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Sample records for aerial hyphal growth

  1. Hyphal growth in Candida albicans does not require induction of hyphal-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Naseem, Shamoon; Araya, Esteban; Konopka, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Various stimuli, including N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), induce the fungal pathogen Candida albicans to switch from budding to hyphal growth. Previous studies suggested that hyphal morphogenesis is stimulated by transcriptional induction of a set of genes that includes known virulence factors. To better understand hyphal development, we examined the role of GlcNAc metabolism using a triple mutant lacking the genes required to metabolize exogenous GlcNAc (hxk1Δ nag1Δ dac1Δ). Surprisingly, at low ambient pH (∼pH 4), GlcNAc stimulated this mutant to form hyphae without obvious induction of hyphal genes. This indicates that GlcNAc can stimulate a separate signal to induce hyphae that is independent of transcriptional responses. Of interest, GlcNAc could induce the triple mutant to express hyphal genes when the medium was buffered to a higher pH (>pH 5), which normally occurs after GlcNAc catabolism. Catabolism of GlcNAc raises the ambient pH rather than acidifying it, as occurs after dextrose catabolism. This synergy between alkalinization and GlcNAc to induce hyphal genes involves the Rim101 pH-sensing pathway; GlcNAc induced rim101Δ and dfg16Δ mutants to form hyphae, but hyphal gene expression was partially defective. These results demonstrate that hyphal morphogenesis and gene expression can be regulated independently, which likely contributes to pathogenesis at different host sites. PMID:25609092

  2. A Cellulose Synthase-Like Protein Involved in Hyphal Tip Growth and Morphological Differentiation in Streptomyces▿

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongbin; Chater, Keith F.; Deng, Zixin; Tao, Meifeng

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose synthase and cellulose synthase-like proteins, responsible for synthesizing β-glucan-containing polysaccharides, play a fundamental role in cellular architectures, such as plant cell and tissue morphogenesis, bacterial biofilm formation, and fruiting-body development. However, the roles of the proteins involved in the developmental process are not well understood. Here, we report that a cellulose synthase-like protein (CslASc) in Streptomyces has a function in hyphal tip growth and morphological differentiation. The cslASc replacement mutant showed pleiotropic defects, including the severe delay of aerial-hyphal formation and altered cell wall morphology. Calcofluor white fluorescence analysis demonstrated that polysaccharide synthesis at hyphal tips was dependent on CslASc. cslASc was constitutively transcribed, and an enhanced green fluorescent protein-CslASc fusion protein was mostly located at the hyphal tips. An extract enriched in morphogenetic chaplin proteins promoted formation of aerial hyphae by the mutant. Furthermore, a two-hybrid experiment indicated that the glycosyltransferase domain of CslASc interacted with the tropomyosin-like polarity-determining DivIVA protein, suggesting that the tip-located DivIVA governed tip recruitment of the CslASc membrane protein. These results imply that the cellulose synthase-like protein couples extracellular and cytoskeletal components functioning in tip growth and cell development. PMID:18487344

  3. Gymnemic Acids Inhibit Hyphal Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Vediyappan, Govindsamy; Dumontet, Vincent; Pelissier, Franck; d’Enfert, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we have identified the triterpenoid saponin family of gymnemic acids (GAs) as inhibitor of C. albicans morphogenesis. GAs were isolated and purified from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, the Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. Purified GAs had no effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans yeast cells but inhibited its yeast-to-hypha conversion under several hypha-inducing conditions, including the presence of serum. Moreover, GAs promoted the conversion of C. albicans hyphae into yeast cells under hypha inducing conditions. They also inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of Aspergillus sp. Finally, GAs inhibited the formation of invasive hyphae from C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans worms and rescued them from killing by C. albicans. Hence, GAs could be useful for various antifungal applications due to their traditional use in herbal medicine. PMID:24040201

  4. Gymnemic acids inhibit hyphal growth and virulence in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Vediyappan, Govindsamy; Dumontet, Vincent; Pelissier, Franck; d'Enfert, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we have identified the triterpenoid saponin family of gymnemic acids (GAs) as inhibitor of C. albicans morphogenesis. GAs were isolated and purified from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, the Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. Purified GAs had no effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans yeast cells but inhibited its yeast-to-hypha conversion under several hypha-inducing conditions, including the presence of serum. Moreover, GAs promoted the conversion of C. albicans hyphae into yeast cells under hypha inducing conditions. They also inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of Aspergillus sp. Finally, GAs inhibited the formation of invasive hyphae from C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans worms and rescued them from killing by C. albicans. Hence, GAs could be useful for various antifungal applications due to their traditional use in herbal medicine.

  5. The FgHOG1 Pathway Regulates Hyphal Growth, Stress Responses, and Plant Infection in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Chenfang; Xiang, Ping; Zheng, Qian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a destructive disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study of systematic characterization of protein kinase genes in F. graminearum, mutants of three putative components of the osmoregulation MAP kinase pathway were found to have distinct colony morphology and hyphal growth defects on PDA plates. Because the osmoregulation pathway is not known to regulate aerial hyphal growth and branching, in this study we further characterized the functions of the FgHog1 pathway in growth, pathogenesis, and development. The Fghog1, Fgpbs2, and Fgssk2 mutants were all reduced in growth rate, aerial hyphal growth, and hyphal branching angle. These mutants were not only hypersensitive to osmotic stress but also had increased sensitivity to oxidative, cytoplasm membrane, and cell wall stresses. The activation of FgHog1 was blocked in the Fgpbs2 and Fgssk2 mutants, indicating the sequential activation of FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 cascade. Interestingly, the FgHog1 MAPK pathway mutants appeared to be sensitive to certain compounds present in PDA. They were female sterile but retained male fertility. We also used the metabolomics profiling approach to identify compatible solutes that were accumulated in the wild type but not in the Fghog1 deletion mutant. Overall, our results indicate that the FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 MAPK cascade is important for regulating hyphal growth, branching, plant infection, and hyperosmotic and general stress responses in F. graminearum. PMID:23166686

  6. Effects of latrunculin B on the actin cytoskeleton and hyphal growth in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Tijs; Meijer, Harold J G; Spiekerman, Marjolein; Weide, Rob; Govers, Francine

    2012-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is conserved in all eukaryotes, but its functions vary among different organisms. In oomycetes, the function of the actin cytoskeleton has received relatively little attention. We have performed a bioinformatics study and show that oomycete actin genes fall within a distinct clade that is divergent from plant, fungal and vertebrate actin genes. To obtain a better understanding of the functions of the actin cytoskeleton in hyphal growth of oomycetes, we studied the actin organization in Phytophthora infestans hyphae and the consequences of treatment with the actin depolymerising drug latrunculin B (latB). This revealed that latB treatment causes a concentration dependent inhibition of colony expansion and aberrant hyphal growth. The most obvious aberrations observed upon treatment with 0.1 μM latB were increased hyphal branching and irregular tube diameters whereas at higher concentrations latB (0.5 and 1 μM) tips of expanding hyphae changed into balloon-like shapes. This aberrant growth correlated with changes in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. In untreated hyphae, staining with fluorescently tagged phalloidin revealed two populations of actin filaments: long, axially oriented actin filament cables and cortical actin filament plaques. Two hyphal subtypes were recognized, one containing only plaques and the other containing both cables and plaques. In the latter, some hyphae had an apical zone without actin filament plaques. Upon latB treatment, the proportion of hyphae without actin filament cables increased and there were more hyphae with a short apical zone without actin filament plaques. In general, actin filament plaques were more resilient against actin depolymerisation than actin filament cables. Besides disturbing hyphal growth and actin organization, actin depolymerisation also affected the positioning of nuclei. In the presence of latB, the distance between nuclei and the hyphal tip decreased, suggesting that the actin

  7. Autophagy contributes to regulation of nuclear dynamics during vegetative growth and hyphal fusion in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roca, M Gabriela; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, vegetative hyphal fusion triggers nuclear mitotic division in the invading hypha followed by migration of a nucleus into the receptor hypha and degradation of the resident nucleus. Here we examined the role of autophagy in fusion-induced nuclear degradation. A search of the F. oxysporum genome database for autophagy pathway components identified putative orthologs of 16 core autophagy-related (ATG) genes in yeast, including the ubiquitin-like protein Atg8, which is required for the formation of autophagosomal membranes. F. oxysporum Foatg8Δ mutants were generated in a strain harboring H1-cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei to facilitate analysis of nuclear dynamics. The Foatg8Δ mutants did not show MDC-positive staining in contrast to the wild type and the FoATG8-complemented (cFoATG8) strain, suggesting that FoAtg8 is required for autophagy in F. oxysporum. The Foatg8Δ strains displayed reduced rates of hyphal growth, conidiation, and fusion, and were significantly attenuated in virulence on tomato plants and in the nonvertebrate animal host Galleria mellonella. In contrast to wild-type hyphae, which are almost exclusively composed of uninucleated hyphal compartments, the hyphae of the Foatg8Δ mutants contained a significant fraction of hyphal compartments with 2 or more nuclei. The increase in the number of nuclei per hyphal compartment was particularly evident after hyphal fusion events. Time-lapse microscopy analyses revealed abnormal mitotic patterns during vegetative growth in the Foatg8Δ mutants. Our results suggest that autophagy mediates nuclear degradation after hyphal fusion and has a general function in the control of nuclear distribution in F. oxysporum.

  8. Effects of Aeration of Sawdust Cultivation Bags on Hyphal Growth of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Yong; Ham, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Young-Jin; Kim, Eui-Sung; Shim, Kyu-Kwang; Kim, Myung-Kon; Koo, Chang-Duck

    2012-09-01

    The effects of aeration through lid filters on the hyphal growth of Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) in sawdust cultivation bags were investigated. The aeration treatment levels were traditional 27 mm hole cotton plugs, cotton balls and combinations of seven hole sizes × two hole positions (up and under) in the lids covering plastic bags containing 1.4 kg sawdust medium at 63% moisture that had been autoclaved for one hour and inoculated with sawdust spawn of L. edodes strain 921. Aeration treatment effects were measured based on the CO(2) concentration at the 15th wk, as well as the hyphal growth rate and degree of weight loss of bags every 14 days for 15 wk. In bags with traditional cotton plugs, the CO(2) concentration was 3.8 ± 1.3%, daily mean hyphal growth was 2.3 ± 0.6 mm and daily mean weight loss was 0.84 ± 0.26 g. In the bags with 15 mm diameter holes, the CO(2) concentration was 6.0 ± 1.6%, daily hyphal growth was 2.8 ± 0.2 mm and daily weight loss was 0.86 ± 0.4 g. The bags with 15 mm holes had a higher CO(2) concentration and lower water loss than bags with other hole sizes, but the hyphal growth was not significantly different from that of other bags. The weight loss of bags increased proportionally relative to the lid hole sizes. Taken together, these results indicate that traditional cotton plugs are economically efficient, but 15 mm hole lids are the most efficient at maintaining hyphal growth and controlling water loss while allowing CO(2) emissions.

  9. Effect of cinnamaldehyde on hyphal growth of C. albicans under various treatment conditions.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Hasumi, Yayoi; Hayama, Kazumi; Arai, Ryo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of cinnamaldehyde in combatting the hyphal growth of Candida albicans under varying concentrations, treatment times, and temperatures to determine the potential benefits of applying this substance to anti-Candida foods or gargles. From the results of pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde against Candida hyphae, we found that its inhibitory activity seemed to be strengthened in parallel with prolonged pretreatment time and a rise in temperature, and that pretreatment of 2,000 μg/ml for only 1 minute significantly inhibited the hyphal growth of C. albicans. We also demonstrated by XTT assay that pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde affected the metabolic activity of Candida hyphal cells. These findings suggest that a warm drink or mouthwash containing cinnamaldehyde might be a candidate as a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection.

  10. Regulation of the Cdc42/Cdc24 GTPase Module during Candida albicans Hyphal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bassilana, Martine; Hopkins, Julie; Arkowitz, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The Rho G protein Cdc42 and its exchange factor Cdc24 are required for hyphal growth of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Previously, we reported that strains ectopically expressing Cdc24 or Cdc42 are unable to form hyphae in response to serum. Here we investigated the role of these two proteins in hyphal growth, using quantitative real-time PCR to measure induction of hypha-specific genes together with time lapse microscopy. Expression of the hypha-specific genes examined depends on the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway culminating in the Efg1 and Tec1 transcription factors. We show that strains with reduced levels of CDC24 or CDC42 transcripts induce hypha-specific genes yet cannot maintain their expression in response to serum. Furthermore, in serum these mutants form elongated buds compared to the wild type and mutant budding cells, as observed by time lapse microscopy. Using Cdc24 fused to green fluorescent protein, we also show that Cdc24 is recruited to and persists at the germ tube tip during hyphal growth. Altogether these data demonstrate that the Cdc24/Cdc42 GTPase module is required for maintenance of hyphal growth. In addition, overexpression studies indicate that specific levels of Cdc24 and Cdc42 are important for invasive hyphal growth. In response to serum, CDC24 transcript levels increase transiently in a Tec1-dependent fashion, as do the G-protein RHO3 and the Rho1 GTPase activating protein BEM2 transcript levels. These results suggest that a positive feedback loop between Cdc24 and Tec1 contributes to an increase in active Cdc42 at the tip of the germ tube which is important for hypha formation. PMID:15755921

  11. A microscopy study of hyphal growth of Penicillium rubens on gypsum under dynamic humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    van Laarhoven, Karel A; Huinink, Hendrik P; Adan, Olaf C G

    2016-05-01

    To remediate indoor fungal growth, understanding the moisture relations of common indoor fungi is crucial. Indoor moisture conditions are commonly quantified by the relative humidity (RH). RH is a major determinant of the availability of water in porous indoor surfaces that fungi grow on. The influence of steady-state RH on growth is well understood. Typically, however, the indoor RH constantly changes so that fungi have to endure frequent periods of alternating low and high RH. Knowledge of how common indoor fungi survive and are affected by the low-RH periods is limited. In particular, the specific effects of a drop in RH on the growth of the mycelium remain unclear. In this work, video microscopy was used to monitor hyphal growth of Penicillium rubens on gypsum substrates under controlled dynamic humidity conditions. The effect of a single period of low RH (RH = 50-90%) interrupting favourable conditions (RH = 97%) was tested. It was found that hyphal tips ceased to extend when exposed to any tested decrease in RH. However, new hyphal growth always emerges, seemingly from the old mycelium, suggesting that this indoor fungus does not rely only on conidia to survive the humidity patterns considered. These findings are a fundamental step in unravelling the effect of RH on indoor fungal growth.

  12. Boric acid destabilizes the hyphal cytoskeleton and inhibits invasive growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Pointer, Benjamin R; Boyer, Michael P; Schmidt, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Exposure of Candida albicans to sub-lethal concentrations of boric acid (BA) restricts the dimorphic fungus to its yeast morphology and prevents the formation of invasive hyphae on solid substrates. Exposure to BA causes a rapid and reversible disappearance of polarisome and Spitzenkörper in growing hyphae. In BA-treated hyphae of C. albicans, actin quickly reorganizes from cytoplasmic cables to cortical patches and cell wall growth switches from an apical to an isotropic pattern. As a result of the cytoskeletal changes, the hyphal tips broaden and directional growth of hyphae ceases in the presence of BA. An analysis of homozygous deletion strains showed that mutants with constitutive or enhanced hyphal growth (tup1, nrg1, ssn6, rbf1) are BA-sensitive, demonstrating that cellular morphology is a major determinant of BA tolerance. The screening of deletion mutants also showed that deficiencies of the main activator of hyphal gene expression, Efg1, and the Rim101-signalling cascade, leading to Efg1 activation, cause BA resistance. Taken together, the data presented show that the selective inhibitory effect on BA on C. albicans hyphae is rooted in a disruption of apical cytoskeletal elements of growing hyphae.

  13. Calcineurin controls drug tolerance, hyphal growth, and virulence in Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Lien; Brand, Alexandra; Morrison, Emma L; Silao, Fitz Gerald S; Bigol, Ursela G; Malbas, Fedelino F; Nett, Jeniel E; Andes, David R; Solis, Norma V; Filler, Scott G; Averette, Anna; Heitman, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an emerging pathogenic yeast species closely related to Candida albicans and frequently found colonizing or infecting the oral cavities of HIV/AIDS patients. Drug resistance during C. dubliniensis infection is common and constitutes a significant therapeutic challenge. The calcineurin inhibitor FK506 exhibits synergistic fungicidal activity with azoles or echinocandins in the fungal pathogens C. albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. In this study, we show that calcineurin is required for cell wall integrity and wild-type tolerance of C. dubliniensis to azoles and echinocandins; hence, these drugs are candidates for combination therapy with calcineurin inhibitors. In contrast to C. albicans, in which the roles of calcineurin and Crz1 in hyphal growth are unclear, here we show that calcineurin and Crz1 play a clearly demonstrable role in hyphal growth in response to nutrient limitation in C. dubliniensis. We further demonstrate that thigmotropism is controlled by Crz1, but not calcineurin, in C. dubliniensis. Similar to C. albicans, C. dubliniensis calcineurin enhances survival in serum. C. dubliniensis calcineurin and crz1/crz1 mutants exhibit attenuated virulence in a murine systemic infection model, likely attributable to defects in cell wall integrity, hyphal growth, and serum survival. Furthermore, we show that C. dubliniensis calcineurin mutants are unable to establish murine ocular infection or form biofilms in a rat denture model. That calcineurin is required for drug tolerance and virulence makes fungus-specific calcineurin inhibitors attractive candidates for combination therapy with azoles or echinocandins against emerging C. dubliniensis infections.

  14. Unisexual reproduction enhances fungal competitiveness by promoting habitat exploration via hyphal growth and sporulation.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Sujal S; Feretzaki, Marianna; Heitman, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unisexual reproduction is a novel homothallic sexual cycle recently discovered in both ascomycetous and basidiomycetous pathogenic fungi. It is a form of selfing that induces the yeast-to-hyphal dimorphic transition in isolates of the α mating type of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Unisexual reproduction may benefit the pathogen by facilitating sexual reproduction in the absence of the opposite a mating type and by generating infectious propagules called basidiospores. Here, we report an independent potential selective advantage of unisexual reproduction beyond genetic exchange and recombination. We competed a wild-type strain capable of undergoing unisexual reproduction with mutants defective in this developmental pathway and found that unisexual reproduction provides a considerable dispersal advantage through hyphal growth and sporulation. Our results show that unisexual reproduction may serve to facilitate access to both nutrients and potential mating partners and may provide a means to maintain the capacity for dimorphic transitions in the environment.

  15. The effects of triclosan on spore germination and hyphal growth of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices.

    PubMed

    Twanabasu, Bishnu R; Stevens, Kevin J; Venables, Barney J

    2013-06-01

    The effect of triclosan (5-chloro-2-[2,4-dichlorophenoxy]phenol; TCS), on spore germination, hyphal growth, and hyphal branching of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus intraradices spores was evaluated at exposure concentrations of 0.4 and 4.0 μg/L in a static renewal exposure system. To determine if potential effects were mycotoxic or a consequence of impaired signaling between a host plant and the fungal symbiont, spores were incubated with and without the addition of a root exudate. Exposed spores were harvested at days 7, 14, and 21. AM spore germination, hyphal growth, and hyphal branching were significantly lower in both TCS concentrations compared to controls in non-root exudate treatments suggesting direct mycotoxic effects of TCS on AM development. Greater hyphal growth and hyphal branching in controls and 0.4μg/L TCS treatments with root exudate compared to non-root exudate treatments demonstrated growth stimulation by signaling chemicals present in the root exudate. This stimulatory effect was absent in the 4.0 μg/L TCS treatments indicating a direct effect on plant signaling compounds or plant signal response.

  16. Differential chlorate inhibition of Chaetomium globosum germination, hyphal growth, and perithecia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Biles, Charles L; Wright, Desiree; Fuego, Marianni; Guinn, Angela; Cluck, Terry; Young, Jennifer; Martin, Markie; Biles, Josiah; Poudyal, Shubhra

    2012-12-01

    Chaetomium globosum Kunze:Fr is a dermatophytic, dematiaceous fungus that is ubiquitous in soils, grows readily on cellulolytic materials, and is commonly found on water-damaged building materials. Chlorate affects nitrogen metabolism in fungi and is used to study compatibility among anamorphic fungi by inducing nit mutants. The effect of chlorate toxicity on C. globosum was investigated by amending a modified malt extract agar (MEA), oat agar, and carboxymethyl cellulose agar (CMC) with various levels of potassium chlorate (KClO(3)). C. globosum perithecia production was almost completely inhibited (90-100 %) at low levels of KClO(3) (0.1 mM) in amended MEA. Inhibition of perithecia production was also observed on oat agar and CMC at 1 and 10 mM, respectively. However, hyphal growth in MEA was only inhibited 20 % by 0.1-100 mM KClO(3) concentrations. Hyphal growth was never completely inhibited at the highest levels tested (200 mM). Higher levels of KClO(3) were needed on gypsum board to inhibit perithecia synthesis. In additional experiments, KClO(3) did not inhibit C. globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillum expansum, and airborne fungal spore germination. The various fungal spores were not inhibited by KClO(3) at 1-100 mM levels. These results suggest that C. globosum perithecia synthesis is more sensitive to chlorate toxicity than are hyphal growth and spore germination. This research provides basic information that furthers our understanding about perithecia formation and may help in developing control methods for fungal growth on building materials.

  17. Hbr1 Activates and Represses Hyphal Growth in Candida albicans and Regulates Fungal Morphogenesis under Embedded Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.

    2015-01-01

    Transitions between yeast and hyphae are essential for Candida albicans pathogenesis. The genetic programs that regulate its hyphal development can be distinguished by embedded versus aerobic surface agar invasion. Hbr1, a regulator of white-opaque switching, is also a positive and negative regulator of hyphal invasion. During embedded growth at 24°C, an HBR1/hbr1 strain formed constitutively filamentous colonies throughout the matrix, resembling EFG1 null colonies, and a subset of long unbranched hyphal aggregates enclosed in a spindle-shaped capsule. Inhibition of adenylate cyclase with farnesol perturbed the filamentation of HBR1/hbr1 cells producing cytokinesis-defective hyphae whereas farnesol treated EFG1 null cells produced abundant opaque-like cells. Point mutations in the Hbr1 ATP-binding domain caused distinct filamentation phenotypes including uniform radial hyphae, hyphal sprouts, and massive yeast cell production. Conversely, aerobic surface colonies of the HBR1 heterozygote on Spider and GlcNAc media lacked filamentation that could be rescued by growth under low (5%) O2. Consistent with these morphogenesis defects, the HBR1 heterozygote exhibited attenuated virulence in a mouse candidemia model. These data define Hbr1 as an ATP-dependent positive and negative regulator of hyphal development that is sensitive to hypoxia. PMID:26039220

  18. mrflbA, encoding a putative FlbA, is involved in aerial hyphal development and secondary metabolite production in Monascus ruber M-7.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yishan; Li, Li; Li, Xin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-02-01

    FlbA (fluffy low brlA expression), a regulator of the G protein signalling (RGS) pathway, has been implicated in the control of hyphal development, sporulation, mycotoxin/pigment production in many kinds of filamentous fungi and yeasts. In the current study, a FlbA-like protein gene mrflbA (Monascus ruber flbA) was isolated, sequenced, and disrupted in order to investigate the RGS function in M. ruber. The results revealed that the derived protein of the mrflbA gene consisted of 734 amino acids and had the conserved RGS domain at the C-terminus and two DEP (dishevelled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domains at the N-terminus similar to the structure of RGS proteins in other filamentous fungi. Deletion of the mrflbA gene resulted in the formation of an abnormal colony phenotype with fluffy aerial hyphae that autolyzed as the colony grew on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28°C. Additionally, mrflbA deletion could repress conidial germination and pigment/citrinin production in M. ruber M-7. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of the G protein α subunit (Gα) was remarkably increased in the mrflbA deletion strain. These results suggest that mrflbA is involved in the modulation of aerial hyphal development and secondary metabolism, as well as, negative regulation of Gα subunit expression in M. ruber M-7.

  19. Distinct Roles of Myosins in Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphal Growth and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Hilary; Vargas-Muñiz, José M.; Richards, Amber D.; Asfaw, Yohannes G.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.

    2016-01-01

    Myosins are a family of actin-based motor proteins found in many organisms and are categorized into classes based on their structures. Class II and V myosins are known to be important for critical cellular processes, including cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and organelle trafficking, in the model fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. However, the roles of myosins in the growth and virulence of the pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are unknown. We constructed single- and double-deletion strains of the class II and class V myosins in A. fumigatus and found that while the class II myosin (myoB) is dispensable for growth, the class V myosin (myoE) is required for proper hyphal extension; deletion of myoE resulted in hyperbranching and loss of hyphal polarity. Both myoB and myoE are necessary for proper septation, conidiation, and conidial germination, but only myoB is required for conidial viability. Infection with the ΔmyoE strain in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella model and also in a persistently immunosuppressed murine model of invasive aspergillosis resulted in hypovirulence, while analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) release and cellular infiltration were similar compared to those of the wild-type strain. The ΔmyoE strain showed fungal growth in the murine lung, while the ΔmyoB strain exhibited little fungal burden, most likely due to the reduced conidial viability. These results show, for the first time, the important role these cytoskeletal components play in the growth of and disease caused by a known pathogen, prompting future studies to understand their regulation and potential targeting for novel antifungal therapies. PMID:26953327

  20. Hyphal Growth in Human Fungal Pathogens and Its Role in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Most of the fungal species that infect humans can grow in more than one morphological form but only a subset of pathogens produce filamentous hyphae during the infection process. This subset is phylogenetically unrelated and includes the commonly carried yeasts, Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, and Malassezia spp., and the acquired pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus and dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes. The primary function of hypha formation in these opportunistic pathogens is to invade the substrate they are adhered to, whether biotic or abiotic, but other functions include the directional translocation between host environments, consolidation of the colony, nutrient acquisition and the formation of 3-dimensional matrices. To support these functions, polarised hyphal growth is co-regulated with other factors that are essential for normal hypha function in vivo. PMID:22121367

  1. Neurospora COP9 signalosome integrity plays major roles for hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhipeng; Wang, Ying; Cai, Gaihong; He, Qun

    2012-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a highly conserved multifunctional complex that has two major biochemical roles: cleaving NEDD8 from cullin proteins and maintaining the stability of CRL components. We used mutation analysis to confirm that the JAMM domain of the CSN-5 subunit is responsible for NEDD8 cleavage from cullin proteins in Neurospora crassa. Point mutations of key residues in the metal-binding motif (EX(n)HXHX(10)D) of the CSN-5 JAMM domain disrupted CSN deneddylation activity without interfering with assembly of the CSN complex or interactions between CSN and cullin proteins. Surprisingly, CSN-5 with a mutated JAMM domain partially rescued the phenotypic defects observed in a csn-5 mutant. We found that, even without its deneddylation activity, the CSN can partially maintain the stability of the SCF(FWD-1) complex and partially restore the degradation of the circadian clock protein FREQUENCY (FRQ) in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that CSN containing mutant CSN-5 efficiently prevents degradation of the substrate receptors of CRLs. Finally, we found that deletion of the CAND1 ortholog in N. crassa had little effect on the conidiation circadian rhythm. Our results suggest that CSN integrity plays major roles in hyphal growth, conidial development, and circadian function in N. crassa.

  2. Virulence Attributes and Hyphal Growth of C. neoformans Are Quantitative Traits and the MATα Allele Enhances Filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaorong; Huang, Johnny C; Mitchell, Thomas G; Heitman, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal human pathogen with a bipolar mating system. It undergoes a dimorphic transition from a unicellular yeast to hyphal filamentous growth during mating and monokaryotic fruiting. The traditional sexual cycle that leads to the production of infectious basidiospores involves cells of both α and a mating type. Monokaryotic fruiting is a modified form of sexual reproduction that involves cells of the same mating type, most commonly α, which is the predominant mating type in both the environment and clinical isolates. However, some a isolates can also undergo monokaryotic fruiting. To determine whether mating type and other genetic loci contribute to the differences in fruiting observed between α and a cells, we applied quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to an inbred population of F2 progeny. We discovered that variation in hyphal length produced during fruiting is a quantitative trait resulting from the combined effects of multiple genetic loci, including the mating type (MAT) locus. Importantly, the α allele of the MAT locus enhanced hyphal growth compared with the a allele. Other virulence traits, including melanization and growth at 39 °C, also are quantitative traits that share a common QTL with hyphal growth. The Mac1 transcription factor, encoded in this common QTL, regulates copper homeostasis. MAC1 allelic differences contribute to phenotypic variation, and mac1Δ mutants exhibit defects in filamentation, melanin production, and high temperature growth. Further characterization of these QTL regions will reveal additional quantitative trait genes controlling biological processes central to fungal development and pathogenicity. PMID:17112316

  3. A Gin4-Like Protein Kinase GIL1 Involvement in Hyphal Growth, Asexual Development, and Pathogenesis in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan; Zhang, Shijie; Li, Xiaoping; Xu, Jin-Rong; Schultzhaus, Zachary; Jin, Qiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. In a previous study, a GIN4-like protein kinase gene, GIL1, was found to be important for plant infection and sexual reproduction. In this study we further characterized the functions of GIL1 kinase in different developmental processes. The Δgil1 mutants were reduced in growth, conidiation, and virulence, and formed whitish and compact colonies. Although phialide formation was rarely observed in the mutants, deletion of GIL1 resulted in increased hyphal branching and increased tolerance to cell wall and cell membrane stresses. The Δgil1 mutants produced straight, elongated conidia lacking of distinct foot cells and being delayed in germination. Compared with the wild type, some compartments in the vegetative hyphae of Δgil1 mutants had longer septal distances and increased number of nuclei, suggesting GIL1 is related to cytokinesis and septation. Localization of the GIL1-GFP fusion proteins to the septum and hyphal branching and fusion sites further supported its roles in septation and branching. Overall, our results indicate that GIL1 plays a role in vegetative growth and plant infection in F. graminearum, and is involved in septation and hyphal branching. PMID:28212314

  4. Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis spp. limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth.

    PubMed

    Ramming, David W; Gabler, Franka; Smilanick, Joseph L; Margosan, Dennis A; Cadle-Davidson, Molly; Barba, Paola; Mahanil, Siraprapa; Frenkel, Omer; Milgroom, Michael G; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2012-01-01

    Race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains but, in other crops such as grapevine, controlled analysis of host-pathogen interactions on resistant plants is uncommon. In the current study, we attempted to confirm powdery mildew resistance phenotypes through vineyard, greenhouse, and in vitro inoculations for test cross-mapping populations for two resistance sources: (i) a complex hybrid breeding line, 'Bloodworth 81-107-11', of at least Vitis rotundifolia, V. vinifera, V. berlandieri, V. rupestris, V. labrusca, and V. aestivalis background; and (ii) Vitis hybrid 'Tamiami' of V. aestivalis and V. vinifera origin. Statistical analysis of vineyard resistance data suggested the segregation of two and three race-specific resistance genes from the two sources, respectively. However, in each population, some resistant progeny were susceptible in greenhouse or in vitro screens, which suggested the presence of Erysiphe necator isolates virulent on progeny segregating for one or more resistance genes. Controlled inoculation of resistant and susceptible progeny with a diverse set of E. necator isolates clearly demonstrated the presence of fungal races differentially interacting with race-specific resistance genes, providing proof of race specificity in the grape powdery mildew pathosystem. Consistent with known race-specific resistance mechanisms, both resistance sources were characterized by programmed cell death of host epidermal cells under appressoria, which arrested or slowed hyphal growth; this response was also accompanied by collapse of conidia, germ tubes, appressoria, and secondary hyphae. The observation of prevalent isolates virulent on progeny with multiple race-specific resistance genes before resistance gene deployment has implications for grape breeding strategies. We suggest that grape breeders should characterize the mechanisms of resistance and pyramid multiple resistance genes with different mechanisms for improved

  5. Cdc24, the GDP-GTP exchange factor for Cdc42, is required for invasive hyphal growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Bassilana, Martine; Blyth, James; Arkowitz, Robert A

    2003-02-01

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, is particularly problematic for immunocompromised individuals. The reversible transition of this fungal pathogen to a filamentous form that invades host tissue is important for its virulence. Although different signaling pathways such as a mitogen-activated protein kinase and a protein kinase A cascade are critical for this morphological transition, the function of polarity establishment proteins in this process has not been determined. We examined the role of four different polarity establishment proteins in C. albicans invasive growth and virulence by using strains in which one copy of each gene was deleted and the other copy expressed behind the regulatable promoter MET3. Strikingly, mutants with ectopic expression of either the Rho G-protein Cdc42 or its exchange factor Cdc24 are unable to form invasive hyphal filaments and germ tubes in response to serum or elevated temperature and yet grow normally as a budding yeast. Furthermore, these mutants are avirulent in a mouse model for systemic infection. This function of the Cdc42 GTPase module is not simply a general feature of polarity establishment proteins. Mutants with ectopic expression of the SH3 domain containing protein Bem1 or the Ras-like G-protein Bud1 can grow in an invasive fashion and are virulent in mice, albeit with reduced efficiency. These results indicate that a specific regulation of Cdc24/Cdc42 activity is required for invasive hyphal growth and suggest that these proteins are required for pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  6. Candida-streptococcal mucosal biofilms display distinct structural and virulence characteristics depending on growth conditions and hyphal morphotypes.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, M M; Xu, H; Sobue, T; Nobile, C J; Del Bel Cury, A A; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans and streptococci of the mitis group form communities in multiple oral sites, where moisture and nutrient availability can change spatially or temporally. This study evaluated structural and virulence characteristics of Candida-streptococcal biofilms formed on moist or semidry mucosal surfaces, and tested the effects of nutrient availability and hyphal morphotype on dual-species biofilms. Three-dimensional models of the oral mucosa formed by immortalized keratinocytes on a fibroblast-embedded collagenous matrix were used. Infections were carried out using Streptococcus oralis strain 34, in combination with a C. albicans wild-type strain, or pseudohyphal-forming mutant strains. Increased moisture promoted a homogeneous surface biofilm by C. albicans. Dual biofilms had a stratified structure, with streptococci growing in close contact with the mucosa and fungi growing on the bacterial surface. Under semidry conditions, Candida formed localized foci of dense growth, which promoted focal growth of streptococci in mixed biofilms. Candida biofilm biovolume was greater under moist conditions, albeit with minimal tissue invasion, compared with semidry conditions. Supplementing the infection medium with nutrients under semidry conditions intensified growth, biofilm biovolume and tissue invasion/damage, without changing biofilm structure. Under these conditions, the pseudohyphal mutants and S. oralis formed defective superficial biofilms, with most bacteria in contact with the epithelial surface, below a pseudohyphal mass, resembling biofilms growing in a moist environment. The presence of S. oralis promoted fungal invasion and tissue damage under all conditions. We conclude that moisture, nutrient availability, hyphal morphotype and the presence of commensal bacteria influence the architecture and virulence characteristics of mucosal fungal biofilms.

  7. Libraries for two-hybrid screening of yeast and hyphal growth forms in Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Kilaru, S; Collins, C; Courbot, M; Steinberg, G

    2015-06-01

    Pathogenic fungi are constantly emerging resistance to anti-fungal treatments. Therefore, identification of new fungicide targets is important. Good candidates are essential fungal proteins and their regulators. An efficient way to reveal the molecular environment of an essential protein is the search for interacting factors. Here, we establish three yeast two-hybrid libraries, covering yeast and hyphal stages of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. No detectable genomic DNA was present in any of the 3 libraries. Random amplification revealed that the libraries include cDNA fragments of up to 2000bp, suggesting that small-to-medium sized proteins are represented therein. Indeed, full-length cDNAs of five proteins were found in all libraries. The full-length cDNA of large chitin synthase gene mcs1 (5742bp with introns; 5568bp without introns) could not be amplified, but its 5' and 3' regions were represented, suggesting that even larger genes are covered in all libraries. Finally, we tested for the expected interaction of the autophagy proteins ZtAtg4 and ZtAtg8 in Z. tritici, and then used ZtAtg4 to screen one of the two-hybrid libraries. Indeed, we found ZtAtg8 as a positive interaction partner, confirming that interacting proteins can be identified. Thus, these molecular tools promise to be useful in identifying novel fungicide target proteins.

  8. UvHOG1 is important for hyphal growth and stress responses in the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dawei; Wang, Yi; Han, Yu; Xu, Jin-Rong; Wang, Chenfang

    2016-01-01

    Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Although its genome has been sequenced, to date there is no report on targeted gene deletion in U. virens and no molecular studies on genetic mechanisms regulating the infection processes of this destructive pathogen. In this study, we attempted to generate knockout mutants of the ortholog of yeast HOG1 MAP kinase gene in U. virens. One Uvhog1 deletion mutant was identified after screening over 600 hygromycin-resistant transformants generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The Uvhog1 mutant was reduced in growth rate and conidiation but had increased sensitivities to SDS, Congo red, and hyperosmotic stress. Deletion of UvHOG1 resulted in reduced expression of the stress response-related genes UvATF1 and UvSKN7. In the Uvhog1 mutant, NaCl treatment failed to stimulate the accumulation of sorbitol and glycerol. In addition, the Uvhog1 mutant had reduced toxicity on shoot growth in rice seed germination assays. Overall, as the first report of targeted gene deletion mutant in U. virens, our results showed that UvHOG1 likely has conserved roles in regulating stress responses, hyphal growth, and possibly secondary metabolism. PMID:27095476

  9. A Morpho-Elastic Model of Hyphal Tip Growth in Filamentous Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, A.; Tabor, M.; Tongen, A.

    The growth of filamentous cells is modeled through the use of exact, nonlinear, elasticity theory for shells and membranes. The biomechanical model is able to capture the generic features of growth of a broad array of cells including actinomycetes, fungi, and root hairs. It also provides the means of studying the effects of external surface stresses. The growth mechanism is modeled by a process of incremental elastic growth in which the cell wall responds elastically to the continuous addition of new material.

  10. Zinc and Manganese Chelation by Neutrophil S100A8/A9 (Calprotectin) Limits Extracellular Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphal Growth and Corneal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Heather L.; Jhingran, Anupam; Sun, Yan; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven de Jesus; Skaar, Eric P.; Chazin, Walter J.; Calera, Jose Antonio; Hohl, Tobias M.; Pearlman, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9, is an abundant neutrophil protein which possesses anti-microbial activity primarily due to its ability to chelate zinc and manganese. In the current study, we showed that neutrophils from calprotectin-deficient S100A9 −/− mice have an impaired ability to inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus hyphal growth in vitro, and in infected corneas in a murine model of fungal keratitis; however, the ability to inhibit hyphal growth was restored in S100A9−/− mice by injecting recombinant calprotectin. Further, using recombinant calprotectin with mutations in either the Zn and Mn binding sites or the Mn binding site alone, we show that both zinc and manganese binding are necessary for calprotectin’s anti-hyphal activity. In contrast to hyphae, we found no role for neutrophil calprotectin in uptake or killing of intracellular A. fumigatus conidia either in vitro, or in a murine model of pulmonary aspergillosis. We also found that an A. fumigatus ΔzafA mutant, which demonstrates deficient zinc transport, exhibits impaired growth in infected corneas and following incubation with neutrophils or calprotectin in vitro as compared to wild-type. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a novel stage - specific susceptibility of A. fumigatus to zinc and manganese chelation by neutrophil-derived calprotectin. PMID:26582948

  11. Pythium insidiosum: inhibitory effects of propolis and geopropolis on hyphal growth.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Maria José Abigail Mendes; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Sforcin, José Maurício

    Propolis and geopropolis are resinous products of bees showing antimicrobial effects. There is no data concerning their action against Pythium insidiosum - the causative agent of pythiosis, a pyogranulomatous disease of the subcutaneous tissue that affects mostly horses, dogs and humans. Fragments of 15 isolates of P. insidiodum were incubated with propolis and geopropolis extracts and evaluated for up to seven days to detect the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). Propolis inhibited three isolates at 1.0mgmL(-1) after 24h and all other isolates at 3.4mgmL(-1). Geopropolis led to more variable results, exerting predominantly a fungistatic action than a fungicidal one. Propolis was more efficient than geopropolis in inhibiting P. insidiosum since lower concentrations led to no growth after 24h. This effect may be due to propolis chemical composition, which has more active compounds than geopropolis. Propolis seemed to be a good candidate for in vivo studies, since treatment with conventional antifungal compounds is difficult in most of the cases, requiring extensive surgical debridement.

  12. The essential phosphoinositide kinase MSS-4 is required for polar hyphal morphogenesis, localizing to sites of growth and cell fusion in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Mähs, Anette; Ischebeck, Till; Heilig, Yvonne; Stenzel, Irene; Hempel, Franziska; Seiler, Stephan; Heilmann, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    Fungal hyphae and plant pollen tubes are among the most highly polarized cells known and pose extraordinary requirements on their cell polarity machinery. Cellular morphogenesis is driven through the phospholipid-dependent organization at the apical plasma membrane. We characterized the contribution of phosphoinositides (PIs) in hyphal growth of the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora crassa. MSS-4 is an essential gene and its deletion resulted in spherically growing cells that ultimately lyse. Two conditional mss-4-mutants exhibited altered hyphal morphology and aberrant branching at restrictive conditions that were complemented by expression of wild type MSS-4. Recombinant MSS-4 was characterized as a phosphatidylinositolmonophosphate-kinase phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)). PtdIns3P was also used as a substrate. Sequencing of two conditional mss-4 alleles identified a single substitution of a highly conserved Y750 to N. The biochemical characterization of recombinant protein variants revealed Y750 as critical for PI4P 5-kinase activity of MSS-4 and of plant PI4P 5-kinases. The conditional growth defects of mss-4 mutants were caused by severely reduced activity of MSS-4(Y750N), enabling the formation of only trace amounts of PtdIns(4,5)P(2). In N. crassa hyphae, PtdIns(4,5)P(2) localized predominantly in the plasma membrane of hyphae and along septa. Fluorescence-tagged MSS-4 formed a subapical collar at hyphal tips, localized to constricting septa and accumulated at contact points of fusing N. crassa germlings, indicating MSS-4 is responsible for the formation of relevant pools of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) that control polar and directional growth and septation. N. crassa MSS-4 differs from yeast, plant and mammalian PI4P 5-kinases by containing additional protein domains. The N-terminal domain of N. crassa MSS-4 was required for correct membrane association. The data presented for N

  13. Zinc and Manganese Chelation by Neutrophil S100A8/A9 (Calprotectin) Limits Extracellular Aspergillus fumigatus Hyphal Growth and Corneal Infection.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather L; Jhingran, Anupam; Sun, Yan; Vareechon, Chairut; de Jesus Carrion, Steven; Skaar, Eric P; Chazin, Walter J; Calera, José Antonio; Hohl, Tobias M; Pearlman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9, is an abundant neutrophil protein that possesses antimicrobial activity primarily because of its ability to chelate zinc and manganese. In the current study, we showed that neutrophils from calprotectin-deficient S100A9(-/-) mice have an impaired ability to inhibit Aspergillus fumigatus hyphal growth in vitro and in infected corneas in a murine model of fungal keratitis; however, the ability to inhibit hyphal growth was restored in S100A9(-/-) mice by injecting recombinant calprotectin. Furthermore, using recombinant calprotectin with mutations in either the Zn and Mn binding sites or the Mn binding site alone, we show that both zinc and manganese binding are necessary for calprotectin's antihyphal activity. In contrast to hyphae, we found no role for neutrophil calprotectin in uptake or killing of intracellular A. fumigatus conidia either in vitro or in a murine model of pulmonary aspergillosis. We also found that an A. fumigatus ∆zafA mutant, which demonstrates deficient zinc transport, exhibits impaired growth in infected corneas and following incubation with neutrophils or calprotectin in vitro as compared with wild-type. Collectively, these studies demonstrate a novel stage-specific susceptibility of A. fumigatus to zinc and manganese chelation by neutrophil-derived calprotectin.

  14. Identification and characterization of a novel gene, TrCCD1, and its possible function in hyphal growth and conidiospore development of Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yao Hua; Wang, Tian Hong; Wang, Xiao Li; Zhang, Guang Tao; Yu, Hai Na

    2009-03-01

    To investigate genes with essential functions during hyphal growth or sporulation in the asexual filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, we screened a collection of T-DNA insertion mutants and identified the genomic integration events. Two mutants with abnormal phenotypes, named as ccdO and ccdP, were found to have independent T-DNA insertions into a putative TrCCD1 gene locus, the product of which has significant homology to carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). Compared to the parental strain, both mutants tended to produce slow-growing hyphae and had a more than 50% reduction in colony growth rate. Simultaneously, the hyphae of the growing mutants formed wilting tip while the parental strain elongated straightly. To the effect of the TrCCD1 mutation on the conidiospore development, less spores were formed in the mutants than in the parental strain. In addition, disruption of TrCCD1 resulted in another phenotype characterized by a remarkable enhancement in the total carotenoid content. When the wild-type TrCCD1 gene was reintroduced into the ccd mutants, the abnormal phenotypes were rescued. These results suggest that TrCCD1 is involved in carotenoid metabolism and likely required for hyphal growth and conidiospore development in filamentous fungi T. reesei.

  15. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-02

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions.

  16. A model for growth of a single fungal hypha based on well-mixed tanks in series: simulation of nutrient and vesicle transport in aerial reproductive hyphae.

    PubMed

    Balmant, Wellington; Sugai-Guérios, Maura Harumi; Coradin, Juliana Hey; Krieger, Nadia; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Current models that describe the extension of fungal hyphae and development of a mycelium either do not describe the role of vesicles in hyphal extension or do not correctly describe the experimentally observed profile for distribution of vesicles along the hypha. The present work uses the n-tanks-in-series approach to develop a model for hyphal extension that describes the intracellular transport of nutrient to a sub-apical zone where vesicles are formed and then transported to the tip, where tip extension occurs. The model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature for the extension of reproductive aerial hyphae of three different fungi, and was able to describe different profiles involving acceleration and deceleration of the extension rate. A sensitivity analysis showed that the supply of nutrient to the sub-apical vesicle-producing zone is a key factor influencing the rate of extension of the hypha. Although this model was used to describe the extension of a single reproductive aerial hypha, the use of the n-tanks-in-series approach to representing the hypha means that the model has the flexibility to be extended to describe the growth of other types of hyphae and the branching of hyphae to form a complete mycelium.

  17. Influence of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on the Growth, Hyphal Morphology, and the Biosynthesis of Fumonisins in Fusarium proliferatum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Taotao; Jian, Qijie; Chen, Feng; Wang, Yong; Gong, Liang; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium proliferatum as a common fungus pathogen in foods can produce toxic fumonisins, which can cause animal diseases and increase risks of human cancers. On contrary, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as a synthetic antioxidant offers a clue for preventing growth of fungal species and inhibiting production of mycotoxins. Unfortunately, information of the inhibitory mechanism of BHA on Fusarium species is still limited. In this study, influence of BHA treatment on growth and inhibition of fumonisin production in relation to the expression of the fumonisin biosynthesis-related genes of the F. proliferatum ZYF was investigated, which revealed that BHA had a negative influence on growth and fumonisin production of F. proliferatum. To further elucidate the mechanism of BHA on the growth of F. proliferatum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the F. proliferatum hyphae. The BHA treatment induced the loss of cytoplasm and cellular constituents, as well as distortion of mycelia, but it did not directly degrade the fumonisin. Furthermore, the BHA treatment markedly inhibited the expressions of FUM1 (a polyketide synthase encoding gene) and FUM8 (an aminotransferase encoding gene) genes, which resulted in the depression of metabolic pathway of F. proliferatum. The transcriptional analyses of the FUM1 and FUM8 genes confirmed a correlation between the fumonisin production and its gene expression. This study provided some insights into mechanisms of production of fumonisin and feasible prevention to reduce fumonisin contamination in favor of human and animal health. PMID:27468276

  18. Ras GTPase-activating protein gap1 of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune regulates hyphal growth orientation and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Daniela; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Knabe, Nicole; Kothe, Erika

    2006-04-01

    The white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune is used for the analysis of mating and sexual development in homobasidiomycete fungi. In this study, we isolated the gene gap1 encoding a GTPase-activating protein for Ras. Disruption of gap1 should therefore lead to strains accumulating Ras in its activated, GTP-bound state and to constitutive Ras signaling. Haploid Deltagap1 monokaryons of different mating types did not show alterations in mating behavior in the four different mating interactions possible in fungi expressing a tetrapolar mating type system. Instead, the growth rate in Deltagap1 monokaryons was reduced by ca. 25% and ca. 50% in homozygous Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons. Monokaryons, as well as homozygous dikaryons, carrying the disrupted gap1 alleles exhibited a disorientated growth pattern. Dikaryons showed a strong phenotype during clamp formation since hook cells failed to fuse with the peg beside them. Instead, the dikaryotic character of the hyphae was rescued by fusion of the hooks with nearby developing branches. Deltagap1/Deltagap1 dikaryons formed increased numbers of fruitbody primordia, whereas the amount of fruitbodies was not raised. Mature fruitbodies formed no or abnormal gills. No production of spores could be observed. The results suggest Ras involvement in growth, clamp formation, and fruitbody development.

  19. The ER-mitochondria encounter structure contributes to hyphal growth, mitochondrial morphology and virulence of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Geißel, Bernadette; Penka, Mirjam; Neubauer, Michael; Wagener, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and the primary causative species of invasive aspergillosis, a systemic disease associated with high mortality rates. Treatment of invasive fungal infection relies on a very limited number of antifungal drug classes. In order to extend the spectrum of antifungal drugs novel target structures have to be identified. The ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES), a recently discovered tether that links mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, is a potential drug target based on its absence in Metazoa. Very recently, it was shown that ERMES is important for the fitness and immune evasion of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. We studied the role of the four ERMES core components Mdm10, Mdm12, Mdm34 and Mmm1 in the pathogenic mold A. fumigatus. By construction and characterizing conditional mutants of all four core components and deletion mutants of mdm10 and mdm12, we show that each component is of significant importance for growth of the fungal pathogen. While markedness of the individual mutant phenotypes differed slightly, all components are important for maintenance of the mitochondrial morphology and the intra-organellar distribution of nucleoids. Characterization of the Mmm1 ERMES mutant in a Galleria mellonella infection model indicates that ERMES contributes to virulence of A. fumigatus. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of ERMES could exert antifungal activity against this important pathogen.

  20. Image analysis of hyphal morphogenesis in Saprolegniaceae (Oomycetes).

    PubMed

    Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; Gierz, Gerhard; Bartnicki-García, Salomon

    2004-03-01

    Because of their wide range of apical morphology, several members of saprolegniaceous fungi (Oomycetes) were chosen to examine concordance with the vesicle supply center (VSC) model of hyphal morphogenesis. Two computer routines were devised to measure diameter changes over long stretches of hyphae and to test compatibility with the theoretical hyphoid shape, y = xcot(xV/N). In all four genera examined, the apex followed closely the contour described by the hyphoid equation; divergences became evident in the subapex. The hyphae of Saprolegnia parasitica showed maximum concordance with the VSC model, i.e., their profile matched a hyphoid curve from the apex to the entire length of the mature hyphal tube. In Aphanomyces and Leptolegnia, growth in the subapical region subsided becoming less than that specified by the hyphoid equation. In Achlya bisexualis, the reverse was true, the subapical region expanded beyond that specified by the hyphoid equation. The two divergent subapical tendencies gave the hyphal tips a cylindroid or conoid appearance, respectively. Since the hyphal apex of all four species conformed to the curvature dictated by the hyphoid equation, we concluded that a basic VSC mechanism operates in all of these oomycetous fungi. Accordingly, we suggest that the shape of an oomycetous hypha is generated by a VSC-driven gradient of wall formation, which is subject to additional modification in the subapex to produce a range of hyphal tip morphologies. The mathematical basis for generating a conoid hyphal tip by elongating the VSC is described in Appendix A.

  1. Hyphal formation of Candida albicans is controlled by electron transfer system

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Toshihiko . E-mail: twatanab@tohoku-pharm.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Ayako; Mikami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuji

    2006-09-15

    Most Candida albicans cells cultured in RPMI1640 medium at 37 deg. C grow in hyphal form in aerobic conditions, but they grow in yeast form in anaerobic conditions. The hyphal growth of C. albicans was inhibited in glucose-deficient conditions. Malonic acid, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, enhanced the yeast proliferation of C. albicans, indicating that the hyphal-formation signal was derived from the glycolysis system and the signal was transmitted to the electron transfer system via the citric acid cycle. Thenoyl trifluoro acetone (TTFA), an inhibitor of the signal transmission between complex II and Co Q, significantly inhibited the hyphal growth of C. albicans. Antimycin, KCN, and oligomycin, inhibitors of complex III, IV, and V, respectively, did not inhibit the hyphal growth of C. albicans. The production of mRNAs for the hyphal formation signal was completely inhibited in anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the electron transfer system functions upstream of the RAS1 signal pathway and activates the expression of the hyphal formation signal. Since the electron transfer system is inactivated in anaerobic conditions, C. albicans grew in yeast form in this condition.

  2. Gene encoding a C-type cyclin in Mycosphaerella graminicola is involved in aerial mycelium formation, filamentous growth, hyphal swelling, melanin biosynthesis, stress response, and pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important wheat pathogen causing septoria tritici blotch. To date, an efficient strategy to control M. graminicola has not been developed. More significantly, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M. graminicola pathogenicity. In this study, ...

  3. cAMP-independent signal pathways stimulate hyphal morphogenesis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Parrino, Salvatore M; Si, Haoyu; Naseem, Shamoon; Groudan, Kevin; Gardin, Justin; Konopka, James B

    2017-03-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans can transition from budding to hyphal growth, which promotes biofilm formation and invasive growth into tissues. Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase to form cAMP induces hyphal morphogenesis. The failure of cells lacking adenylyl cyclase (cyr1Δ) to form hyphae has suggested that cAMP signaling is essential for hyphal growth. However, cyr1Δ mutants also grow slowly and have defects in morphogenesis, making it unclear whether hyphal inducers must stimulate cAMP, or if normal basal levels of cAMP are required to maintain cellular health needed for hyphal growth. Interestingly, supplementation of cyr1Δ cells with low levels of cAMP enabled them to form hyphae in response to the inducer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), suggesting that a basal level of cAMP is sufficient for stimulation. Furthermore, we isolated faster-growing cyr1Δ pseudorevertant strains that can be induced to form hyphae even though they lack cAMP. The pseudorevertant strains were not induced by CO2 , consistent with reports that CO2 directly stimulates adenylyl cyclase. Mutational analysis showed that induction of hyphae in a pseudorevertant strain was independent of RAS1, but was dependent on the EFG1 transcription factor that acts downstream of protein kinase A. Thus, cAMP-independent signals contribute to the induction of hyphal responses.

  4. Neutrophil Interactions Stimulate Evasive Hyphal Branching by Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Julianne; Frydman, Galit H.; Jones, Caroline N.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA), primarily caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, is an opportunistic fungal infection predominantly affecting immunocompromised and neutropenic patients that is difficult to treat and results in high mortality. Investigations of neutrophil-hypha interaction in vitro and in animal models of IA are limited by lack of temporal and spatial control over interactions. This study presents a new approach for studying neutrophil-hypha interaction at single cell resolution over time, which revealed an evasive fungal behavior triggered by interaction with neutrophils: Interacting hyphae performed de novo tip formation to generate new hyphal branches, allowing the fungi to avoid the interaction point and continue invasive growth. Induction of this mechanism was independent of neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, but could be phenocopied by iron chelation and mechanical or physiological stalling of hyphal tip extension. The consequence of branch induction upon interaction outcome depends on the number and activity of neutrophils available: In the presence of sufficient neutrophils branching makes hyphae more vulnerable to destruction, while in the presence of limited neutrophils the interaction increases the number of hyphal tips, potentially making the infection more aggressive. This has direct implications for infections in neutrophil-deficient patients and opens new avenues for treatments targeting fungal branching. PMID:28076396

  5. Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kohki; Matsuzaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Hideo

    2005-06-09

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic, symbiotic associations with the roots of more than 80% of land plants. The fungi are incapable of completing their life cycle in the absence of a host root. Their spores can germinate and grow in the absence of a host, but their hyphal growth is very limited. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern signalling and recognition between AM fungi and their host plants. In one of the first stages of host recognition, the hyphae of AM fungi show extensive branching in the vicinity of host roots before formation of the appressorium, the structure used to penetrate the plant root. Host roots are known to release signalling molecules that trigger hyphal branching, but these branching factors have not been isolated. Here we have isolated a branching factor from the root exudates of Lotus japonicus and used spectroscopic analysis and chemical synthesis to identify it as a strigolactone, 5-deoxy-strigol. Strigolactones are a group of sesquiterpene lactones, previously isolated as seed-germination stimulants for the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche. The natural strigolactones 5-deoxy-strigol, sorgolactone and strigol, and a synthetic analogue, GR24, induced extensive hyphal branching in germinating spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita at very low concentrations.

  6. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Crop-Growth Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jun; Yao, Lili; Zhang, Jingchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Tai, Xiuxiang

    2017-01-01

    In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW). By carrying out three-dimensional numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics, spatial distributions were obtained for the UAV down-wash flow fields on the surface of the crop canopy. Based on the flow-field characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a UAV-borne crop-growth sensor was designed. Our field experiments show that the monitoring system has good dynamic stability and measurement accuracy over the range of operating altitudes of the sensor. The linear fitting determination coefficients (R2) for the output RVI value with respect to LNA, LAI, and LDW are 0.63, 0.69, and 0.66, respectively, and the Root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 1.42, 1.02 and 3.09, respectively. The equivalent figures for the output NDVI value are 0.60, 0.65, and 0.62 (LNA, LAI, and LDW, respectively) and the RMSEs are 1.44, 1.01 and 3.01, respectively. PMID:28273815

  7. Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Borne Crop-Growth Monitoring System.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jun; Yao, Lili; Zhang, Jingchao; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan; Tai, Xiuxiang

    2017-03-03

    In view of the demand for a low-cost, high-throughput method for the continuous acquisition of crop growth information, this study describes a crop-growth monitoring system which uses an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as an operating platform. The system is capable of real-time online acquisition of various major indexes, e.g., the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of the crop canopy, ratio vegetation index (RVI), leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA), leaf area index (LAI), and leaf dry weight (LDW). By carrying out three-dimensional numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics, spatial distributions were obtained for the UAV down-wash flow fields on the surface of the crop canopy. Based on the flow-field characteristics and geometrical dimensions, a UAV-borne crop-growth sensor was designed. Our field experiments show that the monitoring system has good dynamic stability and measurement accuracy over the range of operating altitudes of the sensor. The linear fitting determination coefficients (R²) for the output RVI value with respect to LNA, LAI, and LDW are 0.63, 0.69, and 0.66, respectively, and the Root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 1.42, 1.02 and 3.09, respectively. The equivalent figures for the output NDVI value are 0.60, 0.65, and 0.62 (LNA, LAI, and LDW, respectively) and the RMSEs are 1.44, 1.01 and 3.01, respectively.

  8. Submerged conidiation and product formation by Aspergillus niger at low specific growth rates are affected in aerial developmental mutants.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Nielsen, Kristian F; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, Joohae; van den Hondel, Cees A; Frisvad, Jens C; Ram, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that this differentiation strongly affects product formation. Since conidiation is inherent in the aerial environment, we hypothesized that product formation near zero growth can be influenced by affecting differentiation or development of aerial hyphae in general. To investigate this idea, three developmental mutants (ΔfwnA, scl-1, and scl-2 mutants) that have no apparent vegetative growth defects were cultured in maltose-limited retentostat cultures. The secondary-metabolite profile of the wild-type strain defined flavasperone, aurasperone B, tensidol B, and two so far uncharacterized compounds as associated with conidium formation, while fumonisins B(2), B(4), and B(6) were characteristic of early response to nutrient limitation by the vegetative mycelium. The developmental mutants responded differently to the severe substrate limitation, which resulted in distinct profiles of growth and product formation. fwnA encodes the polyketide synthase responsible for melanin biosynthesis during aerial differentiation, and we show that conidial melanin synthesis in submerged retentostat cultures and aurasperone B production are fwnA dependent. The scl-1 and scl-2 strains are two UV mutants generated in the ΔfwnA background that displayed reduced asexual conidiation and formed sclerotium-like structures on agar plates. The reduced conidiation phenotypes of the scl-1 and scl-2 strains are reflected in the retentostat cultivation and are accompanied by elimination or severely reduced accumulation of secondary metabolites and distinctly enhanced accumulation of extracellular protein. This investigation shows that submerged conidiation and product formation of a mitosporic

  9. Co-ordinated Growth between Aerial and Root Systems in Young Apple Plants Issued from in vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    COSTES, E.; GARCÍA-VILLANUEVA, E.; JOURDAN, C.; REGNARD, J. L.; GUÉDON, Y.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims In several species exhibiting a rhythmic aerial growth, the existence of an alternation between root and shoot growth has been demonstrated. The present study aims to investigate the respective involvement of the emergence of new organs and their elongation in relation to this phenomenon and its possible genotypic variation in young apple plants. • Methods Two apple varieties, X6407 (recently named ‘Ariane’) and X3305 (‘Chantecler’ × ‘Baujade’), were compared. Five plants per variety, issued from in vitro culture, were observed in minirhizotrons over 4 months. For each plant, root emergence and growth were observed twice per week. Growth rates were calculated for all roots with more than two segments and the branching density was calculated on primary roots. On the aerial part, the number of leaves, leaf area and total shoot length were observed weekly. • Key Results No significant difference was observed between varieties in any of the final characteristics of aerial growth. Increase in leaf area and shoot length exhibited a 3-week rhythm in X3305 while a weaker signal was observed in Ariane. The primary root growth rate was homogeneous between the plants and likewise between the varieties, while their branching density differed significantly. Secondary roots emerged rhythmically, with a 3-week and a 2-week rhythm, respectively, in X3305 and ‘Ariane’. Despite a high intra-variety variability, significant differences were observed between varieties in the secondary root life span and mean length. A synchronism between leaf emergence and primary root growth was highlighted in both varieties, while an opposition phase was observed between leaf area increments and secondary root emergence in X3305 only. • Conclusion A biological model of dynamics that summarizes the interactions between processes and includes the assumption of a feedback effect of lateral root emergence on leaf emergence is proposed. PMID:16260441

  10. Role of the RAM Network in Cell Polarity and Hyphal Morphogenesis in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yunkyoung; Cheon, Seon Ah; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, So-Yeon; Lee, Byung-Kyu; Oh, Doo-Byung; Kang, Hyun Ah

    2008-01-01

    RAM (regulation of Ace2p transcription factor and polarized morphogenesis) is a conserved signaling network that regulates polarized morphogenesis in yeast, worms, flies, and humans. To investigate the role of the RAM network in cell polarity and hyphal morphogenesis of Candida albicans, each of the C. albicans RAM genes (CaCBK1, CaMOB2, CaKIC1, CaPAG1, CaHYM1, and CaSOG2) was deleted. All C. albicans RAM mutants exhibited hypersensitivity to cell-wall- or membrane-perturbing agents, exhibiting cell-separation defects, a multinucleate phenotype and loss of cell polarity. Yeast two-hybrid and in vivo functional analyses of CaCbk1p and its activator, CaMob2p, the key factors in the RAM network, demonstrated that the direct interaction between the SMA domain of CaCbk1p and the Mob1/phocein domain of CaMob2p was necessary for hyphal growth of C. albicans. Genome-wide transcription profiling of a Camob2 mutant suggested that the RAM network played a role in serum- and antifungal azoles–induced activation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes, especially those involved in the late steps of ergosterol biosynthesis, and might be associated, at least indirectly, with the Tup1p-Nrg1p pathway. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the RAM network is critically required for hyphal growth as well as normal vegetative growth in C. albicans. PMID:18843050

  11. Uniformity of environmental conditions and plant growth in a hydroponic culture system for use in a growth room with aerial CO2 control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessey, J. K.; York, E. K.; Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    A portable system of hydroponic culture was developed that maintained temperature, pH, and nutrient concentrations of circulating nutrient solutions. The hydroponic system is used within a controlled-environment room (CER) for control of aerial environment. The CER was equipped with an auto-calibrating system for atmospheric CO2 control. The control systems for the hydroponic chambers were able to maintain acidity within +/- 0.2 pH units and the temperature with +/- 0.5 degree C. Mixing time for the 200-liter volume of solution within a hydroponic chamber was less than 12 min. The CO2 control system was able to maintain aerial concentrations within +/- 10 ppm CO2 during the light period. The only gradient found to occur within the hydroponic chambers or CER was a slight gradient in aerial temperature along the length of hydroponic chambers. Growth of soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] was characterized during a 3-week period of vegetative development by leaf number and area, plant dry weight, total N content of plants, and N depletion from the nutrient solution. The growth characteristics among populations for three hydroponic chambers within the CER were not significantly different, and the percent standard errors of means of the measurements within populations from each chamber were nearly all less than 10%. Thus, the uniformity of plant growth reflected the uniformity of environmental conditions.

  12. The effects of hydroxy fatty acids on the hyphal branching of germinated spores of AM fungi.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Gerald; Douds, David D

    2011-01-01

    Two hydroxy fatty acids, tentatively identified previously in carrot root exudates, were tested for their effects on hyphal growth of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Gigaspora gigantea (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe. Best results were achieved with a long-term bioassay (7-8d) with nanomolar concentrations throughout the Petri dish in contrast to the rapid microinjection bioassay (16-24h) in which nanogram quantities were injected near growing hyphal tips. When 5nM 2-hydroxy fatty acids of various chain length were tested, the length of the hydroxyl fatty acid was significant since only 2-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (2OH-TDA) and to a slightly lesser degree, 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid (2OH-DDA) induced a hyphal growth response while 2-hydroxydecanoic acid (2OH-DA) and 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic (2OH-HDA) acid did not. The position of the hydroxyl group was critical since 5nM 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (3OH-TDA) had no effect on hyphal growth. The length of the non-hydroxy containing straight chain fatty acid, per se, did not appear significant since none of these fatty acids had an effect on hyphal growth. The morphological growth response promoted by 2OH-TDA consisted of multiple lateral branches, spaced fairly regularly apart, along the primary germ tubes as well as some lateral branch formation off the major secondary hyphae. This growth response was identical to that observed when germinated spores were allowed to grow towards cultured carrot roots in vitro. This response to 2OH-TDA also was observed with an unidentified Gigaspora species but no morphological response was observed with Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. The results indicate that 2-hydroxy fatty acids are another putative category of root exudate signals perceived by Gigaspora species, stimulating an increase in elongated lateral branches.

  13. Structural requirements of strigolactones for hyphal branching in AM fungi.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kohki; Ogasawara, Shin; Ito, Seisuke; Hayashi, Hideo

    2010-07-01

    Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones that act as a host-derived signal in the rhizosphere communication of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root parasitic weeds as well as an endogenous plant hormone regulating shoot branching in plants. Strigolactones induce hyphal branching in AM fungi at very low concentrations, suggesting a highly sensitive perception system for strigolactones present in AM fungi. However, little is known about the structural requirements of strigolactones for hyphal branching in AM fungi. Here, we tested a series of natural and synthetically modified strigolactones as well as non-strigolactone-type germination stimulants for hyphal branching-inducing activity in germinating spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita. All tested compounds with a tricyclic lactone coupled to a methylbutenolide via an enol ether bond showed activity, but differed in the active concentration and in the branching pattern of hyphae. Truncation of the A- and AB-rings in the tricyclic ABC lactone of strigolactones resulted in a drastic reduction in hyphal branching activity. Although the connection of the C-ring in the tricyclic lactone to the methylbutenolide D-ring was shown to be essential for hyphal branching, the bridge structure in the C-D part was found not necessarily to be enol ether, being replaceable with either alkoxy or imino ethers. These structural requirements in AM fungi are very similar but not identical to those observed in root parasitic weeds, especially with respect to the enol ether bridge in the C-D part.

  14. Hyphal ontogeny in Neurospora crassa: a model organism for all seasons

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Martínez-Núñez, Leonora

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have proven to be a better-suited model system than unicellular yeasts in analyses of cellular processes such as polarized growth, exocytosis, endocytosis, and cytoskeleton-based organelle traffic. For example, the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa develops a variety of cellular forms. Studying the molecular basis of these forms has led to a better, yet incipient, understanding of polarized growth. Polarity factors as well as Rho GTPases, septins, and a localized delivery of vesicles are the central elements described so far that participate in the shift from isotropic to polarized growth. The growth of the cell wall by apical biosynthesis and remodeling of polysaccharide components is a key process in hyphal morphogenesis. The coordinated action of motor proteins and Rab GTPases mediates the vesicular journey along the hyphae toward the apex, where the exocyst mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. Cytoplasmic microtubules and actin microfilaments serve as tracks for the transport of vesicular carriers as well as organelles in the tubular cell, contributing to polarization. In addition to exocytosis, endocytosis is required to set and maintain the apical polarity of the cell. Here, we summarize some of the most recent breakthroughs in hyphal morphogenesis and apical growth in N. crassa and the emerging questions that we believe should be addressed. PMID:27990280

  15. Hyphal ontogeny in Neurospora crassa: a model organism for all seasons.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Meritxell; Martínez-Núñez, Leonora

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have proven to be a better-suited model system than unicellular yeasts in analyses of cellular processes such as polarized growth, exocytosis, endocytosis, and cytoskeleton-based organelle traffic. For example, the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa develops a variety of cellular forms. Studying the molecular basis of these forms has led to a better, yet incipient, understanding of polarized growth. Polarity factors as well as Rho GTPases, septins, and a localized delivery of vesicles are the central elements described so far that participate in the shift from isotropic to polarized growth. The growth of the cell wall by apical biosynthesis and remodeling of polysaccharide components is a key process in hyphal morphogenesis. The coordinated action of motor proteins and Rab GTPases mediates the vesicular journey along the hyphae toward the apex, where the exocyst mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. Cytoplasmic microtubules and actin microfilaments serve as tracks for the transport of vesicular carriers as well as organelles in the tubular cell, contributing to polarization. In addition to exocytosis, endocytosis is required to set and maintain the apical polarity of the cell. Here, we summarize some of the most recent breakthroughs in hyphal morphogenesis and apical growth in N. crassa and the emerging questions that we believe should be addressed.

  16. Recent Growth of Aerial Photographic Interpretation/Remote Sensing in Geography in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, John E.; Thaman, Konai

    1974-01-01

    This paper traces the history and growth of air photo interpretation and remote sensing within the field of geography. Courses offered in these fields, factors influencing growth, research findings, and professional geographic interest are discussed. (JH)

  17. Coccidioides immitis presenting as a hyphal form in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, M. R.; Kobayashi, G. K.; Appleman, M. D.; Navarro, A.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports a case of Coccidioides immitis that presented as a hyphal form in a 38-year-old patient. The organism was observed growing exclusively as hyphae in the cerebrospinal fluid by microscopic examination. Coccidioides immitis was the only organism cultured. The identification of C immitis was confirmed by both standard culture methods and DNA probe studies. Images Figure PMID:9685779

  18. Hydroxyurea enhances post-fusion hyphal extension during sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, M Naim; Kaur, Jan Naseer; Panepinto, John C

    2012-03-01

    Mating and sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii strains of the H99 background is often less robust than that laboratory generated isogenic C. neoformans var. neoformans strains in the JEC21 background. In Candida albicans and Saccharomyces serevisiae, slowing of DNA synthesis and engagement of the replication stress response, such as that caused by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU), induces filamentation and pseudohyphal growth, respectively. In this study, we investigated the effect of HU treatment on C. neoformans var. grubii morphogenesis. Treatment with HU did not induce filamentation of yeast cells either in liquid culture or on solid YPD or V8 agar. In the presence of the opposite mating partner, we observed early emergence of hyphae in the presence of HU. Semi-quantitative analysis of fusion using marked strains demonstrated that no significant enhancement of fusion in the presence of HU. Transfer of fusion colonies from crosses performed in the absence of HU to V8 + HU revealed enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of HU. Analysis of expression of the target of HU, ribonucleotide reductase, revealed that a phylogenetically divergent catalytic subunit is replication stress responsive in C. neoformans. These results suggest that induction of replication stress promotes post-fusion hyphal growth of C. neoformans var. grubii strains in the H99 background.

  19. Structural Requirements of Strigolactones for Hyphal Branching in AM Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Kohki; Ogasawara, Shin; Ito, Seisuke; Hayashi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones that act as a host-derived signal in the rhizosphere communication of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root parasitic weeds as well as an endogenous plant hormone regulating shoot branching in plants. Strigolactones induce hyphal branching in AM fungi at very low concentrations, suggesting a highly sensitive perception system for strigolactones present in AM fungi. However, little is known about the structural requirements of strigolactones for hyphal branching in AM fungi. Here, we tested a series of natural and synthetically modified strigolactones as well as non-strigolactone-type germination stimulants for hyphal branching-inducing activity in germinating spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita. All tested compounds with a tricyclic lactone coupled to a methylbutenolide via an enol ether bond showed activity, but differed in the active concentration and in the branching pattern of hyphae. Truncation of the A- and AB-rings in the tricyclic ABC lactone of strigolactones resulted in a drastic reduction in hyphal branching activity. Although the connection of the C-ring in the tricyclic lactone to the methylbutenolide D-ring was shown to be essential for hyphal branching, the bridge structure in the C–D part was found not necessarily to be enol ether, being replaceable with either alkoxy or imino ethers. These structural requirements in AM fungi are very similar but not identical to those observed in root parasitic weeds, especially with respect to the enol ether bridge in the C–D part. PMID:20418334

  20. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  1. Nuclear dynamics during germination, conidiation, and hyphal fusion of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Roldán, M Carmen; Köhli, Michael; Roncero, M Isabel G; Philippsen, Peter; Di Pietro, Antonio; Espeso, Eduardo A

    2010-08-01

    In many fungal pathogens, infection is initiated by conidial germination. Subsequent stages involve germ tube elongation, conidiation, and vegetative hyphal fusion (anastomosis). Here, we used live-cell fluorescence to study the dynamics of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and cherry fluorescent protein (ChFP)-labeled nuclei in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Hyphae of F. oxysporum have uninucleated cells and exhibit an acropetal nuclear pedigree, where only the nucleus in the apical compartment is mitotically active. In contrast, conidiation follows a basopetal pattern, whereby mononucleated microconidia are generated by repeated mitotic cycles of the subapical nucleus in the phialide, followed by septation and cell abscission. Vegetative hyphal fusion is preceded by directed growth of the fusion hypha toward the receptor hypha and followed by a series of postfusion nuclear events, including mitosis of the apical nucleus of the fusion hypha, migration of a daughter nucleus into the receptor hypha, and degradation of the resident nucleus. These previously unreported patterns of nuclear dynamics in F. oxysporum could be intimately related to its pathogenic lifestyle.

  2. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Uncovers a Novel Function for the Transcription Factor Ace2 during Candida albicans Hyphal Development

    PubMed Central

    Orellana-Muñoz, Sara; Gutiérrez-Escribano, Pilar; Arnáiz-Pita, Yolanda; Dueñas-Santero, Encarnación; Suárez, M. Belén; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; del Rey, Francisco; Sherlock, Gavin; d’Enfert, Christophe; Correa-Bordes, Jaime; de Aldana, Carlos R. Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor Ace2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two Ace2 isoforms. While full-length Ace2, Ace2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to Ace2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that Ace2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of Ace2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking Ace2L. Finally, we report that Ace2L and Ace2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking Ace2L. Together, our findings identify Ace2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C. albicans lineages

  3. Unique Function of the Bacterial Chromosome Segregation Machinery in Apically Growing Streptomyces - Targeting the Chromosome to New Hyphal Tubes and its Anchorage at the Tips

    PubMed Central

    Lipietta, Natalia; Tilley, Emma; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Herron, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The coordination of chromosome segregation with cell growth is fundamental to the proliferation of any organism. In most unicellular bacteria, chromosome segregation is strictly coordinated with cell division and involves ParA that moves the ParB nucleoprotein complexes bi- or unidirectionally toward the cell pole(s). However, the chromosome organization in multiploid, apically extending and branching Streptomyces hyphae challenges the known mechanisms of bacterial chromosome segregation. The complex Streptomyces life cycle involves two stages: vegetative growth and sporulation. In the latter stage, multiple cell divisions accompanied by chromosome compaction and ParAB assisted segregation turn multigenomic hyphal cell into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, the requirement for active chromosome segregation is unclear in the absence of canonical cell division during vegetative growth except in the process of branch formation. The mechanism by which chromosomes are targeted to new hyphae in streptomycete vegetative growth has remained unknown until now. Here, we address the question of whether active chromosome segregation occurs at this stage. Applied for the first time in Streptomyces, labelling of the chromosomal replication initiation region (oriC) and time-lapse microscopy, revealed that in vegetative hyphae every copy of the chromosome is complexed with ParB, whereas ParA, through interaction with the apical protein complex (polarisome), tightly anchors only one chromosome at the hyphal tip. The anchor is maintained during replication, when ParA captures one of the daughter oriCs. During spore germination and branching, ParA targets one of the multiple chromosomal copies to the new hyphal tip, enabling efficient elongation of hyphal tube. Thus, our studies reveal a novel role for ParAB proteins during hyphal tip establishment and extension. PMID:27977672

  4. The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrion Tether ERMES Orchestrates Fungal Immune Evasion, Illuminating Inflammasome Responses to Hyphal Signals

    PubMed Central

    Tucey, Timothy M.; Verma-Gaur, Jiyoti; Nguyen, Julie; Hewitt, Victoria L.; Lo, Tricia L.; Shingu-Vazquez, Miguel; Robertson, Avril A. B.; Hill, James R.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Beddoe, Travis; Cooper, Matthew A.; Naderer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans escapes macrophages by triggering NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent host cell death (pyroptosis). Pyroptosis is inflammatory and must be tightly regulated by host and microbe, but the mechanism is incompletely defined. We characterized the C. albicans endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondrion tether ERMES and show that the ERMES mmm1 mutant is severely crippled in killing macrophages despite hyphal formation and normal phagocytosis and survival. To understand dynamic inflammasome responses to Candida with high spatiotemporal resolution, we established live-cell imaging for parallel detection of inflammasome activation and pyroptosis at the single-cell level. This showed that the inflammasome response to mmm1 mutant hyphae is delayed by 10 h, after which an exacerbated activation occurs. The NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 inhibited inflammasome activation and pyroptosis by C. albicans, including exacerbated inflammasome activation by the mmm1 mutant. At the cell biology level, inactivation of ERMES led to a rapid collapse of mitochondrial tubular morphology, slow growth and hyphal elongation at host temperature, and reduced exposed 1,3-β-glucan in hyphal populations. Our data suggest that inflammasome activation by C. albicans requires a signal threshold dependent on hyphal elongation and cell wall remodeling, which could fine-tune the response relative to the level of danger posed by C. albicans. The phenotypes of the ERMES mutant and the lack of conservation in animals suggest that ERMES is a promising antifungal drug target. Our data further indicate that NLRP3 inhibition by MCC950 could modulate C. albicans-induced inflammation. IMPORTANCE The yeast Candida albicans causes human infections that have mortality rates approaching 50%. The key to developing improved therapeutics is to understand the host-pathogen interface. A critical interaction is that with macrophages: intracellular Candida triggers the NLRP3/caspase-1

  5. Ras GTPase-Activating Protein Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton and Hyphal Polarity in Aspergillus nidulans▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Harispe, Laura; Portela, Cecilia; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Peñalva, Miguel A.; Gorfinkiel, Lisette

    2008-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans gapA1, a mutation leading to compact, fluffy colonies and delayed polarity establishment, maps to a gene encoding a Ras GTPase-activating protein. Domain organization and phylogenetic analyses strongly indicate that GapA regulates one or more “true” Ras proteins. A gapAΔ strain is viable. gapA colonies are more compact than gapA1 colonies and show reduced conidiation. gapAΔ strains have abnormal conidiophores, characterized by the absence of one of the two layers of sterigmata seen in the wild type. gapA transcript levels are very low in conidia but increase during germination and reach their maximum at a time coincident with germ tube emergence. Elevated levels persist in hyphae. In germinating conidiospores, gapAΔ disrupts the normal coupling of isotropic growth, polarity establishment, and mitosis, resulting in a highly heterogeneous cell population, including malformed germlings and a class of giant cells with no germ tubes and a multitude of nuclei. Unlike wild-type conidia, gapAΔ conidia germinate without a carbon source. Giant multinucleated spores and carbon source-independent germination have been reported in strains carrying a rasA dominant active allele, indicating that GapA downregulates RasA. gapAΔ cells show a polarity maintenance defect characterized by apical swelling and subapical branching. The strongly polarized wild-type F-actin distribution is lost in gapAΔ cells. As GapA-green fluorescent protein shows cortical localization with strong predominance at the hyphal tips, we propose that GapA-mediated downregulation of Ras signaling at the plasma membrane of these tips is involved in the polarization of the actin cytoskeleton that is required for hyphal growth and, possibly, for asexual morphogenesis. PMID:18039943

  6. Aerial Photographic Analysis of Historic Riparian Vegetation Growth and Channel Change at Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadol, D. D.; Rathburn, S. L.

    2005-12-01

    Aerial photographs over the past 70 years show that a profound alteration in the channels of Canyon de Chelly National Monument has coincided with the establishment and expansion of riparian vegetation, in particular invasive tamarisk ( Tamarix ssp.) and Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia). Rectification of the air photos, using GIS, enabled detailed mapping of the extent and density of vegetation in the canyon bottom, and analysis of stream channel geometry for each photo set. Photo sets from 1934, 1989, and 2004 were used to track changes in vegetation and channel morphology through time. In 1934, scattered riparian vegetation, including cottonwood ( Populus ssp.) and willow ( Salix ssp.), covered <1% of the canyon bottom. By 2004 the full length of the channel was lined with a riparian vegetation belt, with vegetation covering as much as 40% of the canyon bottom in some 1 km long study reaches . However the width of the riparian belt was spatially discontinuous, with other study reaches having less than 10% coverage of the canyon bottom. Riparian vegetation growth has coincided with an alteration in the hydrology of the streams within the canyon. Air photos from 1934 show a wide sandy wash throughout the extent of the study area. By 1989, some reaches had narrowed, with the channel becoming a single, meandering thread, and with woody riparian vegetation well established on much of the former wash. By 2004, long reaches of the study area were single thread, and dense Russian olive and tamarisk stands filled much of the former wash. While in some reaches the channel changed from a wide braided system to a single thread, other areas remain a sandy wash. Additionally, some reaches of the channel had become deeply incised, as much as 3 meters below the 1934 floodplain, as indicated by persistent cottonwood individuals. Field work indicates that incision was still very active in 2005. However, quantitative analysis of incision through time throughout the study

  7. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  8. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A K; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Fleißner, André

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi.

  9. HOY1, a homeo gene required for hyphal formation in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Guzmán, J C; Domínguez, A

    1997-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica grows to form hyphae either in rich media or in media with GlcNAc as a carbon source. A visual screening, called FIL (filamentation minus), for Y. lipolytica yeast growth mutants has been developed. The FIL screen was used to identify three Y. lipolytica genes that abolish hypha formation in all media assayed. Y. lipolytica HOY1, a gene whose deletion prevents the yeast-hypha transition both in liquid and solid media, was characterized. HOY1 is predicted to encode a 509-amino-acid protein with a homeodomain homologous to that found in the chicken Hox4.8 gene. Analysis of the protein predicts a nuclear location. These observations suggest that Hoy1p may function as a transcriptional regulatory protein. In disrupted strains, reintroduction of HOY1 restored the capacity for hypha formation. Northern blot hybridization revealed the HOY1 transcript to be approximately 1.6 kb. Expression of this gene was detected when Y. lipolytica grew as a budding yeast, but an increase in its expression was observed by 1 h after cells had been induced to form hyphae. The possible functions of HOY1 in hyphal growth and the uses of the FIL screen to identify morphogenetic regulatory genes from heterologous organisms are discussed. PMID:9343389

  10. Hyphal tip extension in Aspergillus nidulans requires the manA gene, which encodes phosphomannose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Payton, M A

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus nidulans carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the manA gene produces cell walls depleted of D-mannose and forms hyphal tip balloons at the restrictive temperature (B.P. Valentine and B.W. Bainbridge, J. Gen. Microbiol. 109:155-168, 1978). We have isolated and characterized the manA gene and physically located it between 3.5 and 5.5 kb centromere distal of the riboB locus on chromosome VIII. The manA gene contains four introns and encodes a 50.6-kDa protein which has significant sequence identity to type I phosphomannose isomerase proteins from other eukaryotes. We have constructed by integrative transformation a null mutation in the manA gene which can only be maintained in a heterokaryotic strain with wild-type manA+ nuclei. Thus, a manA null mutation is lethal in A. nidulans. The phenotype of the mutation was analyzed in germinating conidia. Such conidia are able to commence germination but swell abnormally, sometimes producing a misshapen germ tube, before growth ceases. The reason for the lethality is probably the lack of synthesis of mannose-containing cell wall polymers that must be required for normal cell wall development in growing hyphae. Images PMID:8065336

  11. Hyphal responses of Neurospora crassa to micron-sized beads with functional chemical surface groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, Marie; Edwards, Clive; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2011-02-01

    Filamentous fungi include serious plant and animal pathogens that explore their environment efficiently in order to penetrate the host. This environment is physically and chemically heterogeneous and the fungi rely on specific physical and chemical signals to find the optimal point/s of attack. This study presents a methodology to introduce distinct structures with dimensions similar to the hyphal diameter and specific chemical surface groups into a controllable environment in order to study the fungal response. We introduced 3.3 μm polystyrene beads covered with Epoxy surface groups into microfluidic channels made from PDMS by rapid replica molding. The experimental setup resulted in different areas with low and high densities of beads as well as densely packed patches. The observations of the fungus exploring the areas long-term showed that the growth parameters were altered significantly, compared with the values measured on agar. The fungus responded to both, the physical and chemical parameters of the beads, including temporary directional changes, increased branching angles, decreased branching distances, decreased apical extension velocities and occasional cell wall lysis. The wealth and magnitude of the observed responses indicates that the microfluidic structures provide a powerful platform for the investigation of micron-sized features on filamentous fungi.

  12. Vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë grass endophytes.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Jun-Ya; Charlton, Nikki D; Yi, Mihwa; Young, Carolyn A; Craven, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë species (including the former genus Neotyphodium) are fungal symbionts of many agronomically important forage grasses, and provide their grass hosts with protection from a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Epichloë species include many interspecific hybrids with allodiploid-like genomes, which may provide the potential for combined traits or recombination to generate new traits. Though circumstantial evidence suggests that such interspecific hybrids might have arisen from nuclear fusion events following vegetative hyphal fusion between different Epichloë strains, this hypothesis has not been addressed empirically. Here, we investigated vegetative hyphal fusion and subsequent nuclear behavior in Epichloë species. A majority of Epichloë strains, especially those having a sexual stage, underwent self vegetative hyphal fusion. Vegetative fusion also occurred between two hyphae from different Epichloë strains. Though Epichloë spp. are uninucleate fungi, hyphal fusion resulted in two nuclei stably sharing the same cytoplasm, which might ultimately lead to nuclear fusion. In addition, protoplast fusion experiments gave rise to uninucleate putative hybrids, which apparently had two markers, one from each parent within the same nucleus. These results are consistent with the notion that interspecific hybrids arise from vegetative hyphal fusion. However, we also discuss additional factors, such as post-hybridization selection, that may be important to explain the recognized prevalence of hybrids in Epichloë species.

  13. Geminivirus-Mediated Delivery of Florigen Promotes Determinate Growth in Aerial Organs and Uncouples Flowering from Photoperiod in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Roisin C.; Ayre, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant architecture and the timing and distribution of reproductive structures are fundamental agronomic traits shaped by patterns of determinate and indeterminate growth. Florigen, encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) in tomato, acts as a general growth hormone, advancing determinate growth. Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a highly inbred, compact day-neutral plant that is managed as an annual row-crop. This dramatic change in plant architecture provides a unique opportunity to analyze the transition from perennial to annual growth. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore these architectural changes, we addressed the role of day-length upon flowering in an ancestral, perennial accession and in a domesticated variety of cotton. Using a disarmed Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV) as a transient expression system, we delivered FT to both cotton accessions. Ectopic expression of FT in ancestral cotton mimicked the effects of day-length, promoting photoperiod-independent flowering, precocious determinate architecture, and lanceolate leaf shape. Domesticated cotton infected with FT demonstrated more synchronized fruiting and enhanced “annualization”. Transient expression of FT also facilitated simple crosses between wild photoperiodic and domesticated day-neutral accessions, effectively demonstrating a mechanism to increase genetic diversity among cultivated lines of cotton. Virus was not detected in the F1 progeny, indicating that crosses made by this approach do not harbor recombinant DNA molecules. Conclusions These findings extend our understanding of FT as a general growth hormone that regulates shoot architecture by advancing organ-specific and age-related determinate growth. Judicious manipulation of FT could benefit cotton architecture to improve crop management. PMID:22615805

  14. Changes in hyphal morphology and activity of phenoloxidases during interactions between selected ectomycorrhizal fungi and two species of Trichoderma.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Patterns of phenoloxidase activity can be used to characterize fungi of different life styles, and changes in phenoloxidase synthesis were suspected to play a role in the interaction between ectomycorrhizal and two species of Trichoderma. Confrontation between the ectomycorrhizal fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria laccata with species of Trichoderma resulted in induction of laccase synthesis, and the laccase enzyme was bound to mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Tyrosinase release was noted only during interaction of L. laccata strains with Trichoderma harzianum and T. virens. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, especially strains of Suillus bovinus and S. luteus, inhibited growth of Trichoderma species and caused morphological changes in its colonies in the zone of interaction. In contrast, hyphal changes occurred less often in the ectomycorrhizal fungi tested. Species of Suillus are suggested to present a different mechanism in their interaction with other fungi than A. muscaria and L. laccata.

  15. The AngFus3 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Controls Hyphal Differentiation and Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Pahirulzaman, Khomaizon A. K.; Dickschat, Jeroen S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to a changing environment is essential for the survival and propagation of sessile organisms, such as plants or fungi. Filamentous fungi commonly respond to a worsening of their growth conditions by differentiation of asexually or sexually produced spores. The formation of these specialized cell types is, however, also triggered as part of the general life cycle by hyphal age or density. Spores typically serve for dispersal and, therefore, translocation but can also act as resting states to endure times of scarcity. Eukaryotic differentiation in response to environmental and self-derived signals is commonly mediated by three-tiered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades. Here, we report that the MAP kinase Fus3 of the black mold Aspergillus niger (AngFus3) and its upstream kinase AngSte7 control vegetative spore formation and secondary metabolism. Mutants lacking these kinases are defective in conidium induction in response to hyphal density but are fully competent in starvation-induced sporulation, indicating that conidiation in A. niger is triggered by various independent signals. In addition, the mutants exhibit an altered profile of volatile metabolites and secrete dark pigments into the growth medium, suggesting a dysregulation of the secondary metabolism. By assigning the AngFus3 MAP kinase pathway to the transduction of a potentially self-derived trigger, this work contributes to the unraveling of the intricate signaling networks controlling fungal differentiation. Moreover, our data further support earlier observations that differentiation and secondary metabolism are tightly linked in filamentous fungi. PMID:25888553

  16. Antimicrobial activity, growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines, and phytochemical characterization of the hydromethanolic extract obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Khaled N; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity, Growth Inhibition of Human Tumour Cell Lines, and Phytochemical Characterization of the Hydromethanolic Extract Obtained from Sapindus saponaria L. Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Soković, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Sapindus saponaria L. aerial parts was investigated for antimicrobial activity (against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) and capacity to inhibit the growth of different human tumor cell lines as also nontumor liver cells. The evaluated extract was further characterized in terms of phytochemicals using UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and MS spectroscopic tools. The extract has shown a significant antimicrobial activity on all tested bacterial and fungal species. The best activity was achieved against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus among bacteria and against all three Penicillium species tested. It also revealed cytotoxicity against human colon (HCT-15), cervical (HeLa), breast (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H460) carcinoma cell lines, with HeLa being the most susceptible tumor cell line. The extract was not toxic for nontumor liver cells. Chromatographic separation of the extract resulted in the isolation and identification of stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, luteolin, luteolin 8-C-β-glucoside (orientin), luteolin 6-C-β-glucoside (isoorientin), luteolin 7-O-β-glucuronide, and rutin. The results of the present findings may be useful for the discovery of novel antitumor and antimicrobial agents from plant origin. PMID:24455713

  18. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus adherence to Candida albicans hyphae is mediated by the hyphal adhesin Als3p.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian M; Ovchinnikova, Ekaterina S; Krom, Bastiaan P; Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Zhou, Han; Hoyer, Lois L; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    The bacterium Staphylococcus (St.) aureus and the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans are currently among the leading nosocomial pathogens, often co-infecting critically ill patients, with high morbidity and mortality. Previous investigations have demonstrated preferential adherence of St. aureus to C. albicans hyphae during mixed biofilm growth. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mechanism behind this observed interaction. C. albicans adhesin-deficient mutant strains were screened by microscopy to identify the specific receptor on C. albicans hyphae recognized by St. aureus. Furthermore, an immunoassay was developed to validate and quantify staphylococcal binding to fungal biofilms. The findings from these experiments implicated the C. albicans adhesin agglutinin-like sequence 3 (Als3p) in playing a major role in the adherence process. This association was quantitatively established using atomic force microscopy, in which the adhesion force between single cells of the two species was significantly reduced for a C. albicans mutant strain lacking als3. Confocal microscopy further confirmed these observations, as St. aureus overlaid with a purified recombinant Als3 N-terminal domain fragment (rAls3p) exhibited robust binding. Importantly, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterologously expressing Als3p was utilized to further confirm this adhesin as a receptor for St. aureus. Although the parental strain does not bind bacteria, expression of Als3p on the cell surface conferred upon the yeast the ability to strongly bind St. aureus. To elucidate the implications of these in vitro findings in a clinically relevant setting, an ex vivo murine model of co-infection was designed using murine tongue explants. Fluorescent microscopic images revealed extensive hyphal penetration of the epithelium typical of C. albicans mucosal infection. Interestingly, St. aureus bacterial cells were only seen within the epithelial tissue when associated with the invasive

  20. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  1. A Genome-Wide Transcriptional Analysis of Yeast-Hyphal Transition in Candida tropicalis by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuan-bao; Li, Wen-ge; Liu, Xiao-shu; Zhao, Lei; Lu, Jin-xing

    2016-01-01

    Candida tropicalis is considered as the leading pathogen in nosocomial fungemia and hepatosplenic fungal infections in patients with cancer, particularly in leukemia. The yeast-filament transition is required for virulent infection by Candida. Several studies have explored the genome-wide transcription profile of Candida, however, no report on the transcriptional profile of C. tropicalis under yeast-filament transition has been published. In this study, the transcriptomes of three C. tropicalis isolates with different adhesion and biofilm formation abilities, identified in our previous studies, were analyzed in both the yeast and filament states using RNA-Seq. Differentially expressed genes were found for each isolate during the transition. A total of 115 genes were up- or down- regulated in the two hyphal-producing isolates (ZRCT 4 and ZRCT 45). Among these differentially expressed genes, only two were down-regulated during the yeast-filament transition. Furthermore, six filament-associated genes were up-regulated in the hyphae-producing isolates. According to Candida Hypha Growth Database established in this study, 331 hyphae- related genes were discovered in C. tropicalis. ALS1 and ALS3 were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, during filamentous growth of C. tropicalis. These findings proved a better understanding of gene expression dynamics during the yeast-filament transition in C. tropicalis. PMID:27851809

  2. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Schlecht, Lisa Marie; Peters, Brian M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Freiberg, Jeffrey A.; Hänsch, Gertrud M.; Filler, Scott G.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through breaks in host epithelial layers although many patients have no documented portal of entry. We describe a novel strategy by which S. aureus is able to invade host tissue and disseminate via adherence to the invasive hyphal elements of Candida albicans. In vitro and ex vivo findings demonstrate a specific binding of the staphylococci to the candida hyphal elements. The C. albicans cell wall adhesin Als3p binds to multiple staphylococcal adhesins. Furthermore, Als3p is required for C. albicans to transport S. aureus into the tissue and cause a disseminated infection in an oral co-colonization model. These findings suggest that C. albicans can facilitate the invasion of S. aureus across mucosal barriers, leading to systemic infection in co-colonized patients. PMID:25332378

  3. Minocycline inhibits the Candida albicans budded-to-hyphal-form transition and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kurakado, Sanae; Takatori, Kazuhiko; Sugita, Takashi

    2017-03-28

    Candida albicans frequently causes bloodstream infections; the budded-to-hyphal-form transition (BHT) and biofilm formation are major contributors to virulence. In a survey of antibacterial compounds that inhibit C. albicans BHT, we found that the tetracycline derivative minocycline inhibited BHT and subsequent biofilm formation. Minocycline downregulates expression of the hypha-specific genes HWP1 and ECE1, and the adhesion factor gene ALS3 of C. albicans. In addition, minocycline decreases cell surface hydrophobicity and the extracellular β-glucan level in biofilms. Minocycline has been widely used for catheter antibiotic lock therapy in efforts to prevent bacterial infection; the compound might also be prophylactically effective against Candida infection.

  4. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  5. Inhibitory effect of verapamil on Candida albicans hyphal development, adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qilin; Ding, Xiaohui; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Ning; Jia, Chang; Mao, Jiwei; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2014-06-01

    Candida albicans morphogenesis and gastrointestinal colonization are closely associated with the pathogenicity of this pathogen. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effect of verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, on these processes. Exposure to ≥ 10 μg mL(-1) verapamil led to a significant decrease of C. albicans hyphal cells. The ability to adhere to a polystyrene surface and buccal epithelial cells was inhibited by exposure to ≥ 20 μg mL(-1) verapamil. Detection of the Hwp1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that verapamil inhibited expression and transport of Hwp1, indicating its activity against both the regulation network of morphogenesis-associated proteins and the secretory pathway in C. albicans. Moreover, treatment with verapamil at 10 mg (kg day)(-1) led to a remarkable decrease in gastrointestinal-colonizing fungal cells. This study revealed the inhibitory effect of verapamil on C. albicans hyphal development, adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization, which is relevant to decreased expression and abnormal transport of the proteins required for morphogenesis. Therefore, verapamil may be taken into account when choosing an antifungal therapy against C. albicans colonization and infection.

  6. A developmental stage of hyphal cells shows riboflavin overproduction instead of sporulation in Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Nieland, Susanne; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2013-12-01

    The hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii develops a mycelium. Nutritional stress leads to its differentiation into sporangia. These generate spores. In parallel, the yellow pigment riboflavin is produced. Intracellularly accumulated riboflavin, made visible as a bright green fluorescence, was observed in only 60% of the hyphal cells. For the remaining 40%, it was unclear whether these cells simply export riboflavin or its biosynthesis remains down-regulated in contrast to the accumulating cells. The approach followed in this work was to convert the hyphae into protoplasts by enzymatic degradation of the cell wall. Afterwards, the protoplasts were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting on the basis of riboflavin accumulation. When a reporter strain expressing lacZ under the control of the most important riboflavin biosynthesis promoter, RIB3, was used, green protoplasts were found to have more than tenfold greater reporter activity than hyaline protoplasts. This was true on the basis of total protein as well as on the basis of hexokinase specific activity, a marker for constitutive expression. These results allow the conclusion that hyphal cells of A. gossypii differ in phenotype regarding riboflavin overproduction and accumulation.

  7. Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Farazul; Alfatah, Md.; Ganesan, K.; Bhattacharyya, Mani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation. PMID:27030404

  8. Identification of race-specific resistance in North American Vitis species limiting Erysiphe necator hyphal growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While race-specific resistance against powdery mildews is well documented in small grains, race specificity against grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) is undocumented. In the current study, two sources of powdery mildew resistance introgressed into Vitis vinifera were evaluated in the gree...

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farazul; Alfatah, Md; Ganesan, K; Bhattacharyya, Mani Shankar

    2016-03-31

    Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation.

  10. Differences between appressoria formed by germ tubes and appressorium-like structures developed by hyphal tips in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-An; Li, Guo-Tian; Liu, Yun; Liu, Mei-Gang; Zhang, Shi-Jie; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Peng, You-Liang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2013-07-01

    Melanized appressoria are highly specialized infection structures formed by germ tubes of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae for plant infection. M. oryzae also forms appressorium-like structures on hyphal tips. Whereas appressorium formation by conidial germ tubes has been well characterized, formation of appressorium-like structures by hyphal tips is under-investigated. In a previous study, we found that the chs7 deletion mutant failed to form appressoria on germ tubes but were normal in the development of appressorium-like structures on artificial hydrophobic surfaces. In this study, we compared the differences between the formation of appressoria by germ tubes and appressorium-like structures by hyphal tips in M. oryzae. Structurally, both appressoria and appressorium-like structures had a melanin layer that was absent in the pore region. In general, the latters were 1.4-fold larger in size but had lower turgor pressure than appressoria, which is consistent with its lower efficiency in plant penetration. Treatments with cAMP, IBMX, or a cutin monomer efficiently induced appressorium formation but not the development of appressorium-like structures. In contrast, coating surfaces with waxes stimulated the formation of both infection structures. Studies with various signaling mutants indicate that Osm1 and Mps1 are dispensable but Pmk1 is essential for both appressorium formation and development of appressorium-like structures on hyphal tips. Interestingly, the cpkA mutant was reduced in the differentiation of appressorium-like structures but not appressorium formation. We also observed that the con7 mutant generated in our lab failed to form appressorium-like structures on hyphal tips but still produced appressoria by germ tubes on hydrophobic surfaces. Con7 is a transcription factor regulating the expression of CHS7. Overall, these results indicate that the development of appressorium-like structures by hyphal tips and formation of appressoria by germ

  11. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  12. Two amino acid sequences direct Aspergillus nidulans protein kinase C (PkcA) localization to hyphal apices and septation sites.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Hayes, Loretta; Hill, Terry W; Loprete, Darlene M; DelBove, Claire E; Shapiro, Justin A; Henley, Jordan L; Dawodu, Omolola O

    2015-01-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans ortholog of protein kinase C (pkcA) is involved in the organism's putative cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, and PkcA also is highly localized at growing tips and forming septa. In the present work we identify the regions within PkcA that are responsible for its localization to hyphal tips and septation sites. To this end, we used serially truncated pkcA constructs and expressed them as green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeras and identified two regions that direct PkcA localization. The first region is a 10 amino-acid sequence near the carboxyl end of the C2 domain that is required for localization to hyphal tips. Proteins containing this sequence also localize to septation sites. A second region between C2 and C1B (encompassing C1A) is sufficient for localization to septation sites but not to hyphal tips. We also report that localization to hyphal tips and septation sites alone is not sufficient for truncated constructs to complement hypersensitivity to the cell wall compromising agent calcofluor white in a strain bearing a mutation in the pkcA gene. Taken together, these results suggest that localization and stress response might be independent.

  13. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  14. [Demonstration of β-1,2 mannan structures expressed on the cell wall of Candida albicans yeast form but not on the hyphal form by using monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Aydın, Cevahir; Ataoğlu, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus that may be observed as both commensal and opportunistic pathogen in humans. As one of the major components of Candida cell wall structure, mannan plays an important role in the fungus-host cell interaction and in virulence. The ability to switch from yeast to hypha form of microorganism is crutial in the development of C.albicans infections. Hyphal form has different antigenic properties compared to yeast form and structural changes occur in the yeast cell wall during transition from yeast to hypha form. Although there are several factors associated with this transition process, sufficient information is not available. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of configuration in mannan structure found in C.albicans cell wall by using monoclonal antibodies. C.albicans (NIHA 207) serotype A strains were used as test strains throughout the study, together with Salmonella choleraesuis 211 and Salmonella infantis as controls with similar cell wall structures to that of C.albicans. Cultures were maintained on YPD-agar medium by incubating at 28°C for yeast forms, and on YPD-broth medium in a shaking incubator at 37°C for 3-4 hours for the growth of hyphal forms. Cells were harvested in the exponential phase, and after being washed, the mannan content from C.albicans were extracted from pellet by heating in 20 mM sodium citrate buffer for 90 minutes at 125°C. Hybridoma technique was used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. After immunizing the Balb/C mice with antigen, the splenocytes were harvested and fusion was performed between spleen cells and F0 myeloma cells. The clones grown in HAT medium were screened for the presence of antibody producing hybrid cells by ELISA method. The antibody isotypes were determined by using a commercial kit (Pierce Biotechnology, ABD). The culture supernatants which contained monoclonal antibodies were collected and purified according to the ammonium sulphate method

  15. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  16. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  17. Regulation of nitrogen uptake and assimilation: Effects of nitrogen source, root-zone pH, and aerial CO2 concentration on growth and productivity of soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D.; Tolley-Henry, L.

    1989-01-01

    An important feature of controlled-environment crop production systems such as those to be used for life support of crews during space exploration is the efficient utilization of nitrogen supplies. Making decisions about the best sources of these supplies requires research into the relationship between nitrogen source and the physiological processes which regulate vegetative and reproductive plant growth. Work done in four areas within this research objective is reported: (1) experiments on the effects of root-zone pH on preferential utilization of NO3(-) versus NH4(+) nitrogen; (2) investigation of processes at the whole-plant level that regulate nitrogen uptake; (3) studies of the effects of atmospheric CO2 and NO3(-) supply on the growth of soybeans; and (4) examination of the role of NO3(-) uptake in enhancement of root respiration.

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals intracellular targets for bacillomycin L to induce Rhizoctonia solani Kühn hyphal cell death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Qin, Yuxuan; Han, Yuzhu; Dong, Chunjuan; Li, Pinglan; Shang, Qingmao

    2016-09-01

    Bacillomycin L, a natural iturinic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, is characterized by strong antifungal activity against a variety of agronomically important filamentous fungi including Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. To further understand its antifungal actions, proteomes were comparatively studied within R. solani hyphal cells treated with or without bacillomycin L. The results show that 39 proteins were alternatively expressed within cells in response to this lipopeptide, which are involved in stress response, carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, cellular component organization, calcium homeostasis, protein degradation, RNA processing, gene transcription, and others, suggesting that, in addition to inducing cell membrane permeabilization, iturin exhibits antibiotic activities by targeting intracellular molecules. Based on these results, a model of action of bacillomycin L against R. solani hyphal cells was proposed. Our study provides new insight into the antibiotic mechanisms of iturins.

  19. Regulation of nitrogen uptake and assimilation: Effects of nitrogen source and root-zone and aerial environment on growth and productivity of soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. David, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The interdependence of root and shoot growth produces a functional equilibrium as described in quantitative terms by numerous authors. It was noted that bean seedlings grown in a constant environment tended to have a constant distribution pattern of dry matter between roots and leaves characteristic of the set of environmental conditions. Disturbing equilibrium resulted in a change in relative growth of roots and leaves until the original ratio was restored. To define a physiological basis for regulation of nitrogen uptake within the balance between root and shoot activities, the authors combined a partioning scheme and a utilization priority assumption in which: (1) all carbon enters the plant through photosynthesis in leaves and all nitrogen enters the plant through active uptake by roots, (2) nitrogen uptake by roots and secretion into the xylem for transport to the shoots are active processes, (3) availability of exogenous nitrogen determines concentration of soluble carbohydrates within the roots, (4) leaves are a source and a sink for carbohydrates, and (5) the requirement for nitrogen by leaf growth is proportionally greater during initiation and early expansion than during later expansion.

  20. Garcinia xanthochymus Benzophenones Promote Hyphal Apoptosis and Potentiate Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Desmond N; Yang, Lin; Wu, ShiBiao; Kennelly, Edward J; Lipke, Peter N

    2015-10-01

    Xanthochymol and garcinol, isoprenylated benzophenones purified from Garcinia xanthochymus fruits, showed multiple activities against Candida albicans biofilms. Both compounds effectively prevented emergence of fungal germ tubes and were also cytostatic, with MICs of 1 to 3 μM. The compounds therefore inhibited development of hyphae and subsequent biofilm maturation. Xanthochymol treatment of developing and mature biofilms induced cell death. In early biofilm development, killing had the characteristics of apoptosis, including externalization of phosphatidyl serine and DNA fragmentation, as evidenced by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence. These activities resulted in failure of biofilm maturation and hyphal death in mature biofilms. In mature biofilms, xanthochymol and garcinol caused the death of biofilm hyphae, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 30 to 50 μM. Additionally, xanthochymol-mediated killing was complementary with fluconazole against mature biofilms, reducing the fluconazole EC50 from >1,024 μg/ml to 13 μg/ml. Therefore, xanthochymol has potential as an adjuvant for antifungal treatments as well as in studies of fungal apoptosis.

  1. Proper Sterol Distribution Is Required for Candida albicans Hyphal Formation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    McCourt, Paula; Liu, Hsing-Yin; Parker, Josie E.; Gallo-Ebert, Christina; Donigan, Melissa; Bata, Adam; Giordano, Caroline; Kelly, Steven L.; Nickels, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus responsible for the majority of systemic fungal infections. Multiple factors contribute to C. albicans pathogenicity. C. albicans strains lacking CaArv1 are avirulent. Arv1 has a conserved Arv1 homology domain (AHD) that has a zinc-binding domain containing two cysteine clusters. Here, we explored the role of the CaAHD and zinc-binding motif in CaArv1-dependent virulence. Overall, we found that the CaAHD was necessary but not sufficient for cells to be virulent, whereas the zinc-binding domain was essential, as Caarv1/Caarv1 cells expressing the full-length zinc-binding domain mutants, Caarv1C3S and Caarv1C28S, were avirulent. Phenotypically, we found a direct correlation between the avirulence of Caarv1/Caarv1, Caarrv1AHD, Caarv1C3S, and Caarv1C28S cells and defects in bud site selection, septa formation and localization, and hyphal formation and elongation. Importantly, all avirulent mutant strains lacked the ability to maintain proper sterol distribution. Overall, our results have established the importance of the AHD and zinc-binding domain in fungal invasion, and have correlated an avirulent phenotype with the inability to maintain proper sterol distribution. PMID:27587298

  2. Carlactone-type strigolactones and their synthetic analogues as inducers of hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Mori, Narumi; Nishiuma, Kenta; Sugiyama, Takuya; Hayashi, Hideo; Akiyama, Kohki

    2016-10-01

    Hyphal branching in the vicinity of host roots is a host recognition response of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This morphological event is elicited by strigolactones. Strigolactones are carotenoid-derived terpenoids that are synthesized from carlactone and its oxidized derivatives. To test the possibility that carlactone and its oxidized derivatives might act as host-derived precolonization signals in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, carlactone, carlactonoic acid, and methyl carlactonoate as well as monohydroxycarlactones, 4-, 18-, and 19-hydroxycarlactones, were synthesized chemically and evaluated for hyphal branching-inducing activity in germinating spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita. Hyphal branching activity was found to correlate with the degree of oxidation at C-19 methyl. Carlactone was only weakly active (100 ng/disc), whereas carlactonoic acid showed comparable activity to the natural canonical strigolactones such as strigol and sorgomol (100 pg/disc). Hydroxylation at either C-4 or C-18 did not significantly affect the activity. A series of carlactone analogues, named AD ester and AA'D diester, was synthesized by reacting formyl Meldrum's acid with benzyl, cyclohexylmethyl, and cyclogeranyl alcohols (the A-ring part), followed by coupling of the potassium enolates of the resulting formylacetic esters with the D-ring butenolide. AD ester analogues exhibited moderate activity (1 ng-100 pg/disc), while AA'D diester analogues having cyclohexylmethyl and cyclogeranyl groups were highly active on the AM fungus (10 pg/disc). These results indicate that the oxidation of methyl to carboxyl at C-19 in carlactone is a prerequisite but BC-ring formation is not essential to show hyphal branching activity comparable to that of canonical strigolactones.

  3. Visualization of wound periderm and hyphal profiles in pine stems inoculated with the pitch canker fungus Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, In Jung; Thoungchaleun, Vilakon; Kim, Chang Soo; Lee, Don Koo; Park, Eun Woo

    2009-12-01

    Postpenetration behavior of Fusarium circinatum in stems of pine species was investigated with light and transmission electron microscopy. Two-year-old stems of Pinus rigida and P. densiflora were wound-inoculated with the fungal conidial suspension and subjected to 25 degrees C for up to 30 days. It was common to observe the formation of wound periderm on each pine species, recovering wounded sites with newly formed tissues. The outermost thick layer of wound periderm was pink to red colored with the phloroglucinol-EtOH staining, indicating heavy deposition of lignin in wound periderm. The cork layers in the wound periderm of the two pine species consisted of cells that were mostly devoid of cellular contents in cytoplasm. The cork cells showed convoluted cell walls with different electron density (lamellations), which was seemingly more prevalent in P. densiflora than P. rigida. Hyphae of F. circinatum appeared normal with typical eucaryotic cytoplasm in P. rigida on ultrathin sections. Meanwhile, hyphae in P. densiflora were found to possess highly vacuolated cytoplasm, implying hyphal weakening and disintegration. Hyphal cytoplasm appeared to be a thin layer between the vacuole and the plasma membrane surrounded by cell wall. In addition, intrahyphal hyphae and concentric bodies were observed in hyphal cytoplasm. These results suggest that the architecture of wound periderm may be responsible for different responses of pine species to the invasion of F. circinatum.

  4. Cytology and molecular phylogenetics of Monoblepharidomycetes provide evidence for multiple independent origins of the hyphal habit in the Fungi.

    PubMed

    Dee, Jaclyn M; Mollicone, Marilyn; Longcore, Joyce E; Roberson, Robert W; Berbee, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of filamentous hyphae underlies an astounding diversity of fungal form and function. We studied the cellular structure and evolutionary origins of the filamentous form in the Monoblepharidomycetes (Chytridiomycota), an early-diverging fungal lineage that displays an exceptional range of body types, from crescent-shaped single cells to sprawling hyphae. To do so, we combined light and transmission electron microscopic analyses of hyphal cytoplasm with molecular phylogenetic reconstructions. Hyphae of Monoblepharidomycetes lack a complex aggregation of secretory vesicles at the hyphal apex (i.e. Spitzenkörper), have centrosomes as primary microtubule organizing centers and have stacked Golgi cisternae instead of tubular/fenestrated Golgi equivalents. The cytoplasmic distribution of actin in Monoblepharidomycetes is comparable to the arrangement observed previously in other filamentous fungi. To discern the origins of Monoblepharidomycetes hyphae, we inferred a phylogeny of the fungi based on 18S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequence data with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. We focused sampling on Monoblepharidomycetes to infer intergeneric relationships within the class and determined 78 new sequences. Analyses showed class Monoblepharidomycetes to be monophyletic and nested within Chytridiomycota. Hyphal Monoblepharidomycetes formed a clade sister to the genera without hyphae, Harpochytrium and Oedogoniomyces. A likelihood ancestral state reconstruction indicated that hyphae arose independently within the Monoblepharidomycetes lineage and in at least two other lineages. Cytological differences among monoblepharidalean and other fungal hyphae are consistent with these convergent origins.

  5. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  8. Influence of Hyphal Inoculum potential on the Competitive Success of Fungi Colonizing Wood.

    PubMed

    Song, Zewei; Vail, Andrew; Sadowsky, Michael J; Schilling, Jonathan S

    2015-05-01

    The relative amounts of hyphal inoculum in forest soils may determine the capacity for fungi to compete with and replace early colonizers of wood in ground contact. Our aim in this study was to test the flexibility of priority effects (colonization timing) by varying the timing of inoculum introduction (i.e., precolonization) and amount of inoculum (i.e., inoculum potential). We controlled these variables in soil-block microcosms using fungi with known competitive outcomes in similar conditions, tracking isolate-specific fungal biomass, and residue physiochemistry over time. In the precolonization trial (experiment I), a brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum was given 1, 3, or 5 weeks to precolonize wood blocks (oak, birch, pine, and spruce) prior the introduction of a white rot fungus, Irpex lacteus, a more aggressive colonizer in this set-up. In the inoculum potential trial (experiment II), the fungi were inoculated simultaneously, but with eightfold higher brown rot inoculum than that of experiment I. As expected, longer precolonization duration increased the chance for the less-competitive brown rot fungus to outcompete its white rot opponent. Higher brown rot fungal inoculum outside of the wood matrix also resulted in competitive success for the brown rot isolate in most cases. These temporal shifts in fungal dominance were detectable in a 'community snapshot' as isolate-specific quantitative PCR, but also as functionally-relevant consequences of wood rot type, including carbohydrate depolymerization and pH. These results from a controlled system reinforce fungal-fungal interaction and suggest that relative inoculum availability beyond the wood matrix (i.e., soils) might regulate the duration of priority effects and shift the functional trajectory of wood decomposition.

  9. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I.; Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María T.; Gonzalez-Quiñonez, Nathaly; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Shliaha, Pavel V.; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Koster, Abraham J.; Jensen, Ole N.; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Manteca, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth, but cross-membrane formation does not depend on FtsZ. Thus, a new level of hyphal organization is presented involving unprecedented high-frequency compartmentalization, which changes the old dogma that Streptomyces vegetative hyphae have scarce compartmentalization. PMID:27514833

  10. Subcompartmentalization by cross-membranes during early growth of Streptomyces hyphae.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, Paula; Willemse, Joost; Koning, Roman I; Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María T; Gonzalez-Quiñonez, Nathaly; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Shliaha, Pavel V; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Koster, Abraham J; Jensen, Ole N; van Wezel, Gilles P; Manteca, Ángel

    2016-08-12

    Bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are a model system for bacterial multicellularity. Their mycelial life style involves the formation of long multinucleated hyphae during vegetative growth, with occasional cross-walls separating long compartments. Reproduction occurs by specialized aerial hyphae, which differentiate into chains of uninucleoid spores. While the tubulin-like FtsZ protein is required for the formation of all peptidoglycan-based septa in Streptomyces, canonical divisome-dependent cell division only occurs during sporulation. Here we report extensive subcompartmentalization in young vegetative hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor, whereby 1 μm compartments are formed by nucleic acid stain-impermeable barriers. These barriers possess the permeability properties of membranes and at least some of them are cross-membranes without detectable peptidoglycan. Z-ladders form during the early growth, but cross-membrane formation does not depend on FtsZ. Thus, a new level of hyphal organization is presented involving unprecedented high-frequency compartmentalization, which changes the old dogma that Streptomyces vegetative hyphae have scarce compartmentalization.

  11. MVE1 Encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important pathogen of wheat that causes the disease septoria tritici blotch. Despite the serious impact of M. graminicola on wheat production worldwide, knowledge about its molecular biology is limited. The velvet gene, veA, is one of the key re...

  12. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  13. Aft2, a Novel Transcription Regulator, Is Required for Iron Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, Surface Adhesion and Hyphal Development in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Cheng, Xinxin; Yu, Qilin; Qian, Kefan; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Ruming; Zhang, Biao; Xing, Laijun; Li, Mingchun

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transition and iron metabolism are closely relevant to Candida albicans pathogenicity and virulence. In our previous study, we demonstrated that C. albicans Aft2 plays an important role in ferric reductase activity and virulence. Here, we further explored the roles of C. albicans Aft2 in numerous cellular processes. We found that C. albicans Aft2 exhibited an important role in iron metabolism through bi-directional regulation effects on iron-regulon expression. Deletion of AFT2 reduced cellular iron accumulation under iron-deficient conditions. Furthermore, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were remarkably increased in the aft2Δ/Δ mutant, which were thought to be responsible for the defective responses to oxidative stress. However, we found that over-expression of C. albicans AFT2 under the regulation of the strong PGK1 promoter could not effectively rescue Saccharomyces cerevisiae aft1Δ mutant defects in some cellular processes, such as cell-wall assembly, ion homeostasis and alkaline resistance, suggesting a possibility that C. albicans Aft2 weakened its functional role of regulating some cellular metabolism during the evolutionary process. Interestingly, deletion of AFT2 in C. albicans increased cell surface hydrophobicity, cell flocculation and the ability of adhesion to polystyrene surfaces. In addition, our results also revealed that C. albicans Aft2 played a dual role in regulating hypha-specific genes under solid and liquid hyphal inducing conditions. Deletion of AFT2 caused an impaired invasive growth in solid medium, but an increased filamentous aggregation and growth in liquid conditions. Moreover, iron deficiency and environmental cues induced nuclear import of Aft2, providing additional evidence for the roles of Aft2 in transcriptional regulation. PMID:23626810

  14. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  15. Interactions between Streptomyces coelicolor and Bacillus subtilis: Role of Surfactants in Raising Aerial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Straight, Paul D.; Willey, Joanne M.; Kolter, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Using mixed-species cultures, we have undertaken a study of interactions between two common spore-forming soil bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the development of aerial hyphae and spores by S. coelicolor is inhibited by surfactin, a lipopeptide surfactant produced by B. subtilis. Current models of aerial development by sporulating bacteria and fungi postulate a role for surfactants in reducing surface tension at air-liquid interfaces, thereby removing the major barrier to aerial growth. S. coelicolor produces SapB, an amphipathic peptide that is surface active and required for aerial growth on certain media. Loss of aerial hyphae in developmental mutants can be rescued by addition of purified SapB. While a surfactant from a fungus can substitute for SapB in a mutant that lacks aerial hyphae, not all surfactants have this effect. We show that surfactin is required for formation of aerial structures on the surface of B. subtilis colonies. However, in contrast to this positive role, our experiments reveal that surfactin acts antagonistically by arresting S. coelicolor aerial development and causing altered expression of developmental genes. Our observations support the idea that surfactants function specifically for a given organism regardless of their shared ability to reduce surface tension. Production of surfactants with antagonistic activity could provide a powerful competitive advantage during surface colonization and in competition for resources. PMID:16788200

  16. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  17. Development of Protective Inflammation and Cell-Mediated Immunity against Cryptococcus neoformans after Exposure to Hyphal Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Bing; Wozniak, Karen L.; Masso-Silva, Jorge; Upadhyay, Srijana; Hole, Camaron; Rivera, Amariliz; Wormley, Floyd L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Morphological switch is tightly coupled with the pathogenesis of many dimorphic fungal pathogens. Cryptococcus neoformans, the major causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, mostly presents as the yeast form but is capable of switching to the hyphal form. The filamentous form has long been associated with attenuated virulence, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. We previously identified the master regulator Znf2 that controls the yeast-to-hypha transition in Cryptococcus. Activation of Znf2 promotes hyphal formation and abolishes fungal virulence in vivo. Here we demonstrated that the cryptococcal strain overexpressing ZNF2 elicited strong and yet temporally confined proinflammatory responses in the early stage of infection. In contrast, exacerbated inflammation in mice infected with the wild-type (WT) strain showed that they were unable to control the infection. Animals inoculated with this filamentous Cryptococcus strain had fewer pulmonary eosinophils and CD11c+ CD11b+ cells than animals inoculated with WT yeast. Moreover, mice infected with this strain developed protective Th1- or Th17-type T cell responses. These findings suggest that the virulence attenuation of the filamentous form is likely due to its elicitation of protective host responses. The antivirulence effect of Znf2 was independent of two previously identified factors downstream of Znf2. Interestingly, mucosal immunizations with high doses of ZNF2-overexpressing cells, either in the live or heat-killed form, offered 100% protection to the host from a subsequent challenge with the otherwise lethal clinical strain H99. Our results demonstrate that heat-resistant cellular components presented in cryptococcal cells with activated ZNF2 elicit protective host immune responses. These findings could facilitate future research on novel immunological therapies. PMID:26443458

  18. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  19. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  20. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  1. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  2. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  3. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  4. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  5. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  6. Automated recognition of forest patterns using aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbezat, Vincent; Kreiss, Philippe; Sulzmann, Armin; Jacot, Jacques

    1996-12-01

    In Switzerland, aerial photos are indispensable tools for research into ecosystems and their management. Every six years since 1950, the whole of Switzerland has been systematically surveyed by aerial photos. In the forestry field, these documents not only provide invaluable information but also give support to field activities such as the drawing up of tree population maps, intervention planning, precise positioning of the upper forest limit, evaluation of forest damage and rates of tree growth. Up to now, the analysis of aerial photos has been carried out by specialists who painstakingly examine every photograph, which makes it a very long, exacting and expensive job. The IMT-DMT of the EPFL and Antenne romande of FNP, aware of the special interest involved and the necessity of automated classification of aerial photos, have pooled their resources to develop a software program capable of differentiating between single trees, copses and dense forests. The developed algorithms detect the crowns of the trees and the surface of the orthogonal projection. Form the shadow of each tree they calculate its height. They also determine the position of the tree in the Swiss national coordinate thanks to the implementation of a numeric altitude model. For the future, we have the prospect of many new and better uses of aerial photos being available to us, particularly where isolated stands are concerned and also when evolutions based on a diachronic series of photos have to be assessed: from timberline monitoring in the research on global change to the exploitation of wooded pastures on small surface areas.

  7. FgFlbD regulates hyphal differentiation required for sexual and asexual reproduction in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Kim, Myung-Gu; Chae, Suhn-Kee; Lee, Yin-Won

    2014-11-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a filamentous fungal plant pathogen that infects major cereal crops. The fungus produces both sexual and asexual spores in order to endure unfavorable environmental conditions and increase their numbers and distribution across plants. In a model filamentous fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, early induction of conidiogenesis is orchestrated by the fluffy genes. The objectives of this study were to characterize fluffy gene homologs involved in conidiogenesis and their mechanism of action in F. graminearum. We characterized five fluffy gene homologs in F. graminearum and found that FlbD is the only conserved regulator for conidiogenesis in A. nidulans and F. graminearum. Deletion of fgflbD prevented hyphal differentiation and the formation of perithecia. Successful interspecies complementation using A. nidulans flbD demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms responsible for FlbD functions are conserved in F. graminearum. Moreover, abaA-wetA pathway is positively regulated by FgFlbD during conidiogenesis in F. graminearum. Deleting fgflbD abolished morphological effects of abaA overexpression, which suggests that additional factors for FgFlbD or an AbaA-independent pathway for conidiogenesis are required for F. graminearum conidiation. Importantly, this study led to the construction of a genetic pathway of F. graminearum conidiogenesis and provides new insights into the genetics of conidiogenesis in fungi.

  8. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  9. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  10. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  11. Cytosolic streaming in vegetative mycelium and aerial structures of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, R; Vinck, A; Krijgsheld, P; van Leeuwen, M R; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B

    2013-03-15

    Aspergillus niger forms aerial hyphae and conidiophores after a period of vegetative growth. The hyphae within the mycelium of A. niger are divided by septa. The central pore in these septa allows for cytoplasmic streaming. Here, we studied inter- and intra-compartmental streaming of the reporter protein GFP in A. niger. Expression of the gene encoding nuclear targeted GFP from the gpdA or glaA promoter resulted in strong fluorescence of nuclei within the vegetative hyphae and weak fluorescence in nuclei within the aerial structures. These data and nuclear run on experiments showed that gpdA and glaA are higher expressed in the vegetative mycelium when compared to aerial hyphae, conidiophores and conidia. Notably, gpdA or glaA driven expression of the gene encoding cytosolic GFP resulted in strongly fluorescent vegetative hyphae and aerial structures. Apparently, GFP streams from vegetative hyphae into aerial structures. This was confirmed by monitoring fluorescence of photo-activatable GFP (PA-GFP). In contrast, PA-GFP did not stream from aerial structures to vegetative hyphae. Streaming of PA-GFP within vegetative hyphae or within aerial structures of A. niger occurred at a rate of 10-15 μm s(-1). Taken together, these results not only show that GFP streams from the vegetative mycelium to aerial structures but it also indicates that its encoding RNA is not streaming. Absence of RNA streaming would explain why distinct RNA profiles were found in aerial structures and the vegetative mycelium by nuclear run on analysis and micro-array analysis.

  12. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  13. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  14. Nanomechanical sensors for single microbial cell growth monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Niall; Lukacs, Gyongyi; Jensen, Jason; Hegner, Martin

    2014-06-01

    A nanomechanical technique for rapid real time detection and monitoring of microorganism growth will significantly reduce costs and diagnosis times in industrial and clinical settings. Owing to their label free detection mechanism and unprecedented sensitivity to the mass and elastic modulus of biological structures, dynamically operated cantilever arrays provide an opportunity to rapidly detect and track the evolution of microbial growth. Here we report the monitoring of the growth of single Aspergillus niger spores via the multimode response of microcantilevers. The fungal hyphal structure affects the cantilevers' nanomechanical properties as it propagates along the sensor. We demonstrate, for the first time, the mapping of cellular events with great accuracy using a cantilever frequency response. Imaging of growth conditions on the cantilever, which is performed in parallel, allows for verification of these results. Theoretical comparison and finite element modelling confirm experimental findings and allow for determination of the hyphal elastic modulus.A nanomechanical technique for rapid real time detection and monitoring of microorganism growth will significantly reduce costs and diagnosis times in industrial and clinical settings. Owing to their label free detection mechanism and unprecedented sensitivity to the mass and elastic modulus of biological structures, dynamically operated cantilever arrays provide an opportunity to rapidly detect and track the evolution of microbial growth. Here we report the monitoring of the growth of single Aspergillus niger spores via the multimode response of microcantilevers. The fungal hyphal structure affects the cantilevers' nanomechanical properties as it propagates along the sensor. We demonstrate, for the first time, the mapping of cellular events with great accuracy using a cantilever frequency response. Imaging of growth conditions on the cantilever, which is performed in parallel, allows for verification of these

  15. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  16. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  17. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  1. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  2. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  3. Differences in mechanical and structural properties of surface and aerial petioles of the aquatic plant Nymphaea odorata subsp. tuberosa (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Etnier, Shelley A; Villani, Philip J

    2007-07-01

    Lily pads (Nymphaea odorata) exhibit heterophylly where a single plant may have leaves that are submerged, floating, or above (aerial) the surface of the water. Lily pads are placed in a unique situation because each leaf form is exposed to a distinctly different set of mechanical demands. While surface petioles may be loaded in tension under conditions of wind or waves, aerial petioles are loaded in compression because they must support the weight of the lamina. Using standard techniques, we compared the mechanical and morphological properties of both surface and aerial leaf petioles. Structural stiffness (EI) and the second moment of area (I) were higher in aerial petioles, although we detected no differences in other mechanical values (elastic modulus [E], extension ratio, and breaking strength). Morphologically, aerial petioles had a thicker rind, with increased collenchyma tissue and sclereid cell frequency. Aerial petioles also had a larger cross-sectional area and were more elliptical. Thus, subtle changes in the distribution of materials, rather than differences in their makeup, differentiate petiole forms. We suggest that the growth of aerial petioles may be an adaptive response to shading, allowing aerial leaves to rise above a crowded water surface.

  4. Dissecting the function of the different chitin synthases in vegetative growth and sexual development in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Somera, Rosa A; Jöhnk, Bastian; Bayram, Özgür; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H; Riquelme, Meritxell

    2015-02-01

    Chitin, one of the most important carbohydrates of the fungal cell wall, is synthesized by chitin synthases (CHS). Seven sequences encoding CHSs have been identified in the genome of Neurospora crassa. Previously, CHS-1, -3 and -6 were found at the Spitzenkörper(Spk) core and developing septa. We investigated the functional importance of each CHS in growth and development of N. crassa. The cellular distribution of each CHS tagged with fluorescent proteins and the impact of corresponding gene deletions on vegetative growth and sexual development were compared. CHS-2, -4, -5 and -7 were also found at the core of the Spk and in forming septa in vegetative hyphae. As the septum ring developed, CHS-2-GFP remained at the growing edge of the septum until it localized around the septal pore. In addition, all CHSs were located in cross-walls of conidiophores. A partial co-localization of CHS-1-m and CHS-5-GFP or CHS-2-GFP occurred in the Spk and septa. Analyses of deletion mutants suggested that CHS-6 has a role primarily in hyphal extension and ascospore formation, CHS-5 in aerial hyphae, conidia and ascospore formation, CHS-3 in perithecia development and CHS-7 in all of the aforementioned. We show that chs-7/csmB fulfills a sexual function and chs-6/chsG fulfills a vegetative growth function in N. crassa but not in Aspergillus nidulans, whereas vice versa chs-2/chsA fulfills a sexual function in A. nidulans but not in N. crassa. This suggests that different classes of CHSs can fulfill distinct developmental functions in various fungi. Immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry of CHS-1-GFP, CHS-4-GFP and CHS-5-GFP identified distinct putative interacting proteins for each CHS. Collectively, our results suggest that there are distinct populations of chitosomes, each carrying specific CHSs, with particular roles during different developmental stages.

  5. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  6. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  7. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  8. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  9. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  10. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  11. Modulation of Phagosomal pH by Candida albicans Promotes Hyphal Morphogenesis and Requires Stp2p, a Regulator of Amino Acid Transport

    PubMed Central

    Vylkova, Slavena; Lorenz, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most important fungal pathogen of humans, has a unique interaction with macrophages in which phagocytosis induces a switch from the yeast to hyphal form, allowing it to escape by rupturing the immune cell. While a variety of factors induce this switch in vitro, including neutral pH, it is not clear what triggers morphogenesis within the macrophage where the acidic environment should inhibit this transition. In vitro, C. albicans grown in similar conditions in which amino acids are the primary carbon source generate large quantities of ammonia to raise the extracellular pH and induce the hyphal switch. We show here that C. albicans cells neutralize the macrophage phagosome and that neutral pH is a key inducer of germination in phagocytosed cells by using a mutant lacking STP2, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple amino acid permeases, that is completely deficient in alkalinization in vitro. Phagocytosed stp2Δ mutant cells showed significant reduction in hypha formation and escaped from macrophages less readily compared to wild type cells; as a result stp2Δ mutant cells were killed at a higher rate and caused less damage to RAW264.7 macrophages. Stp2p-regulated import leads to alkalinization of the phagosome, since the majority of the wild type cells fail to co-localize with acidophilic dyes, whereas the stp2Δ mutant cells were located in acidic phagosomes. Furthermore, stp2Δ mutant cells were able to form hyphae and escape from neutral phagosomes, indicating that the survival defect in these cells was pH dependent. Finally, these defects are reflected in an attenuation of virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Altogether our results suggest that C. albicans utilizes amino acids to promote neutralization of the phagosomal pH, hyphal morphogenesis, and escape from macrophages. PMID:24626429

  12. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  13. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  15. Determination of differences in crop injury from aerial application of glyphosate using vegetation indices and geostatistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injury to crops caused by off-target drift of glyphosate can seriously reduce growth and yield, and is of great concern to farmers and aerial applicators. Determining an indirect method for assessing the levels and extent of crop injury could support management decisions. The objectives of this stud...

  16. Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waag, Andreas

    This chapter is devoted to the growth of ZnO. It starts with various techniques to grow bulk samples and presents in some detail the growth of epitaxial layers by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The last section is devoted to the growth of nanorods. Some properties of the resulting samples are also presented. If a comparison between GaN and ZnO is made, very often the huge variety of different growth techniques available to fabricate ZnO is said to be an advantage of this material system. Indeed, growth techniques range from low cost wet chemical growth at almost room temperature to high quality MOCVD growth at temperatures above 1, 000∘C. In most cases, there is a very strong tendency of c-axis oriented growth, with a much higher growth rate in c-direction as compared to other crystal directions. This often leads to columnar structures, even at relatively low temperatures. However, it is, in general, not straight forward to fabricate smooth ZnO thin films with flat surfaces. Another advantage of a potential ZnO technology is said to be the possibility to grow thin films homoepitaxially on ZnO substrates. ZnO substrates are mostly fabricated by vapor phase transport (VPT) or hydrothermal growth. These techniques are enabling high volume manufacturing at reasonable cost, at least in principle. The availability of homoepitaxial substrates should be beneficial to the development of ZnO technology and devices and is in contrast to the situation of GaN. However, even though a number of companies are developing ZnO substrates, only recently good quality substrates have been demonstrated. However, these substrates are not yet widely available. Still, the situation concerning ZnO substrates seems to be far from low-cost, high-volume production. The fabrication of dense, single crystal thin films is, in general, surprisingly difficult, even when ZnO is grown on a ZnO substrate. However

  17. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  18. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  19. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  20. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  1. Calibration of quantitative real-time TaqMan PCR by correlation with hyphal biomass and ITS copies in mycelia of Piloderma croceum.

    PubMed

    Raidl, S; Bonfigli, R; Agerer, R

    2005-11-01

    DNA-based quantification methods such as real-time TaqMan PCR allow a rapid and highly sensitive species-specific quantification of isolated fungal DNA material, but most quantification systems are only able to measure relative amounts of biomass or biomass changes during different treatments. In this experiment, an already established DNA quantification system for the ectomycorrhizal fungus Piloderma croceum, based on the ITS region of ribosomal DNA, was calibrated to absolute biomass to obtain a direct correlation between mycelial biomass and isolated ITS copies. Thin layers of sterile mycelia were cultured on slides. The mycelial biomass was calculated from measurements of the total hyphal length using image analysis, followed by determination of the mycelial volume, and multiplied by the specific weight of hyphae obtained from literature data. Using the very same mycelium, the number of ITS copies was quantified by TaqMan PCR. The mean value of 1047 (+/- 185) copies per mm hypha results in possible data for a direct conversion: one billion (10 (9)) ITS copies corresponded to 0.79 mg hyphal dry weight. For the ribosomal ITS multi-copy genes, the number of ITS copies could be calculated to approx. 152 (+/- 26) copies per dikaryotic cell. These conversion data now allow determination of the mycelial biomass of Piloderma croceum using real-time TaqMan PCR, a prerequisite for competition experiments with Piloderma croceum.

  2. Enrichment and Broad Representation of Plant Biomass-Degrading Enzymes in the Specialized Hyphal Swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Fungal Symbiont of Leaf-Cutter Ants

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous Neotropical herbivores that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain lignocellulases that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as it is foraged by the ants. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous lignocellulases likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three-quarters of all lignocellulases identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 23 lignocellulases enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  3. A class V chitin synthase gene, chsA is essential for conidial and hyphal wall strength in the fungus Colletotrichum graminicola (Glomerella graminicola).

    PubMed

    Amnuaykanjanasin, Alongkorn; Epstein, Lynn

    2003-04-01

    The Colletotrichum graminicola tagged mutant T30 has conidia that burst and hyphal tips that swell in media with low osmotic pressure. The disrupted gene in T30 was identified as a class V chitin synthase (CSV) "chsA," which has an open reading frame of 1783 amino acids and two introns that are 52 and 54 bp. C. graminicola has one copy of chsA and no other highly homologous class V CHSs. Reverse transcriptase PCR indicated that the T30 mutant does not express the chsA transcript fragment in the conserved region in CSVs. Complementation of the mutant with chsA indicates that the encoded protein is responsible for approximately 29% of the chitin in conidial walls, is essential for conidial wall strength in media with high water potential and contributes to strength of hyphal tips. Analysis of the aligned deduced amino acid sequences of the 10 fully sequenced CSVs suggests that they are in two subgroups.

  4. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  5. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  6. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  8. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  9. Gibberellin-induced inhibition and promotion of sprouting in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana Andr. in relation to photoperiodic treatment and tuber stage.

    PubMed

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y; Nagao, M

    1977-01-01

    Gibberellic-acid (GA3) treatment, when applied within a period ranging from the start of short-day (SD) treatment until about 10 SD, GA3 strongly inhibited formation of aerial tubers in response to SD and brought about sprouting of developing aerial tubers. In contrast, when applied after about 10 SD or more, GA3 hastened the completion of the dormant state in the tubers and prolonged their dormancy. The dormancy-promoting effect of GA3 on detached tubers increased with their degree of maturation. Application of growth retardants N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (B-9), 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride (AMO-1618) and 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CCC) to the cuttings delayed the onset of dormancy in the aerial tuber. When the retardants were applied to detached aerial tubers, however, such a delay of dormancy was not observed, and GA3 application did not inhibit sprouting in aerial tubers detached from CCC-treated cuttings.

  10. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  11. Detection of linear features in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rui

    Over the past decades, considerable progress had been made to develop automatic image interpretation tools in remote sensing. However, there is still a gap between the results and the requirements for accuracy and robustness. Noisy aerial image interpretation, especially for low resolution images, is still difficult. In this thesis, we propose a fully automatic system for linear feature detection in aerial images. We present how the system works on the application of extraction and reconstruction of road and pipeline networks. The work in this thesis is divided by three parts: line detection, feature interpretation, and feature tracking. An improved Hough transform based on orientation information is introduced for the line detection. We explore the Markov random field model and Bayesian filtering for feature interpretation and tracking. Experimental results show that our proposed system is robust and effective to deal with low resolution aerial images.

  12. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  13. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  14. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    DOE PAGES

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; ...

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plantmore » biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.« less

  15. Enrichment and Broad Representation of Plant Biomass-Degrading Enzymes in the Specialized Hyphal Swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Fungal Symbiont of Leaf-Cutter Ants

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass. PMID:26317212

  16. Enrichment and Broad Representation of Plant Biomass-Degrading Enzymes in the Specialized Hyphal Swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the Fungal Symbiont of Leaf-Cutter Ants.

    PubMed

    Aylward, Frank O; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M; McDonald, Bradon R; Nicora, Carrie D; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J; Orton, Daniel J; Monroe, Matthew E; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Currie, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  17. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  18. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  19. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  20. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  1. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  2. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  3. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  4. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  5. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles DOD’s Acquisition Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Hunter System Is Not Appropriate for Navy Fleet Use (GAO/NSIAD-96-2, Dec. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Maneuver...System Schedule Includes Unnecessary Risk (GAO/NSIAD-95-161, Sept. 15, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : No More Hunter Systems...Should Be Bought Until Problems are Fixed (GAO/NSIAD-95-52, Mar. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Performance of Short-Range System in Question

  7. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  8. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  9. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  10. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  11. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  12. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  13. Multifunctional aerial display through use of polarization-processing display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Keitaro; Ito, Shusei; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We have realized a multifunctional aerial display. An aerial image of a polarization-processing display is formed through aerial imaging by retro-reflection. By changing the polarization modulation patterns, we can switch between a three-layered display and a secure display.

  14. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  15. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UAVs in the U .S . Department of D efense (D OD) inv entory as w ell as the traditional aircraft ctmently used for logistical pwposes. Then, using a...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Cost-benefit, Cost-based, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAV , UAS, PAGES Logistics, Supp01t...thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs )/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes

  16. Morphological Characterization and Quantification of the Mycelial Growth of the Brown-Rot Fungus Postia placenta for Modeling Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Pin; Ayouz, Mehdi; Besserer, Arnaud; Perré, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Continuous observation was performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional microscopic growth of the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta, for seventeen days. The morphological characterization of Postia placenta was quantitatively determined, including the tip extension rate, branch angle and branching length, (hyphal length between two adjacent branch sites). A voxel method has been developed to measure the growth of the biomass. Additionally, the tip extension rate distribution, the branch angle distribution and the branching length distribution, which quantified the hyphal growth characteristics, were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that the extension rate of tips was randomly distributed in space. The branch angle distribution did not change with the development of the colony, however, the branching length distribution did vary with the development of the colony. The experimental data will be incorporated into a lattice-based model simulating the growth of Postia placenta. PMID:27602575

  17. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  18. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  19. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  20. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  1. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  2. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  3. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  4. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  5. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  6. Inhibitory effects of several saturated fatty acids and their related fatty alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Yui, Satoru; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of 5 saturated fatty acids and their related alcohols on the growth of Candida albicans. The inhibitory effects of these compounds against the yeast and hyphal growth forms of C. albicans were examined using the modified NCCLS method and crystal violet staining, respectively. Among these compounds, capric acid inhibited both types of growth at the lowest concentration. The IC(80), i.e., the concentration at which the compounds reduced the growth of C. albicans by 80% in comparison with the growth of control cells, of capric acid for the hyphal growth of this fungus, which is indispensable for its mucosal invasion, was 16.7 μM. These fatty acids, including capric acid, have an unpleasant smell, which may limit their therapeutic use. To test them at reduced concentrations, the combined effect of these fatty acids and oligonol, a depolymerized polyphenol, was evaluated in vitro. These combinations showed potent synergistic inhibition of hyphal growth [fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index = 0.319]. Our results demonstrated that capric acid combined with oligonol could be used as an effective anti-Candida compound. It may be a candidate prophylactic or therapeutic tool against mucosal Candida infection.

  7. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  8. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center, shown in this aerial view looking south, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast , and is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the bottom of the photo. Just above the roadway, from left can be seen the Shuttle/Gantry mockup; the Post Show Dome; the Astronaut Memorial; and to the far right, the Center for Space Education. Behind the Memorial are a cluster of buildings that include the Theater Complex, Cafeteria, Space Flight Exhibit Building, Souvenir Sales Building, Spaceport Central, and Ticket Pavilion. At the upper right are various rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program.

  9. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, shown in this aerial view looking east, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast. It is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the top left of the photo. In the foreground is the display of rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program. Just above that, left to right, can be seen the Theater Complex, Space Flight Exhibit Building and Spaceport Central. Other buildings clustered at the center are the Cafeteria, Souvenir Sales Building, and Ticket Pavilion. To the left of the Theater Complex are the Astronaut Memorial, the Post Show Dome, and the Shuttle/Gantry mockup. Not seen in the photo is the Center for Space Education.

  10. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, shown in this aerial view looking south, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast. It is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the bottom of the photo. Just above the roadway, from left, can be seen the Shuttle/Gantry mockup, the Post Show Dome, the Astronaut Memorial, and to the far right, the Center for Space Education. Behind the Memorial are a cluster of buildings that include the Theater Complex, Cafeteria, Space Flight Exhibit Building, Souvenir Sales Building, Spaceport Central, and Ticket Pavilion. At the upper right of the site is a display of rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program. Parking lots span the width of the complex on the south side.

  11. Aerial view of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center, shown in this aerial view looking northwest, sprawls across 70 acres on Florida's Space Coast and is located off State Road 405, NASA Parkway, six miles inside the Space Center entrance. SR 405 can be seen at the top of the photo (left to right). Just below the roadway, from left, can be seen the Center for Space Education, the Theater Complex, Astronaut Memorial, the Post Show Dome, and Shuttle/Gantry mockup. In front of the theater complex are a cluster of buildings that include the Cafeteria, Space Flight Exhibit Building, Souvenir Sales Building, Spaceport Central, and Ticket Pavilion. At the left of the complex are various rockets that have played a significant role in the growth of the space program. Beyond the roadway can be seen the Banana River.

  12. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.

  13. Differential roles of pyruvate decarboxylase in aerial and embedded mycelia of the ascomycete Gibberella zeae.

    PubMed

    Son, Hokyoung; Min, Kyunghun; Lee, Jungkwan; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

    2012-04-01

    The pyruvate-acetaldehyde-acetate (PAA) pathway has diverse roles in eukaryotes. Our previous study on acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase 1 (ACS1) in Gibberella zeae suggested that the PAA pathway is important for lipid production, which is required for perithecia maturation. In this study, we deleted all three pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) genes, which encode enzymes that function upstream of ACS1 in the PAA pathway. Results suggest PDC1 is required for lipid accumulation in the aerial mycelia, and deletion of PDC1 resulted in highly wettable mycelia. However, the total amount of lipids in the PDC1 deletion mutants was similar to that of the wild-type strain, likely due to compensatory lipid production processes in the embedded mycelia. PDC1 was expressed both in the aerial and embedded mycelia, whereas ACS1 was observed only in the aerial mycelia in a PDC1-dependent manner. PDC1 is also involved in vegetative growth of embedded mycelia in G. zeae, possibly through initiating the ethanol fermentation pathway. Thus, PDC1 may function as a key metabolic enzyme crucial for lipid production in the aerial mycelia, but play a different role in the embedded mycelia, where it might be involved in energy generation by ethanol fermentation.

  14. Effects of Clitoria ternatea leaf extract on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kamilla, L; Mansor, S M; Ramanathan, S; Sasidharan, S

    2009-08-01

    Clitoria ternatea is known for its antimicrobial activity but the antifungal effects of leaf extract on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger have not been observed. The extract showed a favorable antifungal activity against A. niger with a minimum inhibition concentration 0.8 mg/mL and minimum fungicidal concentration 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. The leaf extract exhibited considerable antifungal activity against filamentous fungi in a dose-dependent manner with 0.4 mg/mL IC50 value on hyphal growth of A. niger. The main changes observed under scanning electron microscopy after C. ternatea extract treatment were loss of cytoplasm in fungal hyphae and the hyphal wall and its diameter became markedly thinner, distorted, and resulted in cell wall disruption. In addition, conidiophore alterations were also observed when A. niger was treated with C. ternatea leaf extract.

  15. Identification of some diterpenoids and hydroxy fatty acids from carrot root cell walls that stimulate the presymbiotic hyphal growth of AM fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi infect about 80% of all land plants (Smith and Read 1997). They are soil borne and establish a mutually beneficial symbiotic association with a host root after colonization. The fungal hyphae from a colonized root can more thoroughly explore the soil than the root...

  16. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  17. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  18. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  19. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    decades for crop dusting and other agricultural purposes.84 Historically, UAS were predominately operated by DoD in support of combat operations in...advocates state that in order for UAS to take an active role in homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveying, crop dusting, and other...isn’t ready for.93 The issue of when and how UAS will be allowed to operate in U.S. airspace continues to evolve, and continues to be of interest

  20. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    of Deer Island, the approaches open up into three deepwater channels and then into unrestricted waters. Using traditional aerial mine-laying...Boston’s inner harbor, showing two lucrative choke points—the channels south of Logan International or the Deer Island channel in the lower right. Areas...electric submarines yet leave commercial shipping unaffected. Some straits, such as Gibraltar, Lombok, or the Bab el Mandeb ( Red Sea) are too deep for

  1. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  2. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  3. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  4. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  5. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  6. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Southall, Brandon L; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7 degrees, 3.6 degrees, and 4.2 degrees for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  7. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  8. Unmanned aerial optical systems for spatial monitoring of Antarctic mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; Veness, Tony; Malenovsky, Zbynek; Harwin, Stephen; Wallace, Luke; Kelcey, Josh; Robinson, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The Antarctic continent has experienced major changes in temperature, wind speed and stratospheric ozone levels during the last 50 years. In a manner similar to tree rings, old growth shoots of Antarctic mosses, the only plants on the continent, also preserve a climate record of their surrounding environment. This makes them an ideal bio-indicator of the Antarctic climate change. Spatially extensive ground sampling of mosses is laborious and time limited due to the short Antarctic growing season. Obviously, there is a need for an efficient method to monitor spatially climate change induced stress of the Antarctic moss flora. Cloudy weather and high spatial fragmentation of the moss turfs makes satellite imagery unsuitable for this task. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), flying at low altitudes and collecting image data even under a full overcast, can, however, overcome the insufficiency of satellite remote sensing. We, therefore, developed scientific UAS, consisting of a remote-controlled micro-copter carrying on-board different remote sensing optical sensors, tailored to perform fast and cost-effective mapping of Antarctic flora at ultra-high spatial resolution (1-10 cm depending on flight altitude). A single lens reflex (SLR) camera carried by UAS acquires multi-view aerial photography, which processed by the Structure from Motion computer vision algorithm provides an accurate three-dimensional digital surface model (DSM) at ultra-high spatial resolution. DSM is the key input parameter for modelling a local seasonal snowmelt run-off, which provides mosses with the vital water supply. A lightweight multispectral camera on-board of UVS is collecting images of six selected spectral wavebands with the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of 10 nm. The spectral bands can be used to compute various vegetation optical indices, e.g. Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), assessing the actual physiological state of polar vegetation. Recently

  9. Isolation of Inositol Hexaphosphate (IHP)-Degrading Bacteria from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphal Compartments Using a Modified Baiting Method Involving Alginate Beads Containing IHP

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Shintaro; Saito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Phytate (inositol hexaphosphate; IHP)-degrading microbes have been suggested to contribute to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated P transfer from IHP to plants; however, no IHP degrader involved in AMF-mediated P transfer has been isolated to date. We herein report the isolation of IHP-degrading bacteria using a modified baiting method. We applied alginate beads as carriers of IHP powder, and used them as recoverable IHP in the AM fungal compartment of plant cultivation experiments. P transfer from IHP in alginate beads via AMF was confirmed, and extracted DNA from alginate beads was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and a clone library method for the beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene. The diversities of the 16S rRNA and BPP genes of microbes growing on IHP beads were simple and those of Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter spp. dominated. A total of 187 IHP-utilizing bacteria were isolated and identified, and they were consistent with the results of DNA analysis. Furthermore, some isolated Sphingomonas spp. and Caulobacter sp. showed IHP-degrading activity. Therefore, we successfully isolated dominant IHP-degrading bacteria from IHP in an AMF hyphal compartment. These strains may contribute to P transfer from IHP via AMF. PMID:27383681

  10. Growth and mycotoxin production by fungi in atmospheres containing 80% carbon dioxide and 20% oxygen.

    PubMed

    Taniwaki, M H; Hocking, A D; Pitt, J I; Fleet, G H

    2010-10-15

    The effect of atmosphere containing 80% CO(2) and 20% O(2) on growth of Mucor plumbeus, Fusarium oxysporum, Byssochlamys fulva, Byssochlamys nivea, Penicillium commune, Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus flavus, Eurotium chevalieri and Xeromyces bisporus was investigated. Production of aflatoxin by A. flavus, patulin by B. nivea, roquefortine C by P. roqueforti, and cyclopiazonic acid by P. commune was also studied. Fungal growth was evaluated by three methods: colony diameter, hyphal length or mycelium dry weight and ergosterol content. Among the nine fungal species examined, two E. chevalieri and X. bisporus, did not grow under these conditions. In this study, fungi differed in their response to modified atmospheres in biomass, ergosterol content, mycotoxin production and morphology. Reductions of 57.8-96.9%, 73.7-99.6% and 91.5-99.9% were obtained in colony diameter, hyphal length and ergosterol content, respectively, under this atmosphere compared to air. Ergosterol content was more affected in most species than other measurements. Patulin, cyclopiazonic acid and roquefortine C were produced in this atmosphere, although levels were very low and aflatoxin was not produced at all. Growth was quite extensive as measured by colony diameters, but hyphal lengths were low and ergosterol production was also affected in all species of this study.

  11. Biomechanical responses of aquatic plants to aerial conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Elena; Puijalon, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Wetlands are impacted by changes in hydrological regimes that can lead to periods of low water levels. During these periods, aquatic plants experience a drastic change in the mechanical conditions that they encounter, from low gravitational and tensile hydrodynamic forces when exposed to flow under aquatic conditions, to high gravitational and bending forces under terrestrial conditions. The objective of this study was to test the capacity of aquatic plants to produce self-supporting growth forms when growing under aerial conditions by assessing their resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions and the associated morpho-anatomical changes. Methods Plastic responses to aerial conditions were assessed by sampling Berula erecta, Hippuris vulgaris, Juncus articulatus, Lythrum salicaria, Mentha aquatica, Myosotis scorpioides, Nuphar lutea and Sparganium emersum under submerged and emergent conditions. The cross-sectional area and dry matter content (DMC) were measured in the plant organs that bear the mechanical forces, and their biomechanical properties in tension and bending were assessed. Key Results All of the species except for two had significantly higher stiffness in bending and thus an increased resistance to terrestrial mechanical conditions when growing under emergent conditions. This response was determined either by an increased allocation to strengthening tissues and thus a higher DMC, or by an increased cross-sectional area. These morpho-anatomical changes also resulted in increased strength and stiffness in tension. Conclusions The capacity of the studied species to colonize this fluctuating environment can be accounted for by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity in response to emersion. Further investigation is however needed to disentangle the finer mechanisms behind these responses (e.g. allometric relations, tissue make-up), their costs and adaptive value. PMID:24187030

  12. Cloning and analysis of a gene cluster from Streptomyces coelicolor that causes accelerated aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Kendall, K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning and analysis of two overlapping DNA fragments from Streptomyces coelicolor that cause aerial mycelium to appear more rapidly than usual when introduced into Streptomyces lividans on a low-copy-number plasmid vector. Colonies of S. lividans TK64 harboring either clone produce visible aerial mycelia after only 48 h of growth, rather than the usual 72 to 96 h. From deletion and sequence analysis, this rapid aerial mycelium (Ram) phenotype appears to be due to a cluster of three genes that we have designated ramA, ramB, and ramR. Both ramA and ramB potentially encode 65-kDa proteins with homology to ATP-dependent membrane-translocating proteins. A chromosomal ramB disruption mutant of S. lividans was found to be severely defective in aerial mycelium formation. ramR could encode a 21-kDa protein with significant homology to the UhpA subset of bacterial two-component response regulator proteins. The overall organization and potential proteins encoded by the cloned DNA suggest that this is the S. coelicolor homolog of the amf gene cluster that has been shown to be important for aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. However, despite the fact that the two regions probably have identical functions, there is relatively poor homology between the two gene clusters at the DNA sequence level. Images PMID:8206859

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL31872 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background...00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and

  14. The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art A Monograph by Major Joel E Pauls USAF School of Advanced Military Studies...Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel E. Pauls Major, United States Air Force 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) by the United States

  15. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 29 OCTOBER 1959. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  16. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 19 SEPTEMBER 1978. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  17. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  18. Effective delineation of urban flooded areas based on aerial ortho-photo imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Raymond, Don; Hong, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The combination of rapid global urban growth and climate change has resulted in increased occurrence of major urban flood events across the globe. The distribution of flooded area is one of the key information layers for applications of emergency planning and response management. While SAR systems and technologies have been widely used for flood area delineation, radar images suffer from range ambiguities arising from corner reflection effects and shadowing in dense urban settings. A new mapping framework is proposed for the extraction and quantification of flood extent based on aerial optical multi-spectral imagery and ancillary data. This involves first mapping of flood areas directly visible to the sensor. Subsequently, the complete area of submergence is estimated from this initial mapping and inference techniques based on baseline data such as land cover and GIS information such as available digital elevation models. The methodology has been tested and proven effective using aerial photography for the case of the 2013 flood in Calgary, Canada.

  19. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  20. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  1. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  2. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  3. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  4. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  5. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  6. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  7. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  8. Human Operator Modeling for Aerial Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    HUMAN OPERATOR MODELING FOR AERIAL TRACKING JONA THAN KORN ARTER. EPHRATH DA VLD L. KLEINMAN DBCXMBt 19MDTICSELECTE APR 3 1981.j B Approwd for pVA& u...8217the "Guid 8en th Cart end Use of laboratory Animals, "Inatitate of Laboratory Animl ReaNuWAes, National Rtesarch CouncL The voluntary Infomed consent...Continue. on reverse aide If necessary and identify hc block numbrh) ._Modern Optimal Control techniques are e:iployed to investigate and model human

  9. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  10. Adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguen, V. F.; Putov, A. V.; Nguen, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with design and comparison of adaptive control systems based on plant state vector and output for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with nonlinearity and uncertainty of parameters of the aircraft incomplete measurability of its state and presence of wind disturbances. The results of computer simulations of flight stabilization processes on the example of the experimental model UAV-70V (Aerospace Academy, Hanoi) with presence of periodic and non-periodic vertical wind disturbances with designed adaptive control systems based on plant state vector with state observer and plant output.

  11. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the N-terminal fragment of Candida albicans hyphal wall protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Laín, Ana; Elguezabal, Natalia; Brena, Sonia; García-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; del Palacio, Amalia; Moragues, María D; Pontón, José

    2007-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis is difficult because there are no specific clinical manifestations of the disease and colonization and infection are difficult to distinguish. In the last decade, much effort has been made to develop reliable tests for rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, but none of them have found widespread clinical use. Results Antibodies against a recombinant N-terminal fragment of the Candida albicans germ tube-specific antigen hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) generated in Escherichia coli were detected by both immunoblotting and ELISA tests in a group of 36 hematological or Intensive Care Unit patients with invasive candidiasis and in a group of 45 control patients at high risk for the mycosis who did not have clinical or microbiological data to document invasive candidiasis. Results were compared with an immunofluorescence test to detect antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes (CAGT). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a diagnostic test based on the detection of antibodies against the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by immunoblotting were 27.8 %, 95.6 %, 83.3 % and 62.3 %, respectively. Detection of antibodies to the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by ELISA increased the sensitivity (88.9 %) and the negative predictive value (90.2 %) but slightly decreased the specificity (82.6 %) and positive predictive values (80 %). The kinetics of antibody response to the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by ELISA was very similar to that observed by detecting antibodies to CAGT. Conclusion An ELISA test to detect antibodies against a recombinant N-terminal fragment of the C. albicans germ tube cell wall antigen Hwp1 allows the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis with similar results to those obtained by detecting antibodies to CAGT but without the need of treating the sera to adsorb the antibodies against the cell wall surface of the blastospore. PMID:17448251

  12. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  13. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  14. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  15. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  16. Droning On: American Strategic Myopia Toward Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS by Carlos S. Cabello December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Bradley Jay Strawser...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DRONING ON: AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS 5...the long-term. The thesis concludes with an assessment of whether strategic myopia has already set a dangerous international precedent, which

  17. Monitoring and Assuring the Quality of Digital Aerial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopherson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explains the USGS plan for monitoring and assuring the quality of digital aerial data. The contents include: 1) History of USGS Aerial Imaging Involvement; 2) USGS Research and Results; 3) Outline of USGS Quality Assurance Plan; 4) Other areas of Interest; and 5) Summary

  18. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  20. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-25

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been referred to in many ways: RPV (remotely piloted vehicle), drone, robot plane, and pilotless aircraft. Most...the DoD for UAVs, investments in unmanned aerial vehicles have been increasing every year. Congressional considerations include the proper pace, scope

  2. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  3. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Aerially released spray penetration of a tall coniferous canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial spray deposition project was designed to evaluate aerial application to an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) canopy to combat Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). This adelgid offers a difficult target residing in the forest canopy at the nodes of branchlets. The study collected 1680 ...

  5. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. Aerial radiological survey of Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1983-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Area 11's Plutonium Valley was conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 18 to 30 January 1982. Contour maps representing terrestrial exposure rates and soil concentrations of transuranics, /sup 235/U and /sup 137/Cs are presented on an aerial photograph. Inventories of the locale's transuranic and uranium activities are also included.

  7. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  9. Aerial video mosaicking using binary feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are becoming an increasingly attractive platform for many applications, as their cost decreases and their capabilities increase. Creating detailed maps from aerial data requires fast and accurate video mosaicking methods. Traditional mosaicking techniques rely on inter-frame homography estimations that are cascaded through the video sequence. Computationally expensive keypoint matching algorithms are often used to determine the correspondence of keypoints between frames. This paper presents a video mosaicking method that uses an object tracking approach for matching keypoints between frames to improve both efficiency and robustness. The proposed tracking method matches local binary descriptors between frames and leverages the spatial locality of the keypoints to simplify the matching process. Our method is robust to cascaded errors by determining the homography between each frame and the ground plane rather than the prior frame. The frame-to-ground homography is calculated based on the relationship of each point's image coordinates and its estimated location on the ground plane. Robustness to moving objects is integrated into the homography estimation step through detecting anomalies in the motion of keypoints and eliminating the influence of outliers. The resulting mosaics are of high accuracy and can be computed in real time.

  10. Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Smith, Daniel G.

    2012-09-01

    Beginning with the seminal Dill papers of 1975, the aerial image has been essential for understanding the process of microlithography. From the aerial image, we can predict the performance of a given lithographic process in terms of depth of focus, exposure latitude, etc. As lithographic technologies improved, reaching smaller and smaller printed features, the sophistication of aerial image calculations has had to increase from simple incoherent imaging theory, to partial coherence, polarization effects, thin film effects at the resist, thick mask effects, and so on. This tutorial provides an overview and semihistorical development of the aerial image calculation and then provides a review of some of the various ways in which the aerial image is typically used to estimate the performance of the lithographic process.

  11. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  12. Coastline Extraction from Aerial Images Based on Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paravolidakis, V.; Moirogiorgou, K.; Ragia, L.; Zervakis, M.; Synolakis, C.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays coastline extraction and tracking of its changes become of high importance because of the climate change, global warming and rapid growth of human population. Coastal areas play a significant role for the economy of the entire region. In this paper we propose a new methodology for automatic extraction of the coastline using aerial images. A combination of a four step algorithm is used to extract the coastline in a robust and generalizable way. First, noise distortion is reduced in order to ameliorate the input data for the next processing steps. Then, the image is segmented into two regions, land and sea, through the application of a local threshold to create the binary image. The result is further processed by morphological operators with the aim that small objects are being eliminated and only the objects of interest are preserved. Finally, we perform edge detection and active contours fitting in order to extract and model the coastline. These algorithmic steps are illustrated through examples, which demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.

  13. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  14. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  15. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  16. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  17. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  18. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  19. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  20. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  1. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Medium Range System Components do not Fit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    enemy activities and identification of targets. uAv systems typically include an air vehicle, a Page 1 GAO/NSIAW.91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 91 4 15 026...the current system’s existing problems. -’-- Page 3 GAO/NSTAD-91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles B-242779 Recommendations We recommend that the Secretary...representative is still not a member of the KIAIzS configuration control board. Page 4 GAO/NSIAD-91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles B-242779 We continue to believe

  3. Combined aerial and ground technique for assessing structural heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William C.; Schott, John R.

    1994-03-01

    The results of a combined aerial and ground-based structural heat loss survey are presented. The aerial imagery was collected by a thermal IR line scanner. Enhanced quantitative analysis of the imagery gives the roof heat flow and insulation level. The ground images were collected by a video van and converted to still frames stored on a video disk. A computer based presentation system retrieves the images and other information indexed by street address for screening and dissemination to owners. We conclude that the combined aerial and ground survey effectively discriminates between well insulated and poorly insulated structures, and that such a survey is a cost-effective alternative to site audits.

  4. Root system architecture in Arabidopsis grown in culture is regulated by sucrose uptake in the aerial tissues.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, Dana R; Deak, Karen I; Ingram, Paul A; Malamy, Jocelyn E

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a detailed model for the regulation of lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in culture. We demonstrate that direct contact between the aerial tissues and sucrose in the growth media is necessary and sufficient to promote emergence of lateral root primordia from the parent root. Mild osmotic stress is perceived by the root, which then sends an abscisic acid-dependent signal that causes a decrease in the permeability of aerial tissues; this reduces uptake of sucrose from the culture media, which leads to a repression of lateral root formation. Osmotic repression of lateral root formation in culture can be overcome by mutations that cause the cuticle of a plant's aerial tissues to become more permeable. Indeed, we report here that the previously described lateral root development2 mutant overcomes osmotic repression of lateral root formation because of a point mutation in Long Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase2, a gene essential for cutin biosynthesis. Together, our findings (1) impact the interpretation of experiments that use Arabidopsis grown in culture to study root system architecture; (2) identify sucrose as an unexpected regulator of lateral root formation; (3) demonstrate mechanisms by which roots communicate information to aerial tissues and receive information in turn; and (4) provide insights into the regulatory pathways that allow plants to be developmentally plastic while preserving the essential balance between aboveground and belowground organs.

  5. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  7. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY AND MAIN STREET IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  8. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED. (11/7/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  10. 262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN, NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ BRIDGE PRIOR TO DEVELOPMENT OF PORT ELIZABETH - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  12. 3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ANCHORAGE (EXTREME LEFT) TO WEST CABLE ANCHORAGE (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE FROM SOUTH. LOOKING NORTH. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  15. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  16. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  17. Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ROOSEVELT BASE LOOKING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Bounded by Ocean Boulevard, Pennsylvania Avenue, Richardson Avenue, & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. JUST SOUTH OF GLEN ECHO LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  20. 38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  1. 131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. AT CABIN JOHN LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  2. 122. AERIAL VIEW OF GLEN ECHO AND CLARA BARTON PARKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. AERIAL VIEW OF GLEN ECHO AND CLARA BARTON PARKWAY AND MACARTHUR BLVD. INTERCHANGE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  3. 6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD NORTHERN TIP OF SAN ANDREAS RANGE - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  4. 34. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  5. 35. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  6. 36. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station 1951 - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  7. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, LOOKING NORTH UP THE 14TH STREET AXIS FROM OVER THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF LAFAYETTE SQUARE, THE WHITE HOUSE GROUNDS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF LAFAYETTE SQUARE, THE WHITE HOUSE GROUNDS, THE ELLIPSE, AND MONUMENT GROUNDS, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG THE 16TH STREET AXIS. - White House Grounds & Ellipse, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP RIGHT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  14. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  15. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  16. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  17. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  18. 45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after automation and before construction of the parking lot.U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Photo - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  19. 22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT BOTTOM. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY EXIT. CHAVEZ RAVINE ON LEFT. ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER LEFT REAR. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT AT ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE, ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. NOTE PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO AT LOWER RIGHT OF CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  9. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  10. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF WALL. TRIPOD AND TENSION WEIGHTS AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  13. Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 by Mr. Lewis, and on file at the Edison National Historic Site, negative number 0-998 - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  14. 13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE SPILLWAY APRON.... Volume XVII, No. 12, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  15. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 5. AERIAL VIEW, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ROOF OF CARPENTER'S FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ROOF OF CARPENTER'S FRONT STORE AND CARPENTER'S HALL IN CENTER BACKGROUND - Carpenters' Company, Front Store, 322 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, May 1981. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  18. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  19. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  20. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  1. 19. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO., AND GODWIN (HAMIL) MILL. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  2. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  3. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  4. 42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  5. 43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  6. 41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, July 12, 1980. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  7. 44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 15, 1977. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  8. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  9. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  10. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Construction on poles shall comply with applicable construction drawings for regular line construction. Aerial... strand shall be permitted in this situation. The bail of the automatic clamp shall be protected by a...

  11. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  12. 70. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP WITH SUSPENSION BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 69. Fred Benton, Photographer August 1998 HIGH AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Fred Benton, Photographer August 1998 HIGH AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP AND SAN FRANCISCO ON AND OFF RAMPS. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 65. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO APPROACH WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 71. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE SHORE IN FOREGROUND; GENE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. Some field observations on OSI aerial photography scales

    SciTech Connect

    Geil, R.

    1981-03-16

    The US, UK and USSR are attempting to negotiate a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in Geneva. One of the verification procedures presently proposed provides for the possibility of conducting an On-Site Inspection (OSI) if a violation is suspected. According to the terms of the draft treaty, the OSI team would be provided with either (1) stereoscopic aerial photographs with a scale of 1:2,500, or equivalent topographic maps (US version) or (2) a large scale aerial photograph (USSR version). In order to gain a better understanding of the aerial photograph issue, EG and G was asked to take stereoscopic aerial photographs of two areas at the NTS at four different scales, 1:2,500, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:25,000. The purpose of this paper is to present some field observations on the use for OSI type purposes of these different scale photos.

  20. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM OVER NINTH AND K STREETS, NE. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Florida Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  2. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF RADAR SITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF RADAR SITE IN FOREGROUND Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCIUS STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCI-US STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  8. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), BROKEN BOW OF VESSEL IN FOREGROUND Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  9. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  10. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  12. Aerial perspective of clock tower and roof line, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial perspective of clock tower and roof line, looking northeast toward the mountains. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  18. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  19. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN WHEN STRUCTURE WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-5409. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Impact Induced Aerial Bursts in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, V. V.; Trubetskaya, I.

    2008-03-01

    Aerial bursts are produced by comets and asteroids with sizes ranging from tens of meters to about one kilometer (energies from 10 Mt to 100 Gt of TNT equivalents). They produce strong devastation and fires on the Earth's surface.

  3. AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK CITY NEAR BROOKLYN BRIDGE ON HER WAY TO SEA TRIALS. NOTE THE BIRD CAGE TOWERS, 1918. - USS Arizona, Submerged off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER LAKE IN FOREGROUND. NOTE SILVER LAKE MINE AND MILL RUINS ON FAR SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE RUINS AT LEFT CENTER AND SILVER LAKE MINE RUINS BEYOND NORTHWEST SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. 2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October 26, 1966. Original photo in possession of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  8. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH 15 SEPTEMBER 1950. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. 33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  13. 3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS FROM THE ANACOSTIA RIVER TO THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  17. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF AN AERIAL RADIAC SURVEY SYSTEM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An aerial radiac monitor system was evaluated in manned and drone aircraft to determine the feasibility of automatically correcting gamma radiation...telemetry system relayed height-corrected information from drone aircraft to a ground station for recording. The equipment demonstrated the...feasibility of per forming aerial radiological survey, with automatic height correction, in manned and drone air craft of the surveillance types now in

  18. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  19. Use of simulated neural networks of aerial image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Frances I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1991-01-01

    The utility of one layer neural network in aerial image classification is examined. The network was trained with the delta rule. This method was shown to be useful as a classifier in aerial images with good resolution. It is fast, it is easy to implement, because it is distribution-free, nothing about statistical distribution of the data is needed, and it is very efficient as a boundary detector.

  20. Carbon balance of the aerial parts of a young hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) stand.

    PubMed

    Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Yokota, Taketo; Hagihara, Akio

    1996-01-01

    The aerial carbon balance of a 9-year-old hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc.) Endl.) stand with an aerial biomass of 24.6 Mg(DW) ha(-1) was studied over a 1-year period. Various components that constitute gross production were measured on the basis of the summation method. Respiration of the aerial parts of six sample trees was measured at monthly intervals by an enclosed standing-tree method. The aerial respiration of sample trees was partitioned into growth and maintenance respiration by a two-component model. The growth coefficient varied between 1.2791 and 1.7957 g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) giving a mean value of 1.5223 +/- 0.0729 (SE) g CO(2) g(DW) (-1), whereas the maintenance coefficient ranged between 0.0200 and 0.0373 g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) month(-1) with a mean value of 0.0299 +/- 0.0031 (SE) g CO(2) g(DW) (-1) month(-1). Growth and maintenance respiration of the stand were estimated to be 8.62 and 10.52 Mg CO(2) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. An open-top cloth trap method was employed to measure the death of the parts of five sample trees. The death of leaves and total organs in the stand were assessed to be 6.26 and 7.60 Mg(DW) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Tree mortality and biomass increment were 1.47 and 4.64 Mg(DW) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. In terms of carbon, respiration, death, grazing and biomass increment were equivalent to 5.22, 4.53, 0.04 and 2.32 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Net production and gross production were estimated to be 6.89 and 12.11 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. Biomass accumulation ratio (biomass/net production) and overall efficiency (net production/gross production) were 1.8 and 0.57, respectively.

  1. Weakly-Supervised Multimodal Kernel for Categorizing Aerial Photographs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yingjie; Zhang, Luming; Liu, Zhenguang; Nie, Liqiang; Li, Xuelong

    2016-12-14

    Accurately distinguishing aerial photographs from different categories is a promising technique in computer vision. It can facilitate a series of applications such as video surveillance and vehicle navigation. In the paper, a new image kernel is proposed for effectively recognizing aerial photographs. The key is to encode high-level semantic cues into local image patches in a weakly-supervised way, and integrate multimodal visual features using a newly-developed hashing algorithm. The flowchart can be elaborated as follows. Given an aerial photo, we first extract a number of graphlets to describe its topological structure. For each graphlet, we utilize color and texture to capture its appearance, and a weakly-supervised algorithm to capture its semantics. Thereafter, aerial photo categorization can be naturally formulated as graphlet-to-graphlet matching. As the number of graphlets from each aerial photo is huge, to accelerate matching, we present a hashing algorithm to seamlessly fuze the multiple visual features into binary codes. Finally, an image kernel is calculated by fast matching the binary codes corresponding to each graphlet. And a multi-class SVM is learned for aerial photo categorization. We demonstrate the advantage of our proposed model by comparing it with state-of-the-art image descriptors. Moreover, an in-depth study of the descriptiveness of the hash-based graphlet is presented.

  2. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species. PMID:27873799

  3. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  4. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion.

  5. A line transect model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quang, Pham Xuan; Lanctot, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    We employ a line transect method to estimate the density of the common and Pacific loon in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge from aerial survey data. Line transect methods have the advantage of automatically taking into account “visibility bias” due to detectability difference of animals at different distances from the transect line. However, line transect methods must overcome two difficulties when applied to inaccurate recording of sighting distances due to high travel speeds, so that in fact only a few reliable distance class counts are available. We propose a unimodal detection function that provides an estimate of the effective area lost due to the blind strip, under the assumption that a line of perfect detection exists parallel to the transect line. The unimodal detection function can also be applied when a blind strip is absent, and in certain instances when the maximum probability of detection is less than 100%. A simple bootstrap procedure to estimate standard error is illustrated. Finally, we present results from a small set of Monte Carlo experiments.

  6. Visual signature reduction of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Z. W.; Ma, Z. X.; Jayawijayaningtiyas; Ngoh, J. H. H.

    2016-10-01

    With the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in multiple tactical defence missions, there was a need for an efficient visual signature suppression system for a more efficient stealth operation. One of our studies experimentally investigated the visual signature reduction of UAVs achieved through an active camouflage system. A prototype was constructed with newly developed operating software, Cloak, to provide active camouflage to the UAV model. The reduction of visual signature was analysed. Tests of the devices mounted on UAVs were conducted in another study. A series of experiments involved testing of the concept as well as the prototype. The experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and under normal environmental conditions. Results showed certain degrees of blending with the sky to create a camouflage effect. A mini-UAV made mostly out of transparent plastic was also designed and fabricated. Because of the transparency of the plastic material, the visibility of this UAV in the air is very small, and therefore the UAV is difficult to be detected. After re-designs and tests, eventually a practical system to reduce the visibility of UAVs viewed by human observers from the ground was developed. The system was evaluated during various outdoor tests. The scene target-to-background lightness contrast and the scene target-to-background colour contrast of the adaptive control system prototype were smaller than 10% at a stand-off viewing distance of 20-50 m.

  7. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5 degrees from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3 degrees to 15 degrees and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5 degrees ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  8. Quality assessment of digitized aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelbl, O.

    1998-09-01

    Manufacturer of photogrammetric instruments have developed specific scanners for aerial photographs, in parallel to printing industry. Main objective of this specific scanners is to guarantee a high geometric precision of plus or minus 0.001 to 0.002 mm for a standard format of original film documents of 23 X 23 cm and to scope with the high image resolution of the original images. Within a study of OEEPE (European Organisation for Experimental Photogrammetric Research) the most important photogrammetric scanners used in practice have been tested. Standard procedures are in development to analyze the dynamic range of the scanners, the image noise, the image sharpness and the color fidelity. Practical all photogrammetric scanners are based on CCD technology. The article presents the techniques applied for the testing of the scanners concerning the determination of the MTF of the scanners, the image noise, the dynamic range and the color fidelity and gives typical results for various scanners. The scanners tested are manufactured by Intergraph, Zeiss, Agfa, Helava and Wehrli.

  9. Computational analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudarag, Sakhr; Yagoub, Rashid; Elfatih, Hassan; Filipovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    A computational analysis has been performed to verify the aerodynamics properties of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV-SUST has been designed and fabricated at the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at Sudan University of Science and Technology in order to meet the specifications required for surveillance and reconnaissance mission. It is classified as a medium range and medium endurance UAV. A commercial CFD solver is used to simulate steady and unsteady aerodynamics characteristics of the entire UAV. In addition to Lift Coefficient (CL), Drag Coefficient (CD), Pitching Moment Coefficient (CM) and Yawing Moment Coefficient (CN), the pressure and velocity contours are illustrated. The aerodynamics parameters are represented a very good agreement with the design consideration at angle of attack ranging from zero to 26 degrees. Moreover, the visualization of the velocity field and static pressure contours is indicated a satisfactory agreement with the proposed design. The turbulence is predicted by enhancing K-ω SST turbulence model within the computational fluid dynamics code.

  10. Aerial view of the KSC crawler transporters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view the Crawler Transporter Maintenance Building (center) sits between two crawler transporters. The KSC crawlers are the largest tracked vehicles known. Once used to move assembled Apollo/Saturn from the VAB to the launch pad, they are now used for transporting Shuttle vehicles. They move the Mobile Launcher Platform into the Vehicle Assembly Building and then to the Launch Pad with an assembled space vehicle. Maximum speed is 1.6 km (one mile) per hour loaded, about 3.2 km (2 miles) per hour unloaded. Launch Pad to VAB trip time with the Mobile Launch Platform is about 5 hours. The crawler burns 568 liters (150 gallons) of diesel oil per mile. KSC's two crawlers have accumulated 1,243 miles since 1977. Including the Apollo years, the transporters have racked up 2,526 miles, about the same distance as a one-way trip from KSC to Los Angeles by interstate highway or a round trip between KSC and New York City.

  11. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  12. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  13. Investigating chitin deacetylation and chitosan hydrolysis during vegetative growth in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Ivey A; Gurr, Sarah J

    2017-03-29

    Chitin deacetylation results in the formation of chitosan, a polymer of β1,4-linked glucosamine. Chitosan is known to have important functions in the cell walls of a number of fungal species, but its role during hyphal growth has not yet been investigated. In this study, we have characterized the role of chitin deacetylation during vegetative hyphal growth in the filamentous phytopathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that chitosan localizes to the septa and lateral cell walls of vegetative hyphae, and identified two chitin deacetylases expressed during vegetative growth - CDA1 and CDA4. Deletion strains and fluorescent protein fusions demonstrated that CDA1 is necessary for chitin deacetylation in the septa and lateral cell walls of mature hyphae in colony interiors, whereas CDA4 deacetylates chitin in the hyphae at colony margins. However, although the ∆cda1 strain was more resistant to cell wall hydrolysis, growth and pathogenic development were otherwise unaffected in the deletion strains. The role of chitosan hydrolysis was also investigated. A single gene encoding a putative chitosanase (CSN) was discovered in M.oryzae and found to be expressed during vegetative growth. However, chitosan localization, vegetative growth and pathogenic development were unaffected in a CSN deletion strain, rendering the role of this enzyme unclear.

  14. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  15. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  16. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  17. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  18. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  19. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  20. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  1. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  2. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3).

  3. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  4. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  5. ssgA Is Essential for Sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Affects Hyphal Development by Stimulating Septum Formation

    PubMed Central

    van Wezel, Gilles P.; van der Meulen, Jannes; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Luiten, Ruud G. M.; Koerten, Henk K.; Kraal, Barend

    2000-01-01

    The role of ssgA in cell division and development of streptomycetes was analyzed. An ssgA null mutant of Streptomyces coelicolor produced aerial hyphae but failed to sporulate, and ssgA can therefore be regarded as a novel whi gene. In addition to the morphological changes, antibiotic production was also disturbed, with strongly reduced actinorhodin production. These defects could be complemented by plasmid-borne ssgA. In the wild-type strain, transcription of ssgA was induced by nutritional shift-down and was shown to be linked to that of the upstream-located gene ssgR, which belongs to the family of iclR-type transcriptional regulator genes. Analysis of mycelium harvested from liquid-grown cultures by transmission electron microscopy showed that septum formation had strongly increased in ssgA-overexpressing strains in comparison to wild-type S. coelicolor and that spore-like compartments were produced at high frequency. Furthermore, the hyphae were significantly wider and contained irregular and often extremely thick septa. These data underline the important role for ssgA in Streptomyces cell division. PMID:11004161

  6. Animal aloft: the origins of aerial behavior and flight.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert; Yanoviak, Stephen P

    2011-12-01

    Diverse taxa of animals exhibit remarkable aerial capacities, including jumping, mid-air righting, parachuting, gliding, landing, controlled maneuvers, and flapping flight. The origin of flapping wings in hexapods and in 3 separate lineages of vertebrates (pterosaurs, bats, and birds) greatly facilitated subsequent diversification of lineages, but both the paleobiological context and the possible selective pressures for the evolution of wings remain contentious. Larvae of various arboreal hemimetabolous insects, as well as many adult canopy ants, demonstrate the capacity for directed aerial descent in the absence of wings. Aerial control in the ancestrally wingless archaeognathans suggests that flight behavior preceded the origins of wings in hexapods. In evolutionary terms, the use of winglets and partial wings to effect aerial righting and maneuvers could select for enhanced appendicular motions, and ultimately lead to powered flight. Flight behaviors that involve neither flapping nor wings are likely to be much more widespread than is currently recognized. Further characterization of the sensory and biomechanical mechanisms used by these aerially capable taxa can potentially assist in reconstruction of ancestral winged morphologies and facilitate our understanding of the origins of flight.

  7. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders

    PubMed Central

    Yanoviak, Stephen P.; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. PMID:26289654

  8. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  9. Colorimetric Determination of Color of Aerial Mycelium of Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Allister J.; Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    Lyons, Allister J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and Thomas G. Pridham. Colorimetric determination of color of aerial mycelium of streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:159–169. 1965.—For some time, streptomycete taxonomists have been seeking to describe more accurately the colors of aerial mycelium. Some of the descriptive systems involve many different color names and groups. Others combine many colors into a few groups. All the systems and methods leave much to be desired. To obtain an accurate description, a colorimeter with a reflectance attachment was used to examine streptomycete aerial mycelium of 37 strains, representing all of the major aerial mycelium color groups. Each color was characterized by three values: dominant wavelength in millimicrons, and purity and brightness in percentages. All colors of aerial mycelium were of low purity (< 25%). Most of the dominant wavelengths were in the yellow to yellow-green bands of the spectrum. Most of the color tabs matched visually with the streptomycete strains had purities of a higher value than those of the cultures. The reflectance instrument seems to allow an objective description, and its use may help to clarify the color problem with streptomycetes. It is concluded that present color descriptions are inadequate and that the significance of color in speciation requires critical examination. PMID:14255657

  10. Historical integration of remote sensing data: Can GIS extract information from grayscale aerial photographs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Kristina Liane

    There have been many changes in land management policies of the National Forest system over the past 100 years. Changes in policy related to law, population growth and economics directly cause changes in land cover. Global land cover changes are occurring at such a pace and magnitude that they are affecting Earth system functioning (Lambin et al., 2001). The analysis of land cover changes plays a key role in understanding several environmental phenomena, resulting in a need for objective and comparable land cover maps (Gennaretti et al., 2011). Advances in remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have modernized land-use analysis but this technology has traditionally ignored historical black and white aerial photography (Kadmon & Harari-Kremer, 1998). The objectives of this thesis are to show that remote sensing and GIS can provide clear evidence of the consequences of major changes in land use polices using historical aerial images. The goal is to develop new techniques that will allow the use of these images and will widen the usefulness of GIS for environmental scientists interested in land cover change over the last 50-100 years. The research applies object base image analysis (OBIA) to four study sites that display physical evidence of different management strategies using the images collected over a 70 year time span. This project presents a semi-automatic object oriented method that will allow the analysis of landscape change by comparing historical aerial photographs with 2010 orthoimagery. The OBIA method provides many advantages over traditional classification methods by creating a standardized rule set that provides efficient segmentation, classification and creation of land cover maps for a large dataset of 29 diverse images.

  11. Aerial surveys and tagging of free-drifting icebergs using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, P. R.; Reisenbichler, K. R.; Etchemendy, S. A.; Dawe, T. C.; Hobson, B. W.

    2011-06-01

    Ship-based observations of free-drifting icebergs are hindered by the dangers of calving ice. To improve the efficacy and safety of these studies, new unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were developed and then deployed in the Southern Ocean. These inexpensive UAVs were launched and recovered from a ship by scientific personal with a few weeks of flight training. The UAVs sent real-time video back to the ship, allowing researchers to observe conditions in regions of the icebergs not visible from the ship. In addition, the UAVs dropped newly developed global positioning system (GPS) tracking tags, permitting researchers to record the precise position of the icebergs over time. The position reports received from the tags show that the motion of free-drifting icebergs changes rapidly and is a complex combination of both translation and rotation.

  12. Radiological Disaster Simulators for Field and Aerial Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr

    2002-11-01

    Simulators have been developed to dramatically improve the fidelity of play for field monitors and aircraft participating in radiological disaster drills and exercises. Simulated radiological measurements for the current Global Positioning System (GPS) location are derived from realistic models of radiological consequences for accidents and malicious acts. The aerial version outputs analog pulses corresponding to the signal that would be produced by various NaI (Tl) detectors at that location. The field monitor version reports the reading for any make/model of survey instrument selected. Position simulation modes are included in the aerial and field versions. The aerial version can generate a flight path based on input parameters or import an externally generated sequence of latitude and longitude coordinates. The field version utilizes a map-based point and click/drag interface to generate individual or a sequence of evenly spaced instrument measurements.

  13. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  14. Aerial Observation Needs Workshop, May 13-14, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, Shaima; Serbin, Shawn; Lesmes, David; Petty, Rick; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, Andrew; de Boer, Gijs; Dafflon, Baptiste; Guenther, Alex; Moore, David

    2015-10-01

    The mission of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science is "to advance a robust, predictive understanding of Earth's climate and environmental systems and to inform the development of sustainable solutions to the nation's energy and environmental challenges." Accomplishing this mission requires aerial observations of the atmospheric and terrestrial components of the climate system. CESD is assessing its current and future aerial observation needs to develop a strategy and roadmap of capability requirements for the next decade. To facilitate this process, a workshop was convened that consisted of invited experts in the atmospheric and terrestrial sciences, airborne observations, and modeling. This workshop report summarizes the community input prior to and during the workshop on research challenges and opportunities, as well as specific science questions and observational needs that require aerial observations to address.

  15. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  16. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, João Marcelo; Andreata, Regina Helena Potsch; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon); while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns occur in nodes and

  17. Enrichment and broad representation of plant biomass-degrading enzymes in the specialized hyphal swellings of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungal symbiont of leaf-cutter ants

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, Frank O.; Khadempour, Lily; Tremmel, Daniel M.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wu, Si; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Currie, Cameron R.; Brady, Sean

    2015-08-28

    Leaf-cutter ants are prolific and conspicuous constituents of Neotropical ecosystems that derive energy from specialized fungus gardens they cultivate using prodigious amounts of foliar biomass. The basidiomycetous cultivar of the ants, Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, produces specialized hyphal swellings called gongylidia that serve as the primary food source of ant colonies. Gongylidia also contain plant biomass-degrading enzymes that become concentrated in ant digestive tracts and are deposited within fecal droplets onto fresh foliar material as ants incorporate it into the fungus garden. Although the enzymes concentrated by L. gongylophorus within gongylidia are thought to be critical to the initial degradation of plant biomass, only a few enzymes present in these hyphal swellings have been identified. Here we use proteomic methods to identify proteins present in the gongylidia of three Atta cephalotes colonies. Our results demonstrate that a diverse but consistent set of enzymes is present in gongylidia, including numerous plant biomass-degrading enzymes likely involved in the degradation of polysaccharides, plant toxins, and proteins. Overall, gongylidia contained over three quarters of all biomass-degrading enzymes identified in the L. gongylophorus genome, demonstrating that the majority of the enzymes produced by this fungus for biomass breakdown are ingested by the ants. We also identify a set of 40 of these enzymes enriched in gongylidia compared to whole fungus garden samples, suggesting that certain enzymes may be particularly important in the initial degradation of foliar material. Our work sheds light on the complex interplay between leaf-cutter ants and their fungal symbiont that allows for the host insects to occupy an herbivorous niche by indirectly deriving energy from plant biomass.

  18. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  19. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  20. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  1. Assessing flood damage to agriculture using color infrared aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1977-01-01

    The rationale for using color-infrared (CIR) film to assist in assessing flood damage to agriculture is demonstrated using examples prepared from photographs acquired of the 1975 flood in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota. Information concerning flood inundation boundaries, crop damage, soil erosion, sedimentation, and other similar general features and conditions was obtained through the interpretation of CIR aerial photographs. CIR aerial photographs can be used to help improve the estimates of potential remaining production on a field by field basis, owing to the increased accuracy obtained in determining the area component of crop production as compared to conventional ground sketching methods.

  2. Affine transformations from aerial photos to computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peet, F. G.; Mack, A. R.; Crosson, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    During the development of a project to estimate wheat production, it became necessary to pull data, corresponding to particular fields in a test site, off an ERTS computer compatible tape. Aerial photographs and topographic maps were on hand for the test site. A method was devised, using an affine transformation, to relate the aerial photographs or topographic maps to the tapes. One can thereby access data on the tape corresponding to regions covered by only a few pixels. The theory can be used for the registration of two tapes for the same area and for the geometric correction of images.

  3. Photographic copy of circa 1934 black and white aerial photograph. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of circa 1934 black and white aerial photograph. Loose in oversized box located at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. Original Photographer unknown. CIRCA 1934 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM EAST BANK LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD WEST BANK SHOWING COMPLETED BRIDGE PIERS AND DECK TRUSS BETWEEN PIERS C, B, AND V. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  4. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  5. Replisome Localization in Vegetative and Aerial Hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Ruban-Ośmiałowska, Beata; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Smulczyk-Krawczyszyn, Aleksandra; Chater, Keith F.; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Using a functional fusion of DnaN to enhanced green fluorescent protein, we examined the subcellular localization of the replisome machinery in the vegetative mycelium and aerial mycelium of the multinucleoid organism Streptomyces coelicolor. Chromosome replication took place in many compartments of both types of hypha, with the apical compartments of the aerial mycelium exhibiting the highest replication activity. Within a single compartment, the number of “current” ongoing DNA replications was lower than the expected chromosome number, and the appearance of fluorescent foci was often heterogeneous, indicating that this process is asynchronous within compartments and that only selected chromosomes undergo replication. PMID:17015671

  6. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  7. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  8. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  9. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  10. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  11. Collection and Analysis of Crowd Data with Aerial, Rooftop, and Ground Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-10

    and cost, as well as a brief description of the projects on which they were used. We have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight...have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight control systems and used them different projects that will be discussed in the following...servos Aerial Platform Long flight-time aerial paltform for imaging applications UavFactory Ltd $15,885.00 80W Onboard Generator upgrade Power

  12. The choC gene encoding a putative phospholipid methyltransferase is essential for growth and development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Gao, Na; Chen, Sanfeng; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2010-06-01

    Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) are a class of major cell membrane phospholipids that participate in many physiological processes. Three genes, choA, choB and choC, have been proposed to function in the endogenous biosynthesis of PC in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the choC gene encoding a putative highly conserved phospholipid methyltransferase. The previously reported choC3 mutant allele results from a mutation leading to the E177K amino acid substitution. The transcript of choC accumulates at high levels during vegetative growth and early asexual developmental phases. The deletion of choC causes severe impairment of vegetative growth, swelling of hyphal tips and the lack of both asexual and sexual development, suggesting the requirement of ChoC and PC in growth and development. Noticeably, supplementation of the mutant with the penultimate precursor of PC N, N-dimethylaminoethanol leads to full recovery of vegetative growth, but incomplete progression of asexual and sexual development, implying differential roles of PC and its intermediates in fungal growth and development. Importantly, while the choC deletion mutant shows reduced vegetative growth and precocious cell death until day 4, it regains hyphal proliferation and cell viability from day 5, indicating the presence of an alternative route for cellular membrane function in A. nidulans.

  13. Growth and development of Frankia spp. strain CcI3 at the single-hypha level in liquid culture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Benson, David R

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous actinobacteria from the genus Frankia grow by hyphal tip extension and branching. The growth kinetics and branching pattern of Frankia are not well studied, especially at the early stages of mycelial development. Here, we compare the growth of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 in liquid cultures with and without proteose peptone #3 (PP3) using time-lapse photomicrography and image analysis. Individual hyphae showed a pseudolinear increase in length at early stages of development, whereas at the mycelial level, the aggregate length of hyphae described an exponential rate before slowing. Growth based on optical density or microscopic observations was similar in medium with or without PP3. However, PP3 altered the pattern of mycelial development by increasing branching. Distances between the hyphal apex and first branches were on average shorter in PP3-containing media. The final interbranch distances were also shorter in PP3 medium indicating that hyphae tended to branch earlier and more often when supplemented with PP3 to give a more compact mycelium. Vesicle development in nitrogen-fixing cultures limited cell expansion as a result of vesicles truncating growth on new branches. The results provide some explanation for the growth kinetics of Frankia and some indication of how growth rates may be improved.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy.

  15. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  16. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  17. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  1. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  2. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  3. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  4. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  5. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for efficacy evaluation of aerially applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set u...

  6. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for evaluating the efficacy of aerially-applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set...

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Perspective: Effects, Capabilities, and Technologies. Volume 0: Executive Summary and Annotated Briefing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Report on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Perspective...UNCLASSIFIED This report is a product of the United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Committee on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in...iii UNCLASSIFIED United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Report on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Perspective: Effects

  8. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  9. FigA, a Putative Homolog of Low-Affinity Calcium System Member Fig1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Is Involved in Growth and Asexual and Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shizhu; Zheng, Hailin; Long, Nanbiao; Carbó, Natalia; Chen, Peiying; Aguilar, Pablo S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-mediated signaling pathways are widely employed in eukaryotes and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least two different calcium uptake systems have been identified: the high-affinity calcium influx system (HACS) and the low-affinity calcium influx system (LACS). Compared to the HACS, the LACS in fungi is not well known. In this study, FigA, a homolog of the LACS member Fig1 from S. cerevisiae, was functionally characterized in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Loss of figA resulted in retardant hyphal growth and a sharp reduction of conidial production. Most importantly, FigA is essential for the homothallic mating (self-fertilization) process; further, FigA is required for heterothallic mating (outcrossing) in the absence of HACS midA. Interestingly, in a figA deletion mutant, adding extracellular Ca2+ rescued the hyphal growth defects but could not restore asexual and sexual reproduction. Furthermore, quantitative PCR results revealed that figA deletion sharply decreased the expression of brlA and nsdD, which are known as key regulators during asexual and sexual development, respectively. In addition, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging at the C terminus of FigA (FigA::GFP) showed that FigA localized to the center of the septum in mature hyphal cells, to the location between vesicles and metulae, and between the junctions of metulae and phialides in conidiophores. Thus, our findings suggest that FigA, apart from being a member of a calcium uptake system in A. nidulans, may play multiple unexplored roles during hyphal growth and asexual and sexual development. PMID:24376003

  10. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  11. Structural design and fabrication techniques of composite unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Daniel Stephen

    Popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles has grown substantially in recent years both in the private sector, as well as for government functions. This growth can be attributed largely to the increased performance of the technology that controls these vehicles, as well as decreasing cost and size of this technology. What is sometimes forgotten though, is that the research and advancement of the airframes themselves are equally as important as what is done with them. With current computer-aided design programs, the limits of design optimization can be pushed further than ever before, resulting in lighter and faster airframes that can achieve longer endurances, higher altitudes, and more complex missions. However, realization of a paper design is still limited by the physical restrictions of the real world and the structural constraints associated with it. The purpose of this paper is to not only step through current design and manufacturing processes of composite UAVs at Oklahoma State University, but to also focus on composite spars, utilizing and relating both calculated and empirical data. Most of the experience gained for this thesis was from the Cessna Longitude project. The Longitude is a 1/8 scale, flying demonstrator Oklahoma State University constructed for Cessna. For the project, Cessna required dynamic flight data for their design process in order to make their 2017 release date. Oklahoma State University was privileged enough to assist Cessna with the mission of supporting the validation of design of their largest business jet to date. This paper will detail the steps of the fabrication process used in construction of the Longitude, as well as several other projects, beginning with structural design, machining, molding, skin layup, and ending with final assembly. Also, attention will be paid specifically towards spar design and testing in effort to ease the design phase. This document is intended to act not only as a further development of current

  12. Aerial Flyover of New Research Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Idaho National Laboratory is focused on continued development of its primary campus areas, including our Idaho Falls campus, to enable the INL to meet DOE expectations as the nations lead nuclear energy laboratory. This video identifies some of the existing Idaho Falls campus facilities and highlights planned and potential future development to support campus growth. You can learn more about INL's energy research projects at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  13. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FITTING SHOP, MILLWRIGHT SHOP. DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO. AND BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. IN LOWER LEFT, SUM HYDROELECTRIC IN UPPER RIGHT. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  14. Photocopy of aerial photograph taken March 29, 1941 looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph taken March 29, 1941 looking west from a point farther east and north than CO-172-34. Building 500 is in the upper left. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  16. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. 4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE GROUND FLOOR, WHICH CONTAINS THE MAJORITY OF THE PLUTONIUM RECOVERY PROCESSING EQUIPMENT, IS DIVIDED INTO COMPARTMENTS BY FIREWALLS, AIRLOCKS, AND USE OF NEGATIVE AIR PRESSURE. (1/7/75) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL FROM LOWER LEFT TO UPPER RIGHT. LOOKING NORTH - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL AT CENTER. HIGHWAY 101 AT BOTTOM. CAESAR CHAVEZ AVENUE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE VERDE RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE VERDE RIVER FLOWS FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. NOTE THE 'Z' CONFIGURATION OF THE RIVER. FOREST SERVICE ROUTE 269 IS SEEN IN THE LOWER LEFT CORNER. March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the creek, Henry Clay village right of creek, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge in middleground, and Hagley area beyond the bridge - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  2. 34. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE FUTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE FUTURE SITE OF THE NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER TO DOWNTOWN OAKLAND. THE FEDERAL CHANNEL IS AT THE RIGHT. No date, probably mid 1930's. Clyde Sunderland, photographer. Original print on file at the Port of Oakland, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  3. Estimating soil organic carbon using aerial imagery and soil surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread implementation of precision agriculture practices requires low-cost, high-quality, georeferenced soil organic carbon (SOC) maps, but currently these maps require expensive sample collection and analysis. Widely available aerial imagery is a low-cost source of georeferenced data. After til...

  4. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST TOWARD PRATT CITY, WITH EXTRACTION OPERATIONS (BOTTOM LEFT AND CENTER), COKE BY-PRODUCT PLANT (CENTER), AND THE FORMER THOMAS FURNACE COMMUNITY, NOW THE THOMAS NATIONAL REGISTER HISTORIC DISTRICT (CENTER RIGHT). - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, AL 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  5. U. S. Department of Energy Aerial Measuring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. Lease

    1998-10-01

    The Aerial Measuring Systems (AMS) is an aerial surveillance system. This system consists of remote sensing equipment to include radiation detectors; multispectral, thermal, radar, and laser scanners; precision cameras; and electronic imaging and still video systems. This equipment, in varying combinations, is mounted in an airplane or helicopter and flown at different heights in specific patterns to gather various types of data. This system is a key element in the US Department of Energy's (DOE) national emergency response assets. The mission of the AMS program is twofold--first, to respond to emergencies involving radioactive materials by conducting aerial surveys to rapidly track and map the contamination that may exist over a large ground area and second, to conduct routinely scheduled, aerial surveys for environmental monitoring and compliance purposes through the use of credible science and technology. The AMS program evolved from an early program, begun by a predecessor to the DOE--the Atomic Energy Commission--to map the radiation that may have existed within and around the terrestrial environments of DOE facilities, which produced, used, or stored radioactive materials.

  6. 108. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST. SUN PARLOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. SUN PARLOR ON 3TH TEE OF PIER EXTENSION VISIBLE RIGHT OF CENTER Photographer unknown, c. 1931 - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW OF "A" FACE (LEFT) WITH CLEANING SYSTEM INSTALLED (NOW REMOVED) AND "B" FACE (RIGHT) WITH CONSTRUCTION CRANE IN USE. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  8. 17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY AERIAL VIEW WITH PROJECT NEARING COMPLETION. VIEW SHOWS "A" FACE (LEFT) AND "B" FACE OF RADAR ARRAY SYSTEM. NOTE THAT NORTH IS GENERALLY TO RIGHT OF VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  9. Deep person re-identification in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Arne; Schuchert, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    Person re-identification is the problem of matching multiple occurrences of a person in large amounts of image or video data. In this work we propose an approach specifically tailored to re-identify people across different camera views in aerial video recordings. New challenges that arise in aerial data include unusual and more varied view angles, a moving camera and potentially large changes in environment and other in uences between recordings (i.e. between flights). Our approach addresses these new challenges. Due to their recent successes, we apply deep learning to automatically learn features for person re-identification on a number of public datasets. We evaluate these features on aerial data and propose a method to automatically select suitable pretrained features without requiring person id labels on the aerial data. We further show that tailored data augmentation methods are well suited to better cope with the larger variety in view angles. Finally, we combine our model with a metric learning approach to allow for interactive improvement of re-identification results through user feedback. We evaluate the approach on our own video dataset which contains 12 persons recorded from a UAV.

  10. Ocean surface winds drive dynamics of transoceanic aerial movements.

    PubMed

    Felicísimo, Angel M; Muñoz, Jesús; González-Solis, Jacob

    2008-08-13

    Global wind patterns influence dispersal and migration processes of aerial organisms, propagules and particles, which ultimately could determine the dynamics of colonizations, invasions or spread of pathogens. However, studying how wind-mediated movements actually happen has been hampered so far by the lack of high resolution global wind data as well as the impossibility to track aerial movements. Using concurrent data on winds and actual pathways of a tracked seabird, here we show that oceanic winds define spatiotemporal pathways and barriers for large-scale aerial movements. We obtained wind data from NASA SeaWinds scatterometer to calculate wind cost (impedance) models reflecting the resistance to the aerial movement near the ocean surface. We also tracked the movements of a model organism, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea), a pelagic bird known to perform long distance migrations. Cost models revealed that distant areas can be connected through "wind highways" that do not match the shortest great circle routes. Bird routes closely followed the low-cost "wind-highways" linking breeding and wintering areas. In addition, we found that a potential barrier, the near surface westerlies in the Atlantic sector of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), temporally hindered meridional trans-equatorial movements. Once the westerlies vanished, birds crossed the ITCZ to their winter quarters. This study provides a novel approach to investigate wind-mediated movements in oceanic environments and shows that large-scale migration and dispersal processes over the oceans can be largely driven by spatiotemporal wind patterns.

  11. 6. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1965. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1965. Original photo on file at (PAO), NUWC, Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  12. 5. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1945. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photographic copy of aerial photo of site c. 1945. Original photo on file at Public Affairs Office (PAO), Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC), Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  13. 9. Photographic copy of aerial photograph of NUWC, 1993, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of aerial photograph of NUWC, 1993, view northwest. Original color negative no. 093(L)-09212.32 on file at photo lab at NUWC, Newport, R.I. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, East side of Smith & East Streets between Columbia & South Coves, New London, New London County, CT

  14. AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 460, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE BUILDING WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF BUILDING 460, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE BUILDING WAS CONSTRUCTED TO CONSOLIDATE ALL NON-NUCLEAR MANUFACTURING AT THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT INTO ONE FACILITY. (6/13/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Stainless Steel & Non-Nuclear Components Manufacturing, Southeast corner of intersection of Cottonwood & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Predator foraging altitudes reveal the structure of aerial insect communities.

    PubMed

    Helms, Jackson A; Godfrey, Aaron P; Ames, Tayna; Bridge, Eli S

    2016-06-29

    The atmosphere is populated by a diverse array of dispersing insects and their predators. We studied aerial insect communities by tracking the foraging altitudes of an avian insectivore, the Purple Martin (Progne subis). By attaching altitude loggers to nesting Purple Martins and collecting prey delivered to their nestlings, we determined the flight altitudes of ants and other insects. We then tested hypotheses relating ant body size and reproductive ecology to flight altitude. Purple Martins flew up to 1,889 meters above ground, and nestling provisioning trips ranged up to 922 meters. Insect communities were structured by body size such that species of all sizes flew near the ground but only light insects flew to the highest altitudes. Ant maximum flight altitudes decreased by 60% from the lightest to the heaviest species. Winged sexuals of social insects (ants, honey bees, and termites) dominated the Purple Martin diet, making up 88% of prey individuals and 45% of prey biomass. By transferring energy from terrestrial to aerial food webs, mating swarms of social insects play a substantial role in aerial ecosystems. Although we focus on Purple Martins and ants, our combined logger and diet method could be applied to a range of aerial organisms.

  16. 2. Aerial plan view of Longacres in January 1991. (This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial plan view of Longacres in January 1991. (This photograph is an 8x10' enlargement made from a 4x5' two-step duplicate negative. The original color negative is in the collection of The Boeing Co., Renton, WA. Photograph by Nies Mapping Group, Bellevue, WA.) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  17. 1. Aerial plan view of Longacres in 1936. (This photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial plan view of Longacres in 1936. (This photograph is an 8x10' enlargement made from a 4x5' two-step duplicate negative. The original negative is in the collection of The Boeing Co., Renton, WA. Photograph by Walker and Associates, Seattle, WA.) - Longacres, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  18. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. 26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the southwest. At upper left is firing pier. Shop building and power plant under construction at center. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. 49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING FROM NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. NOTE OPEN BURNING AREA LOWER RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1951. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR