs, is... coral reefs, is located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, about 190 km southeast of Galveston, Texas. The bank is about 6 km wide in the east–west... coral reef in the Gulf of Mexico, are located near the edge of the Texas–Louisiana continental shelf in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico (see http

  19. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  20. My favourite flowering image: Maryland Mammoth tobacco.

    PubMed

    Amasino, Richard M

    2013-12-01

    Almost 100 years ago, the study of Maryland Mammoth tobacco by Garner and Allard was one in a long series of studies that have led to a better understanding of how plants "decide" when to flower. deciphering how plants "decide" when to flower. The extreme phenotype of Maryland Mammoth tobacco, in which a single recessive mutation changes a day-neutral to a strictly photoperiod-requiring plant, impressively illustrates the action of the photoperiodic pathway of flowering.

  1. Geometric Calibration and Validation of Ultracam Aerial Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Michael; Schachinger, Bernhard; Muick, Marc; Neuner, Christian; Tschemmernegg, Helfried

    2016-03-01

    We present details of the calibration and validation procedure of UltraCam Aerial Camera systems. Results from the laboratory calibration and from validation flights are presented for both, the large format nadir cameras and the oblique cameras as well. Thus in this contribution we show results from the UltraCam Eagle and the UltraCam Falcon, both nadir mapping cameras, and the UltraCam Osprey, our oblique camera system. This sensor offers a mapping grade nadir component together with the four oblique camera heads. The geometric processing after the flight mission is being covered by the UltraMap software product. Thus we present details about the workflow as well. The first part consists of the initial post-processing which combines image information as well as camera parameters derived from the laboratory calibration. The second part, the traditional automated aerial triangulation (AAT) is the step from single images to blocks and enables an additional optimization process. We also present some special features of our software, which are designed to better support the operator to analyze large blocks of aerial images and to judge the quality of the photogrammetric set-up.

  2. [Pathways of flowering regulation in plants].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng

    2015-11-01

    Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants.

  3. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  4. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  9. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  10. High effectiveness of tailored flower strips in reducing pests and crop plant damage

    PubMed Central

    Tschumi, Matthias; Albrecht, Matthias; Entling, Martin H.; Jacot, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Providing key resources to animals may enhance both their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. We examined the performance of annual flower strips targeted at the promotion of natural pest control in winter wheat. Flower strips were experimentally sown along 10 winter wheat fields across a gradient of landscape complexity (i.e. proportion non-crop area within 750 m around focal fields) and compared with 15 fields with wheat control strips. We found strong reductions in cereal leaf beetle (CLB) density (larvae: 40%; adults of the second generation: 53%) and plant damage caused by CLB (61%) in fields with flower strips compared with control fields. Natural enemies of CLB were strongly increased in flower strips and in part also in adjacent wheat fields. Flower strip effects on natural enemies, pests and crop damage were largely independent of landscape complexity (8–75% non-crop area). Our study demonstrates a high effectiveness of annual flower strips in promoting pest control, reducing CLB pest levels below the economic threshold. Hence, the studied flower strip offers a viable alternative to insecticides. This highlights the high potential of tailored agri-environment schemes to contribute to ecological intensification and may encourage more farmers to adopt such schemes. PMID:26311668

  11. High effectiveness of tailored flower strips in reducing pests and crop plant damage.

    PubMed

    Tschumi, Matthias; Albrecht, Matthias; Entling, Martin H; Jacot, Katja

    2015-09-07

    Providing key resources to animals may enhance both their biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide. We examined the performance of annual flower strips targeted at the promotion of natural pest control in winter wheat. Flower strips were experimentally sown along 10 winter wheat fields across a gradient of landscape complexity (i.e. proportion non-crop area within 750 m around focal fields) and compared with 15 fields with wheat control strips. We found strong reductions in cereal leaf beetle(CLB) density (larvae: 40%; adults of the second generation: 53%) and plant damage caused by CLB (61%) in fields with flower strips compared with control fields. Natural enemies of CLB were strongly increased in flower strips and in part also in adjacent wheat fields. Flower strip effects on natural enemies, pests and crop damage were largely independent of landscape complexity(8-75% non-crop area). Our study demonstrates a high effectiveness of annual flower strips in promoting pest control, reducing CLB pest levels below the economic threshold. Hence, the studied flower strip offers a viable alternative to insecticides. This highlights the high potential of tailored agri-environment schemes to contribute to ecological intensification and may encourage more farmers to adopt such schemes.

  12. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  13. The J-Domain Protein J3 Mediates the Integration of Flowering Signals in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lisha; Kang, Yin Ga Germain; Liu, Lu; Yu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The timing of the switch from vegetative to reproductive development in Arabidopsis thaliana is controlled by an intricate network of flowering pathways, which converge on the transcriptional regulation of two floral pathway integrators, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1). SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) acts as a key flowering regulator that represses the expression of FT and SOC1. Here, we report the identification of another potent flowering promoter, Arabidopsis DNAJ HOMOLOG 3 (J3), which mediates the integration of flowering signals through its interaction with SVP. J3 encodes a type I J-domain protein and is ubiquitously expressed in various plant tissues. J3 expression is regulated by multiple flowering pathways. Loss of function of J3 results in a significant late-flowering phenotype, which is partly due to decreased expression of SOC1 and FT. We further show that J3 interacts directly with SVP in the nucleus and prevents in vivo SVP binding to SOC1 and FT regulatory sequences. Our results suggest a flowering mechanism by which J3 integrates flowering signals from several genetic pathways and acts as a transcriptional regulator to upregulate SOC1 and FT through directly attenuating SVP binding to their regulatory sequences during the floral transition. PMID:21343416

  14. Frost flowers growing in the Arctic ocean-atmosphere-sea ice-snow interface: 1. Chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Domine, Florent; Barret, Manuel; Anastasio, Cort; Beine, Harry J.; Bottenheim, Jan; Grannas, Amanda; Houdier, Stephan; Netcheva, Stoyka; Rowland, Glenn; Staebler, Ralf; Steffen, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Frost flowers, intricate featherlike crystals that grow on refreezing sea ice leads, have been implicated in lower atmospheric chemical reactions. Few studies have presented chemical composition information for frost flowers over time and many of the chemical species commonly associated with Polar tropospheric reactions have never been reported for frost flowers. We undertook this study on the sea ice north of Barrow, Alaska to quantify the major ion, stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope, alkalinity, light absorbance by soluble species, organochlorine, and aldehyde composition of seawater, brine, and frost flowers. For many of these chemical species we present the first measurements from brine or frost flowers. Results show that major ion and alkalinity concentrations, stable isotope values, and major chromophore (NO3- and H2O2) concentrations are controlled by fractionation from seawater and brine. The presence of these chemical species in present and future sea ice scenarios is somewhat predictable. However, aldehydes, organochlorine compounds, light absorbing species, and mercury (part 2 of this research and Sherman et al. (2012)) are deposited to frost flowers through less predictable processes that probably involve the atmosphere as a source. The present and future concentrations of these constituents in frost flowers may not be easily incorporated into future sea ice or lower atmospheric chemistry scenarios. Thinning of Arctic sea ice will likely present more open sea ice leads where young ice, brine, and frost flowers form. How these changing ice conditions will affect the interactions between ice, brine, frost flowers and the lower atmosphere is unknown.

  15. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea—which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow) in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain)—is locally adapted to the pollinator community. Methods We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Results Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum, B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens) consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris) consistently preferred the foreign morph. Discussion We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition. PMID:28194308

  16. Flowering time in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) along a latitudinal cline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Henk Van; Boudry, Pierre; McCombre, Helen; Vernet, Philippe

    The wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, a perennial species from the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts) shows marked variation in flowering time in terms of both the year of first flowering and flowering date in a given year. Much of this variability is related to latitude. Beta vulgaris plants flower either in the same year as they germinate or in their second year. This is mainly due to differences in their requirement for vernalization, which is determined by a single gene B/b and by quantitative trait loci. The more southern the origin of the plants, the less vernalization is required. Also the B allele, which cancels vernalization requirement completely, has a high frequency in the Mediterranean region, but is completely absent in the northern part of the distribution of this species. We found that flowering date variation in relation to the latitude of origin is maintained under greenhouse conditions but does not follow a simple clinal relationship. From the Mediterranean northwards to the west coast of Brittany, flowering occurs progressively earlier, but from Brittany northwards to south-east England and The Netherlands it is progressively later. A possible explanation for this difference is that in the southern part of the range sensitivity to daylength and warmth control flowering time, whereas further north vernalization requirement is also a key factor. A substantial part of all differences in flowering time was heritable: heritability within populations was measured as 0.33 under greenhouse conditions. The high heritability implies evolutionary change may occur in this character.

  17. North Dakota ''Flower Power'' project

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.; Aakre, P.; Derry, J.

    1982-05-01

    Flower Power Inc. was set up to study the long term effects of blends of sunflower oil and diesel fuel on engine components. Tests to date have indicated that farm diesel tractors can be operated on blends of up to 50% sunflower oil and diesel fuel but that its continued use would appear to cause premature engine problems. While the results of the tests are encouraging, use of sunflower oil as a fuel is not yet recommended. Continued long term testing is needed to evaluate the performance of sunflower oil-diesel blends.

  18. Estimation of pyrethrum flower number using digital imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flower number is a major determinant of pyrethrin yield in pyrethrum [Tanacetum cineariifolium (Trefi.) Sch. Bip.] production. Traditional estimates of flower numbers utilize physical harvesting of flowers which is time consuming and destructive. Physical harvest is complicated by constraints such...

  19. Velocity of temperature and flowering time in wheat - assisting breeders to keep pace with climate change.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bangyou; Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C

    2016-02-01

    By accelerating crop development, warming climates may result in mismatches between key sensitive growth stages and extreme climate events, with severe consequences for crop yield and food security. Using recent estimates of gene responses to vernalization and photoperiod in wheat, we modelled the flowering times of all 'potential' genotypes as influenced by the velocity of climate change across the Australian wheatbelt. In the period 1957-2010, seasonal increases in temperature of 0.012 °C yr(-1) were recorded and changed flowering time of a mid-season wheat genotype by an average -0.074 day yr(-1) , with flowering 'velocity' of up to 0.95 km yr(-1) towards the coastal edges of the wheatbelt; this is an estimate of how quickly the given genotype would have to be 'moved' across the landscape to maintain its original flowering time. By 2030, these national changes are projected to accelerate by up to 3-fold for seasonal temperature and by up to 5-fold for flowering time between now and 2030, with average national shifts in flowering time of 0.33 and 0.41 day yr(-1) between baseline and the worst climate scenario tested for 2030 and 2050, respectively. Without new flowering alleles in commercial germplasm, the life cycle of wheat crops is predicted to shorten by 2 weeks by 2030 across the wheatbelt for the most pessimistic climate scenario. While current cultivars may be otherwise suitable for future conditions, they will flower earlier due to warmer temperatures. To allow earlier sowing to escape frost, heat and terminal drought, and to maintain current growing period of early-sown wheat crops in the future, breeders will need to develop and/or introduce new genetic sources for later flowering, more so in the eastern part of the wheatbelt.

  20. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (egg and central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca2+ is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes including mammals. PMID:26859271

  1. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals.

  2. Sexual dimorphism in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Hough, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Among dioecious flowering plants, females and males often differ in a range of morphological, physiological, and life-history traits. This is referred to as sexual dimorphism, and understanding why it occurs is a central question in evolutionary biology. Our review documents a range of sexually dimorphic traits in angiosperm species, discusses their ecological consequences, and details the genetic and evolutionary processes that drive divergence between female and male phenotypes. We consider why sexual dimorphism in plants is generally less well developed than in many animal groups, and also the importance of sexual and natural selection in contributing to differences between the sexes. Many sexually dimorphic characters, including both vegetative and flowering traits, are associated with differences in the costs of reproduction, which are usually greater in females, particularly in longer-lived species. These differences can influence the frequency and distribution of females and males across resource gradients and within heterogeneous environments, causing niche differences and the spatial segregation of the sexes. The interplay between sex-specific adaptation and the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations allows for the independent evolution of female and male traits, and this is influenced in some species by the presence of sex chromosomes. We conclude by providing suggestions for future work on sexual dimorphism in plants, including investigations of the ecological and genetic basis of intraspecific variation, and genetic mapping and expression studies aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of sexually dimorphic trait variation.

  3. Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth. (Myrtaceae) as a Source of 1,8-Cineole and Their Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sayonara Mendes; Abe, Simone Yae; Murakami, Fábio Seigi; Frensch, Gustavo; Marques, Francisco A.; Nakashima, Tomoe

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus cinerea, known as silver dollar tree, has few descriptions in traditional medicine. Chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits, collected seasonally, were determined by GC/MS and disk diffusion/MIC, respectively. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound, particularly in fresh leaves—Spring (74.98%), dried leaves—Spring (85.32%), flowers—Winter (78.76%) and fruits—Winter (80.97%). Other compounds were found in the aerial parts in all seasons: α-pinene (2.41% to 10.13%), limonene (1.46% to 4.43%), α-terpineol (1.73% to 11.72%), and α-terpinyl acetate (3.04% to 20.44%). The essential oils showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeasts, with the best results being found for the dried autumn and winter leaves oils (MIC < 0.39 mg/mL) against Streptococcus pyogenes. For the other tested microorganisms the following MIC results were found: Staphylococcus aureus— Dried leaves oil from summer (0.78 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oil from winter (1.56 mg/mL) and Candida albicans—Flowers oil from autumn and fruits oils from winter and spring (0.78 mg/mL). PMID:26791641

  4. Non-targeted analysis of spatial metabolite composition in strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) flowers.

    PubMed

    Hanhineva, Kati; Rogachev, Ilana; Kokko, Harri; Mintz-Oron, Shira; Venger, Ilya; Kärenlampi, Sirpa; Aharoni, Asaph

    2008-10-01

    Formation of flower organs and the subsequent pollination process require a coordinated spatial and temporal regulation of particular metabolic pathways. In this study a comparison has been made between the metabolite composition of individual flower organs of strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) including the petal, sepal, stamen, pistil and the receptacle that gives rise to the strawberry fruit. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of the semi-polar secondary metabolites by the use of UPLC-qTOF-MS was utilized in order to localize metabolites belonging to various chemical classes (e.g. ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, terpenoids, and spermidine derivatives) to the different flower organs. The vast majority of the tentatively identified metabolites were ellagitannins that accumulated in all five parts of the flower. Several metabolite classes were detected predominantly in certain flower organs, as for example spermidine derivatives were present uniquely in the stamen and pistil, and the proanthocyanidins were almost exclusively detected in the receptacle and sepals. The latter organ was also rich in terpenoids (i.e. triterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid derivatives) whereas phenolic acids and flavonols were the predominant classes of compounds detected in the petals. Furthermore, we observed extensive variation in the accumulation of metabolites from the same class in a single organ, particularly in the case of ellagitannins, and the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. These results allude to spatially-restricted production of secondary metabolite classes and specialized derivatives in flowers that take part in implementing the unique program of individual organs in the floral life cycle.

  5. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carla P.; Minow, Mark A. A.; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members. PMID:24904616

  6. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  7. Arabidopsis, the Rosetta stone of flowering time?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Gordon G; Dean, Caroline

    2002-04-12

    Multiple environmental and endogenous inputs regulate when plants flower. The molecular genetic dissection of flowering time control in Arabidopsis has identified an integrated network of pathways that quantitatively control the timing of this developmental switch. This framework provides the basis to understand the evolution of different reproductive strategies and how floral pathways interact through seasonal progression.

  8. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  9. Identification and characterization of flowering genes in kiwifruit: sequence conservation and role in kiwifruit flower development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flower development in kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is initiated in the first growing season, when undifferentiated primordia are established in latent shoot buds. These primordia can differentiate into flowers in the second growing season, after the winter dormancy period and upon accumulation of adequate winter chilling. Kiwifruit is an important horticultural crop, yet little is known about the molecular regulation of flower development. Results To study kiwifruit flower development, nine MADS-box genes were identified and functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment, phenotypes obtained upon overexpression in Arabidopsis and expression patterns suggest that the identified genes are required for floral meristem and floral organ specification. Their role during budbreak and flower development was studied. A spontaneous kiwifruit mutant was utilized to correlate the extended expression domains of these flowering genes with abnormal floral development. Conclusions This study provides a description of flower development in kiwifruit at the molecular level. It has identified markers for flower development, and candidates for manipulation of kiwifruit growth, phase change and time of flowering. The expression in normal and aberrant flowers provided a model for kiwifruit flower development. PMID:21521532

  10. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change.

  11. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-01-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, “why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?” This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment. PMID:25792777

  12. Blue metal complex pigments involved in blue flower color.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kosaku

    2006-05-01

    The blue pigment of cornflower, protocyanin, has been investigated for a long time, but its precise structure was not entirely explained until recently. The molecular structure of the pigment was recently shown to be a metal complex of six molecules each of anthocyanin and flavone glycoside, with one ferric iron, one magnesium and two calcium ions by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The studies provided the answer to the question posed in the early part of the last century, "why is the cornflower blue and rose red when both flowers contain the same anthocyanin?" This work was achieved on the basis of the results of long years of the studies made by many researchers. In this review, the author focuses on the investigations of the blue metal complex pigments involved in the bluing of flowers, commelinin from Commelina commusis, protocyanin from Centaurea cyanus, protodelphin from Salvia patens and hydrangea blue pigment.

  13. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  14. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  15. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  16. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  17. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  18. Petals' shape descriptor for blooming flowers recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wooi-Nee; Tan, Yi-Fei; Koo, Ah-Choo; Lim, Yan-Peng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a new descriptor to identify the petals' shape of a blooming flower based on the digital images captured in natural scene. The proposed descriptor can be used as one of features in computer aided flower recognition system beside the commonly used features such as number of petals and color. Experiments were conducted on the Malaysia flowers with same number of petals and with similar color across different species of flowers. 35 images from 7 species were used as the training set to set up the reference values of petals' shape descriptor and 7 new images were used as the testing set. The descriptor calculated from the testing set is then compared to the reference values from the training set to achieve the flowers recognition purpose. With the given set of data, complete success in full identification rate was obtained.

  19. Active anthocyanin degradation in Brunfelsia calycina (yesterday--today--tomorrow) flowers.

    PubMed

    Vaknin, Hila; Bar-Akiva, Ayelet; Ovadia, Rinat; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Forer, Izhak; Weiss, David; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2005-09-01

    Anthocyanins are the largest group of plant pigments responsible for colors ranging from red to violet and blue. The biosynthesis of anthocyanins, as part of the larger phenylpropanoid pathway, has been characterized in great detail. In contrast to the detailed molecular knowledge available on anthocyanin synthesis, very little is known about the stability and catabolism of anthocyanins in plants. In this study we present a preliminary characterization of active in planta degradation of anthocyanins, requiring novel mRNA and protein synthesis, in Brunfelsia calycina flowers. Brunfelsia is a unique system for this study, since the decrease in pigment concentration in its flowers (from dark purple to white) is extreme and rapid, and occurs at a specific and well-defined stage of flower development. Treatment of detached flowers with protein and mRNA synthesis inhibitors, at specific stages of flower development, prevented degradation. In addition, treatment of detached flowers with cytokinins delayed senescence without changing the rate of anthocyanin degradation, suggesting that degradation of anthocyanins is not part of the general senescence process of the flowers but rather a distinctive and specific pathway. Based on studies on anthocyanin degradation in wine and juices, peroxidases are reasonable candidates for the in vivo degradation. A significant increase in peroxidase activity was shown to correlate in time with the rate of anthocyanin degradation. An additional indication that oxidative enzymes are involved in the process is the fact that treatment of flowers with reducing agents, such as DTT and glutathione, caused inhibition of degradation. This study represents the first step in the elucidation of the molecular mechanism behind in vivo anthocyanin degradation in plants.

  20. Use of aerial photography to inventory aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to inventory submersed macrophytes in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes. For this purpose, we obtained aerial color transparencies and collateral ground truth information about submersed vegetation at 160 stations within four study sites in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, September 17 to October 4, 1984. Photographs were interpreted by five test subjects to determine with what accuracy they could detect beds of submersed macrophytes, and the precision of delineating the extent of such vegetation beds. The interpreters correctly determined the presence or absence of vegetation 80% of the time (range 73-86%). Differences between individuals were statistically significant. Determination of the presence or absence of macrophytes depended partly on their relative abundance and water clarity. Analysis of one photograph from each of the four study sites revealed that photointerpreters delineated between 35 and 75 ha of river bottom covered by vegetation. This wide range indicates that individuals should be tested to assess their relative capability and be trained before they are employed to delineate plant beds in large-scale inventories. Within limits, low-altitude aerial photography, combined with collateral ground truth information, can be used to determine the presence or absence and delineate the extent of submersed macrophytes in connecting channels of the Great Lakes.

  1. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  2. Cadastral Audit and Assessments Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, K.; Walker, G.; Stahlke, E.; Wilson, R.

    2011-09-01

    Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO) has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS) paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR) laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR). At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  3. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  4. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  6. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion.

  7. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism.

  8. Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns?

    PubMed

    Forrest, Jessica; Inouye, David W; Thomson, James D

    2010-02-01

    Climate change is expected to alter patterns of species co-occurrence, in both space and time. Species-specific shifts in reproductive phenology may alter the assemblages of plant species in flower at any given time during the growing season. Temporal overlap in the flowering periods (co-flowering) of animal-pollinated species may influence reproductive success if competitive or facilitative interactions between plant species affect pollinator services. We used a 33-year data set on flowering phenology in subalpine meadows in Colorado, USA, to determine whether interannual variation in snowmelt date, which marks the start of the growing season, affected co-flowering patterns. For two of four species considered, we found a significant relationship between snowmelt timing and composition of the assemblage of co-flowering plants. In years of early snowmelt, Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus (Fabaceae), the species we investigated in most detail, tended to overlap with earlier-flowering species and with fewer species overall. In particular, overlap with the flowering period of Lupinus polyphyllus var. prunophilus, with which Lathyrus leucanthus shares pollinators, was significantly reduced in early-snowmelt years. The observed association between timing of snowmelt and patterns of flowering overlap could not have been predicted simply by examining temporal trends in the dates of peak flowering of the dominant species in the community, as peak flowering dates have largely shifted in parallel with respect to snowmelt date. However, subtle interspecific differences in responsiveness of flowering time, duration, and intensity to interannual climate variation have likely contributed to the observed relationship. Although much of the year-to-year variation in flowering overlap remains unexplained by snowmelt date, our finding of a measurable signal of climate variation suggests that future climate change may lead to altered competitive environments for these wildflower

  9. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  10. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  11. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene.

  12. Photoperiodic flowering regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Golembeski, Greg S.; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A.; Song, Young Hun; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Photoperiod, or the duration of light in a given day, is a critical cue that flowering plants utilize to effectively assess seasonal information and coordinate their reproductive development in synchrony with the external environment. The use of the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that determine how plants process and utilize photoperiodic information to coordinate a flowering response. This mechanism is typified by the transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene by the transcription factor CONSTANS (CO) under inductive long-day conditions in Arabidopsis. FT protein then moves from the leaves to the shoot apex, where floral meristem development can be initiated. As a point of integration from a variety of environmental factors in the context of a larger system of regulatory pathways that affect flowering, the importance of photoreceptors and the circadian clock in CO regulation throughout the day has been a key feature of the photoperiodic flowering pathway. In addition to these established mechanisms, the recent discovery of a photosynthate derivative trehalose-6-phosphate as an activator of FT in leaves has interesting implications for the involvement of photosynthesis in the photoperiodic flowering response that were suggested from previous physiological experiments in flowering induction. PMID:25684830

  13. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  14. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Semenchuk, Philipp R; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J

    2013-08-01

    The High Arctic winter is expected to be altered through ongoing and future climate change. Winter precipitation and snow depth are projected to increase and melt out dates change accordingly. Also, snow cover and depth will play an important role in protecting plant canopy from increasingly more frequent extreme winter warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5 years, during which we experienced two extreme winter warming events. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. Cassiope tetragona responded strongly with fewer flowers in deep snow regimes during years without extreme events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas octopetala. However, the affected species were resilient and individuals did not experience any long term effects. In the case of short or cold summers, a subset of species suffered reduced reproductive success, which may affect future plant composition through possible cascading competition effects. Extreme winter warming events were shown to expose the canopy to cold winter air. The following summer most of the overwintering flower buds could not produce flowers. Thus reproductive success is reduced if this occurs in subsequent years. We conclude that snow depth influences flower abundance by altering season length and by protecting or exposing flower buds to cold winter air, but most species studied are resistant to changes. Winter warming events, often occurring

  15. Snow cover and extreme winter warming events control flower abundance of some, but not all species in high arctic Svalbard

    PubMed Central

    Semenchuk, Philipp R; Elberling, Bo; Cooper, Elisabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The High Arctic winter is expected to be altered through ongoing and future climate change. Winter precipitation and snow depth are projected to increase and melt out dates change accordingly. Also, snow cover and depth will play an important role in protecting plant canopy from increasingly more frequent extreme winter warming events. Flower production of many Arctic plants is dependent on melt out timing, since season length determines resource availability for flower preformation. We erected snow fences to increase snow depth and shorten growing season, and counted flowers of six species over 5 years, during which we experienced two extreme winter warming events. Most species were resistant to snow cover increase, but two species reduced flower abundance due to shortened growing seasons. Cassiope tetragona responded strongly with fewer flowers in deep snow regimes during years without extreme events, while Stellaria crassipes responded partly. Snow pack thickness determined whether winter warming events had an effect on flower abundance of some species. Warming events clearly reduced flower abundance in shallow but not in deep snow regimes of Cassiope tetragona, but only marginally for Dryas octopetala. However, the affected species were resilient and individuals did not experience any long term effects. In the case of short or cold summers, a subset of species suffered reduced reproductive success, which may affect future plant composition through possible cascading competition effects. Extreme winter warming events were shown to expose the canopy to cold winter air. The following summer most of the overwintering flower buds could not produce flowers. Thus reproductive success is reduced if this occurs in subsequent years. We conclude that snow depth influences flower abundance by altering season length and by protecting or exposing flower buds to cold winter air, but most species studied are resistant to changes. Winter warming events, often

  16. A regulatory network for coordinated flower maturation.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Paul H; Ellis, Christine M; Ploense, Sara E; Wu, Miin-Feng; Yadav, Vandana; Tholl, Dorothea; Chételat, Aurore; Haupt, Ina; Kennerley, Brian J; Hodgens, Charles; Farmer, Edward E; Nagpal, Punita; Reed, Jason W

    2012-02-01

    For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn triggers expression of MYB21 and MYB24, encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors that promote petal and stamen growth. To understand the dynamics of this flower maturation regulatory network, we have characterized morphological, chemical, and global gene expression phenotypes of arf, myb, and jasmonate pathway mutant flowers. We found that MYB21 and MYB24 promoted not only petal and stamen development but also gynoecium growth. As well as regulating reproductive competence, both the ARF and MYB factors promoted nectary development or function and volatile sesquiterpene production, which may attract insect pollinators and/or repel pathogens. Mutants lacking jasmonate synthesis or response had decreased MYB21 expression and stamen and petal growth at the stage when flowers normally open, but had increased MYB21 expression in petals of older flowers, resulting in renewed and persistent petal expansion at later stages. Both auxin response and jasmonate synthesis promoted positive feedbacks that may ensure rapid petal and stamen growth as flowers open. MYB21 also fed back negatively on expression of jasmonate biosynthesis pathway genes to decrease flower jasmonate level, which correlated with termination of growth after flowers have opened. These dynamic feedbacks may promote timely, coordinated, and transient growth of flower organs.

  17. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  18. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  19. Parallel evolution at multiple levels in the origin of hummingbird pollinated flowers in Ipomoea.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, David L; Rausher, Mark D

    2010-07-01

    A transition in flower color accompanying a shift in pollinator guilds is a prominent and repeated adaptation in angiosperms. In many cases, shifts to similar pollinators are associated with similar flower-color transitions. The extent to which this parallelism at the phenotypic level results from parallel changes at the biochemical, developmental, and genetic levels, however, remains an open question. There have been few attempts to determine whether parallelism at these lower levels results from mutation bias or fixation bias of different classes of mutation. We address these issues by examining the biochemical, developmental, and genetic changes that have occurred in red-flowering species of the Mina lineage of morning glories (Ipomoea) and compare these to the changes reported for I. horsfalliae, which has independently evolved red flowers. Using transgenic techniques, we demonstrate that the transition from blue to red flowers in Mina species is due primarily to down-regulation of the enzyme flavonol-3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) in flowers but not in vegetative tissues, and that this down-regulation is at least partly due to cis-regulatory change in the gene for F3'H. These changes are similar to those exhibited by I. horsfalliae, indicating parallelism at the biochemical and developmental levels, and possibly at the genetic level.

  20. The potential production of aromatic compounds in flowers of Vanda tricolor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmasiwi, Sari; Indriani, Vitri; Innata, Dita; Semiarti, Endang

    2015-09-01

    Vanda tricolor is a famous natural orchid that has beautiful flowers with fragrance, therefore analysis of aromatic compounds of this orchid are important. The objective of this research was to isolate and identify the aromatic compounds of Vanda tricolor flower. The flower petals were picked at various developmental stages (0,4,7, and 10 days of flower opened) at 12.00 noon. It was then extracted using solvent extraction method and enfleurage method. The hexane:acetone (9:1) extract was considered as concrete extract, while some parts of concrete that were further extracted with ethanol, considered as absolute extract. The olive oil extract was considered as enfleurage extract. Those extracts were then evaporated using nitrogen gas, and analyzed by GC/MS (GC/MS-QP 2010S Shimadzu, Agilent HP-5 MS UI column, 30 m ID length: 0.25 mm, Helium gas carrier). The results showed that aromatic compounds composition in Vanda tricolor flower extracts were consisted of fatty acid derivates, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, benzenoids, phenylpropanoids, hydrocarbons and other oxygenated compounds. The highest diversity of aromatic compounds were found at the 10th days after floral opened, and the sensory test among those 3 (three) extracts showed that the absolute extract had more similarity with the original flower scent profile rather than the other extracts. This research showed that Vanda tricolor has potential production of aromatic compounds which was different compare to another species of Vanda.

  1. Structural Characterization of Ginsenosides from Flower Buds of Panax ginseng by RRLC-Q-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Lu, Ziyan; Teng, Yaran; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-02-01

    Ginseng flower bud as a part of Panax ginseng has received much attention as a valuable functional food with medicinal potential. A few studies focused on systematic and comprehensive studies on its major ingredients. This study aims to rapidly characterize ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds and provide scientific basis for developing functional food, exploiting pharmaceutical effects and making full use of ginseng resources. A rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in ginseng flower buds. The compounds were identified by comparing retention time of the reference standards, accurate mass measurement and the fragment ions obtained from RRLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. A total of 14 kinds of ginsenosides were identified and 5 kinds of malonyl-ginsenosides were first tentatively identified in ginseng flower buds. Ten kinds of main ginsenosides were quantitatively analyzed. The developed RRLC-Q-TOF-MS method was demonstrated as an effective analytical means for rapid characterization of the ginsenosides in flower buds of P. ginseng. The research result is valuable for quality control, assessment of authenticity and stability evaluation of ginseng flower buds.

  2. Bidirectional flower color and shape changes allow a second opportunity for pollination.

    PubMed

    Willmer, Pat; Stanley, Dara A; Steijven, Karin; Matthews, Iain M; Nuttman, Clive V

    2009-06-09

    Flowers act as "sensory billboards" with multiple signals (color, morphology, odor) attracting and manipulating potential pollinators. Many use changing signals as indicators that visitation and/or pollination have occurred). Floral color change is commonly used to transmit this information (often correlated with reduced nectar reward) and can be specifically triggered by pollination or visitation. By retaining color-changed flowers, plants benefit from larger floral displays but also indicate at close range which flowers are still rewarding (and still unpollinated), so that visitors forage more efficiently. However, the legume Desmodium setigerum shows a unique ability, if inadequately pollinated, to reverse its flowers' color and shape changes. Single visits by bees mechanically depress the keel and expose stigma and anthers (termed "tripping"); visits also initiate a rapid color change from lilac to white and turquoise and a slower morphological change, the upper petal folding downwards over the reproductive parts. But flowers receiving insufficient pollen can partially reopen, re-exposing the stigma, with a further color change to deeper turquoise and/or lilac. Thus, most flowers achieve pollination from one bee visit, but those with inadequate pollen receipt can reverse their signals, earning a "second chance" by eliciting attention from other potential pollinators.

  3. Aerial view of the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This aerial view, looking north, shows the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. Located about 2 miles north of the Vehicle Assembly Building on the Kennedy Parkway, it is near the current Banana Creek VIP Shuttle launch viewing site. The 100,000-square-foot attraction includes a refurbished 363- foot-long Apollo-era Saturn V rocket that had been displayed previously near the VAB. Inside, the center includes artifacts and historical displays, plus two film theaters.

  4. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  5. Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE HIGHLINE PUMPING PLANT SITE ON THE WESTERN CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. THE OLD PLANT IS ON THE RIGHT BANK, NEAREST THE CANAL. THE NEW PLANT IS ON THE LEFT BANK AT THE END OF THE INLET CANAL. THE KYRENE DITCH RUNS OUT OF THE BOTTOM OF THE PICTURE, AND PART OF THE SWITCHYARD FOR THE KYRENE STEAM PLANT IS VISIBLE AT LOWER RIGHT. c. 1955 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Visibility vs. biomass in flowers: exploring corolla allocation in Mediterranean entomophilous plants

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims While pollinators may in general select for large, morphologically uniform floral phenotypes, drought stress has been proposed as a destabilizing force that may favour small flowers and/or promote floral variation within species. Methods The general validity of this concept was checked by surveying a taxonomically diverse array of 38 insect-pollinated Mediterranean species. The interplay between fresh biomass investment, linear size and percentage corolla allocation was studied. Allometric relationships between traits were investigated by reduced major-axis regression, and qualitative correlates of floral variation explored using general linear-model MANOVA. Key Results Across species, flowers were perfectly isometrical with regard to corolla allocation (i.e. larger flowers were just scaled-up versions of smaller ones and vice versa). In contrast, linear size and biomass varied allometrically (i.e. there were shape variations, in addition to variations in size). Most floral variables correlated positively and significantly across species, except corolla allocation, which was largely determined by family membership and floral symmetry. On average, species with bilateral flowers allocated more to the corolla than those with radial flowers. Plant life-form was immaterial to all of the studied traits. Flower linear size variation was in general low among conspecifics (coefficients of variation around 10 %), whereas biomass was in general less uniform (e.g. 200–400 mg in Cistus salvifolius). Significant among-population differences were detected for all major quantitative floral traits. Conclusions Flower miniaturization can allow an improved use of reproductive resources under prevailingly stressful conditions. The hypothesis that flower size reflects a compromise between pollinator attraction, water requirements and allometric constraints among floral parts is discussed. PMID:19258340

  8. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes.

    PubMed

    Ni, Weimin; Xie, Daoxin; Hobbie, Lawrence; Feng, Baomin; Zhao, Dazhong; Akkara, Joseph; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    SCF complexes are the largest and best studied family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that facilitate the ubiquitylation of proteins targeted for degradation. The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development. In Arabidopsis, mutations in the F-box gene UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) result in a number of defects in flower development. However, functions of the core components Cul1 and Rbx1 in flower development are poorly understood. In this study we analyzed floral phenotypes caused by altering function of Cul1 or Rbx1, as well as the effects of mutations in ASK1 and ASK2. Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls. Similarly, plants with reduced AtRbx1 expression due to RNA interference also exhibited floral morphological defects. In addition, compared to the ask1 mutant, plants homozygous for ask1 and heterozygous for ask2 displayed enhanced reduction of B function, as well as other novel defects of flower development, including carpelloid sepals and an inhibition of petal development. Genetic analyses demonstrate that AGAMOUS (AG) is required for the novel phenotypes observed in the first and second whorls. Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes. These results suggest that SCF complexes regulate several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis.

  9. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  10. [Passion Flower (Passiflora incarnata L.)--a reliable herbal sedative].

    PubMed

    Krenn, Liselotte

    2002-01-01

    Extracts and fluid extracts from the aerial parts from Passiflora incarnata L. are widely used as components of herbal sedatives. Many pharmacological investigations confirm the sedative effects of Passiflorae herba. From some of the studies also anxiolytic effects can be deduced. As Passionflower is mainly used in combinations, clinical studies of the single drug are not available. Based on pharmacological data, the experiences of traditional use and the use in combinations Passiflora extracts are an important factor in the phytotherapy of tenseness, restlessness and irritability with difficulty in falling asleep.

  11. Civilian Morale under Aerial Bombardment 1914-1939. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-12-01

    But in the day the sirena would shriek, whether one was eating or washing or cleaning the house. Then one would have to gather together the small...closed their doors before the impossibility of conducting classes which might suffer fatal interruption at any hour. The sirena , the grind of engines...in the air, the dash for shelter, the explosions, and the sirena again 176 became an abnormal, over-rapid rhythm of life for the ill-employed

  12. Civilian Morale under Aerial Bombardment 1914-1939. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-12-01

    terminals, shipping, or munitions plants were legitimate targets and that it was unfor- tunate that the falling bombs had missed the edges of the... plant managers that on the morrow of a raid not more than ten percent of the outside workers would be in their places at their usual time and that...du Maroc et 1«affaire du Sahgo," Revue de 1’Armee de l’Air. VI, Oct 1934. 3Haldane, og. cit., pp 42-44. "It is important to real- ize when we

  13. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.

  14. Endothermy by flowers of Rhizanthes lowii (Rafflesiaceae).

    PubMed

    Patiño, S; Grace, J; Bänziger, H

    2000-08-01

    Rhizanthes lowii (Beccari) Harms (Rafflesia- ceae) is a parasitic plant that grows in the understory of the rainforest in South-East Asia. This plant does not have leaves, stems, or photosynthetic tissue and is characterised by the emission of a strong odour that attracts the natural pollinators, carrion flies. Flowers that volatilise odorous compounds and attract carrion flies, beetles and other insects are often thermogenic. Here we present evidence of both thermogenesis and thermoregulation in R. lowii from microclimate and tissue temperatures measured during different stages of flower development in R. lowii, in natural conditions in Brunei, Borneo. Endothermy was detected in young and mature buds as well as in blooming flowers and even in decaying tissues 3 or more days after blooming. Tissue temperatures were maintained at 7-9 K above air temperature, in both female and male flowers, at all stages of floral development.

  15. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .].

  16. Utilization of Local Law Enforcement Aerial Resources in Consequence Management (CM) Response

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr T.; Malchow, Russell L.

    2013-03-12

    During the past decade the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was instrumental in enhancing the nation’s ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack in the highest risk cities. Under the DHS Securing the Cities initiative, nearly 13,000 personnel in the New York City region have been trained in preventive radiological and nuclear detection operations, and nearly 8,500 pieces of radiological detection equipment have been funded. As part of the preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) mission, several cities have received funding to purchase commercial aerial radiation detection systems. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Aerial Measuring System (AMS) program started providing Mobile Aerial Radiological Surveillance (MARS) training to such assets, resulting in over 150 HAZMAT teams’ officers and pilots from 10 law enforcement organizations and fire departments being trained in the aerial radiation detection. From the beginning, the MARS training course covered both the PRND and consequence management (CM) missions. Even if the law enforcement main focus is PRND, their aerial assets can be utilized in the collection of initial radiation data for post-event radiological CM response. Based on over 50 years of AMS operational experience and information collected during MARS training, this presentation will focus on the concepts of CM response using aerial assets as well as utilizing law enforcement/fire department aerial assets in CM. Also discussed will be the need for establishing closer relationships between local jurisdictions’ aerial radiation detection capabilities and state and local radiation control program directors, radiological health department managers, etc. During radiological events these individuals may become primary experts/advisers to Incident Commanders for radiological emergency response, especially in the early stages of a response. The knowledge of the existence

  17. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  19. Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;…

  20. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  1. The Sky Is the Limit: Reconstructing Physical Geography from an Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard D.; Tooth, Stephen; Gibson, Morgan

    2017-01-01

    In an era of rapid geographical data acquisition, interpretations of remote sensing products are an integral part of many undergraduate geography degree schemes but there are fewer opportunities for collection and processing of primary remote sensing data. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide a relatively inexpensive opportunity to introduce…

  2. The effect of adjuvants at high spray pressures for aerial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling droplet size is a critical part of making any successful agrochemical spray application. This is particularly true for higher speed aerial applications where secondary atomization from air shear becomes the most dominate factor driving spray droplet size. Previous research has shown th...

  3. South Carolina Maps and Aerial Photographic Systems (SC Maps) Teaching Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Peggy W.; And Others

    South Carolina has mountain chains, monadnocks, rolling hills, varying drainage patterns, rivers, a delta, barrier islands, rocks over a billion years old and land that was once part of another continent. This document contains a set of curriculum activities that have been developed from a diverse collection of aerial photographic, satellite,…

  4. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  5. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    PubMed

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors.

  6. Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

  7. Sex determination in flowering plants.

    PubMed Central

    Dellaporta, S L; Calderon-Urrea, A

    1993-01-01

    In many ways, plants offer unique systems through which to study sex determination. Because the production of unisexual flowers has evolved independently in many plant species, different and novel mechanisms may be operational. Hence, there is probably not one unifying mechanism that explains sex determination in plants. Advances in our understanding of sex determination will come from the analysis of the genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry of genes controlling sexual determination in plants. Several excellent model systems for bisexual floral development (Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum), monoecy (maize), and dioecy (Silene, asparagus, and mercury) are available for such analyses. The important questions that remain concern the mechanism of action of sex determination genes and their interrelationship, if any, with homeotic genes that determine the sexual identity of floral organ primordia. At the physiological level, the connection between hormone signaling and sexuality is not well understood, although significant correlations have been discovered. Finally, once the genes that regulate these processes are identified, cloned, and studied, new strategies for the manipulation of sexuality in plants should be forthcoming. PMID:8281039

  8. Ring Beholds a Delicate Flower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope finds a delicate flower in the Ring Nebula, as shown in this image. The outer shell of this planetary nebula looks surprisingly similar to the delicate petals of a camellia blossom. A planetary nebula is a shell of material ejected from a dying star. Located about 2,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra, the Ring Nebula is also known as Messier Object 57 and NGC 6720. It is one of the best examples of a planetary nebula and a favorite target of amateur astronomers.

    The 'ring' is a thick cylinder of glowing gas and dust around the doomed star. As the star begins to run out of fuel, its core becomes smaller and hotter, boiling off its outer layers. The telescope's infrared array camera detected this material expelled from the withering star. Previous images of the Ring Nebula taken by visible-light telescopes usually showed just the inner glowing loop of gas around the star. The outer regions are especially prominent in this new image because Spitzer sees the infrared light from hydrogen molecules. The molecules emit infrared light because they have absorbed ultraviolet radiation from the star or have been heated by the wind from the star.

    Download the QuickTime movie for the animated version of this Ring Nebula image.

  9. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  10. A Laboratory Study of the Effect of Frost Flowers on C Band Radar Backscatter from Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Martin, S.; Perovich, D. K.; Kwok, R.; Drucker, R.; Gow, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    C band images of Arctic sea ice taken by the ERS 1 synthetic aperture radar show transitory regions of enhanced radar backscatter from young sea ice. Published field observations associate this increase with frost flower growth and the capture of blowing snow by the flowers. To investigate the first part of this phenomenon, we carried out a laboratory experiment on the response of C band radar backscatter to frost flowers growing on the surface of newly formed saline ice. The experiment took place in a 5 m by 7 m by 1.2 m deep saline water pool located in a two-story indoor refrigerated facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Sodium chloride ice was grown in this pool at an air temperature of -28 C. The frost flowers first appeared on the ice surface as dendrites and then changed to needles as the ice sheet grew thicker and the surface temperatures became colder. The frost flowers reached to a height of 10-15 mm, and beneath each cluster of frost flowers a slush layer formed to a thickness of approximately 4 mm. Far-field radar measurements of the backscatter from the ice were made at incident angles from 20 to 40 deg and at approximately 6-hour intervals throughout the 3-day period of the experiment. A backscatter minimum occurred early in the flower growth at the time coincident with an abrupt doubling in the ice surface salinity. Once the full flower coverage was achieved, we removed first the crystal flowers and then the slush layer from the ice surface. The results for these cases show that the crystals have little impact on the backscatter, while the underlying slush patches yield a backscatter increase of 3-5 dB over that of bare ice. The laboratory results suggest that this relative backscatter increase of approximately 5 dB can be used as an index to mark the full area coverage of frost flowers.

  11. Analysis of biogenic volatile organic compounds in zucchini flowers: identification of scent sources.

    PubMed

    Mena Granero, A; Egea Gonzalez, F J; Guerra Sanz, J M; Martínez Vidal, J L

    2005-10-01

    An analytical method has been applied to determine volatile organic compounds in zucchini flowers. In a first step, the analytical method was applied to characterize the main scents emitted by whole male and female living flowers of three main commercial cultivars of zucchini (Tosca, Chapin, and Consul). In a second step, the compounds were quantified in different parts of the living flowers to identify the contribution of nectar, petals, anther, and stigma to the aroma profile of the flower. The analytical method is based on headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled on-line with GC and tandem MS detection (HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS). A reference compound is added to samples as part of the field quality control procedure to check for likely analyte losses or sample decomposition. The reference compound also acts as an internal standard for quantification purposes. Results have been statistically studied applying principal component analysis (PCA), which shows that three components explain more than 91% of the variance. PCA emphasizes the great importance of nectar as being the main source of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene and 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, which influence the aroma profile of flowers. The remaining components can be accounted for by emissions from petals and sexual organs (adroecium and gynoecium anthers or stigmas).

  12. Strawberry homologue of terminal flower1 integrates photoperiod and temperature signals to inhibit flowering.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Marja; Kurokura, Takeshi; Jiang, Panpan; Mouhu, Katriina; Hytönen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Photoperiod and temperature are major environmental signals affecting flowering in plants. Although molecular pathways mediating these signals have been well characterized in the annual model plant Arabidopsis, much less information is known in perennials. Many perennials including the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) are induced to flower in response to decreasing photoperiod and temperature in autumn and they flower following spring. We showed earlier that, in contrast with Arabidopsis, the photoperiodic induction of flowering in strawberry occurs in short days (SD) when the decrease in FvFT1 (flowering locus T) and FvSOC1 (suppressor of the overexpression of constans1) expression leads to lower mRNA levels of the floral repressor, FvTFL1 (terminal flower1). By using transgenic lines and gene expression analyses, we show evidence that the temperature-mediated changes in the FvTFL1 mRNA expression set critical temperature limits for the photoperiodic flowering in strawberry. At temperatures below 13 °C, low expression level of FvTFL1 in both SD and long days (LD) allows flower induction to occur independently of the photoperiod. Rising temperature gradually increases FvTFL1 mRNA levels under LD, and at temperatures above 13 °C, SD is required for the flower induction that depends on the deactivation of FvSOC1 and FvTFL1. However, an unknown transcriptional activator, which functions independently of FvSOC1, enhances the expression of FvTFL1 at 23 °C preventing photoperiodic flowering. We suggest that the observed effect of the photoperiod × temperature interaction on FvTFL1 mRNA expression may allow strawberry to induce flowers in correct time in different climates.

  13. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  14. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  15. Identification and extraction of the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation using digital aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Melanie; Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, A.; Duffy, M.; Wright, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    This report is created as part of the Aerial Data Collection and Creation of Products for Park Vital Signs Monitoring within the Northeast Region Coastal and Barrier Network project, which is a joint project between the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program (NPS-IM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Observational Sciences Branch, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies (CCWS). This report is one of a series that discusses methods for extracting topographic features from aerial survey data. It details step-by-step methods used to extract a spatially referenced digital line from aerial photography that represents the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation along the coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS). One component of the NPS-IM/USGS/NASA project includes the collection of NASA aerial surveys over various NPS barrier islands and coastal parks throughout the National Park Service's Northeast Region. These aerial surveys consist of collecting optical remote sensing data from a variety of sensors, including the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), and down-looking digital mapping cameras.

  16. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S; Purugganan, Michael D; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-03-30

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci.

  17. A latitudinal cline in flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana modulated by the flowering time gene FRIGIDA

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcombe, John R.; Weinig, Cynthia; Ungerer, Mark; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Mays, Charlotte; Halldorsdottir, Solveig S.; Purugganan, Michael D.; Schmitt, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    A latitudinal cline in flowering time in accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana has been widely predicted because the environmental cues that promote flowering vary systematically with latitude, but evidence for such clines has been lacking. Here, we report evidence of a significant latitudinal cline in flowering time among 70 Northern European and Mediterranean ecotypes when grown under ecologically realistic conditions in a common garden environment. The detected cline, however, is found only in ecotypes with alleles of the flowering time gene FRIGIDA (FRI) that lack major deletions that would disrupt protein function, whereas there is no relationship between flowering time and latitude of origin among accessions with FRI alleles containing such deletions. Analysis of climatological data suggests that late flowering in accessions with putatively functional FRI was associated with reduced January precipitation at the site of origin, consistent with previous reports of a positive genetic correlation between water use efficiency and flowering time in Arabidopsis, and the pleiotropic effects of FRI of increasing water use efficiency. In accessions collected from Southern latitudes, we detected that putatively functional FRI alleles were associated with accelerated flowering relative to accessions with nonfunctional FRI under the winter conditions of our experiment. These results suggest that the ecological function of the vernalization requirement conferred by FRI differs across latitudes. More generally, our results indicate that by combining ecological and molecular genetic data, it is possible to understand the forces acting on life history transitions at the level of specific loci. PMID:15070783

  18. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties.

  19. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

  20. Flower Volatiles, Crop Varieties and Bee Responses

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Björn K.; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  1. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  2. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  3. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  4. Flower power: Tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  5. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    PubMed

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  6. Analysis Of Provided Service Quality In Flowers And Living Plants Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliaková, Adela

    2015-06-01

    This paper analyses quality of the living flowers and plants transportation. A part of this paper compares the demands for a particular transport mode and a practical demonstration of these transport modes within a specific transport mode. The paper presents a survey of quality of services provided by individual transport modes.

  7. An Introduction to the Sexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants. Ornamental Horticulture I, Lesson Plan No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideoka, Keith

    Developed as part of a 90-hour high school course in ornamental horticulture, this 50-minute lesson plan is designed to explain the process of pollination and fertilization of flowering plants. The lesson plan begins with information on the course for which the lesson was designed; equipment and audio-visual aids needed; required student…

  8. Root microbiota dynamics of perennial Arabis alpina are dependent on soil residence time but independent of flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Nina; Schlaeppi, Klaus; Agler, Matthew T; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kemen, Eric; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Wunder, Jörg; Coupland, George; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent field and laboratory experiments with perennial Boechera stricta and annual Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that the root microbiota influences flowering time. Here we examined in long-term time-course experiments the bacterial root microbiota of the arctic-alpine perennial Arabis alpina in natural and controlled environments by 16S rRNA gene profiling. We identified soil type and residence time of plants in soil as major determinants explaining up to 15% of root microbiota variation, whereas environmental conditions and host genotype explain maximally 11% of variation. When grown in the same soil, the root microbiota composition of perennial A. alpina is largely similar to those of its annual relatives A. thaliana and Cardamine hirsuta. Non-flowering wild-type A. alpina and flowering pep1 mutant plants assemble an essentially indistinguishable root microbiota, thereby uncoupling flowering time from plant residence time-dependent microbiota changes. This reveals the robustness of the root microbiota against the onset and perpetual flowering of A. alpina. Together with previous studies, this implies a model in which parts of the root microbiota modulate flowering time, whereas, after microbiota acquisition during vegetative growth, the established root-associated bacterial assemblage is structurally robust to perturbations caused by flowering and drastic changes in plant stature. PMID:27482927

  9. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  10. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  11. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  12. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  13. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  14. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  15. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  16. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  17. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  18. The Evaluation of Antibacterial, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Mindium Laevigatum (Vent.) Rech. F., From Central Part of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Modaressi, Masoud; Shahsavari, Roia; Ahmadi, Farhad; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Abiri, Ramin; Mikaeli, Ali; Batoli, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Mindium laevigatum (Vent.) Rech. F. plant grows in central part of Iran. And used by local people as medical plant. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of aerial and flower parts of plant. Materials and Methods The leaves and stem and flower of bark from M. laevigatum were separately collected, air-dried and powdered. Then the plant species extracts were prepared with methanol, water 80:20 and two polar and non-polar subfractions were realized. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by scavenging the radicals 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), β-Carotene linoleic acid assay and reducing power methods. The antifungal and antibacterial evaluation was performed by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. Results The total phenolic analysis of subfractions found 182 ± 4.2 µg.gr-1 for polar and 158 ± 3.9 µg.gr-1 for non-polar extracts. The antifungal activity of the extracts against the various fungal varied from 14.0 to 34 mm. MIC values from 50 to 400 µg.mL-1 were satisfactory when compared with other plant products. The antibacterial results revealed that the subfraction extracts are mostly effective against Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant results showed polar subfraction has more activity against non-polar subfraction. Conclusion These findings demonstrated that the extract of Mindium laevigatum has remarkable in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activity. PMID:24624184

  19. [Determination of nano-silver spatiotemporal distribution in cut gerbera flowers by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Lü, Pei-Tao; Huang, Xin-Min; Lu, Yi-Min; Liu, Ji-Ping; Zhang, Zhao-Qi; He, Sheng-Gen

    2011-08-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of nano-silver in cut gerbera (Gerbera hybrida cv. Crossfire) flowers were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry technique (ICP-AES). The relative standard deviations of this method were between 0.14% and 2.89%, and the recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged from 93.33% to 106.67%. The method was proved to be simple, rapid, reliable and highly sensitive, which can meet the demands of actual sample analysis. The experimental results also showed that Ag could be found in the basal stem end, upper stem end and petal of the cut gerbera flowers treated in nano-silver solution of 5 mg x L(-1) for 24 h and thereafter placed in distilled water. However, the Ag content in basal stem ends was much higher than those in upper stem ends and petals. The results indicated that nano-silver particles could enter into the flower stems through the cuts of stem ends and then moved to different parts of the cut gerbera flowers, but most of them located in the basal stem ends during the vase period. The fact that Ag was centred in basal stem end implied that the positive preservation effects of nano-silver on cut gerbera flowers is related to its strong and sustainable antiseptic action in the stem ends of cut flowers. The above results provide a reliable method for the determination of nano-silver and theoretical basis for its futher research and application in the preservation of cut flowers.

  20. Why sexually deceptive orchids have colored flowers

    PubMed Central

    Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F

    2010-01-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids provide no reward to their pollinators. Instead, they mimic the sex pheromone of receptive insect females to attract males which pollinate the flowers in mating attempts. Nearly all species of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys are sexually deceptive and pollinated by solitary bees and wasps. Due to the use of a highly specific olfactory communication channel most Ophrys species have, in contrast to food deceptive or rewarding orchids, an inconspicuous greenish perianth and a dark brownish labellum. However, some species possess a bright pink or white perianth, and the functional significant of such color signals in the orchid-pollinator communication system is unknown. We recently showed that the pink perianth of Ophrys heldreichii increases the performance of its bee pollinator, males of the long-horned bee Eucera (Tetralonia) berlandi, to detect the flower at short-range. At great distances (>30 cm) from the flower, male search behavior was found to be olfactory guided and unaffected by the spectral property of the perianth, i.e., chromatic and green receptor-specific contrast. However, in the near vicinity of the flower (<30 cm), where spatial vision is sufficient to detect the flower, search time only correlated with the green receptor-specific contrast between the perianth and the background. PMID:20585505

  1. Why sexually deceptive orchids have colored flowers.

    PubMed

    Spaethe, Johannes; Streinzer, Martin; Paulus, Hannes F

    2010-03-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids provide no reward to their pollinators. Instead, they mimic the sex pheromone of receptive insect females to attract males which pollinate the flowers in mating attempts. Nearly all species of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys are sexually deceptive and pollinated by solitary bees and wasps. Due to the use of a highly specific olfactory communication channel most Ophrys species have, in contrast to food deceptive or rewarding orchids, an inconspicuous greenish perianth and a dark brownish labellum. However, some species possess a bright pink or white perianth, and the functional significant of such color signals in the orchid-pollinator communication system is unknown. We recently showed that the pink perianth of Ophrys heldreichii increases the performance of its bee pollinator, males of the long-horned bee Eucera (Tetralonia) berlandi, to detect the flower at short-range. At great distances (>30 cm) from the flower, male search behavior was found to be olfactory guided and unaffected by the spectral property of the perianth, i.e., chromatic and green receptor-specific contrast. However, in the near vicinity of the flower (<30 cm), where spatial vision is sufficient to detect the flower, search time only correlated with the green receptor-specific contrast between the perianth and the background.

  2. Late-Flowering Species are Sensitive to Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, D. L.; VanderWeide, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    Phenological advancement is one of the most prevalent responses of vegetation to warming. The prevailing view is that that early flowering species are particularly sensitive warming, with greater phenological advancement per °C warming relative to later flowering species. However, we observed a three to four month advancement of late flowering species to the extreme warmth of 2012, which motivated us to ask quantitatively whether late flowering species are indeed less sensitive to warming. We focused on responses to inter-annual variation in mean monthly, seasonal, and annual temperatures, using species for which we have ≥10 observations of first flowering near Manhattan, KS between 1891 and 2012 (n = 259). As many other studies have found, early flowering species advanced flowering with warmer temperatures during the year preceding flowering, while late flowering species appeared insensitive to warming during the year preceding flowering. At the seasonal time scale, however, both early and late flowering species responded similarly to spring warming, while late flowering species delayed flowering in response to summer warmth. This divergent response created the illusion that later flowering species were insensitive to temperatures during the year preceding flowering. When absolute values of sensitivities to temperature were summed across months, late flowering species exhibited greater sensitivity to temperature than early flowering species. Late-flowering species were also the most sensitive to variation in precipitation and advanced flowering when summers were wet. We therefore speculate that flowering for late species is delayed by warm, dry summers because both warmth and dryness exacerbate plant water stress and delay growth. Furthermore, warm spring temperatures might allow both early and late flowering species to more quickly attain size or developmental requirements for flowering. Advanced flowering in 2012 provides an extreme example of some typically

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles DOD’s Acquisition Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Hunter System Is Not Appropriate for Navy Fleet Use (GAO/NSIAD-96-2, Dec. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Maneuver...System Schedule Includes Unnecessary Risk (GAO/NSIAD-95-161, Sept. 15, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : No More Hunter Systems...Should Be Bought Until Problems are Fixed (GAO/NSIAD-95-52, Mar. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Performance of Short-Range System in Question

  4. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  5. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  6. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  7. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  8. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  9. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  10. Multifunctional aerial display through use of polarization-processing display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Keitaro; Ito, Shusei; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We have realized a multifunctional aerial display. An aerial image of a polarization-processing display is formed through aerial imaging by retro-reflection. By changing the polarization modulation patterns, we can switch between a three-layered display and a secure display.

  11. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  12. Cretaceous flowers of Nymphaeaceae and implications for complex insect entrapment pollination mechanisms in early angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Gandolfo, M A; Nixon, K C; Crepet, W L

    2004-05-25

    Based on recent molecular systematics studies, the water lily lineage (Nymphaeales) provides an important key to understanding ancestral angiosperm morphology and is of considerable interest in the context of angiosperm origins. Therefore, the fossil record of Nymphaeales potentially provides evidence on both the timing and nature of diversification of one of the earliest clades of flowering plants. Recent fossil evidence of Turonian age (approximately 90 million years B.P.) includes fossil flowers with characters that, upon rigorous analysis, firmly place them within Nymphaeaceae. Unequivocally the oldest floral record of the Nymphaeales, these fossils are closely related to the modern Nymphaealean genera Victoria (the giant Amazon water lily) and Euryale. Although the fossils are much smaller than their modern relatives, the precise and dramatic correspondence between the fossil floral morphology and that of modern Victoria flowers suggests that beetle entrapment pollination was present in the earliest part of the Late Cretaceous.

  13. The COP9 signalosome interacts with SCF UFO and participates in Arabidopsis flower development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiping; Feng, Suhua; Nakayama, Naomi; Crosby, W L; Irish, Vivian; Deng, Xing Wang; Wei, Ning

    2003-05-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is involved in multiple developmental processes. It interacts with SCF ubiquitin ligases and deconjugates Nedd8/Rub1 from cullins (deneddylation). CSN is highly expressed in Arabidopsis floral tissues. To investigate the role of CSN in flower development, we examined the expression pattern of CSN in developing flowers. We report here that two csn1 partially deficient Arabidopsis strains exhibit aberrant development of floral organs, decline of APETALA3 (AP3) expression, and low fertility in addition to defects in shoot and inflorescence meristems. We show that UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) forms a SCF(UFO) complex, which is associated with CSN in vivo. Genetic interaction analysis indicates that CSN is necessary for the gain-of-function activity of the F-box protein UFO in AP3 activation and in floral organ transformation. Compared with the previously reported csn5 antisense and csn1 null mutants, partial deficiency of CSN1 causes a reduction in the level of CUL1 in the mutant flowers without an obvious defect in CUL1 deneddylation. We conclude that CSN is an essential regulator of Arabidopsis flower development and suggest that CSN regulates Arabidopsis flower development in part by modulating SCF(UFO)-mediated AP3 activation.

  14. Comparison of volatile compounds with characteristic odor in flowers and leaves of nojigiku (Chrysanthemum japonense).

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Ono, Toshirou; Marumoto, Shinsuke; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the essential oils isolated from flower and leaf in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their aroma-active composition. The essential oil obtained from the two parts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography olfactometry (GC-O). Flower and leaf oils, 38 and 36 constituents, representing 96.4 and 91.0% of the total oil composition, respectively, were identified. The main compounds in flower oil were camphor (47.64%), bornyl acetate (11.87%), and nojigiku alcohol (6.29%), whereas those in leaf oil were camphor (39.14%), nojigiku alcohol (10.76%) and γ-muurolene (7.02%). 13 Aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O analysis in flower oil and 12 in leaf oil. The main aroma-active compounds in flower oil were camphor (camphor, FD (flavor dilution) = 7, OAV (odor active value) = 136913), bornyl acetate (camphor, FD = 6, OAV = 113711), and β-caryophyllene (spicy, FD = 5, OAV = 116480). In leaf oil, the main aroma-active compounds were camphor (camphor, FD = 7, OAV = 106784), nojigiku alcohol (camphor, FD = 5, OAV = not determined), and β-caryophyllene (spicy, FD = 6, OAV = 526267).

  15. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization. PMID:27561446

  16. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  17. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-08-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization.

  18. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

  19. Pollinator coupling can induce synchronized flowering in different plant species.

    PubMed

    Tachiki, Yuuya; Iwasa, Yoh; Satake, Akiko

    2010-11-21

    Synchronous and intermittent plant reproduction has been identified widely in diverse biomes. While synchronous flowering is normally observed within the same species, different species also flower in synchrony. A well-known example of interspecific synchrony is "general flowering" in tropical rain forests of Southeast Asia. Environmental factors, such as low temperature and drought, have been considered as major trigger of general flowering. However, environmental cues are not enough to explain general flowering because some trees do not flower even when they encounter favorable environmental cues. We propose alternative explanation of general flowering; "pollinator coupling". When species flower synchronously, the elevated pollen and nectar resource may attract increased numbers of generalist pollinators, with a concomitant enhancement of pollination success (facilitation). However, under these circumstances, plants of different species may compete with one another for limited pollinator services, resulting in declines in pollination success for individual species (competition). Here, we present a model describing resource dynamics of individual trees serviced by generalist pollinators. We analyze combinations of conditions under which plants reproduce intermittently with synchronization within species, and/or (sometimes) between different species. We show that plants synchronize flowering when the number of pollinators attracted to an area increases at an accelerating rate with increasing numbers of flowers. In this case, facilitation of flowering by different species exceeds the negative influence of interspecific plant competition. We demonstrate mathematically that co-flowering of different species occurs under a much narrower range of circumstances than intraspecific co-flowering.

  20. Sensitivity of flowering phenology to changing temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Fu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Plant phenology is one of the preferred indicators of climate change, and its variation potentially impacts community dynamics and ecosystem functions. To better understand the responses of plants' flowering phenology to rising temperatures, we investigated the temperature sensitivity (expressed as the date of changes in phenology per change in temperature in degree Celsius, d °C-1) of flowering phenology for more than 220 plant species at 59 sites in China during the period 1963-1988. Our results indicated that most flowerings in China were significantly sensitive to the temperature in the 2 months (60 days) prior to the flowering dates. Plants in warmer regions showed larger sensitivities to increased temperatures. Species flowering in the late spring and early summer were generally less sensitive to changing temperature than species flowering at other times of the year. For plants flowering in the spring, species that flower earlier showed higher temperature sensitivity; however, for plants flowering in the summer and autumn, species that flower earlier showed lower temperature sensitivity. The responses of the first and last flowering times to changing temperature were mostly consistent, so flowering durations were rarely (6.1%) sensitive to changing temperature. We hypothesize that plants in cold regions may have adapted to the more variable temperatures and thus showed lower temperature sensitivities than plants in warm regions. Overall, the responses of flowering phenology to temperature varied significantly among temperature zones and plant species, so it should be considered carefully when estimating the impacts of climate warming on the terrestrial biosphere.

  1. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UAVs in the U .S . Department of D efense (D OD) inv entory as w ell as the traditional aircraft ctmently used for logistical pwposes. Then, using a...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Cost-benefit, Cost-based, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAV , UAS, PAGES Logistics, Supp01t...thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs )/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes

  2. Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic characterization of the effect of flowering on medicinal value of Cistanche tubulosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zuliang; Xu, Peng; Wu, Peiyi

    2009-01-01

    Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic methods, including conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation spectroscopy, have been proved to be effective methods to examine complicated mixture system such as Chinese herbal medicine. The focus of this paper is the investigation on the effect of flowering on the pharmaceutical components of Cistanche tubulosa by using the Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic method. Power-spectrum analysis is applied to improve the resolution of 2D-IR contour maps and much more details of overlapped peaks are detected. According to the results of FT-IR and second derivative spectra, the peak at 1732 cm -1 assigned to C dbnd O is stronger before flowering than that after flowering in the stem, while more C dbnd O groups are found in the top after flowering. The spectra of root change a lot in the process of flowering for the reason that many peaks shift and disappear after flowering. Seven peaks in the spectra of stem, which are assigned to different kinds of glycoside components, are distinguished by Power-spectra in the range of 900-1200 cm -1. The results provide a scientific explanation to the traditional experience that flowering consumes the pharmaceutical components in stem and the seeds absorb some nutrients of stem after flowering. In conclusion, the Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic method combined with Power-spectra is a promising method to investigate the flowering process of C. tubulosa and discriminate various parts of the herbal medicine.

  3. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  4. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  5. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  6. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  7. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  8. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  9. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  10. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  11. Leaves, flowers, immature fruits and leafy flowered stems of Malva sylvestris: a comparative study of the nutraceutical potential and composition.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-06-01

    Malva sylvestris is widely used in Mediterranean and European traditional medicine and ethnoveterinary for the treatment of external and internal inflammation, as well as injuries. Moreover, its use is not only limited to therapeutic purposes; but also the species is locally regarded as a food wild herb. Considering that antioxidants and free radical scavengers can exert also an anti-inflammatory effect, the extracts of different parts of the medicinal/edible plant M. sylvestris (leaves, flowers, immature fruits and leafy flowered stems) were compared for their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant properties) and chemical composition. Particularly, mallow leaves revealed very strong antioxidant properties including radical-scavenging activity (EC(50)=0.43 mg/mL), reducing power (0.07 mg/mL) and lipid peroxidation inhibition in lipossomes (0.04 mg/mL) and brain cells homogenates (0.09 mg/mL). This part of the plant is also the richest in nutraceuticals such as powerful antioxidants (phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols), unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. alpha-linolenic acid), and minerals measured in ash content.

  12. Genotype of FLOWERING LOCUS T homologue contributes to flowering time differences in wild and cultivated roses.

    PubMed

    Otagaki, S; Ogawa, Y; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L; Foucher, F; Kawamura, K; Horibe, T; Matsumoto, S

    2015-07-01

    Rose flowers have long delighted humans as ornamental plants. To improve the ornamental value of roses it is necessary to understand the regulatory mechanisms of flowering. We previously found that flowering time is controlled by three minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and a major QTL co-localised with RoFT. In this study, we isolated three RoFT alleles encoding completely identical amino acid sequences from the parents of a mapping population. Correlation analysis of the RoFT genotypes and flowering time phenotypes in the mapping population showed that the RoFT_f and RoFT_g alleles contribute to the early-flowering phenotype, while the RoFT_e allele contributes to the late-flowering phenotype. We developed two novel cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers based on the genomic sequences of the RoFT alleles and clearly showed that the relationship between RoFT genotype and flowering time was applicable to 12 of 13 cultivated roses grown at the Higashiyama Botanical Gardens, Japan. Allele-specific expression analysis using a reverse transcription CAPS assay suggested that these RoFT alleles are regulated differentially at the transcription level. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants ectopically expressing the RoFT gene showed an early-flowering phenotype. Conversely, in roses, RoFT was continuously expressed after floral bud formation, and RoFT transcript accumulation reached its peak after that of the floral meristem identity gene RoAP1b. These data suggest that RoFT may be essential not only for floral transition but also for normal floral development and flowering in roses.

  13. Natural Variation in Brachypodium Links Vernalization and Flowering Time Loci as Major Flowering Determinants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Corke, Fiona M.K.; Opanowicz, Magdalena; Hernández-Pinzón, Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of plants is underscored by the selection of agriculturally favorable developmental traits, including flowering time, which resulted in the creation of varieties with altered growth habits. Research into the pathways underlying these growth habits in cereals has highlighted the role of three main flowering regulators: VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1), VRN2, and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Previous reverse genetic studies suggested that the roles of VRN1 and FT are conserved in Brachypodium distachyon yet identified considerable ambiguity surrounding the role of VRN2. To investigate the natural diversity governing flowering time pathways in a nondomesticated grass, the reference B. distachyon accession Bd21 was crossed with the vernalization-dependent accession ABR6. Resequencing of ABR6 allowed the creation of a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic map at the F4 stage of the mapping population. Flowering time was evaluated in F4:5 families in five environmental conditions, and three major loci were found to govern flowering time. Interestingly, two of these loci colocalize with the B. distachyon homologs of the major flowering pathway genes VRN2 and FT, whereas no linkage was observed at VRN1. Characterization of these candidates identified sequence and expression variation between the two parental genotypes, which may explain the contrasting growth habits. However, the identification of additional quantitative trait loci suggests that greater complexity underlies flowering time in this nondomesticated system. Studying the interaction of these regulators in B. distachyon provides insights into the evolutionary context of flowering time regulation in the Poaceae as well as elucidates the way humans have utilized the natural variation present in grasses to create modern temperate cereals. PMID:27650449

  14. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  15. Sound localization of aerial broadband noise in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2003-04-01

    Pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system in order to coordinate their reproductive activities. How well do they localize these types of signals? In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) were measured in the horizontal plane with a broadband white noise stimulus. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources relative to a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 3.6, 4.2, and 4.7 deg for the harbor seal, California sea lion, and northern elephant seal, respectively. These results demonstrate that these pinniped species had sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaques. The acuity differences between our subjects were small, were not predicted by head size, and therefore likely reflect the relatively acute abilities of other pinniped species to localize aerial broadband signals.

  16. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  17. Vehicle Detection of Aerial Image Using TV-L1 Texture Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Li, Y.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle detection from high-resolution aerial image facilitates the study of the public traveling behavior on a large scale. In the context of road, a simple and effective algorithm is proposed to extract the texture-salient vehicle among the pavement surface. Texturally speaking, the majority of pavement surface changes a little except for the neighborhood of vehicles and edges. Within a certain distance away from the given vector of the road network, the aerial image is decomposed into a smoothly-varying cartoon part and an oscillatory details of textural part. The variational model of Total Variation regularization term and L1 fidelity term (TV-L1) is adopted to obtain the salient texture of vehicles and the cartoon surface of pavement. To eliminate the noise of texture decomposition, regions of pavement surface are refined by seed growing and morphological operation. Based on the shape saliency analysis of the central objects in those regions, vehicles are detected as the objects of rectangular shape saliency. The proposed algorithm is tested with a diverse set of aerial images that are acquired at various resolution and scenarios around China. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can detect vehicles at the rate of 71.5% and the false alarm rate of 21.5%, and that the speed is 39.13 seconds for a 4656 x 3496 aerial image. It is promising for large-scale transportation management and planning.

  18. Glyphosate and Dicamba Inhibit Flowering of Native Willamette Valley Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful flowering is essential for reproduction of native plants and production of food for herbivores. It is also an important alternative endpoint for assessment of ecological risks from chemical stressors such as herbicides. We evaluated flowering phenology after herbicide...

  19. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  20. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-07-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.

  1. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 Reverses the Photoperiodic Requirement for Flowering in the Wild Strawberry Fragaria vesca1[W

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, Elli A.; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C.; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J.; Battey, Nicholas H.; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering. PMID:22566495

  2. Genetic control of flowering and biomass in switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early flowering can negatively affect biomass yield of switchgrass. In temperate regions of the USA, flowering occurs in switchgrass around the time of peak biomass yield (about 5 to 8 weeks prior to killing frost), effectively reducing the length of the growing season. The use of late-flowering swi...

  3. The evolution of flowering strategies in US weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local adaptation in plants often involves changes in flowering time in response to day length and temperature differences. Many crop varieties have been selected for uniformity in flowering time. In contrast, variable flowering may be important for increased competitiveness in weed species invading ...

  4. Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

  5. Using a Mousy, Little Flower to Understand the Flamboyant Ones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Anna Maria

    1995-01-01

    Discusses major leaps in knowledge about the production of flowers that have come from studying genes that regulate the flowers of mouse ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana). Examines the ABC model of flower morphogenesis, commonality of genes, evolution of angiosperms, and agricultural and horticultural potential. (LZ)

  6. Up and down asymmetrical world for flower blooming.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    Form of plant body shows vertical polarity. Photosynthetic organs deploy upwards to seek light. Root system extends downward for water. In addition to this major polarity, flowers has similar features, because they bloom in the world where up and down asymmetry dominates. Many flowering plants co-evolved with pollinator animals. Success of their reproduction is linked to the shape of flower organs in many ways. Orientation of inflorescence and each individual flowers, arrangement and shape of flower organs exhibit various up and down asymmetry. Some flowers mimic female of its pollinator animal. In such case, posture of the target animal is copied to the flower. Since animal posture and shape have vertical polarity, flower happens to equip same kind of polarity. Tropic response of pistils is another up and down feature that improves fitness of flowering plants. Certain lily flowers show phototropism to bend pistil upward. Azalea flower depends on gravity as the major environmental cue, and light as the secondary signal for up. Molecular machinery for those tropic responses seems to be shared with other tropism expressed in shoot and root. However, certain differences are found in distribution of sediment amyloplast, or spatial allocation of photo-sensing and bending site. Tropic responses result in adaptation of those flowers against behavior of pollinator animals and terrestrial environment, where gravity affects living organisms and interaction among them.

  7. The Genetic Architecture of Maize Flowering Time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering time is the key trait controlling adaptation of plants to their local environment, and, in an outcrossing species like maize, it is a complex trait. Variation for this complex trait was dissected in maize using a novel set of 5000 recombinant inbred lines (maize Nested Association Mapping...

  8. Identification of Mendel's white flower character

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified A, the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice...

  9. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  10. Flower development: open questions and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many ques...

  11. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  12. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria Baicalensis Georgi Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of Baikal skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 64 constituents was identified (constituting 57.1 – 89.9% of the total area), 13 of which were tentatively identified. beta...

  13. Unisexual cucumber flowers, sex and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Nong; Xu, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a universal phenomenon in the world of eukaryotes. Attempts have been made to understand regulatory mechanisms for plant sex determination by investigating unisexual flowers. The cucumber plant is one of the model systems for studying how sex determination is regulated by phytohormones. A systematic investigation of the development of unisexual cucumber flowers is summarized here, and it is suggested that the mechanism of the unisexual flower can help us to understand how the process leading to one type of gametogenesis is prevented. Based on these findings, we concluded that the unisexual cucumber flowers is not an issue of sex differentiation, but instead a mechanism for avoiding self-pollination. Sex differentiation is essentially the divergent point(s) leading to heterogametogenesis. On the basis of analyses of sex differentiation in unicellular organisms and animals as well as the core process of plant life cycle, a concept of "sexual reproduction cycle" is proposed for understanding the essential role of sex and a "progressive model" for future investigations of sex differentiation in plants.

  14. Where Have All the Flowers Gone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an activity for secondary mathematics students using digital imaging on The Geometer's Sketchpad to model polar functions of flowers. The activity presented in the appendix engages students in learning and exploring the polar coordinate system while helping them analyze a real-world situation. By completing this activity,…

  15. The oxygen supply to thermogenic flowers.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Ito, Kikukatsu; Umekawa, Yui; Matthews, Philip D G; Pirintsos, Stergios Arg

    2015-04-01

    Thermogenic flowers produce heat by intense respiration, and the rates of O2 consumption (Ṁo2) in some species can exceed those of all other tissues of plants and most animals. By exposing intact flowers to a range of O2 pressures (Po2) and measuring Ṁo2, we demonstrate that the highest respiration rates exceed the capacity of the O2 diffusive pathway and become diffusion limited in atmospheric air. The male florets on the inflorescence of Arum concinnatum have the highest known mass-specific Ṁo2 and can be severely diffusion limited. Intact spadices of Japanese skunk cabbage Symplocarpus renifolius are diffusion limited in air only when Ṁo2 is maximal, but not at lower levels. True flowers of the sacred lotus Nelumbo nucifera and the appendix of Arum concinnatum are never diffusion limited in air. Ṁo2 - Po2 curves are evaluated quantitatively with the 'Regulation Index', a new tool to measure dependence of Ṁo2 on ambient Po2 , as well as the conventional 'Critical Po2 '. The study also includes measurements of Po2 within thermogenic tissues with O2-sensitive fibre optics, and reveals that the diffusion pathway is complicated and that O2 can be provided not only from the surface of the tissues but also from the pith of the flower's peduncle.

  16. Hypoglycemic activity evaluation and chemical study on hollyhock flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Jin, Lijun; Chen, Qiu; Wu, Zhizhen; Dong, Yongzhe; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    Hollyhock (Althaea rosea (Linn.) Cavan) belongs to Althaea genus, Malvaceae family, is a perennial garden plant distributed throughout the world in warm temperate and tropical regions, which was used as anti-diabetes ingredient in traditional Chinese medicine. In the process of our research, ethanolic extract of hollyhock flower (HFE) was found to decrease serum triglyceride and glucose levels significantly in KK-A(y) mice after oral administration for 8weeks. Meanwhile, gene expressions on AMPK, IRS2, PI3K, AKT and GLUT4 in liver were remarkably up-regulated. Three new dihydroflavonol glycosides, named as roseaflavanonolosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), together with two known ones were obtained from HFE. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Hepatic cell glucose uptake experiment was performed using 2-NBDG as a glucose uptake indicator. At the dosage of 20μg/mL for 1-5, the glucose uptake increasing level was nearly 30%-40% in HepG2 cells. We partly revealed the glucose metabolism regulation effect may relate to dihydroflavonols in hollyhock flower.

  17. From models to ornamentals: how is flower senescence regulated?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hilary J

    2013-08-01

    Floral senescence involves an ordered set of events coordinated at the plant, flower, organ and cellular level. This review assesses our current understanding of the input signals, signal transduction and cellular processes that regulate petal senescence and cell death. In many species a visible sign of petal senescence is wilting. This is accompanied by remobilization of nutrients from the flower to the developing ovary or to other parts of the plant. In other species, petals abscise while still turgid. Coordinating signals for floral senescence also vary across species. In some species ethylene acts as a central regulator, in others floral senescence is ethylene insensitive and other growth regulators are implicated. Due to the variability in this coordination and sequence of events across species, identifying suitable models to study petal senescence has been challenging, and the best candidates are reviewed. Transcriptomic studies provide an overview of the MAP kinases and transcription factors that are activated during petal senescence in several species including Arabidopsis. Our understanding of downstream regulators such as autophagy genes and proteases is also improving. This gives us insights into possible signalling cascades that regulate initiation of senescence and coordination of cell death processes. It also identifies the gaps in our knowledge such as the role of microRNAs. Finally future prospects for using all this information from model to non-model species to extend vase life in ornamental species is reviewed.

  18. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  19. A transposon insertion in FLOWERING LOCUS T is associated with delayed flowering in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa.

  20. Production of early flowering transgenic barley expressing the early flowering allele of Cryptochrome2 gene.

    PubMed

    El-Assal, Salah El-Din; Abd-Alla, Samir M; El-Tarras, Adel A; El-Awady, Mohamed A

    2011-01-01

    This work was carried out in order to develop early flowering barley lines. These lines will be useful to producers by enabling multiple crops within a single season and increasing production. Transgenic barley plants containing the natural early flowering time AtCRY2 allele from the Cape Verde Island (Cvi) ecotype of Arabidopsis have been generated using biolistic transformation. Immature embryo derived calli of two commercially important barley cultivars (El-Dwaser and El-Taif), were transformed using a pCAMBIA-2300 plasmid harboring a genomic fragment containing the AtCRY2-Cvi allele. Transformation was performed utilizing 600 immature embryos for each cultivar. Stable transformation was confirmed in T 0 and T 1 plants by using genomic PCR, RT-PCR and western blot analysis with AtCRY2 specific primers and antibodies, respectively. The transformation efficiency was 5.6% and 3.4% for El-Dwaser and El-Taif cultivars, respectively. Seeds from several T 1 lines were germinated on kanamycin plates and the lines that contained a single locus were selected for further evaluation. The transformed barley plants showed the specific AtCRY2-Cvi flowering phenotype, i.e. early flowering and day length insensitivity, compared to the non transgenic plants. The time to flowering in transgenic T 1 plants was assessed and two lines exhibited flowering more than 25 days earlier than the parental cultivars under short day conditions.

  1. 36 CFR 1237.4 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subchapter B, including part 1237. (b) As used in part 1237— Aerial photographic records means film-based... from airborne vehicles or satellites. They include vertical and oblique aerial negative film taken from... imagery that has been converted to a film base. These records also include the relevant index system...

  2. 36 CFR 1237.4 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subchapter B, including part 1237. (b) As used in part 1237— Aerial photographic records means film-based... from airborne vehicles or satellites. They include vertical and oblique aerial negative film taken from... imagery that has been converted to a film base. These records also include the relevant index system...

  3. 36 CFR 1237.4 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subchapter B, including part 1237. (b) As used in part 1237— Aerial photographic records means film-based... from airborne vehicles or satellites. They include vertical and oblique aerial negative film taken from... imagery that has been converted to a film base. These records also include the relevant index system...

  4. 36 CFR 1237.4 - What definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subchapter B, including part 1237. (b) As used in part 1237— Aerial photographic records means film-based... from airborne vehicles or satellites. They include vertical and oblique aerial negative film taken from... imagery that has been converted to a film base. These records also include the relevant index system...

  5. Stress enhances the gene expression and enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and the endogenous content of salicylic acid to induce flowering in pharbitis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kaede C; Mizuuchi, Kaori; Koshio, Aya; Kaneko, Kentaro; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Takeno, Kiyotoshi

    2014-07-01

    The involvement of salicylic acid (SA) in the regulation of stress-induced flowering in the short-day plant pharbitis (also called Japanese morning glory) Ipomoea nil (formerly Pharbitis nil) was studied. Pharbitis cv. Violet was induced to flower when grown in 1/100-strength mineral nutrient solution under non-inductive long-day conditions. All fully expanded true leaves were removed from seedlings, leaving only the cotyledons, and flowering was induced under poor-nutrition stress conditions. This indicates that cotyledons can play a role in the regulation of poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering. The expression of the pharbitis homolog of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE, the enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; E.C. 4.3.1.5) and the content of SA in the cotyledons were all up-regulated by the stress treatment. The Violet was also induced to flower by low-temperature stress, DNA demethylation and short-day treatment. Low-temperature stress enhanced PAL activity, whereas non-stress factors such as DNA demethylation and short-day treatment decreased the activity. The PAL enzyme activity was also examined in another cultivar, Tendan, obtaining similar results to Violet. The exogenously applied SA did not induce flowering under non-stress conditions but did promote flowering under weak stress conditions in both cultivars. These results suggest that stress-induced flowering in pharbitis is induced, at least partly, by SA, and the synthesis of SA is promoted by PAL.

  6. The Phenotypic and Genetic Underpinnings of Flower Size in Polemoniaceae.

    PubMed

    Landis, Jacob B; O'Toole, Rebecca D; Ventura, Kayla L; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Oppenheimer, David G; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2015-01-01

    Corolla length is a labile flower feature and has strong implications for pollinator success. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of corolla elongation are not well known, largely due to a lack of good candidate genes for potential genetic exploration and functional work. We investigate both the cellular phenotypic differences in corolla length, as well as the genetic control of this trait, in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae). Taxa in this clade exhibit a large range of flower sizes and differ dramatically in pollinator guilds. Flowers of each species were collected from multiple individuals during four stages of flower development to ascertain if cell number or cell size is more important in determining flower size. In Saltugilia, increased flower size during development appears to be driven more by cell size than cell number. Differences in flower size between species are governed by both cell size and cell number, with the large-flowered S. splendens subsp. grantii having nearly twice as many cells as the small-flowered species. Fully mature flowers of all taxa contain jigsaw cells similar to cells seen in sepals and leaves; however, these cells are not typically found in the developing flowers of most species. The proportion of this cell type in mature flowers appears to have substantial implications, comprising 17-68% of the overall flower size. To identify candidate genes responsible for differences in cell area and cell type, transcriptomes were generated for two individuals of the species with the smallest (S. australis) and largest (S. splendens subsp. grantii) flowers across the same four developmental stages visualized with confocal microscopy. Analyses identified genes associated with cell wall formation that are up-regulated in the mature flower stage compared to mid-stage flowers (75% of mature size). This developmental change is associated with the origin of jigsaw cells in the corolla tube of mature flowers. Further comparisons between mature

  7. The Phenotypic and Genetic Underpinnings of Flower Size in Polemoniaceae

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Jacob B.; O'Toole, Rebecca D.; Ventura, Kayla L.; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Oppenheimer, David G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    Corolla length is a labile flower feature and has strong implications for pollinator success. However, the phenotypic and genetic bases of corolla elongation are not well known, largely due to a lack of good candidate genes for potential genetic exploration and functional work. We investigate both the cellular phenotypic differences in corolla length, as well as the genetic control of this trait, in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae). Taxa in this clade exhibit a large range of flower sizes and differ dramatically in pollinator guilds. Flowers of each species were collected from multiple individuals during four stages of flower development to ascertain if cell number or cell size is more important in determining flower size. In Saltugilia, increased flower size during development appears to be driven more by cell size than cell number. Differences in flower size between species are governed by both cell size and cell number, with the large-flowered S. splendens subsp. grantii having nearly twice as many cells as the small-flowered species. Fully mature flowers of all taxa contain jigsaw cells similar to cells seen in sepals and leaves; however, these cells are not typically found in the developing flowers of most species. The proportion of this cell type in mature flowers appears to have substantial implications, comprising 17–68% of the overall flower size. To identify candidate genes responsible for differences in cell area and cell type, transcriptomes were generated for two individuals of the species with the smallest (S. australis) and largest (S. splendens subsp. grantii) flowers across the same four developmental stages visualized with confocal microscopy. Analyses identified genes associated with cell wall formation that are up-regulated in the mature flower stage compared to mid-stage flowers (75% of mature size). This developmental change is associated with the origin of jigsaw cells in the corolla tube of mature flowers. Further comparisons between mature

  8. Development of flower buds in the Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) from late autumn to early spring.

    PubMed

    Saito, Takanori; Tuan, Pham Anh; Katsumi-Horigane, Akemi; Bai, Songling; Ito, Akiko; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ono, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2015-06-01

    We periodically investigated the lateral flower bud morphology of 1-year shoots of 'Kosui' pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) in terms of dormancy progression, using magnetic resonance imaging. The size of flower buds did not change significantly during endodormancy, but rapid enlargement took place at the end of the ecodormancy stage. To gain insight into the physiological status during this period, we analyzed gene expression related to cell cycle-, cell expansion- and water channel-related genes, namely cyclin (CYC), expansin (EXPA), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP) and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP). Constant but low expression of pear cyclin genes (PpCYCD3s) was observed in the transition phase from endodormancy to ecodormancy. The expression levels of PpCYCD3s were consistent with few changes in flower bud size, but up-regulated before the sprouting stage. In contrast, the expression of pear expansin and water channel-related genes (PpEXPA2, PpPIP2A, PpPIP2B, PpIδTIP1A and PpIδTIP1B) were low until onset of the rapid enlargement stage of flower buds. However, expression of these genes rapidly increased during sprouting along with a gradual increase of free water content in the floral primordia of buds. Taken together, these results suggest that flower bud size tends to stay constant until the endodormancy phase transition. Rapid enlargement of flower buds observed in March is partly due to the enhancement of the cell cycle. Then, sprouting takes place concomitant with the increase in cell expansion and free water movement.

  9. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  10. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  12. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    decades for crop dusting and other agricultural purposes.84 Historically, UAS were predominately operated by DoD in support of combat operations in...advocates state that in order for UAS to take an active role in homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveying, crop dusting, and other...isn’t ready for.93 The issue of when and how UAS will be allowed to operate in U.S. airspace continues to evolve, and continues to be of interest

  13. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    of Deer Island, the approaches open up into three deepwater channels and then into unrestricted waters. Using traditional aerial mine-laying...Boston’s inner harbor, showing two lucrative choke points—the channels south of Logan International or the Deer Island channel in the lower right. Areas...electric submarines yet leave commercial shipping unaffected. Some straits, such as Gibraltar, Lombok, or the Bab el Mandeb ( Red Sea) are too deep for

  14. Using advanced manufacturing to produce unmanned aerial vehicles: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easter, Steven; Turman, Jonathan; Sheffler, David; Balazs, Michael; Rotner, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports on a feasibility study to explore the impact of advanced manufacturing on the production and maintenance of a 3D printed, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in theatre. Specifically, this report focuses on fused deposition modeling (FDM), the selective deposition of a molten thermoplastic. FDM is already a forward deployed technology, primarily used for printing custom tools and replacement parts. The authors ask if it is feasible to expand the printers' capacity to produce aerial platforms; the reduction in logistics and labor could significantly decrease costs per unit and enable far more platform customization and specialized deployment scenarios than are available in existing aircraft. The University of Virginia and The MITRE Corporation designed and built a prototype, 3D printed UAV for use as an aerial sensor platform. This report • Discusses the printed aerial platform, summarizes the design process, and compares printing methods • Describes the benefits and limitations to selecting FDM printers as the technology both for deployment as well as UAV design • Concludes with the current state and future expectations for FDM printing technologies relevant to UAV production. Our findings suggest that although 3D printing is not yet entirely field-ready, many of its advantages can already be realized.

  15. Small unmanned aerial vehicles for aeromagnetic surveys and their flights in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Minoru; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro; Sakanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Obara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Mikio

    2014-12-01

    We developed small computer-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, Ant-Plane) using parts and technology designed for model airplanes. These UAVs have a maximum flight range of 300-500 km. We planned aeromagnetic and aerial photographic surveys using the UAVs around Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, beginning from King George Island. However, we were unable to complete these flights due to unsuitable weather conditions and flight restrictions. Successful flights were subsequently conducted from Livingston Island to Deception Island in December 2011. This flight covered 302.4 km in 3:07:08, providing aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data from an altitude of 780 m over an area of 9 × 18 km around the northern region of Deception Island. The resulting magnetic anomaly map of Deception Island displayed higher resolution than the marine anomaly maps published already. The flight to South Bay in Livingston Island successfully captured aerial photographs that could be used for assessment of glacial and sea-ice conditions. It is unclear whether the cost-effectiveness of the airborne survey by UAV is superior to that of manned flight. Nonetheless, Ant-Plane 6-3 proved to be highly cost-effective for the Deception Island flight, considering the long downtime of the airplane in the Antarctic storm zone.

  16. Sources of variation in detection of wading birds from aerial surveys in the florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Peterson, J.T.; Bass, O.L.; Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Howell, J.E.; Moore, C.T.; Runge, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted dual-observer trials to estimate detection probabilities (probability that a group that is present and available is detected) for fixed-wing aerial surveys of wading birds in the Everglades system, Florida. Detection probability ranged from <0.2 to similar to 0.75 and varied according to species, group size, observer, and the observer's position in the aircraft (front or rear seat). Aerial-survey simulations indicated that incomplete detection can have a substantial effect oil assessment of population trends, particularly river relatively short intervals (<= 3 years) and small annual changes in population size (<= 3%). We conclude that detection bias is an important consideration for interpreting observations from aerial surveys of wading birds, potentially limiting the use of these data for comparative purposes and trend analyses. We recommend that workers conducting aerial surveys for wading birds endeavor to reduce observer and other controllable sources of detection bias and account for uncontrollable sources through incorporation of dual-observer or other calibratior methods as part of survey design (e.g., using double sampling).

  17. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  18. Genetics and characterization of an open flower mutant in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Samineni; Gaur, Pooran M

    2012-01-01

    The chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a self-pollinated grain legume with cleistogamous flowers. A spontaneous open-flower mutant, designated OFM-3, was identified in which reproductive organs were not enclosed by the keel petals and thus remained exposed. All 10 stamens in this mutant were free, whereas these are in diadelphous (9 fused + 1 free) condition in normal chickpea flowers. A large number of pods (73%) remained unfilled (empty) in OFM-3, though its pollen fertility was as high as the standard cultivars. The open-flower trait was found to be recessive and controlled by a single gene. OFM-3 was crossed with earlier reported open-flower mutants, ICC 16341 and ICC 16129, to establish trait relationships of genes controlling open flower traits in these mutants. It was found that each of these mutants has a unique gene for open flower trait. The genes controlling open flower trait in ICC 16341, ICC 16129, and OFM-3 were designated ofl-1, ofl-2, and ofl-3, respectively. Breeding lines with open flower trait and higher percentage of filled pods have been developed from the progenies of the crosses of OFM-3 with normal-flowered lines. The open flower trait offers opportunity for exploring hybrid technology in the chickpea.

  19. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  20. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.