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Sample records for aerial mycelium formation

  1. Cloning and characterization of a gene involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus.

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, N; Kimura, M; Beppu, T; Horinouchi, S

    1995-01-01

    A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-gamma-butyrolactone) is essentially required for aerial mycelium formation and streptomycin production in Streptomyces griseus. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this strain on a high-copy-number plasmid. Subcloning and nucleotide sequencing revealed that one open reading frame with 218 amino acids, named AmfC, served as a multicopy suppressor of the aerial mycelium-defective phenotype of the A-factor-deficient strain. The amfC gene did not restore A-factor or streptomycin production, indicating that amfC is involved in aerial mycelium formation independently of secondary metabolic function. Disruption of the chromosomal amfC gene in the wild-type S. griseus strain caused a severe reduction in the abundance of spores but no effect on the shape or size of the spores. The infrequent sporulation of the amfC disruptant was reversed by introduction of amfC on a plasmid. The amfC-defective phenotype was also restored by the orf1590 gene but not by the amfR-amfA-amfB gene cluster. Nucleotide sequences homologous to the amfC gene were distributed in all of 12 Streptomyces species tested, including Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The amfC homolog of S. coelicolor A3(2) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The AmfC products of S. griseus and S. coelicolor A3(2) showed a 60% identity in their amino acid sequences. Introduction of the amfC gene of S. coelicolor A3(2) into strain HH1 induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation, which suggests that both play the same functional role in morphogenesis in the strains. PMID:7592414

  2. Extracellular complementation and the identification of additional genes involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Nodwell, J R; Yang, M; Kuo, D; Losick, R

    1999-02-01

    Morphogenesis in the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor involves the formation of a lawn of hair-like aerial hyphae on the colony surface that stands up in the air and differentiates into chains of spores. bld mutants are defective in the formation of this aerial mycelium and grow as smooth, hairless colonies. When certain pairs of bld mutants are grown close to one another on rich sporulation medium, they exhibit extracellular complementation such that one mutant restores aerial mycelium formation to the other. The extracellular complementation relationships of most of the previously isolated bld mutants placed them in a hierarchy of extracellular complementation groups. We have screened for further bld mutants with precautions intended to maximize the discovery of additional genes. Most of the 50 newly isolated mutant strains occupy one of three of the previously described positions in the hierarchy, behaving like bldK, bldC, or bldD mutants. We show that the mutations in some of the strains that behave like bldK are bldK alleles but that others fall in a cluster at a position on the chromosome distinct from that of any known bld gene. We name this locus bldL. By introducing cloned genes into the strains that exhibit bldC or bldD-like extracellular complementation phenotypes, we show that most of these strains are likely to contain mutations in genes other than bldC or bldD. These results indicate that the genetic control of aerial mycelium formation is more complex than previously recognized and support the idea that a high proportion of bld genes are directly or indirectly involved in the production of substances that are exchanged between cells during morphological differentiation.

  3. Extracellular complementation and the identification of additional genes involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed Central

    Nodwell, J R; Yang, M; Kuo, D; Losick, R

    1999-01-01

    Morphogenesis in the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor involves the formation of a lawn of hair-like aerial hyphae on the colony surface that stands up in the air and differentiates into chains of spores. bld mutants are defective in the formation of this aerial mycelium and grow as smooth, hairless colonies. When certain pairs of bld mutants are grown close to one another on rich sporulation medium, they exhibit extracellular complementation such that one mutant restores aerial mycelium formation to the other. The extracellular complementation relationships of most of the previously isolated bld mutants placed them in a hierarchy of extracellular complementation groups. We have screened for further bld mutants with precautions intended to maximize the discovery of additional genes. Most of the 50 newly isolated mutant strains occupy one of three of the previously described positions in the hierarchy, behaving like bldK, bldC, or bldD mutants. We show that the mutations in some of the strains that behave like bldK are bldK alleles but that others fall in a cluster at a position on the chromosome distinct from that of any known bld gene. We name this locus bldL. By introducing cloned genes into the strains that exhibit bldC or bldD-like extracellular complementation phenotypes, we show that most of these strains are likely to contain mutations in genes other than bldC or bldD. These results indicate that the genetic control of aerial mycelium formation is more complex than previously recognized and support the idea that a high proportion of bld genes are directly or indirectly involved in the production of substances that are exchanged between cells during morphological differentiation. PMID:9927452

  4. The chaplins: a family of hydrophobic cell-surface proteins involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Marie A.; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Huang, Jianqiang; Bibb, Maureen J.; Cohen, Stanley N.; Kao, Camilla M.; Buttner, Mark J.

    2003-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor differentiates by forming specialized, spore-bearing aerial hyphae that grow into the air. Using microarrays, we identified genes that are down-regulated in a mutant unable to erect aerial hyphae. Through this route, we identified a previously unknown layer of aerial mycelium surface proteins (the “chaplins”). The chaplins share a hydrophobic domain of ∼40 residues (the “chaplin domain”), and all have a secretion signal. The five short chaplins (ChpD,E,F,G,H) have one chaplin domain, whereas the three long chaplins (ChpA,B,C) have two chaplin domains and a C-terminal “sorting signal” that targets them for covalent attachment to the cell wall by sortase enzyme. Expression of the two chaplin genes examined (chpE, chpH) depended on aerial hyphae formation but not sporulation, and egfp fusions showed their expression localized to aerial structures. Mass spectrometry of cell wall extracts confirmed that the short chaplins localized to the cell surface. Deletion of chaplin genes caused severe delays in aerial hyphae formation, a phenotype rescued by exogenous application of chaplin proteins. These observations implicate the chaplins in aerial mycelium formation, and suggest that coating of the envelope by the chaplins is required for aerial hyphae to grow out of the aqueous environment of the substrate mycelium into the air. PMID:12832397

  5. Cloning and analysis of a gene cluster from Streptomyces coelicolor that causes accelerated aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, H; Kendall, K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the cloning and analysis of two overlapping DNA fragments from Streptomyces coelicolor that cause aerial mycelium to appear more rapidly than usual when introduced into Streptomyces lividans on a low-copy-number plasmid vector. Colonies of S. lividans TK64 harboring either clone produce visible aerial mycelia after only 48 h of growth, rather than the usual 72 to 96 h. From deletion and sequence analysis, this rapid aerial mycelium (Ram) phenotype appears to be due to a cluster of three genes that we have designated ramA, ramB, and ramR. Both ramA and ramB potentially encode 65-kDa proteins with homology to ATP-dependent membrane-translocating proteins. A chromosomal ramB disruption mutant of S. lividans was found to be severely defective in aerial mycelium formation. ramR could encode a 21-kDa protein with significant homology to the UhpA subset of bacterial two-component response regulator proteins. The overall organization and potential proteins encoded by the cloned DNA suggest that this is the S. coelicolor homolog of the amf gene cluster that has been shown to be important for aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus. However, despite the fact that the two regions probably have identical functions, there is relatively poor homology between the two gene clusters at the DNA sequence level. Images PMID:8206859

  6. Characterization of a gamma-butyrolactone synthetase gene homologue (stcA) involved in bafilomycin production and aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces sp. SBI034.

    PubMed

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Nihira, Takuya; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-03-01

    Streptomyces SBI034 produces several bafilomycin derivatives. Its afsA homologue (stcA) and putative γ-butyrolactone receptor gene (stcB) were cloned. Construction of a stcA disruptant (stcA gene knockout) resulted in complete abolishment of all bafilomycin production. Electron microscopic analysis showed a defect of aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in the stcA disruptant. Restoration of all phenotypic defects and bafilomycin production was observed in a stcA complemented strain. Addition of exogenous γ-butyrolactone (GBL) extracted from the culture broth of the wild-type strain could stimulate the aerial mycelium and spore formation of the stcA disruptant. These results suggest that stcA plays a role in GBL-mediated regulation of bafilomycin biosynthesis and morphological development in Streptomyces strain SBI034.

  7. ςBldN, an Extracytoplasmic Function RNA Polymerase Sigma Factor Required for Aerial Mycelium Formation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Bibb, Maureen J.; Molle, Virginie; Buttner, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    Sporulation mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor appear white because they are defective in the synthesis of the gray polyketide spore pigment, and such white (whi) mutants have been used to define 13 sporulation loci. whiN, one of five new whi loci identified in a recent screen of NTG (N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine)-induced whi strains (N. J. Ryding et al., J. Bacteriol. 181:5419–5425, 1999), was defined by two mutants, R112 and R650. R650 produced frequent spores that were longer than those of the wild type. In contrast, R112 produced long, straight, undifferentiated hyphae, although rare spore chains were observed, sometimes showing highly irregular septum placement. Subcloning and sequencing showed that whiN encodes a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors and that the sigma factor has an unusual N-terminal extension of approximately 86 residues that is not present in other sigma factors. A constructed whiN null mutant failed to form aerial mycelium (the “bald” phenotype) and, as a consequence, whiN was renamed bldN. This observation was not totally unexpected because, on some media, the R112 point mutant produced substantially less aerial mycelium than its parent, M145. The bldN null mutant did not fit simply into the extracellular signaling cascade proposed for S. coelicolor bld mutants. Expression of bldN was analyzed during colony development in wild-type and aerial mycelium-deficient bld strains. bldN was transcribed from a single promoter, bldNp. bldN transcription was developmentally regulated, commencing approximately at the time of aerial mycelium formation, and depended on bldG and bldH, but not on bldA, bldB, bldC, bldF, bldK, or bldJ or on bldN itself. Transcription from the p1 promoter of the response-regulator gene bldM depended on bldN in vivo, and the bldMp1 promoter was shown to be a direct biochemical target for ςBldN holoenzyme in vitro. PMID:10913095

  8. sigma(BldN), an extracytoplasmic function RNA polymerase sigma factor required for aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Bibb, M J; Molle, V; Buttner, M J

    2000-08-01

    Sporulation mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor appear white because they are defective in the synthesis of the gray polyketide spore pigment, and such white (whi) mutants have been used to define 13 sporulation loci. whiN, one of five new whi loci identified in a recent screen of NTG (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine)-induced whi strains (N. J. Ryding et al., J. Bacteriol. 181:5419-5425, 1999), was defined by two mutants, R112 and R650. R650 produced frequent spores that were longer than those of the wild type. In contrast, R112 produced long, straight, undifferentiated hyphae, although rare spore chains were observed, sometimes showing highly irregular septum placement. Subcloning and sequencing showed that whiN encodes a member of the extracytoplasmic function subfamily of RNA polymerase sigma factors and that the sigma factor has an unusual N-terminal extension of approximately 86 residues that is not present in other sigma factors. A constructed whiN null mutant failed to form aerial mycelium (the "bald" phenotype) and, as a consequence, whiN was renamed bldN. This observation was not totally unexpected because, on some media, the R112 point mutant produced substantially less aerial mycelium than its parent, M145. The bldN null mutant did not fit simply into the extracellular signaling cascade proposed for S. coelicolor bld mutants. Expression of bldN was analyzed during colony development in wild-type and aerial mycelium-deficient bld strains. bldN was transcribed from a single promoter, bldNp. bldN transcription was developmentally regulated, commencing approximately at the time of aerial mycelium formation, and depended on bldG and bldH, but not on bldA, bldB, bldC, bldF, bldK, or bldJ or on bldN itself. Transcription from the p1 promoter of the response-regulator gene bldM depended on bldN in vivo, and the bldMp1 promoter was shown to be a direct biochemical target for sigma(BldN) holoenzyme in vitro.

  9. Colorimetric Determination of Color of Aerial Mycelium of Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Allister J.; Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    Lyons, Allister J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and Thomas G. Pridham. Colorimetric determination of color of aerial mycelium of streptomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 89:159–169. 1965.—For some time, streptomycete taxonomists have been seeking to describe more accurately the colors of aerial mycelium. Some of the descriptive systems involve many different color names and groups. Others combine many colors into a few groups. All the systems and methods leave much to be desired. To obtain an accurate description, a colorimeter with a reflectance attachment was used to examine streptomycete aerial mycelium of 37 strains, representing all of the major aerial mycelium color groups. Each color was characterized by three values: dominant wavelength in millimicrons, and purity and brightness in percentages. All colors of aerial mycelium were of low purity (< 25%). Most of the dominant wavelengths were in the yellow to yellow-green bands of the spectrum. Most of the color tabs matched visually with the streptomycete strains had purities of a higher value than those of the cultures. The reflectance instrument seems to allow an objective description, and its use may help to clarify the color problem with streptomycetes. It is concluded that present color descriptions are inadequate and that the significance of color in speciation requires critical examination. PMID:14255657

  10. A gene cluster involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces griseus encodes proteins similar to the response regulators of two-component regulatory systems and membrane translocators.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, K; Miyake, K; Horinouchi, S; Beppu, T

    1993-01-01

    Mutants of Streptomyces griseus deficient in A-factor production are sporulation negative, since A-factor is an essential hormonal regulator for the induction of morphological and physiological differentiation in this bacterium. A DNA fragment which induced aerial mycelium formation and sporulation in an A-factor-deficient mutant strain, S. griseus HH1, was cloned from this mutant strain. Subcloning experiments and nucleotide sequencing showed that two open reading frames, ORF1 with 656 amino acids and ORF2 with 201 amino acids, were required in order to induce sporulation. The amino acid sequence of ORF1 significantly resembled that of the Escherichia coli HlyB protein, a member of a family of bacterial membrane proteins engaged in ATP-dependent secretion mechanisms. Conserved features of this surface translocator family, such as the transmembrane structure predicted by their hydropathy profiles and the amino acid sequence forming an ATP-binding fold, were also conserved in ORF1. The ORF1 gene appeared to constitute a transcriptional unit with an additional upstream gene encoding ORF3, which was greatly similar to ORF1 in size and amino acid sequence. The other protein, ORF2, showed significant end-to-end homology with the E. coli uhpA product, a regulatory protein for the uptake of sugar phosphates. Like UhpA as a response regulator of a bacterial two-component regulatory system, ORF2 contained a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain at its COOH-terminal portion and an Asp residue (Asp-54) probably to be phosphorylated at its NH2-terminal portion. An amino acid replacement from Asp-54 to Asn resulted in the loss of the ability of ORF2 to induce sporulation in strain HH1. Images PMID:8458843

  11. A Jacalin-Related Lectin Regulated the Formation of Aerial Mycelium and Fruiting Body in Flammulina velutipes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuan-Ping; Chen, Ren-Liang; Long, Ying; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Yu-Ji; Xie, Bao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Flammulina velutipes, one of the most popular mushroom species in the world, has been recognized as a useful model system to study the biochemical and physiological aspects of the formation and elongation of fruit body. However, few reports have been published on the regulation of fruiting body formation in F. velutipes at the molecular level. In this study, a jacalin-related lectin gene from F. velutipes was characterized. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Fv-JRL1 clustered with other basidiomycete jacalin-like lectins. Moreover, the transcriptional pattern of the Fv-JRL1 gene in different developmental stages of F. velutipes implied that Fv-JRL1 could be important for formation of fruit body. Additionally, RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression analyses provided powerful evidence that the lectin gene Fv-JRL1 from F. velutipes plays important roles in fruiting body formation. PMID:27916794

  12. Purification of an Extracellular Signaling Molecule Involved in Production of Aerial Mycelium by Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Nodwell, Justin R.; Losick, Richard

    1998-01-01

    We have extensively purified a factor from conditioned medium that restores aerial mycelium formation to a mutant of Streptomyces coelicolor that is defective in morphological differentiation. Response to this factor is shown to depend on the presence of the BldK oligopeptide import system. We suggest that this substance acts at the first step in a putative cascade of developmental regulatory signals. PMID:9495776

  13. STREPTOMYCIN FORMATION BY INTACT MYCELIUM OF STREPTOMYCES GRISEUS

    PubMed Central

    Nomi, Ryosaku

    1963-01-01

    Nomi, Ryosaku (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.). Streptomycin formation by intact mycelium of Streptomyces griseus. J. Bacteriol. 86:1220–1230. 1963.—A study was made of streptomycin formation by intact mycelium of Streptomyces griseus 107 grown in glucose-yeast extract medium. When mycelium harvested after 24, 48, and 72 hr was compared, the earliest growth showed the highest activity in producing streptomycin from glucose. The concentration of streptomycin in the mycelium was higher in the older growth. Calcium chloride had a remarkable effect in increasing streptomycin production from the precursors in the mycelium, especially when the mycelium was grown for 48 hr or longer. The effect of calcium chloride cannot be attributed to the precipitation of an excess of inorganic phosphate in the medium. Glucose, fructose, glycerol, lactic acid, glucosamine, streptidine, and inositol stimulated streptomycin formation, whereas gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, streptamine, and strepturea did not. When 24-hr-old mycelium was suspended and shaken in 0.5% glucose solution, the antibiotic precursors necessary to produce streptomycin were found mainly in the supernatant of the culture rather than in the mycelium. The supernatant included some substance which had a weak antibiotic activity. This substance was less basic than streptomycin and was transformed to streptomycin with a remarkable increase in antibiotic activity. PMID:14086093

  14. Cytosolic streaming in vegetative mycelium and aerial structures of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, R; Vinck, A; Krijgsheld, P; van Leeuwen, M R; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B

    2013-03-15

    Aspergillus niger forms aerial hyphae and conidiophores after a period of vegetative growth. The hyphae within the mycelium of A. niger are divided by septa. The central pore in these septa allows for cytoplasmic streaming. Here, we studied inter- and intra-compartmental streaming of the reporter protein GFP in A. niger. Expression of the gene encoding nuclear targeted GFP from the gpdA or glaA promoter resulted in strong fluorescence of nuclei within the vegetative hyphae and weak fluorescence in nuclei within the aerial structures. These data and nuclear run on experiments showed that gpdA and glaA are higher expressed in the vegetative mycelium when compared to aerial hyphae, conidiophores and conidia. Notably, gpdA or glaA driven expression of the gene encoding cytosolic GFP resulted in strongly fluorescent vegetative hyphae and aerial structures. Apparently, GFP streams from vegetative hyphae into aerial structures. This was confirmed by monitoring fluorescence of photo-activatable GFP (PA-GFP). In contrast, PA-GFP did not stream from aerial structures to vegetative hyphae. Streaming of PA-GFP within vegetative hyphae or within aerial structures of A. niger occurred at a rate of 10-15 μm s(-1). Taken together, these results not only show that GFP streams from the vegetative mycelium to aerial structures but it also indicates that its encoding RNA is not streaming. Absence of RNA streaming would explain why distinct RNA profiles were found in aerial structures and the vegetative mycelium by nuclear run on analysis and micro-array analysis.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Thermogemmatispora onikobensis NBRC 111776T, an Aerial Mycelium- and Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium Belonging to the Class Ktedonobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Akira; Yabe, Shuhei; Yokota, Akira; Uchino, Yoshihito; Takano, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Thermogemmatispora onikobensis NBRC 111776T, an aerial mycelium- and spore-forming thermophilic bacterium belonging to the class Ktedonobacteria. The genome contains five biosynthetic gene clusters coding for secondary metabolites, such as terpene, thiopeptide, lantipeptide, nonribosomal peptide, and lassopeptide, suggesting the potential to produce secondary metabolites. PMID:27738048

  16. A membrane-like structure envelopes substrate mycelium during colony development in Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    García, M

    1995-08-15

    Colonies of Streptomyces antibioticus were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs show that substrate mycelium growth takes place among an intercellular material and this mycelium is covered by a surface film. This structure could be a boundary between the aerial mycelium and the substrate mycelium.

  17. Submerged conidiation and product formation by Aspergillus niger at low specific growth rates are affected in aerial developmental mutants.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Nielsen, Kristian F; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, Joohae; van den Hondel, Cees A; Frisvad, Jens C; Ram, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that this differentiation strongly affects product formation. Since conidiation is inherent in the aerial environment, we hypothesized that product formation near zero growth can be influenced by affecting differentiation or development of aerial hyphae in general. To investigate this idea, three developmental mutants (ΔfwnA, scl-1, and scl-2 mutants) that have no apparent vegetative growth defects were cultured in maltose-limited retentostat cultures. The secondary-metabolite profile of the wild-type strain defined flavasperone, aurasperone B, tensidol B, and two so far uncharacterized compounds as associated with conidium formation, while fumonisins B(2), B(4), and B(6) were characteristic of early response to nutrient limitation by the vegetative mycelium. The developmental mutants responded differently to the severe substrate limitation, which resulted in distinct profiles of growth and product formation. fwnA encodes the polyketide synthase responsible for melanin biosynthesis during aerial differentiation, and we show that conidial melanin synthesis in submerged retentostat cultures and aurasperone B production are fwnA dependent. The scl-1 and scl-2 strains are two UV mutants generated in the ΔfwnA background that displayed reduced asexual conidiation and formed sclerotium-like structures on agar plates. The reduced conidiation phenotypes of the scl-1 and scl-2 strains are reflected in the retentostat cultivation and are accompanied by elimination or severely reduced accumulation of secondary metabolites and distinctly enhanced accumulation of extracellular protein. This investigation shows that submerged conidiation and product formation of a mitosporic

  18. Dynamics of Aerial Tower Formation in Bacillus subtilis Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Naveen; Seminara, Agnese; Wilking, James; Brenner, Michael; Weitz, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Biofilms are highly-organized colonies of bacteria that form on surfaces. These colonies form sophisticated structures which make them robust and difficult to remove from environments such as catheters, where they pose serious infection problems. Previous work has shown that sub-mm sized aerial towers form on the surface of Bacillus subtilis colony biofilms. Spore-formation is located preferentially at the tops of these towers, known as fruiting bodies, which aid in the dispersal and propagation of the colony to new sites. The formation of towers is strongly affected by the quorum-sensing molecule surfactin and the cannibalism pathway of the bacteria. In the present work, we use confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the development of individual fruiting bodies, allowing us to visualize the time-dependent spatial distribution of matrix-forming and sporulating bacteria within the towers. With this information, we investigate the physical mechanisms, such as surface tension and polymer concentration gradients, that drive the formation of these structures.

  19. Distributed output-feedback formation tracking control for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lei; Sun, Xiuxia; Lin, Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper considers the output-feedback formation problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of networked unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). By introducing a state observer, the controller for the non-holonomic UAV model can be designed without linear and angular velocities measurements. The formation robustness can be improved by applying the virtual structure and synchronising the path parameters. It is proved that, with the proposed control strategy, all the closed-loop signals are bounded and the formation tracking errors asymptotically converge to zero. Simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  20. MVE1 Encoding the velvet gene product homolog in Mycosphaerella graminicola is associated with aerial mycelium formation, melanin biosynthesis, hyphal swelling, and light signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important pathogen of wheat that causes the disease septoria tritici blotch. Despite the serious impact of M. graminicola on wheat production worldwide, knowledge about its molecular biology is limited. The velvet gene, veA, is one of the key re...

  1. Gene encoding a C-type cyclin in Mycosphaerella graminicola is involved in aerial mycelium formation, filamentous growth, hyphal swelling, melanin biosynthesis, stress response, and pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important wheat pathogen causing septoria tritici blotch. To date, an efficient strategy to control M. graminicola has not been developed. More significantly, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M. graminicola pathogenicity. In this study, ...

  2. Multicopter-based small format aerial photography using free and open source photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert Matthew

    A process is described to convert aerial photographs from flat images to 3D point clouds and then convert into height maps to be used as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. All software used in the process is either free or open source. The process uses a DJI Phanton multicoper and two Canon Point and Shoot digital cameras. One camera is unaltered, and a second camera is modified to produce infrared images. A DJI Phantom FC-40 multicopter is used as the aerial platform to carry the cameras. Multiple paths are described to convert from still images (or video to still images) to N-view matches, followed by sparse point clouds then dense point clouds. Point clouds are distinct 3D points charted in an XYZ coordinate system. The dense point clouds can be converted into 3D models for viewing and analysis. A height map is extracted from the point cloud and surface images (in raster format) are created and then used in QGIS or ArcMap as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. Finally, the digital elevation models are evaluated in comparison to similar LIDAR images. Keywords: Passive Remote Sensing; LIDAR; Spatial Resolution.

  3. Replisome Localization in Vegetative and Aerial Hyphae of Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Ruban-Ośmiałowska, Beata; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Smulczyk-Krawczyszyn, Aleksandra; Chater, Keith F.; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    Using a functional fusion of DnaN to enhanced green fluorescent protein, we examined the subcellular localization of the replisome machinery in the vegetative mycelium and aerial mycelium of the multinucleoid organism Streptomyces coelicolor. Chromosome replication took place in many compartments of both types of hypha, with the apical compartments of the aerial mycelium exhibiting the highest replication activity. Within a single compartment, the number of “current” ongoing DNA replications was lower than the expected chromosome number, and the appearance of fluorescent foci was often heterogeneous, indicating that this process is asynchronous within compartments and that only selected chromosomes undergo replication. PMID:17015671

  4. The sky is the limit? 20 years of small-format aerial photography taken from UAS for monitoring geomorphological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzolff, Irene

    2014-05-01

    One hundred years after the first publication on aerial photography taken from unmanned aerial platforms (Arthur Batut 1890), small-format aerial photography (SFAP) became a distinct niche within remote sensing during the 1990s. Geographers, plant biologists, archaeologists and other researchers with geospatial interests re-discovered the usefulness of unmanned platforms for taking high-resolution, low-altitude photographs that could then be digitized and analysed with geographical information systems, (softcopy) photogrammetry and image processing techniques originally developed for digital satellite imagery. Even before the ubiquity of digital consumer-grade cameras and 3D analysis software accessible to the photogrammetric layperson, do-it-yourself remote sensing using kites, blimps, drones and micro air vehicles literally enabled the questing researcher to get their own pictures of the world. As a flexible, cost-effective method, SFAP offered images with high spatial and temporal resolutions that could be ideally adapted to the scales of landscapes, forms and distribution patterns to be monitored. During the last five years, this development has been significantly accelerated by the rapid technological advancements of GPS navigation, autopiloting and revolutionary softcopy-photogrammetry techniques. State-of-the-art unmanned aerial systems (UAS) now allow automatic flight planning, autopilot-controlled aerial surveys, ground control-free direct georeferencing and DEM plus orthophoto generation with centimeter accuracy, all within the space of one day. The ease of use of current UAS and processing software for the generation of high-resolution topographic datasets and spectacular visualizations is tempting and has spurred the number of publications on these issues - but which advancements in our knowledge and understanding of geomorphological processes have we seen and can we expect in the future? This presentation traces the development of the last two decades

  5. [Relationship between mycelium morphology and laccase production of Pleurotus ferulae in submerged cultivation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Youzhi; Wang, Lu; Peng, Lin; Ding, Zhongyang; Zhang, Liang; Gu, Zhenghua; Shi, Guiyang; Zhang, Kechang

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the relationship between mycelium morphology and laccase production was studied. The results indicated that the morphology of P. ferulae pellets was changed when glass beads were added. Laccase production showed higher with spherical mycelium than with filamentous or flocculent mycelium. In addition, the spherical mycelium with a diameter of 0.2-0.4 mm highly affected laccase production. Effect of the composition of culture medium on pellets was investigated and results indicated that various concentrations of glucose, corn meal and wheat bran were important to the formation of pellets in diameter of 0.2-0.4 mm. Besides nutrients, the addition of non-nutritional substrates influenced the distribution of P. ferulae pellets. However, the production of laccase was not promoted by non-nutritional substrates.

  6. Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Sandra M.; Umeo, Suzana H.; Marcante, Rafael C.; Yokota, Meire E.; Valle, Juliana S.; Dragunski, Douglas C.; Colauto, Nelson B.; Linde, Giani A.

    2015-01-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus is able to bioaccumulate several metals in its cell structures; however, there are no reports on its capacity to bioaccumulate iron. The objective of this study was to evaluate cultivation variables to increase iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium. A full factorial design and a central composite design were utilized to evaluate the effect of the following variables: nitrogen and carbon sources, pH and iron concentration in the solid culture medium to produce iron bioaccumulated in mycelial biomass. The maximum production of P. ostreatus mycelial biomass was obtained with yeast extract at 2.96 g of nitrogen L −1 and glucose at 28.45 g L −1 . The most important variable to bioaccumulation was the iron concentration in the cultivation medium. Iron concentration at 175 mg L −1 or higher in the culture medium strongly inhibits the mycelial growth. The highest iron concentration in the mycelium was 3500 mg kg −1 produced with iron addition of 300 mg L −1 . The highest iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium was obtained in culture medium with 150 mg L −1 of iron. Iron bioaccumulation in P. ostreatus mycelium is a potential alternative to produce non-animal food sources of iron. PMID:26221108

  7. Morphological development of Morchella conica mycelium on different agar media.

    PubMed

    Guler, P; Ozkaya, E G

    2009-07-01

    The present study presents the development of mycelium of Morchella conica where different concentration of sucrose added at different agar media. For this sucrose have been added as 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25% concentration to wheat agar potato dextrose agar malt extract agar and complete medium yeast agar The radial growth speed, morphologic specifications, radial growth radius and pigmentation of mycelium were taken as criteria, the development period of mycelium in wheat agar was completed in 4 days and mycelium were very thin. The colonization period of the mycelium was determined; 7 days in potato dextrose agar 5 days in malt extract agar and 5 days at complete medium yeast agar. The development of the mycelium; at potato dextrose agar was dense and circular; at malt extract agar and at completed medium yeast agar was rhizomorphic. Mycelium has developed very well at sucrose medium and formed creamy and light yellow pigmentation.

  8. Analysis of Biophysical Mechanisms of Gilgai Microrelief Formation in Dryland Swelling Soils Using Ultra-High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, N.; DeCarlo, K. F.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Microrelief formations ("gilgai"), which form due to successive wetting-drying cycles typical of swelling soils, provide ecological hotspots for local fauna and flora, including higher and more robust vegetative growth. The distribution of these gilgai suggests a remarkable degree of regularity. However, it is unclear to what extent the mechanisms that drive gilgai formation are physical, such as desiccation-induced fracturing, or biological in nature, namely antecedent vegetative clustering. We investigated gilgai genesis and pattern formation in a 100 x 100 meter study area with swelling soils in a semiarid grassland at the Mpala Research Center in central Kenya. Our ongoing experiment is composed of three 9m2 treatments: we removed gilgai and limited vegetative growth by herbicide application in one plot, allowed for unrestricted seed dispersal in another, and left gilgai unobstructed in a control plot. To estimate the spatial frequencies of the repeating patterns of gilgai, we obtained ultra-high resolution (0.01-0.03m/pixel) images with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) from which digital elevation models were also generated. Geostatistical analyses using wavelet and fourier methods in 1- and 2-dimensions were employed to characterize gilgai size and distribution. Preliminary results support regular spatial patterning across the gilgaied landscape and heterogeneities may be related to local soil properties and biophysical influences. Local data on gilgai and fracture characteristics suggest that gilgai form at characteristic heights and spacing based on fracture morphology: deep, wide cracks result in large, highly vegetated mounds whereas shallow cracks, induced by animal trails, are less correlated with gilgai size and shape. Our experiments will help elucidate the links between shrink-swell processes and gilgai-vegetation patterning in high activity clay soils and advance our understanding of the mechanisms of gilgai formation in drylands.

  9. ISOELECTRIC POINTS FOR THE MYCELIUM OF FUNGI

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William J.

    1924-01-01

    1. Mycelium of Rhizopus nigricans when stained with certain acid and basic dyes and washed with buffer mixtures of 0.1 M phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide responded much like an amphoteric colloid with an isoelectric point near pH 5.0. 2. When grown on potato dextrose agar the reaction of which was varied with phosphoric acid the extent of colony growth of Rhizopus nigricans plotted against the initial Sörensen value of the agar produced a double maximum curve with the minimum between the two maxima at initial pH 5.2. 3. When grown in potato dextrose broth the reaction of which was varied with phosphoric acid the dry matter produced by Rhizopus nigricans plotted against the Sörensen value of the broth produced a double maximum curve with the minimum between the two maxima at initial pH 5.2 or average pH 4.9. 4. Mycelium of Rhizopus nigricans placed in buffer mixtures of 0.01 M phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide of pH 4.1 to 6.3, changed the reaction in most cases toward greater alkalinity. 5. Mycelium of Fusarium lycopersici stained with certain acid and basic dyes and washed with buffer mixtures of 0.1 M phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide responded much like an amphoteric colloid with an isoelectric point near pH 5.5. PMID:19872067

  10. Elucidating the key role of the fungal mycelium on the biodegradation of n-pentane as a model hydrophobic VOC.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, Alberto; Scott, Felipe; Moreno-Casas, Patricio; Díaz-Robles, Luis; Muñoz, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    The role of the aerial mycelium of the fungus Fusarium solani in the biodegradation of n-pentane was evaluated in a continuous fungal bioreactor (FB) to determine the contribution of the aerial (hyphae) and non-aerial (monolayer) fungal biomass. The experimental results showed that although the aerial biomass fraction represented only 25.9(±3)% on a dry weight basis, it was responsible for 71.6(±4)% of n-pentane removal. The FB attained a maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) of 680(±30) g m(-3) h(-1) in the presence of fungal hyphae (which supported an interfacial area of 5.5(±1.5) × 10(6) m(2) m(-3)). In addition, a mathematical model capable of describing n-pentane biodegradation by the filamentous fungus was also developed and validated against the experimental data. This model successfully predicted the influence of the aerial biomass fraction and its partition coefficient on the n-pentane removal, with EC decreasing from 680(±30) g m(-3) h(-1) to values of 200(±14) g m(-3) h(-1) when the dimensionless partition coefficient increased from 0.21(±0.09) with aerial biomass to 0.88(±0.06) without aerial biomass.

  11. [Development of a gentamicin producer under different culture conditions studied by a method of differential centrifugation of the mycelium in a saccharose density gradient].

    PubMed

    Losev, V V; Laznikova, T N; Dmitrieva, S V

    1981-05-01

    The method of differential centrifugation in the sucrose density gradient (SDG) enabled one to trace the changes in the development of the seed and fermentation mycelium of the gentamicin-producing organism. Correlation between gentamicin distribution in the SDG and the culture productivity was found. It was shown that the culture grown under the optimal aeration and agitation conditions was characterized by formation of higher amounts of the mycelium in the 5th and 6th layers of the SDG. Such mycelium was more productive than that from the other SDG layers. The most productive 48-hour seed culture had the more significant part of the mycelium in the 3rd layer of the SDG. When such a culture had the more significant part of the mycelium in the 3rd layer of the SDG. When such a culture was used as the seed material, the activity of the fermentation broth was the highest. The method of differential centrifugation in the SDG provides determination of the culture productivity by the volumes of the fermentation mycelium in the 5th and 6th layers or the seed mycelium in the 3rd layer of the SDG.

  12. Aerial Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

  13. Vertical fault mapping within the Gutingkeng Formation of southern Taiwan: implications for sub-aerial mud diapir tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, J. R.; Lee, Y.; Ching, K.

    2012-12-01

    Vertical faults were mapped around the periphery of the mudstone-rich Plio-Pleistocene Gutingkeng Formation (Gtk) in southern Taiwan. The faults are manifested as black colored, penetrating shear bands that intersect bedding planes of the Gtk (shear band dips range from 60 - 90 degrees; shear band thicknesses range from several centimeters to several meters). Thin (1-2cm), friable calcite veins were found locally within the shear bands and often contain weakly developed slickensides. Where available, the sense of shear of these faults show consistent interior upward motion of the Gtk. The Chishan Fault is the southeastern bounding structure of the Gtk and where exposed, near-vertical shear bands were observed with a normal sense of shear (west-side-up). In addition, three exploratory cores drilled in 2010 along the western edge of the hanging wall of the Chishan Fault did not intersect the fault or the Gtk after nearly 200 meters of drilling. This suggests that the main Chishan Fault may not be a typical top-to-the-west reverse fault as previously mapped and does not fit the typical fold and thrust geometry that is prevalent in the western foothills of Taiwan. Instead, we interpret the collective field evidence to suggest that the Chishan Fault is a near vertical structure that is accommodating uplift of the Gtk, similar to mechanism by which sub-aqueous mud diapirs grow. A chain of mud diapirs is located off the southeastern coast of Taiwan and the Gtk may be the onshore extension of this chain. The sub-aerial mud diapir hypothesis is further supported by recent leveling data collected across the Gtk that shows the largest vertical uplift in the region to be centered within the Gtk. Finally, observations at the western end of the Highway 3 tunnel through the Chishan fault and overlying Wushan Formation indicate that there is recent west side (footwall) uplift along the Chishan Fault. The vertical faults mapped within the Gtk are significant for they may provide

  14. Enzymatic Activity of the Mycelium Compared with Oospore Development During Infection of Pea Roots by Aphanomyces euteiches.

    PubMed

    Kjøller, R; Rosendahl, S

    1998-09-01

    ABSTRACT To describe the disease cycle of the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, enzymatic activity in the mycelium was compared with the development of oospores in pea roots. Plants were inoculated with two zoospore concentrations to achieve different disease levels. Hyphae were stained for fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in the roots. Additionally, enzyme activity was measured after electrophoresis of an A. euteiches-specific glucose-6-phosphate isozyme. Development of oospores in the roots was measured after staining the oospores with trypan blue. In plants inoculated with the higher zoospore concentration, the enzymatic activity of the pathogen mycelium peaked 10 to 14 days after inoculation, when oospore formation was initiated. Oospore formation was associated with a gradual increase in disease symptoms. At the last harvest, plants inoculated with the higher zoospore concentration had died. In these plants, oospores were found in 90% of the root length, while the enzymatic activity of the mycelium was low. This suggests that the pathogen mycelium is only active on living plants and does not grow saprophytically on dead plant material.

  15. Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    John Hill, a pilot and commercial aerial photographer, needed an information base. He consulted NERAC and requested a search of the latest developments in camera optics. NERAC provided information; Hill contacted the manufacturers of camera equipment and reduced his photographic costs significantly.

  16. Bio-composites from mycelium reinforced agricultural substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for biodegradable alternatives to the inert plastics and expanded foams currently used in in manufacturing processes and device components. The material focused on in this report is a bio-composite patented by Ecovative Design, LLC. The bio-composite utilizes the fungus mycelium to i...

  17. Differential auxin transport and accumulation in the stem base lead to profuse adventitious root primordia formation in the aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Mignolli, F; Mariotti, L; Picciarelli, P; Vidoz, M L

    2017-02-27

    The aerial roots (aer) mutant of tomato is characterized by a profuse and precocious formation of adventitious root primordia along the stem. We demonstrated that auxin is involved in the aer phenotype but ruled out higher auxin sensitivity of mutant plants. Interestingly, polar auxin transport was altered in aer, as young seedlings showed a reduced response to an auxin transport inhibitor and higher expression of auxin export carriers SlPIN1 and SlPIN3. An abrupt reduction in transcripts of auxin efflux and influx genes in older aer hypocotyls caused a marked deceleration of auxin transport in more mature tissues. Indeed, in 20days old aer plants, the transport of labeled IAA was faster in apices than in hypocotyls, displaying an opposite trend in comparison to a wild type. In addition, auxin transport facilitators (SlPIN1, SlPIN4, SlLAX5) were more expressed in aer apices than in hypocotyls, suggesting that auxin moves faster from the upper to the lower part of the stem. Consequently, a significantly higher level of free and conjugated IAA was found at the base of aer stems with respect to their apices. This auxin accumulation is likely the cause of the aer phenotype.

  18. Inducible trehalase enzyme activity of Morchella conica Persoon mycelium.

    PubMed

    Czövek, Pálma; Király, I

    2011-03-01

    Morchella conica Pers. strains of the study were isolated from fruit bodies collected in ash-mixed forests. At first, the strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), then on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid agar media. A normal-growing strain was chosen for the trehalase induction experiments. During the trehalase induction treatment, mycelia were grown in liquid culture containing different concentrations of trehalose. After the induction period of trehalase enzymes, physiological state of the mycelium and the oxidative stress were monitored in the vegetative mycelia by measuring the change of the malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase enzyme activity, the fresh and dry weight. The examined Morchella conica strain utilized the trehalose properly. The rising amount of the trehalose triggered the increase of the mycelial trehalase enzyme activity. Our results clearly proved that both neutral and acidic trehalase isoenzyme activity of the Morchella conica mycelium are inducible and are playing important role in the utilization of external trehalose.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of Morel mushroom, Morchella esculenta.

    PubMed

    Nitha, B; Fijesh, P V; Janardhanan, K K

    2013-01-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of cultured mycelium of morel mushroom Morchella esculenta against CCl(4) and ethanol induced chronic hepatotoxicity was investigated. Hepatotoxicity was induced by challenging the animals with CCl(4) (1:5, v/v, 3.75 ml/kg body weight, i.p., 30 doses) and ethanol (36%, v/v, 6 ml/animal, p.o., 35 doses) and the extract was administered at two concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Hepatoprotection was evaluated by determining the activities of liver function marker enzymes and antioxidant status of liver and also by histopathological observations of liver tissue. Administration of both ethanol and CCl(4) elevated the levels of liver function enzymes, GOT, GPT and ALP in serum drastically. The treatment with the extract decreased the elevated serum GOT, GPT and ALP activities in a dose dependent manner. The extract also restored the depleted levels of antioxidants in liver consequent to CCl(4) and ethanol challenge. The results indicated that aqueous-ethanolic extract of M. esculenta mycelium possessed significant hepatoprotective activity. The conclusion is also supported by the biochemical determinations and histopathological observations. The findings thus suggest the potential therapeutic use of morel mushroom mycelium as a novel hepatoprotective agent.

  20. Quantification of extraradical mycelium of Tuber melanosporum in soils from truffle orchards in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Parladé, Javier; De la Varga, Herminia; De Miguel, Ana Ma; Sáez, Raimundo; Pera, Joan

    2013-02-01

    Quantification of extraradical mycelium of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has been carried out in a natural truffle ground and in seven truffle orchards (around 20 years old) established in Tierra Estella and Valdorba sites, within the natural distribution area of the black truffles in Navarre (northern Spain). Specific primers and a Taqman® probe were designed to perform real-time PCR with DNA extracted from soil samples. Amplification of T. melanosporum DNA was obtained from 131 out of the 160 soil samples. The detection limit of the technique was 1.48 μg mycelium/g of soil. The extraradical mycelium biomass detected in the soil from the natural truffle ground was significantly greater (up to ten times higher) than the mycelium biomass detected in any of the orchards. Soil from productive, nonirrigated orchards in the Tierra Estella site contained significantly more extraradical mycelium than the rest of orchards irrigated, productive of T. brumale, or nonproductive. The comparison of soil mycelium biomass in nonirrigated evergreen oak orchards in both sites showed significantly more mycelium biomass in the Tierra Estella site. This study is the first attempt to quantify extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil using Taqman® probes. The obtained quantitative results are of special interest to evaluate the fungal response to cultural treatments and to monitor the dynamics of the extraradical mycelium of T. melanosporum in the soil.

  1. Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) mycelium enhanced antioxidant status in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Mhd Omar, Nor Adila; Abdullah, Sumaiyah; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Aim Lentinus squarrosulus is an edible wild mushroom commonly found in Asia. This species has several interesting features such as rapid mycelial growth, and hence has the potential to be used as food, functional food, and nutraceuticals. Our previous study shows that L. squarrosulus contains potent antioxidant compounds in vitro. This study aims to investigate the in vivo bioavailability of L. squarrosulus mycelium extract and its antioxidant effect on biomarkers of antioxidant defense and oxidative stress. Methods Water extract of mycelial biomass of L. squarrosulus was analyzed for in vivo antioxidant effects, including cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), xanthine oxidase (XO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and lipid hydroperoxides (LHPs) at 0 and 28 days. GPx and XO were also analyzed in liver homogenates. Normal Sprague Dawley rats were treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract for 28 days. Results The serum CUPRAC level increased after treatment with both concentrations, indicating that there was sufficient bioavailability of the extract which contributed to the total antioxidant capacity. GPx activity in both serum and liver was increased and this correlated with LHP level after treatment with 250 mg/kg of extract, but XO activity was significantly decreased after treatment with 500 mg/kg of the extract. Lack of difference between AOPP levels implied that there were no significant changes in oxidative damage of protein after treatment. Conclusion This study clearly showed that L. squarrosulus mycelium antioxidant extract contains absorbable antioxidants that enter the circulating plasma and cause a significant acute increase in plasma antioxidant capacity. Thus, the water extract of L. squarrosulus mycelium, which can be obtained abundantly by liquid fermentation, may serve as an antioxidant ingredient in functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:26604694

  2. Multi-temporal monitoring of crack formation on a mountain col with low-cost unmanned aerial systems - a case study in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stary, Ulrike; Adams, Marc

    2016-04-01

    In the Tuxer Alps of Western Austria, crack formation was observed on a col at approximately 2,500 m a.s.l., in close proximity to a highly frequented hiking trail. On an area of 0.2 ha, three several meter deep cracks were identified. Here we present the results of a 3-year monitoring of this area with low-cost, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and photogrammetric techniques. In 2013 and 2014, a custom-built fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor, wingspan 1.6 m, gross take-off weight 2.5 kg), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (16 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was used to map the study site. In 2015 we employed a helicopter (Thundertiger Raptor, 0.55 m blade length, gross take-off weight 2.8 kg), fitted with a GoPro2 (60° prime lens, 5 MP sensor resolution). In all three cases we recorded 1,200-2,000 images in 10-30 minutes. To georeference the images, 8-10 ground control points (GCP) were placed at the study site and measured with a Trimble GeoXT GPS device (expected accuracy 0.15 m, precision 0.3 m). Using AgiSoft's PhotoScan (v.1.1.6), Orthophotos (OP) and digital surface models (DSM) were calculated with 5 and 20 cm ground sampling distance, respectively. The visual interpretation of the OPs gave some indication, that the size of the cracks was increasing by 0.1-0.5 m (A-axis) or 0.2-0.8 m² per year. An interpretation of the DSMs was inconclusive with regard to the depth of the cracks due to shadows in the imagery and vertical or overhanging sidewalls of the cracks. Additionally the accuracy of the GCP-measurements was found to lie below the rate of change of the cracks, thus not permitting a direct calculation of difference DSM. From an operational point-of-view, the study site proved very challenging because of its exposed, high-alpine location, with high wind speeds, gusts and poor visibility hampering the UAS-missions. The monitoring campaign will continue in 2016, where the collection of additional ground-based reference data is planned (e.g. terrestrial

  3. Fine-scale diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium in a Scots pine forest.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian C; Genney, David R; Alexander, Ian J

    2014-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelium is a key component of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, yet we know little regarding the fine-scale diversity and distribution of mycelium in ECM fungal communities. We collected four 20 × 20 × 2-cm(3) (800-cm(3)) slices of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest soil and divided each into 100 2 × 2 × 2-cm(3) (8-cm(3)) cubes. The presence of mycelium of ECM fungi was determined using an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) database terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach. As expected, many more ECM fungi were detected as mycelium than as ectomycorrhizas in a cube or slice. More surprisingly, up to one-quarter of the 43 species previously detected as ectomycorrhizas over an area of 400 m(2) could be detected in a single 8-cm(3) cube, and up to three-quarters in a single 800-cm(3) slice. ECM mycelium frequency decreased markedly with depth and there were distinct 'hotspots' of mycelium in the moss/F1 layer. Our data demonstrate a high diversity of ECM mycelium in a small (8-cm(3) ) volume of substrate, and indicate that the spatial scale at which ECM species are distributed as mycelium may be very different from the spatial scale at which they are distributed as tips.

  4. Tradeoffs between reproduction and mycelium production in the unit-restricted decomposer Coprinus cinereus.

    PubMed

    Schmit, John Paul

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed which examined tradeoffs between production of mycelium and reproduction (using stipe dry weight as an estimator of spore production) in the coprophilous mushroom species Coprinus cinereus. Isolates of the fungus taken from a single dikaryotic mycelium were grown in Petri plates containing yeast extract agar. Plates varied in diameter and resource density, but the total volume of agar was kept constant. Isolates grown in 100 mm and 150 mm diameter plates produced significantly less mycelium compared to isolates grown in 60 mm diameter plates. Within 60 mm plates there was no correlation between the efficiency of mycelium production and fruit body production, but in larger plates there was a significant negative correlation between the two. These results indicate that isolates grown on larger plates were less efficient at using resources than isolates grown on small plates, and that mycelium production is curtailed on larger plates to maintain spore production.

  5. Aerial radiation surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sanghuangporus sanghuang Mycelium

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wang-Ching; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lin, Wan-Rong; Lin, Hui-Yi; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2017-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1), believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HNGB1) activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1)/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor Nrf2/Kelch Like ECH associated Protein 1 (Keap1) pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases. PMID:28178212

  7. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  8. Membrane-assisted culture of fungal mycelium on agar plates for RNA extraction and pharmacological analyses.

    PubMed

    Lange, Mario; Müller, Carolin; Peiter, Edgar

    2014-05-15

    Fungal mycelium grown in liquid culture is easy to harvest for RNA extraction and gene expression analyses, but liquid cultures often develop rather heterogeneously. In contrast, growth of fungal mycelium on agar plates is highly reproducible. However, this biological material cannot be harvested easily for downstream analyses. This article describes a PVDF (polyvinylidene difluoride) membrane-assisted agar plate culture method that enables the harvest of mycelium grown on agar plates. This culture method leads to a strongly reduced variation in gene expression between biological replicates and requires less growth space as compared with liquid cultures.

  9. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Ha Thi

    2015-01-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms. PMID:25892910

  10. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    PubMed

    Hoa, Ha Thi; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-03-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28℃. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms.

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamic of Tuber magnatum mycelium in natural truffle grounds.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Mirco; Leonardi, Marco; Lancellotti, Enrico; Salerni, Elena; Oddis, Marilena; Leonardi, Pamela; Perini, Claudia; Pacioni, Giovanni; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Tuber magnatum produces the world's most expensive truffle. This fungus produces very rare ectomycorrhizas which are difficult or even impossible to detect in the field. A "real-time" PCR assay was recently developed to quantify and to track T. magnatum mycelium in soil. Here, this technique was used to investigate the spatial distribution of T. magnatum extra-radical mycelium in soil productive patches and its dynamic across seasons. This study was carried out in four different natural T. magnatum truffle grounds located in different Italian regions. During the fruiting seasons, the amount of T. magnatum mycelium was significantly higher around the fruiting points and decreased going farther away from them. Moreover, T. magnatum mycelium inside the productive patches underwent seasonal fluctuations. In early spring, the amount of T. magnatum mycelium was significantly higher than in summer. In summer, probably due to the hot and dry season, T. magnatum mycelium significantly decreased, whereas in autumn it increased again and was concentrated at the putative fruiting points. These results give new insights on T. magnatum ecology and are useful to plan the most appropriate sampling strategy for evaluating the management of a truffle ground.

  12. The interactions of vanadate monomer with the mycelium of fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus: reduction or uptake?

    PubMed

    Hadžibrahimović, Mirzeta; Sužnjević, Desanka; Pastor, Ferenc; Cvetić Antić, Tijana; Žižić, Milan; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Živić, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    The possibility of reduction of vanadate monomer in the mycelium of fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus was investigated in this study by means of polarography. Control experiments were performed with vanadyl [V(IV)] and vanadate [V(V)] in 10 mM Hepes, pH 7.2. Addition of P. blakesleeanus mycelium resulted in disappearance of all V(IV) polarographic waves recorded in the control. This points to the uptake of all available V(IV) by the mycelium, up to 185 µmol/gFW, and suggests P. blakesleeanus as a potential agent in V(IV) bioremediation. Polarographic measurements of mycelium with low concentrations (0.1-1 mM) of V(V), that only allows the presence of monomer, showed that fungal mycelia removes around 27% of V(V) from the extracellular solution. Uptake was saturated at 104 ± 2 µmol/gFW which indicates excellent bioaccumulation capability of P. blakesleeanus. EPR, (51)V NMR and polarographic experiments showed no indications of any measurable extracellular complexation of V(V) monomer with fungal exudates, reduction by the mycelium or adsorption to the cell wall. Therefore, in contrast to vanadium oligomers, vanadate monomer interactions with the mycelium are restricted to its transport into the fungal cell, probably by a phosphate transporter.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Dynamic of Tuber magnatum Mycelium in Natural Truffle Grounds

    PubMed Central

    Iotti, Mirco; Leonardi, Marco; Lancellotti, Enrico; Salerni, Elena; Oddis, Marilena; Leonardi, Pamela; Perini, Claudia; Pacioni, Giovanni; Zambonelli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Tuber magnatum produces the world's most expensive truffle. This fungus produces very rare ectomycorrhizas which are difficult or even impossible to detect in the field. A “real-time” PCR assay was recently developed to quantify and to track T. magnatum mycelium in soil. Here, this technique was used to investigate the spatial distribution of T. magnatum extra-radical mycelium in soil productive patches and its dynamic across seasons. This study was carried out in four different natural T. magnatum truffle grounds located in different Italian regions. During the fruiting seasons, the amount of T. magnatum mycelium was significantly higher around the fruiting points and decreased going farther away from them. Moreover, T. magnatum mycelium inside the productive patches underwent seasonal fluctuations. In early spring, the amount of T. magnatum mycelium was significantly higher than in summer. In summer, probably due to the hot and dry season, T. magnatum mycelium significantly decreased, whereas in autumn it increased again and was concentrated at the putative fruiting points. These results give new insights on T. magnatum ecology and are useful to plan the most appropriate sampling strategy for evaluating the management of a truffle ground. PMID:25535741

  14. Hyphal differentiation in the exploring mycelium of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Vinck, Arman; Terlou, Maarten; Pestman, Wiebe R; Martens, Edwin P; Ram, Arthur F; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Wösten, Han A B

    2005-11-01

    Mycelial fungi play a central role in element cycling in nature by degrading dead organic material such as wood. Fungal colonization of a substrate starts with the invasion of exploring hyphae. These hyphae secrete enzymes that convert the organic material into small molecules that can be taken up by the fungus to serve as nutrients. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter, we show for the first time that exploring hyphae of Aspergillus niger differentiate with respect to enzyme secretion; some strongly express the glucoamylase gene glaA, while others hardly express it at all. When a cytoplasmic GFP was used, 27% of the exploring hyphae of a 5-day-old colony belonged to the low expressing hyphae. By fusing GFP to glucoamylase and by introducing an ER retention signal, this number increased to 50%. This difference is due to cytoplasmic streaming of the reporter in the former case, as was shown by using a photo-activatable GFP. Our findings indicate that a fungal mycelium is highly differentiated, especially when taking into account that hyphae in the exploration zone were exposed to the same nutritional conditions.

  15. Fungal mycelium--the source of chitosan for chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Jiri

    2004-08-25

    Mycelium of the mold Aspergillus niger was used as a raw material for the preparation of microbial chitosan. Aspergillus niger, the mold used for the production of citric acid, contains approx. 15% of chitin, which can be separated, transformed into chitosan, and used as a sorbent for chromatography. The main advantage of this material in comparison with krill chitosan is the uniformity of particle size leading to the low back-pressure in the column. The other advantage is the fact, that original fibrous structure of mycelial pellets could be stabilized before chitosan preparation by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The product prepared by this way -- crosslinked chitosan of uniform particle size, is highly porous, with high water regain and, as a result, low sedimentation velocity. Low sedimentation velocity is not disadvantage in chromatographic application, but may form some problems in batchwise operation. Chitosan as a polymer of glucosamine is anion exchanger in nature and the chromatographic properties of this anion exchanger was demonstrated by the chromatography of bovine blood plasma, glucose oxidase, and chicken pepsinogen. In all cases, the course of chromatography on crosslinked chitosan was compared with the chromatography on MONO Q (bovine blood plasma) or DEAE-cellulose (glucose oxidase, chicken pepsinogen) under the same protocol.

  16. Evaluation of Hirsutella sinensis mycelium for antifatigue effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lung-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Fang; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Liu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Yung-Liang; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Chun; Huang, Yi-Ping; Liu, Jia-You; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM) has any antifatigue effect, using a forced swimming model in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups, each containing eight animals. The control group received 2 ml/kg body weight of distilled water and a positive control group was administered 1.13 ml/kg Quaker Essence of Chicken. The treated swimming groups were administered HSM powder manufactured by Chang Gung Biotechnology Corporation, Ltd., at doses of 63 mg/kg, 189 mg/kg or 378 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for a period of six weeks. The above experiment was repeated with another 40 rats but for a period of eight weeks. At the end of the experiments, rats were placed in a swimming apparatus and the total swimming time until exhaustion was recorded. Pre-/post-exercise concentrations of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid were also determined. There were no deaths during the study. Physical and behavioral examinations did not reveal any treatment-related adverse effects after dosing. Changes in lactate levels were dose-dependent for the 8- but not the 6-week treatment. BUN levels were more affected by the 8-week treatment of HSM but not significantly altered in the 6-week treatment groups. The 8-week treatment groups showed a significant increase in swimming time to exhaustion compared to the control groups, which was not dose-dependent. For the 6-week treatment, only the middle and high doses increased swimming time to exhaustion. Conjugated diene contents were significantly higher in rats treated at any HSM dose for 8-weeks than the control groups. Swimming did not alter levels of liver glycogen when compared to the control sub-groups. Results of this study demonstrate that HSM improves physical endurance, which may be beneficial in treating conditions where fatigue is a factor and other antifatigue treatments are contraindicated.

  17. AERIAL METHODS OF EXPLORATION

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The development of photointerpretation techniques for identifying kimberlite pipes on aerial photographs is discussed. The geographic area considered is the Daldyn region, which lies in the zone of Northern Taiga of Yakutiya.

  18. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M.; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represents a useful alternative for large-scale production. However, O. sinensis fruiting bodies harvested in nature harbor several fungal contaminants, a phenomenon that led to the isolation and characterization of a large number of incorrect mycelium strains. We report here the isolation of a mycelium from a fruiting body of O. sinensis and we identify the isolate as O. sinensis’ anamorph (also called Hirsutella sinensis) based on multi-locus sequence typing of several fungal genes (ITS, nrSSU, nrLSU, RPB1, RPB2, MCM7, β-tubulin, TEF-1α, and ATP6). The main characteristics of the isolated mycelium, including its optimal growth at low temperature (16°C) and its biochemical composition, are similar to that of O. sinensis fruiting bodies, indicating that the mycelium strain characterized here may be used as a substitute for the rare and expensive O. sinensis fruiting bodies found in nature. PMID:28046129

  19. Study of nsLTPs in Lotus japonicus genome reveal a specific epidermal cell member (LjLTP10) regulated by drought stress in aerial organs with a putative role in cutin formation.

    PubMed

    Tapia, G; Morales-Quintana, L; Parra, C; Berbel, A; Alcorta, M

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is the first defense against pathogens and the second way water is lost in plants. Hydrophobic layers covering aerial plant organs from primary stages of development form cuticle, including major classes of aliphatic wax components and cutin. Extensive research has been conducted to understand cuticle formation mechanisms in plants. However, many questions remain unresolved in the transport of lipid components to form cuticle. Database studies of the Lotus japonicus genome have revealed the presence of 24 sequences classified as putative non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs), which were classified in seven groups; four groups were selected because of their expression in aerial organs. LjLTP8 forms a cluster with DIR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana while LjLTP6, LjLTP9, and LjLTP10 were grouped as type I LTPs. In silico studies showed a high level of structural conservation, and substrate affinity studies revealed palmitoyl-CoA as the most likely ligand for these LTPs, although the Lyso-Myristoyl Phosphatidyl Choline, Lyso-myristoyl phosphatidyl glycerol, and Lyso-stearyl phosphatidyl choline ligands also showed a high affinity with the proteins. The LjLTP6 and LjLTP10 genes were expressed in both the stems and the leaves under normal conditions and were highly induced during drought stress. LjLTP10 was the most induced gene in shoots during drought. The gene was only expressed in the epidermal cells of stems, primordial leaves, and young leaflets. LjLTP10 was positively regulated by MeJA but repressed by abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and H2O2, while LjLTP6 was weakly induced by MeJA, repressed by H2O2, and not affected by ABA and ethylene. We suggest that LjLTP10 is involved in plant development of stem and leaf cuticle, but also in acclimation to tolerate drought stress in L. japonicus.

  20. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  1. Catalytic properties of mycelium-bound lipases from Aspergillus niger MYA 135.

    PubMed

    Romero, Cintia M; Baigori, Mario D; Pera, Licia M

    2007-09-01

    A constitutive level of a mycelium-bound lipolytic activity from Aspergillus niger MYA 135 was strongly increased by 97% in medium supplemented with 2% olive oil. The constitutive lipase showed an optimal activity in the pH range of 3.0-6.5, while the mycelium-bound lipase activity produced in the presence of olive oil had two pH optima at pH 4 and 7. Interestingly, both lipolytic sources were cold-active showing high catalytic activities in the temperature range of 4-8 degrees C. These mycelium-bound lipase activities were also very stable in reaction mixtures containing methanol and ethanol. In fact, the constitutive lipase maintained almost 100% of its activity after exposure by 1 h at 37 degrees C in ethanol. A simple methodology to evaluate suitable transesterification activities in organic solvents was also reported.

  2. Exposure of Metarhizium acridum mycelium to light induces tolerance to UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Brancini, Guilherme T P; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Braga, Gilberto Ú L

    2016-03-01

    Metarhizium acridum is an entomopathogenic fungus commonly used as a bioinsecticide. The conidium is the fungal stage normally employed as field inoculum in biological control programs and must survive under field conditions such as high ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure. Light, which is an important stimulus for many fungi, has been shown to induce the production of M. robertsii conidia with increased stress tolerance. Here we show that a two-hour exposure to white or blue/UV-A light of fast-growing mycelium induces tolerance to subsequent UV-B irradiation. Red light, however, does not have the same effect. In addition, we established that this induction can take place with as little as 1 min of white-light exposure. This brief illumination scheme could be relevant in future studies of M. acridum photobiology and for the production of UV-B resistant mycelium used in mycelium-based formulations for biological control.

  3. Fungal mycelium and decomposition of needle litter in three contrasting coniferous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virzo De Santo, Amalia; Rutigliano, Flora Angela; Berg, Björn; Fioretto, Antonietta; Puppi, Gigliola; Alfani, Anna

    2002-08-01

    The fungal mycelium ingrowth and the rates of mass loss and respiration of needle litter of Pinus pinea, Pinus laricio, Pinus sylvestris, and Abies alba were investigated, in three coniferous forests, over a 3-year period by means of a composite set of incubations. In the early stages, the fungal flora of the decomposing needles was dominated by dematiaceous hyphomycetes and coelomycetes. Basidiomycetes reached a peak after 6 months on pine needles, but were absent from the N-rich needles of A. alba. Soil fungi ( Penicillium, Trichoderma, Absidia, Mucor sp. pl.) became most frequent in later stages. At the end of the study period, the total mycelium amount showed the lowest values in all pine needles incubated in the P. laricio forest and the highest ones in P. pinea needles incubated in the P. pinea forest. In all data sets, as in data for boreal forests examined for comparison, the concentration of litter fungal mycelium versus litter mass loss followed a common exponential model. However, in later stages, the amount of litter fungal mycelium was very close to that of the humus at the incubation site, thus supporting the hypothesis of a logistic growth pattern. Respiration rates of decomposing litters varied with season and decreased with litter age to values close to those of the humus at the incubation site. Respiration of water-saturated litter was negatively correlated with the total mycelium concentration, and this was consistent with the observation that in far-decomposed litter only a minor fraction of the total mycelium is alive.

  4. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  5. The Mycelium Blueprint: insights into the cues that shape the filamentous fungal colony.

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Unai; Rodriguez-Urra, Ana Belén

    2014-11-01

    The mycelium is an organised cellular network that develops according to a functionally coherent plan. As it expands, the mycelium is capable of modulating the relative abundance of different cell types to suit the prevailing environmental conditions. This versatile pattern of multicellular development involves sophisticated environmental sensing and intercellular communication systems that have barely been recognised. This review describes an insight into our current understanding of the signalling molecules and mechanisms that take part in the ordered and timely emergence of various cell types and their biological significance. The prospects that this emerging knowledge may offer for the sustainable control of fungal colonisation or dispersal will also be considered.

  6. MAPPING SPATIAL/TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF GREEN MACROALGAE IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL ESTUARY VIA SMALL FORMAT COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A small format 35 mm hand-held camera with color infrared slide film was used to map blooms of benthic green macroalgae upon mudflats of Yaquina Bay estuary on the central Oregon coast, U.S.A. Oblique photographs were taken during a series of low tide events, when the intertidal...

  7. Standardized Technical Data Survey (STDS) for Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-06

    capabilities, formation aids (lighting/marking, director lights and status lights, rendezvous equipment (radios, radar, etc.), emergency procedures/engine out...structural load, fuel line pressure capabilities, pressure regulation capabilities, formation aids (lighting/marking, director lights and status lights...tanker boom envelope, lighting, formation aids , markings, fuel property requirements, fuel transfer charts, tanker/receiver aerial refueling altitude

  8. Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

  9. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications. PMID:28117421

  10. Phenotypic variation of Pseudomonas putida and P. tolaasii affects attachment to Agaricus bisporus mycelium.

    PubMed

    Rainey, P B

    1991-12-01

    The effect of phenotypic variation on attachment of Pseudomonas tolaasii and P. putida to Agaricus bisporus mycelium was investigated. Quantitative studies demonstrated the ability of each isolate to attach rapidly and firmly to A. bisporus mycelium and significant differences in attachment of wild-type and phenotypic variant strains were observed. This was most pronounced in P. tolaasii, where the percentage attachment of the wild-type form was always greater than that of the phenotypic variant. The medium upon which the bacteria were cultured, prior to conducting an attachment assay, had a significant effect on their ability to attach. Attachment of the wild-type form of P. putida was enhanced when the assay was performed in the presence of CaCl2, suggesting the involvement of electrostatic forces. No correlation was observed between bacterial hydrophobicity and ability to attach to A. bisporus mycelium. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the results obtained from the quantitative studies and provided further evidence for marked differences in the ability of the pseudomonads to attach to mycelium. Fibrillar structures and amorphous material were frequently associated with attached cells and appeared to anchor bacteria to each other and to the hyphal surface. A time-course study of attachment using transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of uneven fibrillar material on the surface of cells. This material stained positive for polysaccharide and may be involved in ensuring rapid, firm attachment of the cells.

  11. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MYCELIUM REINFORCED NATURAL FIBER BIO-COMPOSITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need for biodegradable alternatives to the inert plastics and expanded foams that are common in both the manufacturing process and device componentry. The material in this study is a bio-composite patented by Ecovative Design LLC. The manufacturer's bio-composite utilizes fungal mycelium ...

  12. Extract of Ganoderma formosanum Mycelium as a Highly Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Kai-Di; Chen, Hong-Jhang; Wang, Chi-Shin; Lum, Chi-Chin; Wu, Shu-Pei; Lin, Shin-Ping; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the inhibitory effect of Ganoderma formosanum mycelium extracts on tyrosinase, the central regulatory enzyme being responsible for cutaneous pigmentation, was investigated in both cell-free and cellular enzymatic systems, as well as in phenotype-based zebrafish model. Bioassay-guided purification indicated that the ethyl acetate fraction of G. fromosanum mycelium ethanolic extract (GFE-EA) demonstrated the highest inhibition toward cell-free tyrosinase (IC50 = 118.26 ± 13.34 ppm). The secreted and intracellular melanin of B16-F10 cells were reduced by GFE-EA through suppression of tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 102.27 ± 9.49 ppm) and its protein expression. Moreover, GFE-EA decreased surface pigmentation level of zebrafish via down-regulation of tyrosinase activity. Most of all, there is no significant difference in morphology and mortality between control and GFE-EA treated groups. Not only does GFE-EA exhibit similar depigmenting efficacy to kojic acid with lower dosage (approximately one-seventh of dose), but show less toxicity to zebrafish. It is worth noting that GFE-EA is extracted from mycelium, which subverts the general concept that mycelium lacks certain bioactivities possessed by fruit bodies. Altogether, it would appear that GFE-EA has great potential for application in the cosmetics industry. PMID:27611175

  13. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  14. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S; Heredia-Guerrero, Jose A; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-24

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young's modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials' properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  15. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  16. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  17. [The study of the growth of tylosin producer using differential centrifugation of mycelium in a sucrose density gradient].

    PubMed

    Salamakha, O V; Rogatykh, N P; Savochkina, I V; Tikhomirova, L A; Bazarenko, I L

    1989-01-01

    The mycelium of Streptomyces fradiae was fractionated by differential centrifugation in a sucrose density gradient (SDG) using various samples of the inoculation material and aliquots of the cultural broth taken in the course of tylosin production. The mode of mycelium distribution in SDG made it possible to select the most active inoculation material. The mycelium was redistributed from sucrose layers with a high density to those with a lower density in the course of fermentation. The fractions differed in the antibiotic activity but none of them had an activity higher than in the control centrifuged in 30% sucrose and washed off just like the fractions. Therefore, mycelium fractionation in SDG would not elevate its antibiotic activity. The paper presents the cytological characteristics of different fractions changing in the course of fermentation.

  18. Motile tubular vacuoles in extramatrical mycelium and sheath hyphae of ectomycorrhizal systems.

    PubMed

    Allaway, W G; Ashford, A E

    2001-01-01

    Extramatrical mycelium and outer hyphae of the sheath of Eucalyptus pilularis-Pisolithus tinctorius mycorrhizas contain abundant motile tubular vacuoles which accumulate the carboxyfluorescein analogue Oregon Green 488 carboxylic acid. The fluorochrome accumulates in a system of small vacuoles, tubules, and larger vacuoles, which are interlinked, motile, and pleiomorphic, in external hyphae, cords, and hyphae of the outer sheath. There is often a difference in fluorescence between two neighbouring cells, indicating that the dolipore septum exercises control on the movement of material between cells. Generally the motile tubular vacuole system in mycorrhizas resembles that previously found in isolated mycelium. The majority of fungal cells in the sheath contain no fluorochrome even after long exposure of the mycorrhiza to the solution, but with differential interference optics the cells are clearly seen to be alive and to contain vacuoles resembling those in the outer hyphae. In translocation experiments, long-distance transport of the fluorochrome is slow and slight, or even nonexistent in some cases.

  19. Optimization of Liquid Fermentation Conditions and Protein Nutrition Evaluation of Mycelium from the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Gang, Jie; Liu, Han; Liu, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom. In this study, the mycelium of C. militaris was cultured using liquid fermentation technology and the culture medium components were optimized by the orthogonal test method. Our results showed that the optimal medium combination for the mycelium growth is 3% glucose, 3% peptone, 0.1% MgSO4, and 0.2% KH2PO4 The international general nutritional assessment method was applied to the overall evaluation of the protein nutrition value of submerged cultivated mycelium and fruit body of C. militaris. The protein contents in C. militaris mycelium and fruit body are 21.10% and 18.47%, respectively. The first limiting amino acids of C. militaris mycelium and fruit bodies are the sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine), and the second limiting amino acid is isoleucine. The quality of amino acids from submerged cultivated mycelium and fruit body from C. militaris was also evaluated by amino acid score (AAS), chemical score (CS), essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), and score of ratio coefficient of amino acid (SRCAA). Our data demonstrate that AAS, CS, EAAI, BV, NI, and SRCAA scores of the submerged cultivated mycelium proteins are 62.41, 38.74, 88.37, 84.63, 18.61, and 25.57, respectively, whereas the fruit body proteins are 37.11, 34.59, 61.92, 55.79, 11.44, and 68.51, respectively. The protein content of C. militaris mycelium has higher nutrition value than that of fruit body protein, which holds the promise for future further development. Our study provides the optimal culture conditions and the essential nutritional information of medicinal species, C. militaris.

  20. Antifreeze Activity of Xylomannan from the Mycelium and Fruit Body of Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Hidehisa; Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Takuya; Arai, Naoki; Koide, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    An identified class of antifreeze, a xylomannan-based thermal hysteresis (TH)-producing glycolipid, has been discovered from diverse taxa, including plants, insects, and amphibians. We isolated xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body of the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes using successive hot extraction with water, 2% and 25% aqueous KOH, and gel filtration chromatography. The xylomannan from the fruit body had a recrystallization inhibiting (RI) activity (RI=0.44) at 0.5 mg/mL. The dried weight yield of the fruit body (7.7×10(-2)%, w/w) was higher than that of the mycelium. Although the purified xylomannan from both soures were composed of mannose and xylose in a 2 : 1 molar ratio, the molecular weight of the xylomannan from the mycelium and fruit body was 320,000 and 240,000, respectively. The RI activity of mycelial xylomannan was higher than that from the fruit body (RI=0.57) at 45 µg/mL. Although this RI activity was able to remain constant after exposure to various conditions, we confirmed that the decrease of RI activity was stimulated by the decrease of molecular weight that was caused by heating during the alkaline condition. The survival rate of the CHO cells at -20℃ for two days increased to 97% due to the addition of 20 µg/mL of purified xylomannan. This was the first report to indicate that xylomannan from the mycelium of Flammulina velutipes had a high level of ice recrystallization inhibiting activity like antifreeze proteins from plants and had rhe potential to become a new material for cell storage.

  1. Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles February 2004 Office...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Science Board Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT...the Defense Science Board Task Force on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles I am pleased to forward the final report of

  2. Stimulation of luminescence of mycelium of luminous fungus Neonothopanus nambi by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Kobzeva, Tatiana V; Melnikov, Anatoly R; Karogodina, Tatiana Y; Zikirin, Samat B; Stass, Dmitri V; Molin, Yuri N; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Puzyr, Alexey P; Burov, Andrey A; Bondar, Vladimir S; Gitelson, Joseph I

    2014-11-01

    The luminescent system of higher luminous fungi is not fully understood and the enzyme/substrate pair of the light emission reaction has not been isolated. It was suggested that luminescence of fungi involves oxidase-type enzymes, and reactive oxygen species are important for fungal light production. Generation of reactive oxygen species can be stimulated by ionizing irradiation, which has not been studied for luminous fungi. We report the effect of X-irradiation on the luminescence of fungus Neonothopanus nambi. Experiments were performed with mycelium on a home-built setup based on an X-ray tube and monochromator/photomultiplier tube. Application of X-rays does not change the emission spectrum, but after approximately 20 min of continuous irradiation, light production from unsupported mycelium starts growing and increases up to approximately five times. After peaking, its level decreases irrespective of the presence of X-irradiation. After staying at a certain level, light production collapses to zero, which is not related to the drying of the mycelium or thermal impact of radiation. The observed shape of kinetics is characteristic of a multistage and/or chain reaction. The time profile of light production must reflect the current levels of radicals present in the system and/or the activity of enzyme complexes involved in light production.

  3. Mycelium growth stimulation of the desert truffle Terfezia claveryi chatin by β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, José Manuel; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; García-Carmona, Francisco; Lozano-Carrillo, María Cecilia; Morte, Asunción

    2013-01-01

    The commercial value of Terfezia claveryi, an edible desert truffle with important gastronomic, nutritional, and antioxidant properties, has led to growing interest in its cultivation. The erratic and slow growth of T. claveryi mycelium in vitro represents an impairment to obtain mycorrhizal plants, and it makes necessary to find a new culture medium able to overcome these drawbacks. In this work, we analyze the effect of cyclodextrins (CDs) on the growth of T. claveryi mycelium. Different parameters, including colony diameter, growth rate, and colony fresh weight, were evaluated, both in the presence and absence of these encapsulant agents. The results obtained confirm the ability of CDs to stimulate the growth of T. claveryi mycelium when present in the culture medium. A similar effect was observed when CDs were added to the culture medium of Tuber melanosporum. Three natural (α-, β-, and γ) and two modified (hydroxypropil-β and methyl-β) CDs were assayed. The best results were obtained with β-cyclodextrin, but no improvement was observed with its chemically modified derivatives. CDs complex the different compounds present in the culture medium which impair mycelial growth.

  4. Biochemical Characterization of Extracellular Cellulase from Tuber maculatum Mycelium Produced Under Submerged Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bedade, Dattatray K; Singhal, Rekha S; Turunen, Ossi; Deska, Jan; Shamekh, Salem

    2017-02-01

    Interaction of truffle mycelium with the host plant involves the excretion of extracellular enzymes. The ability of Tuber maculatum mycelium to produce an extracellular cellulase during submerged fermentation was demonstrated for the first time. T. maculatum mycelia were isolated and tested for extracellular cellulase production at variable pH on solid agar medium, and the highest activity was observed at pH 7.0. Furthermore, T. maculatum was subjected to submerged fermentation in basal salt medium for cellulase production. Under optimized conditions using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5 % w/v) as carbon source and an initial pH of 7.0, the enzyme production yielded 1.70 U/mL of cellulase in the cell-free supernatant after 7 days of incubation time. The optimum of the obtained cellulase's activity was at pH 5.0 and a temperature of 50 °C. The enzyme showed good thermostability at 50 °C by retaining 99 % of its maximal activity over an incubation time of 100 min. The cellulase activity was inhibited by Fe(2+) and slightly activated by Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) at 1 mM concentration. The results indicated that truffle mycelium is utilizing cellulosic energy source in the root system, and the optimal conditions are those existing in the acidic Finnish soil.

  5. Control of yeast-mycelium dimorphism in vitro in Dutch elm disease fungi by manipulation of specific external stimuli.

    PubMed

    Naruzawa, Erika Sayuri; Bernier, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Dutch elm disease (DED) fungi exhibit yeast-mycelium dimorphism both in planta and in vitro. However, previously published data on the transition between these two growth forms in vitro were mostly obtained from a single strain. We examined the effect of six factors on yeast-mycelium dimorphism in vitro in ten strains of Ophiostoma ulmi, Ophiostoma novo-ulmi and Ophiostoma himal-ulmi. Nitrogen sources, calcium, and yeast extract, altogether with inhibitors of phosphodiesterase (caffeine) and dioxygenases (propyl gallate and salicylic acid) were tested in defined culture media. Morphological response to manipulation of several of these factors varied according to the strain of Ophiostoma being analysed. Responses ranged from no statistical differences in morphological transitions to stimulation or reversion of yeast-mycelium dimorphism with the treatments that were tested. These results suggest that different mechanisms and pathways operate in the control of the yeast-mycelium transition in DED pathogens. Oxylipins could be involved in the yeast-to-mycelium transition, since the addition of a dioxygenase inhibitor, salicylic acid, reduced mycelium production in all strains that were tested.

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF MINUTEMAN SILOS. Low oblique aerial view (original in color) of the two launch silos, covered. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Missile Silo Type, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  8. Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Extraradical Mycelium and Ectomycorrhizal Roots during Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Mélanie; Jacob, Christophe; Kohler, Annegret; Johansson, Tomas; Martin, Francis; Chalot, Michel; Brun, Annick

    2005-01-01

    The development of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis leads to drastic changes in gene expression in both partners. However, little is known about the spatial regulation of symbiosis-regulated genes. Using cDNA array profiling, we compared the levels of expression of fungal genes corresponding to approximately 1,200 expressed sequenced tags in the ectomycorrhizal root tips (ECM) and the connected extraradical mycelium (EM) for the Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal association grown on peat in a microcosm system. Sixty-five unique genes were found to be differentially expressed in these two fungal compartments. In ECM, a gene coding for a putative phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (Psd) was up-regulated by 24-fold, while genes coding for urea (Dur3) and spermine (Tpo3) transporters were up-regulated 4.1- and 6.2-fold in EM. Moreover, urea was the major nitrogen compound found in EM by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results suggest that (i) there is a spatial difference in the patterns of fungal gene expression between ECM and EM, (ii) urea and polyamine transporters could facilitate the translocation of nitrogen compounds within the EM network, and (iii) fungal Psd may contribute to membrane remodeling during ectomycorrhiza formation. PMID:15640212

  9. Identification of genes differentially expressed in extraradical mycelium and ectomycorrhizal roots during Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Morel, Mélanie; Jacob, Christophe; Kohler, Annegret; Johansson, Tomas; Martin, Francis; Chalot, Michel; Brun, Annick

    2005-01-01

    The development of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis leads to drastic changes in gene expression in both partners. However, little is known about the spatial regulation of symbiosis-regulated genes. Using cDNA array profiling, we compared the levels of expression of fungal genes corresponding to approximately 1,200 expressed sequenced tags in the ectomycorrhizal root tips (ECM) and the connected extraradical mycelium (EM) for the Paxillus involutus-Betula pendula ectomycorrhizal association grown on peat in a microcosm system. Sixty-five unique genes were found to be differentially expressed in these two fungal compartments. In ECM, a gene coding for a putative phosphatidylserine decarboxylase (Psd) was up-regulated by 24-fold, while genes coding for urea (Dur3) and spermine (Tpo3) transporters were up-regulated 4.1- and 6.2-fold in EM. Moreover, urea was the major nitrogen compound found in EM by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results suggest that (i) there is a spatial difference in the patterns of fungal gene expression between ECM and EM, (ii) urea and polyamine transporters could facilitate the translocation of nitrogen compounds within the EM network, and (iii) fungal Psd may contribute to membrane remodeling during ectomycorrhiza formation.

  10. Formation Flight Control for Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    80 Horseshoe Logic. .................................................................................................... 83...ability to either crab or slip into the wind of the modified airflow. Osteroos modified the control laws to effectively follow the lead aircraft...from the wing observation position are done in the horseshoe pattern shown in Figure 25 to avoid potential collision. 77 Vertically, when moving

  11. Mycelium of fungi isolated from mouldy foods inhibits Staphylococcus aureus including MRSA – A rationale for the re-introduction of mycotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Alnaimat, Sulaiman; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh H.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Al-Johny, Bassam O.; Wainwright, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal mycelium capable of producing antibacterial agents was isolated from samples of apple, beetroot, lemon and orange; the mycelium of all isolates produced penicillin, while the apple and beetroot samples also produced the antibacterial mycotoxin patulin. The known penicillin-producing fungi were shown to produce penicillin, but not patulin. The mycelial discs of all of fruit and vegetable isolates, as well as the two known penicillin producing fungi, inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, and mycelium of all isolates inhibited MRSA, in contrast, only one of the two known penicillin-producers did so. The results are discussed in relation to the possibility of using the mycelium of Penicillium species in mycotherapy. PMID:26288565

  12. Changes in development and ultrastructure of Aspergillus niger mycelium, strain with increased tolerance to toxic substances from beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Zakowska, Z; Gabara, B

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a defoamer and toxic molasses compounds on development and ultrastructure of A. niger mycelium, strain Z, characterized by high tolerance to these substances and producing citric acid in surface fermentation on proper molasses media with 70% yield were presented. Spumol BJ in concentration of 5 microliters/100 cm3 as well as toxic molasses compounds stimulated the process of swelling and germinating of conidia. Moreover, giant conidia, unable to germinate, appeared. Developing mycelium with dispersed hyphae became mucilaginous after 17-20 h culture, which indicated the process of sinking but after 24 h some part of the mycelium developed normally. Electron microscopic observations of mycelium developing in the presence of the toxic substances showed along with electron-transparent cytoplasm in a consequence of decrease in ribosome number, changes in ultrastructure of mitochondria. It may be assumed that one of the reasons of the above described abnormalities in development and ultrastructure of mycelium was a disturbance of respiration processes. The appearance of deposits of electron-dense material in mitochondria suggested the existence of a defence mechanism, eliminating toxic substances.

  13. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  14. Aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

  15. Anti-cancer agents derived from solid-state fermented Antrodia camphorata mycelium.

    PubMed

    Yen, I-Chuan; Yao, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Mao-Tien; Chao, Chen-Liang; Pai, Chien-Yi; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2015-04-01

    Three new ubiquinone derivatives, antrocamol LT1, antrocamol LT2, and antrocamol LT3, along with two known compounds, were isolated from Antrodia camphorata (Polyporaceae) mycelium. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These ubiquinones exhibited selective cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines (CT26, A549, HepG2, PC3 and DU-145) with IC50 values ranging from 0.01 to 1.79μΜ.

  16. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF SILVER LAKE WEST SHORE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF SILVER LAKE WEST SHORE WITH RUINS OF SILVER LAKE MINE AT BOTTOM CENTER. NOTE CONTINUITY OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS WHERE BOTTOM OF LAKE CAN BE SEEN. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  17. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-21

    08-2014 2. REPORT TYPE Guidance Document 3. DATES COVERED 2008-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide Attachment: Aerial...ATP-3.3.4.2 covers general operational procedures for AR and national/organizational SRDs cover data and procedures specific to their AR platforms...Receptacle, Probe/Drogue, and BDA Kit. 3.1.3 The items for assessment consideration cover several areas of interface for both the tanker and the

  18. Optimization of the Liquid Culture Medium Composition to Obtain the Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus Rich in Essential Minerals.

    PubMed

    Krakowska, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Muszyńska, Bożena

    2016-09-01

    Agaricus bisporus species (J.E. Lange) Imbach one of the most popular Basidiomycota species was chosen for the research because of its dietary and medicinal value. The presented herein studies included determination of essential mineral accumulation level in the mycelium of A. bisporus, cultivated on liquid cultures in the medium supplemented with addition of the chosen metals' salts. Quantitative analyses of Zn, Cu, Mg, and Fe in liquid cultures made it possible to determine the relationship between accumulation of the selected mineral in A. bisporus mycelium and the culture conditions. Monitoring of the liquid cultures and determination of the elements' concentrations in mycelium of A. bisporus were performed using the flame technique of AAS method. Concentration of Zn in the mycelium, maintained in the medium with the addition of its salt, was in a very wide range from 95.9 to 4462.0 mg/g DW. In the analyzed A. bisporus mycelium, cultured in the medium enriched with copper salt, this metal concentration changed from 89.79 to 7491.50 mg/g DW; considering Mg in liquid cultured mycelium (medium with Mg addition), its concentration has changed from 0.32 to 10.55 mg/g DW. The medium enriched with iron salts has led to bioaccumulation of Fe in mycelia of A. bisporus. Determined Fe concentration was in the range from 0.62 to 161.28 mg/g DW. The proposed method of liquid A. bisporus culturing on medium enriched with the selected macro- and microelements in proper concentrations ratio have led to obtaining maximal growth of biomass, characterized by high efficiency of the mineral accumulation. As a result, a dietary component of increased nutritive value was obtained.

  19. BOREAS Level-0 C-130 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.

  20. Tyrosinase expression during black truffle development: from free living mycelium to ripe fruit body.

    PubMed

    Zarivi, Osvaldo; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Pacioni, Giovanni; Miranda, Michele

    2011-12-01

    The present work studies the expression of tyrosinase (monophenol:diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.14.18.1) during the development of the black truffle Tuber melanosporum Vittad., an ectomycorrhizal fungus of great biological and economic interest. As widely reported in the literature, melanins and the enzymes that synthesize them, are of paramount importance in fungal development and sexual differentiation. Tyrosinase and laccase are the enzymes that produce melanins from monophenols and diphenols. We have detected tyrosinase expression from the stage of free living mycelium, through the mychorrizal stage and the six fruit body developmental stages by measuring the levels of tyrosinase mRNA by quantitative PCR (q-PCR), spectrophotometry, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electrophoresis. Tyrosinase is always expressed, from the free living mycelium to the ripe fruit body developmental stages, when it is very low. The switching off of the tyrosinase gene during T. melanosporum development when the fruit body is ripe and no more cell walls are to be built is discussed in relation of thioflavour production. Specific primers, prepared from the cloned T. melanosporum tyrosinase cDNA were used for the q-PCR and the deduced aminoacid sequences of the CuA and CuB binding sites were compared to those of various ascomycetes and basidiomycetes.

  1. Alkali extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of Monascus mycelium polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengrong; Chen, Danfeng; Jiang, Donghua; Dong, Xiameng; Chen, Panpan; Lin, Yaoxue

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, alkali extraction technology was used to optimize the extraction of Monascus mycelium polysaccharides for the first time. The extracting parameters of alkali extracted Monascus mycelium polysaccharides were optimized by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The optimum conditions were extraction temperature 49 °C, alkali concentration 7%, solvent/material ratio 23:1 (ml/g) and extraction time 2.3 h with an enhanced yield of 10.1%, compared with the yield 4.76% of hot water extraction, indicating that alkali extraction is a more efficient way. In order to discuss the biological activity of alkali extracted polysaccharides, we compared the in vitro antioxidant activity of alkali extracted polysaccharides (AMP) with hot water extracted polysaccharides (HMP). The result showed that AMP have the similar capability of scavenging both superoxide radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical of HMP in vitro. Therefore, alkali extraction technology is not only a high-efficiency way to extract AMP, but also can retain the natural antioxidant activities of AMP, which can be used in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  2. Enhancement of the neuroprotective activity of Hericium erinaceus mycelium co-cultivated with Allium sativum extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong Ki; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium enriched with garlic extract (HGE) on rat pheochromocytoma nerve cells (PC12). The survival rates of the PC12 nerve cells and the neurite-bearing cells after the addition of HGE were estimated as 3.5 × 10(3) viable cells/ml and 2.3 × 10(3) viable cells/ml, respectively, which were 50% and 30% higher, respectively, compared with the untreated group. For the in vivo ischemia experiments, after treatment with the HGE extract, the hippocampal CA1 region was more strongly stained (>20%) than the control group, and the HGE extract also promoted higher staining levels than HFB, HM and HGEF, and even the garlic extract. This result indicates that HGE must have neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, HGE greatly decreased p21 gene expression to approximately 70% of the control and decreased p21 gene expression to even lower levels compared with HM, HGEF and the garlic extract. This work suggests that a synergistic effect of the H. erinaceus mycelium and the garlic extract (mainly allicin) exist because the amount of allicin in HGE (5.81 µg/ml) was lower than the garlic extract itself (6.89 µg/ml).

  3. Transcriptional profiles of the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in mycelium and yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Felipe, Maria Sueli S; Andrade, Rosângela V; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Nicola, André M; Maranhão, Andréa Q; Torres, Fernando A G; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Poças-Fonseca, Márcio J; Campos, Elida G; Moraes, Lídia M P; Andrade, Patrícia A; Tavares, Aldo H F P; Silva, Simoneide S; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Souza, Diorge P; Pereira, Maristela; Jesuíno, Rosália S A; Andrade, Edmar V; Parente, Juliana A; Oliveira, Gisele S; Barbosa, Mônica S; Martins, Natália F; Fachin, Ana L; Cardoso, Renato S; Passos, Geraldo A S; Almeida, Nalvo F; Walter, Maria Emília M T; Soares, Célia M A; Carvalho, Maria José A; Brígido, Marcelo M

    2005-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease that affects 10 million individuals in Latin America. This report depicts the results of the analysis of 6,022 assembled groups from mycelium and yeast phase expressed sequence tags, covering about 80% of the estimated genome of this dimorphic, thermo-regulated fungus. The data provide a comprehensive view of the fungal metabolism, including overexpressed transcripts, stage-specific genes, and also those that are up- or down-regulated as assessed by in silico electronic subtraction and cDNA microarrays. Also, a significant differential expression pattern in mycelium and yeast cells was detected, which was confirmed by Northern blot analysis, providing insights into differential metabolic adaptations. The overall transcriptome analysis provided information about sequences related to the cell cycle, stress response, drug resistance, and signal transduction pathways of the pathogen. Novel P. brasiliensis genes have been identified, probably corresponding to proteins that should be addressed as virulence factor candidates and potential new drug targets.

  4. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor.

  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activities and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Property from Mycelium Culture Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kwon, Kyung Min; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Since mushrooms have many bioactive components, they have been used as components in folk medicine. Because mycelium has an advantage when it comes to large-scale production, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties and anti-tyrosinase activity from 55 mycelia in culture media. Relatively high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging capacity was detected from the ethanol extract of culture media including mycelium (EECiM) of Morchella esculenta var. esculenta (MEVE), Auricularia polytricha (APO), Tremella aurantia (TAU), Volvariella bombycina (VBO), and Oudemansiella sp. (Osp), which also showed strong reducing power and inhibitory activity in relation to the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. On the other hand, relatively high tyrosinase inhibitory activity was detected in Inonotus mikadoi (IMI), Coriolus versicolor (CVE), Volvariella volvacea (VVO), Panellus serotinus (PSE), Auricularia auricula (AAU), and Fomitopsis sp. (Fsp). Interestingly, the APO EECiM exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging rate (77.5 ± 4.3%) and reducing power (1.18 ± 0.041), while the highest inhibitory power of the TBA value and antityrosinase activity were detected in that of TAU (64.5 ± 4.1%) and IMI (46.0 ± 7.5%), respectively. Overall, our study suggested potential candidates for EECiMs that exhibited powerful antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties and might be used as natural antioxidant tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:26345142

  6. Structural properties of polysaccharides from cultivated fruit bodies and mycelium of Cordyceps militaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Cui; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Tang, Ya-Li; Wang, Ming-fei; Wang, Zheng; Liu, An-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-05-20

    The structural properties of polysaccharides, respectively, obtained from the fermented mycelium and cultivated fruiting bodies of the Cordyceps militaris were investigated and compared in this paper. First, the crude polysaccharides were extracted from the mycelium and the fruiting bodies, respectively. The polysaccharides were successively purified by Sevag and chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column to produce two polysaccharides fractions termed CMPS-II and CBPS-II, respectively. The average molecular weights of CMPS-II and CBPS-II were 1.402×10(3) kDa and 1.273×10(3) kDa, respectively, and they were mainly composed of mannose, glucose and galactose in the mole ratios of 1:28.63:1.41 and 1:12.41:0.74, respectively, for CMPS-II and CBPS-II. Afterward, the structural features of CMPS-II and CBPS-II were investigated by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis, such as FT-IR, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, GC-MS, NMR and methylation analysis. The results indicated that structurally, both CMPS-II and CBPS-II were 1,3-branched-galactomannoglucan that had a linear backbone of (1→4)-linked α-D-glucopyranose (Glcp). Congo-red test revealed that CMPS-II and CBPS-II existed as triple-helical chains in 0.05-0.15 M NaOH solution.

  7. Generation and analysis of the expressed sequence tags from the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Hua; Wu, Hung-Yi; Wu, Keh-Ming; Liu, Tze-Tze; Liou, Ruey-Fen; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ho, Low-Tone; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Yang, Ueng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom renowned in East Asia for its potential biological effects. To enable a systematic exploration of the genes associated with the various phenotypes of the fungus, the genome consortium of G. lucidum has carried out an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project. Using a Sanger sequencing based approach, 47,285 ESTs were obtained from in vitro cultures of G. lucidum mycelium of various durations. These ESTs were further clustered and merged into 7,774 non-redundant expressed loci. The features of these expressed contigs were explored in terms of over-representation, alternative splicing, and natural antisense transcripts. Our results provide an invaluable information resource for exploring the G. lucidum transcriptome and its regulation. Many cases of the genes over-represented in fast-growing dikaryotic mycelium are closely related to growth, such as cell wall and bioactive compound synthesis. In addition, the EST-genome alignments containing putative cassette exons and retained introns were manually curated and then used to make inferences about the predominating splice-site recognition mechanism of G. lucidum. Moreover, a number of putative antisense transcripts have been pinpointed, from which we noticed that two cases are likely to reveal hitherto undiscovered biological pathways. To allow users to access the data and the initial analysis of the results of this project, a dedicated web site has been created at http://csb2.ym.edu.tw/est/.

  8. Activity of Extracts from Submerged Cultured Mycelium of Winter Mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (Agaricomycetes), on the Immune System In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kashina, Svetlana; Villavicencio, Lerida Liss Flores; Zaina, Silvio; Ordaz, Marco Balleza; Sabanero, Gloria Barbosa; Fujiyoshi, Victor Tsutsumi; Lopez, Myrna Sabanero

    2016-01-01

    Extracts from submerged cultured mycelium of two strains of Flammulina velutipes, a popular culinary mushroom, were obtained by ultrasound and tested in vitro to determine their activity in innate immunity (monocytes/ macrophages). In addition, polyclonal antibodies against the extracts were produced. Both extracts have similar glycoproteins that contain mannose and glucose but have different glycoproteins with galactoseamine units. Two novel immunogenic glycoproteins with molecular weights of 32 and 25 kDa have been revealed. It is thought that these proteins are produced only by submerged cultured mycelium. Both extracts show immune-enhancing activity based on the significant modification of various parameters such as cytokine production, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species production.

  9. CMOS Imaging Sensor Technology for Aerial Mapping Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Klaus; Welzenbach, Martin; Timm, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June 2015 Leica Geosystems launched the first large format aerial mapping camera using CMOS sensor technology, the Leica DMC III. This paper describes the motivation to change from CCD sensor technology to CMOS for the development of this new aerial mapping camera. In 2002 the DMC first generation was developed by Z/I Imaging. It was the first large format digital frame sensor designed for mapping applications. In 2009 Z/I Imaging designed the DMC II which was the first digital aerial mapping camera using a single ultra large CCD sensor to avoid stitching of smaller CCDs. The DMC III is now the third generation of large format frame sensor developed by Z/I Imaging and Leica Geosystems for the DMC camera family. It is an evolution of the DMC II using the same system design with one large monolithic PAN sensor and four multi spectral camera heads for R,G, B and NIR. For the first time a 391 Megapixel large CMOS sensor had been used as PAN chromatic sensor, which is an industry record. Along with CMOS technology goes a range of technical benefits. The dynamic range of the CMOS sensor is approx. twice the range of a comparable CCD sensor and the signal to noise ratio is significantly better than with CCDs. Finally results from the first DMC III customer installations and test flights will be presented and compared with other CCD based aerial sensors.

  10. Ionone Derivatives from the Mycelium of Phellinus linteus and the Inhibitory Effect on Activated Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiow-Chyn; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Pan, Tai-Long; Chen, Fu-An; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Three new γ-ionylideneacetic acid derivatives, phellinulins A–C (1–3), were characterized from the mycelium extract of Phellinus linteus. The chemical structures were established based on the spectroscopic analysis. In addition, phellinulin A (1) was subjected to the examination of effects on activated rat hepatic stellate cells and exhibited significant inhibition of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:27164091

  11. Aqueous-ethanolic extract of morel mushroom mycelium Morchella esculenta, protects cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Nitha, B; Janardhanan, K K

    2008-09-01

    Morchella esculenta (L) Pers. is an excellently edible and delicious morel mushroom found growing in the temperate forests. The mycelium of this mushroom is widely used as a flavouring agent. The current investigation was undertaken to explore the protective effect of the aqueous-ethanol extract of cultured mycelium of M. esculenta against cisplatin and gentamicin induced acute renal toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Cisplatin and gentamicin when administered induced a marked renal failure, characterized by a significant increase in serum urea and creatinine concentrations. Treatment with the extract at 250 and 500mg/kg body weight decreased the cisplatin and gentamicin induced increase in serum creatinine and urea levels. Treatment with the extract also restored the depleted antioxidant defense system. The decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidneys consequent to cisplatin and gentamicin administration was significantly elevated. The enhanced renal antioxidant defense system also prevented the tissue lipid peroxidation. The experimental results suggest that aqueous-ethanol extract of morel mushroom, M. esculenta mycelium protected cisplatin and gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity possibly by enhancing renal antioxidant system. The findings thus suggest the potential therapeutic use of morel mushroom mycelium as a novel nephroprotective agent.

  12. Dead fungal mycelium in forest soil represents a decomposition hotspot and a habitat for a specific microbial community.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Vendula; Nováková, Monika; Davidová, Anna; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-06-01

    Turnover of fungal biomass in forest litter and soil represents an important process in the environment. To date, knowledge of mycelial decomposition has been derived primarily from short-term studies, and the guild of mycelium decomposers has been poorly defined. Here, we followed the fate of the fruiting bodies of an ectomycorrhizal fungus in litter and soil of a temperate forest over 21 wk. The community of associated microbes and enzymatic processes in this specific substrate were described. The decomposition of fungal fruiting bodies exhibited biphasic kinetics. The rapid initial phase, which included the disappearance of DNA, was followed by a slower turnover of the recalcitrant fraction. Compared with the surrounding litter and soil, the mycelium represented a hotspot of activity of several biopolymer-degrading enzymes and high bacterial biomass. Specific communities of bacteria and fungi were associated with decomposing mycelium. These communities differed between the initial and late phases of decomposition. The bacterial community associated with decomposing mycelia typically contained the genera Pedobacter, Pseudomonas, Variovorax, Chitinophaga, Ewingella and Stenotrophomonas, whereas the fungi were mostly nonbasidiomycetous r-strategists of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mortierella, Cladosporium and several others. Decomposing ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium exhibits high rates of decomposition and represents a specific habitat supporting a specific microbial community.

  13. Armillaria luteobubalina mycelium develops air pores that conduct oxygen to rhizomorph clusters.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Mamta; Allaway, William G; Ashford, Anne E

    2006-01-01

    Armillaria luteobubalina produces air pores in culture. They consist of two parts: a basal region of tissue elevated to form a mound covered with a rind continuous with that of the colony, but perforated; and an apical region of long parallel hyphae, cemented together by scattered patches of extracellular material. This forms a hydrophobic structure that is elevated above the general level of the mycelial crust and does not easily become waterlogged. Air pores develop near the inoculum plug shortly after inoculation, arising directly from the mycelium, and rhizomorphs are initiated from them. The air pore contains a complex system of gas space connecting the atmosphere with the central canal of each rhizomorph. The tissue beneath the melanised colony crust also contains gas space, especially near air pores. This is also connected with the gas space of each rhizomorph and of each air pore. Measurements with oxygen electrodes show that air pores and their associated rhizomorphs conduct oxygen. The average oxygen conductance of a group of air pores with associated rhizomorphs, within agar blocks, but with rhizomorph apices cut off, was about 700 x 10(-12) m3s(-1), equivalent to about 200 x 10(-12) m3s(-1) for each air-pore. We conclude that the air pores conduct oxygen into the gas space below the pigmented mycelium of the colony, where the rhizomorphs - which also conduct oxygen - originate. A. luteobubalina thus has a complex aerating system which allows efficient diffusion of oxygen into rhizomorphs, and this is likely to facilitate extension of inoculum into low-oxygen environments.

  14. Mycoremediation of manganese and phenanthrene by Pleurotus eryngii mycelium enhanced by Tween 80 and saponin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghui; Xu, Yongan; Ding, Wenbo; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Heng

    2016-08-01

    Bioremediation of areas co-contaminated with metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by mushrooms has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In this study, Pleurotus eryngii was introduced for the removal of Mn and phenanthrene (Phe) from potato liquid medium (PDL) simultaneously. Effects of Tween 80 and saponin on P. eryngii growth together with Mn uptake as well as Phe removal were investigated. Although pollutants had a negative effect on mycelial morphology and growth, P. eryngii could still tolerate and remove Mn and Phe. Tween 80 increased removal of Mn and Phe through increase of P. eryngii growth, Phe solubility, pollutants bioavailability, and specific surface area of mycelium pellets, moreover, the activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase, which played an important role on PAHs biodegradation. The maximal removal of Mn and Phe was achieved (92.17 and 93.85 % after 15 days incubation, respectively) with 0.6 g L(-1) Tween 80. Treatments with saponin markedly inhibited P. eryngii growth (50.17-66.32 % lower relative to control) due to its fungistatic activity. Nevertheless, saponin could slightly enhance Phe removal through increasing solubility of Phe, and Phe removal rate varied from 80.53 to 87.06 % in saponin treatments. Joint stress of Mn and Phe induced a strong antioxidative response, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in surfactants-treated mycelium compared with control. Generally, Tween 80 was more suitable for strengthening mycoremediation by P. eryngii than saponin, and could be a promising alternative for the remediation of heavy metals and PAHs co-contaminated sites by mushrooms.

  15. Dynamics of aerial target pursuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S.

    2015-12-01

    During pursuit and predation, aerial species engage in multitasking behavior that involve simultaneous target detection, tracking, decision-making, approach and capture. The mobility of the pursuer and the target in a three dimensional environment during predation makes the capture task highly complex. Many researchers have studied and analyzed prey capture dynamics in different aerial species such as insects and bats. This article focuses on reviewing the capture strategies adopted by these species while relying on different sensory variables (vision and acoustics) for navigation. In conclusion, the neural basis of these capture strategies and some applications of these strategies in bio-inspired navigation and control of engineered systems are discussed.

  16. Interactions between Streptomyces coelicolor and Bacillus subtilis: Role of Surfactants in Raising Aerial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Straight, Paul D.; Willey, Joanne M.; Kolter, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Using mixed-species cultures, we have undertaken a study of interactions between two common spore-forming soil bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the development of aerial hyphae and spores by S. coelicolor is inhibited by surfactin, a lipopeptide surfactant produced by B. subtilis. Current models of aerial development by sporulating bacteria and fungi postulate a role for surfactants in reducing surface tension at air-liquid interfaces, thereby removing the major barrier to aerial growth. S. coelicolor produces SapB, an amphipathic peptide that is surface active and required for aerial growth on certain media. Loss of aerial hyphae in developmental mutants can be rescued by addition of purified SapB. While a surfactant from a fungus can substitute for SapB in a mutant that lacks aerial hyphae, not all surfactants have this effect. We show that surfactin is required for formation of aerial structures on the surface of B. subtilis colonies. However, in contrast to this positive role, our experiments reveal that surfactin acts antagonistically by arresting S. coelicolor aerial development and causing altered expression of developmental genes. Our observations support the idea that surfactants function specifically for a given organism regardless of their shared ability to reduce surface tension. Production of surfactants with antagonistic activity could provide a powerful competitive advantage during surface colonization and in competition for resources. PMID:16788200

  17. Nonvolatile Taste Components and Antioxidant Properties of Fruiting Body and Mycelium with High Ergothioneine Content from the Culinary-Medicinal Golden Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus citrinopileatus (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Chien, Shih-Chang; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus citrinopileatus mycelium was prepared with high ergothioneine (Hi-Ergo) content and its proximate composition, nonvolatile taste components, and antioxidant properties were studied. The ergothioneine contents of fruiting bodies and Hi-Ergo and regular mycelia were 3.89, 14.57, and 0.37 mg/g dry weight, respectively. Hi-Ergo mycelium contained more dietary fiber, soluble polysaccharides, and ash but less carbohydrates, reducing sugar, fiber, and fat than regular mycelium. However, Hi-Ergo mycelium contained the smallest amounts of total sugars and polyols (47.43 mg/g dry weight). In addition, Hi-Ergo mycelium showed the most intense umami taste. On the basis of the half-maximal effective concentration values obtained, the 70% ethanolic extract from Hi-Ergo mycelium showed the most effective antioxidant activity, reducing power, and scavenging ability, whereas the fruiting body showed the most effective antioxidant activity, chelating ability, and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity. Overall, Hi-Ergo mycelium could be beneficially used as a food-flavoring material or as a nutritional supplement.

  18. A model for growth of a single fungal hypha based on well-mixed tanks in series: simulation of nutrient and vesicle transport in aerial reproductive hyphae.

    PubMed

    Balmant, Wellington; Sugai-Guérios, Maura Harumi; Coradin, Juliana Hey; Krieger, Nadia; Furigo Junior, Agenor; Mitchell, David Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Current models that describe the extension of fungal hyphae and development of a mycelium either do not describe the role of vesicles in hyphal extension or do not correctly describe the experimentally observed profile for distribution of vesicles along the hypha. The present work uses the n-tanks-in-series approach to develop a model for hyphal extension that describes the intracellular transport of nutrient to a sub-apical zone where vesicles are formed and then transported to the tip, where tip extension occurs. The model was calibrated using experimental data from the literature for the extension of reproductive aerial hyphae of three different fungi, and was able to describe different profiles involving acceleration and deceleration of the extension rate. A sensitivity analysis showed that the supply of nutrient to the sub-apical vesicle-producing zone is a key factor influencing the rate of extension of the hypha. Although this model was used to describe the extension of a single reproductive aerial hypha, the use of the n-tanks-in-series approach to representing the hypha means that the model has the flexibility to be extended to describe the growth of other types of hyphae and the branching of hyphae to form a complete mycelium.

  19. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...include directions for the development or content of these contractual agreements. 15. –SUBJECT TERMS See Document Terms and Definitions , Page 8 16...7 Terms and Definitions

  20. Reconnaissance mapping from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeden, H. A.; Bolling, N. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Engineering soil and geology maps were successfully made from Pennsylvania aerial photographs taken at scales from 1:4,800 to 1:60,000. The procedure involved a detailed study of a stereoscopic model while evaluating landform, drainage, erosion, color or gray tones, tone and texture patterns, vegetation, and cultural or land use patterns.

  1. New milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hortsch, Ralf; Stratmann, Ansgar; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2010-06-15

    A novel milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was developed for the cultivation of mycelium forming microorganisms on a 10 milliliter-scale. A newly designed one-sided paddle impeller is driven magnetically and rotates freely on an axis in an unbaffled reaction vessel made of polystyrene. A rotating lamella is formed which spreads out along the reactor wall. Thus an enhanced surface-to-volume ratio of the liquid phase is generated where oxygen is introduced via surface aeration. Volumetric oxygen transfer coefficients (k(L)a) > 0.15 s(-1) were measured. The fast moving liquid lamella efficiently prevents wall growth and foaming. Mean power consumption and maximum local energy dissipation were measured as function of operating conditions in the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor (V = 10 mL) and compared to a standard laboratory-scale stirred tank bioreactor with six-bladed Rushton turbines (V = 2,000 mL). Mean power consumption increases with increasing impeller speed and shows the same characteristics and values on both scales. The maximum local energy dissipation of the milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactor was reduced compared to the laboratory-scale at the same mean volumetric power input. Hence the milliliter impeller distributes power more uniformly in the reaction medium. Based on these data a reliable and robust scale-up of fermentation processes is possible. This was demonstrated with the cultivation of the actinomycete Streptomyces tendae on both scales. It was shown that the process performances were equivalent with regard to biomass concentration, mannitol consumption and production of the pharmaceutical relevant fungicide nikkomycin Z up to a process time of 120 h. A high parallel reproducibility was observed on the milliliter-scale (standard deviation < 8%) with up to 48 stirred tank bioreactors operated in a magnetic inductive drive. Rheological behavior of the culture broth was measured and showed a highly viscous shear-thinning non

  2. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    PubMed Central

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  3. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  4. Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

  5. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M.; Corban, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  6. Estrogens inhibit mycelium-to-yeast transformation in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: implications for resistance of females to paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, A; Salazar, M E; Cano, L E; Stover, E P; Feldman, D; Stevens, D A

    1984-01-01

    Evidence that disease due to the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis occurs post-puberty predominantly in males led us to hypothesize that hormonal factors critically affect its pathogenesis. We show here that estrogens inhibit mycelial- to yeast-form transformation of P. brasiliensis in vitro. Transformation of three isolates was inhibited to 71, 33, and 19% of the control values in the presence of 10(-10), 10(-8), and 10(-6) M 17 beta-estradiol, respectively. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol was active but less potent than estradiol, whereas testosterone, 17 alpha-estradiol, tamoxifen, and corticosterone were inactive. This function was specifically inhibited, since yeast-to-mycelium transformation, yeast growth, and yeast reproduction by budding were unaffected by 17 beta-estradiol. Of note is the fact that mycelium-to-yeast transformation occurs as the first step in vivo in the establishment of infection. The cytosol of the three isolates studied possesses a steroid-binding protein which has high affinity for 17 beta-estradiol. We believe that this binding protein represents a P. brasiliensis hormone receptor which can also recognize mammalian estrogens. We hypothesize that the ability of estrogen to decrease or delay mycelium-to-yeast transformation at the initial site of infection contributes to or is responsible for the marked resistance of females, and that the binder described is the molecular site of action. Images PMID:6500694

  7. Resource recovery using whey permeate to cultivate Phellinus linteus mycelium: Solid-state and submerged liquid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Joonyeob; Han, Gyuseong; Kim, Na Kyung; Bae, Hyokwan; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2015-10-01

    The growth characteristics of Phellinus linteus mycelium were assessed and compared under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged liquid fermentation (SLF) systems on whey permeate medium. Response surface methodology was used to investigate the growth rates of mycelia under various conditions of operating temperature (TO), initial pH, and substrate concentration ([S]). The optimal growth conditions of P. linteus mycelium were determined to be 26.1°C, pH 4.6, and 60.3g of lactose/L in the SSF system, and 29.0°C, pH 5.0, and 65.3g of lactose/L in the SLF system. The maximum growth rates were predicted to be 1.92 ± 0.01 mm/d in SSF and 192.1 ± 0.0mg/L per day in SLF. Random trials were conducted to experimentally validate the evaluated optimal conditions. The differences between the modeled and observed values were only 5.3% in the SSF system and 6.1% in the SLF system. Significant engineering factors differed between the fermentation techniques; TO was significant in both cultivation systems, whereas initial pH was significant in SSF but [S] was significant in SLF. Our findings can be used to guide the operation of the bioconversion process for cultivating P. linteus mycelium using whey permeate wastewater.

  8. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  9. Characterization and in vitro antitumor activity of polysaccharides from the mycelium of Sarcodon aspratus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Hu, Meili; Wang, Cui; Yang, Yuling; Chen, Jianhua; Ding, Jingna; Guo, Wenqiang

    2013-01-01

    Polysaccharides extracted from mushrooms have shown a variety of medical activities, such as antitumor, immunostimulatory and hypoglycemic activity. In this study, characteristics and the antitumor activities of Sarcodon aspratus polysaccharides were investigated for the possibility of application of S. aspratus in health care and medicine. Two polysaccharide fractions (PSAN and PSAA) were extracted and isolated from the mycelium of S. aspratus. The average molecular weight of PSAN and PSAA were approximately 5.6×10(4) Da and 3.83×10(5) Da, respectively. PSAN was composed of L-rhamnose, D-xylose and D-mannose, with molar ratios of 1:10:21; PSAA consisted of L-rhamnose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-glucose and D-galactose, with molar ratios of 1:39:76:10:21. Both PSAN and PSAA presented high antitumor activity against Hela cells in vitro. At a concentration of 400 mg/L and an exposure time of 24h, the inhibition rates for PSAN and PSAA were 65% and 80%, respectively. PSAN and PSAA exhibited significantly lower cytotoxicity against human normal liver cell line L-02 than Hela tumor cells in comparison with 5-Fu. Polysaccharide extracted from an edible mushroom S. aspratus may be a potential candidate for developing a novel low toxicity antitumor agent.

  10. New constituents with iNOS inhibitory activity from mycelium of Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sien-Sing; Wang, Guei-Jane; Wang, Shiang-Yi; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Lee, Tzong-Huei

    2009-04-01

    In continuing our investigation on the bioactive constituents of mycelium of Antrodia camphorata, antroquinonol B (1), 4-acetyl-antroquinonol B (2), 2,3-(methylenedioxy)-6-methylbenzene-1,4-diol (3) and 2,4-dimethoxy-6-methylbenzene-1,3-diol (4) along with antrodin D (5) were isolated by the guidance of an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitory assay and identified on the basis of their spectroscopic analysis. The effect of these compounds on the inhibition of NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophages was further evaluated. Compounds 4 and 5 significantly inhibited NO production without any cytotoxicity, the IC(50) values being 32.2 +/- 0.1 and 26.3 +/- 1.6 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 possessed greater effects on NO inhibition, with IC(50) values of 16.2 +/- 0.8 and 14.7 +/- 2.8 microg/mL, respectively, but displayed cytotoxicity at considerably higher concentrations. Compound 3 showed the lowest percent cell viability of 45.5 +/- 1.8 % as observed in treated cells at a concentration of 16.8 microg/mL.

  11. Hirsutella sinensis mycelium attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Teng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M.; Lan, Ying-Wei; Martel, Jan; Young, John D.; Chong, Kowit-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutella sinensis mycelium (HSM), the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been shown to possess various pharmacological properties. We previously reported that this fungus suppresses interleukin-1β and IL-18 secretion by inhibiting both canonical and non-canonical inflammasomes in human macrophages. However, whether HSM may be used to prevent lung fibrosis and the mechanism underlying this activity remain unclear. Our results show that pretreatment with HSM inhibits TGF-β1–induced expression of fibronectin and α-SMA in lung fibroblasts. HSM also restores superoxide dismutase expression in TGF-β1–treated lung fibroblasts and inhibits reactive oxygen species production in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, HSM pretreatment markedly reduces bleomycin–induced lung injury and fibrosis in mice. Accordingly, HSM reduces inflammatory cell accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and proinflammatory cytokines levels in lung tissues. The HSM extract also significantly reduces TGF-β1 in lung tissues, and this effect is accompanied by decreased collagen 3α1 and α-SMA levels. Moreover, HSM reduces expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome and P2X7R in lung tissues, whereas it enhances expression of superoxide dismutase. These findings suggest that HSM may be used for the treatment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26497260

  12. Spatial Feature Evaluation for Aerial Scene Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Swearingen, Thomas S; Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution aerial images are becoming more readily available, which drives the demand for robust, intelligent and efficient systems to process increasingly large amounts of image data. However, automated image interpretation still remains a challenging problem. Robust techniques to extract and represent features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories is key for automated image analysis. In this paper we examined the role of spatial features to uniquely characterize various aerial scene categories. We studied low-level features such as colors, edge orientations, and textures, and examined their local spatial arrangements. We computed correlograms representing the spatial correlation of features at various distances, then measured the distance between correlograms to identify similar scenes. We evaluated the proposed technique on several aerial image databases containing challenging aerial scene categories. We report detailed evaluation of various low-level features by quantitatively measuring accuracy and parameter sensitivity. To demonstrate the feature performance, we present a simple query-based aerial scene retrieval system.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Master Plan, 1993.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    PHOTOGRAPH THIS SHEET AND RETURN To DTIC-FDAC DTIC 70A DOCUMENT PROCESSMING I~ SlEW -, mmllamm LOAN DOCUMENT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV...11 B. Program Executive Officer for Cruise Missiles 3 and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (PEO[CU...69 I ! I I ivI -- UAV 1993 MASTER PLAN U I EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 A. OVERVIEW Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)* can make significant

  14. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  15. Nuclear behavior of the mycelium and the phylogeny of Polypores (Basidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Rajchenberg, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This is a review of the available knowledge on nuclear behavior of the mycelium within polypore genera (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota). Information on 68 genera showed that nuclear behavior is a distinct and consistent feature at genus level and can be coupled with phylogenetic differentiation. The sole exception was found in Polyporus, where different species with normal, heterocytic and astatocoenocytic nuclear behaviors were found. Of the 68 genera treated 41 (60.3%) displayed a normal nuclear behavior, nine (13.2%) were heterocytic, nine (13.2%) were astatocoenocytic and another eight (11.8%) were holocoenocytic. In 95% of the genera a unique compatibility system was found, with the exceptions of Antrodia, which includes both homothallic and bipolar species all associated with a normal nuclear behavior, and Spongipellis, in which bipolar and tetrapolar species are found, all displaying an astatocoenocytic nuclear behavior. Normal and heterocytic nuclear behaviors were associated mostly with tetrapolarity, astatocoenocity was associated mostly with bipolarity, and holocoenocity was associated with either bipolarity or purported homothallism. The combination of nuclear behavior with mating system and brown or white rot capability appeared as a strong feature characterizing and distinguishing the genera of polypores, each combination being valuable to differentiate between apparently related genera, as is supported by phylogenetic studies. Several examples are presented to support this idea, as well as the cases of species that are problematic to this concept. Poroid genera of Hymenochaetaceae were treated apart because of the lack of knowledge regarding their nuclear behavior. In addition new information on the sexuality and/or nuclear behavior of 15 polyporoid taxa is given.

  16. Ergosterol Is the Active Compound of Cultured Mycelium Cordyceps sinensis on Antiliver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yuan; Tao, Yanyan; Wang, Qinglan; Shen, Li; Yang, Tao; Liu, Zulong; Liu, Chenghai

    2014-01-01

    Cultured mycelium Cordyceps sinensis (CMCS) is a Chinese herbal medicine, which is widely used for a variety of diseases including liver injury in clinic. The current study aims to investigate the protective effects of CMCS against liver fibrosis and to exploit its active antifibrotic substances in vivo and in vitro. For evaluating the antifibrotic effect of CMCS and ergosterol, male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with CMCS (120 mg/kg/d) or ergosterol (50 mg/kg/d). Four weeks later, serum liver function, hepatic hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, liver inflammation, collagen deposition, and expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in liver tissue were evaluated. Besides, toxicological effects of active compounds of CMCS on hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were detected and expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane, EdU, F-actin, and α-SMA of activated HSCs were analyzed to screen the antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vitro. Our results showed that CMCS could significantly alleviate levels of serum liver functions, attenuate hepatic inflammation, decrease collagen deposition, and relieve levels of α-SMA in liver, respectively. Ergosterol, the active compound in CMCS that was detected by HPLC, played a dose-dependent inhibition role on activated HSCs via upregulating expressions of permeability of the lysosomal membrane and downregulating levels of EdU, F-actin, and α-SMA on activated HSCs in vitro. Moreover, ergosterol revealed the antifibrotic effect alike in vivo. In conclusion, CMCS is effective in alleviating liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 and ergosterol might be the efficacious antifibrotic substance in CMCS in vivo and in vitro. PMID:25386220

  17. Unmanned aerial vehicles in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, Federico; Magrin, Demetrio; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Farinato, Jacopo; Greggio, Davide; Dima, Marco; Gullieuszik, Marco; Bergomi, Maria; Carolo, Elena; Marafatto, Luca; Portaluri, Elisa

    2016-07-01

    In this work we discuss some options for using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for daylight alignment activities and maintenance of optical telescopes, relating them to a small numbers of parameters, and tracing which could be the schemes, requirements and benefits for employing them both at the stage of erection and maintenance. UAVs can easily reach the auto-collimation points of optical components of the next class of Extremely Large Telescopes. They can be equipped with tools for the measurement of the co-phasing, scattering, and reflectivity of segmented mirrors or environmental parameters like C2n and C2T to characterize the seeing during both the day and the night.

  18. ssgA Is Essential for Sporulation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Affects Hyphal Development by Stimulating Septum Formation

    PubMed Central

    van Wezel, Gilles P.; van der Meulen, Jannes; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Luiten, Ruud G. M.; Koerten, Henk K.; Kraal, Barend

    2000-01-01

    The role of ssgA in cell division and development of streptomycetes was analyzed. An ssgA null mutant of Streptomyces coelicolor produced aerial hyphae but failed to sporulate, and ssgA can therefore be regarded as a novel whi gene. In addition to the morphological changes, antibiotic production was also disturbed, with strongly reduced actinorhodin production. These defects could be complemented by plasmid-borne ssgA. In the wild-type strain, transcription of ssgA was induced by nutritional shift-down and was shown to be linked to that of the upstream-located gene ssgR, which belongs to the family of iclR-type transcriptional regulator genes. Analysis of mycelium harvested from liquid-grown cultures by transmission electron microscopy showed that septum formation had strongly increased in ssgA-overexpressing strains in comparison to wild-type S. coelicolor and that spore-like compartments were produced at high frequency. Furthermore, the hyphae were significantly wider and contained irregular and often extremely thick septa. These data underline the important role for ssgA in Streptomyces cell division. PMID:11004161

  19. Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    were values derived from “AFPAM 10-1403, AIR MOBILITY PLANNING FACTORS” used by the US Air Force when making gross calculations of aerial refueling...Aerial Refueling. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commision. centennialofflight.gov/essay/EvolutionofT echnology /refueling?Tech22.htm. 20003. 5 [6] DOD Needs

  20. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  1. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2431 - Aerial wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire. 32.2431 Section 32.2431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2431 Aerial wire. (a) This account shall include the original cost of bare line wire and other material used in...

  5. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.

  6. Astronomical Methods in Aerial Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1925-01-01

    The astronomical method of determining position is universally used in marine navigation and may also be of service in aerial navigation. The practical application of the method, however, must be modified and adapted to conform to the requirements of aviation. Much of this work of adaptation has already been accomplished, but being scattered through various technical journals in a number of languages, is not readily available. This report is for the purpose of collecting under one cover such previous work as appears to be of value to the aerial navigator, comparing instruments and methods, indicating the best practice, and suggesting future developments. The various methods of determining position and their application and value are outlined, and a brief resume of the theory of the astronomical method is given. Observation instruments are described in detail. A complete discussion of the reduction of observations follows, including a rapid method of finding position from the altitudes of two stars. Maps and map cases are briefly considered. A bibliography of the subject is appended.

  7. Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool - 12006

    SciTech Connect

    Messick, Chuck; Pham, Minh; Smith, Ron; Isiminger, Dave

    2012-07-01

    The Region 3 Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool is used by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), United States Department of Energy, Radiological Assistance Program, Region 3, to respond to emergency radiological situations. The tool automates the flight planning package process while decreasing Aerial Measuring System response times and decreases the potential for human error. Deployment of the Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool has resulted in an immediate improvement to the flight planning process in that time required for mission planning has been reduced from 1.5 hours to 15 minutes. Anecdotally, the RAP team reports that the rate of usable data acquired during surveys has improved from 40-60 percent to over 90 percent since they began using the tool. Though the primary product of the flight planning tool is a pdf format document for use by the aircraft flight crew, the RAP team has begun carrying their laptop computer on the aircraft during missions. By connecting a Global Positioning System (GPS) device to the laptop and using ESRI ArcMap's GPS tool bar to overlay the aircraft position directly on the flight plan in real time, the RAP team can evaluate and correct the aircraft position as the mission is executed. (authors)

  8. Automatic Sea Bird Detection from High Resolution Aerial Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, S.; Grenzdörffer, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    Great efforts are presently taken in the scientific community to develop computerized and (fully) automated image processing methods allowing for an efficient and automatic monitoring of sea birds and marine mammals in ever-growing amounts of aerial imagery. Currently the major part of the processing, however, is still conducted by especially trained professionals, visually examining the images and detecting and classifying the requested subjects. This is a very tedious task, particularly when the rate of void images regularly exceeds the mark of 90%. In the content of this contribution we will present our work aiming to support the processing of aerial images by modern methods from the field of image processing. We will especially focus on the combination of local, region-based feature detection and piecewise global image segmentation for automatic detection of different sea bird species. Large image dimensions resulting from the use of medium and large-format digital cameras in aerial surveys inhibit the applicability of image processing methods based on global operations. In order to efficiently handle those image sizes and to nevertheless take advantage of globally operating segmentation algorithms, we will describe the combined usage of a simple performant feature detector based on local operations on the original image with a complex global segmentation algorithm operating on extracted sub-images. The resulting exact segmentation of possible candidates then serves as a basis for the determination of feature vectors for subsequent elimination of false candidates and for classification tasks.

  9. Geometric Calibration and Validation of Ultracam Aerial Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Michael; Schachinger, Bernhard; Muick, Marc; Neuner, Christian; Tschemmernegg, Helfried

    2016-03-01

    We present details of the calibration and validation procedure of UltraCam Aerial Camera systems. Results from the laboratory calibration and from validation flights are presented for both, the large format nadir cameras and the oblique cameras as well. Thus in this contribution we show results from the UltraCam Eagle and the UltraCam Falcon, both nadir mapping cameras, and the UltraCam Osprey, our oblique camera system. This sensor offers a mapping grade nadir component together with the four oblique camera heads. The geometric processing after the flight mission is being covered by the UltraMap software product. Thus we present details about the workflow as well. The first part consists of the initial post-processing which combines image information as well as camera parameters derived from the laboratory calibration. The second part, the traditional automated aerial triangulation (AAT) is the step from single images to blocks and enables an additional optimization process. We also present some special features of our software, which are designed to better support the operator to analyze large blocks of aerial images and to judge the quality of the photogrammetric set-up.

  10. Extracellular metabolism of sucrose in a submerged culture of Claviceps purpurea: formation of monosaccharides and clavine alkaloids.

    PubMed Central

    Kren, V; Pazoutová, S; Rylko, V; Sajdl, P; Wurst, M; Rehácek, Z

    1984-01-01

    Transformation of extracellular sucrose during cultivation of Claviceps purpurea led to the formation of mono- and oligosaccharides. Maltose was a suitable substrate for submerged fermentation of alkaloids. Fermentation in a medium with maltose was characterized by an insignificant formation of glucans, intensive sporulation, suspension growth of mycelium, and a higher formation of elymoclavine. Glucose alone yielded low levels of total alkaloids and high glucan formation; on the other hand, glucose promoted the formation of elymoclavine. PMID:6508291

  11. Quality assessment of digitized aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelbl, O.

    1998-09-01

    Manufacturer of photogrammetric instruments have developed specific scanners for aerial photographs, in parallel to printing industry. Main objective of this specific scanners is to guarantee a high geometric precision of plus or minus 0.001 to 0.002 mm for a standard format of original film documents of 23 X 23 cm and to scope with the high image resolution of the original images. Within a study of OEEPE (European Organisation for Experimental Photogrammetric Research) the most important photogrammetric scanners used in practice have been tested. Standard procedures are in development to analyze the dynamic range of the scanners, the image noise, the image sharpness and the color fidelity. Practical all photogrammetric scanners are based on CCD technology. The article presents the techniques applied for the testing of the scanners concerning the determination of the MTF of the scanners, the image noise, the dynamic range and the color fidelity and gives typical results for various scanners. The scanners tested are manufactured by Intergraph, Zeiss, Agfa, Helava and Wehrli.

  12. Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production.

    PubMed

    Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell death, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors.

  13. Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: Programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production

    PubMed Central

    Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell death, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors. PMID:24240146

  14. MEMS Based Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Niranjan; Köhler, Elof; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Designing a flapping wing insect robot requires understanding of insect flight mechanisms, wing kinematics and aerodynamic forces. These subsystems are interconnected and their dependence on one another affects the overall performance. Additionally it requires an artificial muscle like actuator and transmission to power the wings. Several kinds of actuators and mechanisms are candidates for this application with their own strengths and weaknesses. This article provides an overview of the insect scaled flight mechanism along with discussion of various methods to achieve the Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) flight. Ongoing projects in Chalmers is aimed at developing a low cost and low manufacturing time MAV. The MAV design considerations and design specifications are mentioned. The wings are manufactured using 3D printed carbon fiber and are under experimental study.

  15. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  16. How To Obtain Aerial Photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an informational data base of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its territories that dates back to the 1940?s. This information describes photographic projects from the USGS, other Federal, State, and local government agencies, and commercial firms. The pictures on this page show a part of a standard 9- by 9-inch photograph and the results obtained by enlarging the original photograph two and four times. Compare the size of the Qualcomm Stadium, Jack Murphy Field, in San Diego, Calif, and the adjacent parking lot and freeways shown at the different scales. USGS Earth Science Information Center (ESIC) representatives will assist you in locating and ordering photographs. Please submit the completed checklist and a marked map showing your area of interest to any ESIC.

  17. Unmanned aerial survey of elephants.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km(2) with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys.

  18. Unmanned Aerial Survey of Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Cédric; Lejeune, Philippe; Lisein, Jonathan; Sawadogo, Prosper; Bouché, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The use of a UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) was tested to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing ×100™ equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test animal reaction as the UAS passed, and visibility on the images. No reaction was recorded as the UAS passed at a height of 100 m. Observations, made on a set of more than 7000 images, revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. The easy observation of elephants allows experts to enumerate them on images acquired at a height of 100 m. We, therefore, implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants were recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10%. The main drawback of our UAS was its low autonomy (45 min). Increased endurance of small UAS is required to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS). The monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. Technological evolution will make civil UAS more efficient, allowing them to compete with light aircraft for aerial wildlife surveys. PMID:23405088

  19. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  20. In vitro and in vivo comparisons of the effects of the fruiting body and mycelium of Antrodia camphorata against amyloid β-protein-induced neurotoxicity and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Chun; Wang, Shen-En; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Tsai, Tsung-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hong; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2012-06-01

    Antrodia camphorata is a particular and precious medicinal mushroom, and its fruiting body was found to provide more efficient protection from oxidative stress and inflammation than its mycelium because of its higher content of triterpenoids, total phenols, and so on. In the previous in vitro studies, the mycelium of A. camphorata is proven to provide strong neuroprotection in neuron cells and suggested to have the potential of protection against neurotoxicity of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) known as the risk factor toward Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. However, the in vivo study and the comparison study with the fruiting body have not yet been investigated. This study compared the effect of the fruiting body and mycelium of A. camphorata on alleviating the Aβ40-induced neurocytotoxicity in the in vitro Aβ-damaged neuron cell model (PC-12 cell treated with Aβ40) and memory impairment in the in vivo AD animal model induced with a continuous brain infusion of Aβ40. In the results of in vitro and in vivo studies, the fruiting body possessed stronger anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory abilities for inhibiting neurocytotoxicity in Aβ40-treated PC-12 cells and Aβ40 accumulation in Aβ40-infused brain than mycelium. Moreover, hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) protein expression, known as an important AD risk factor, was suppressed by the treatment of fruiting body rather than that of mycelium in the in vitro and in vivo studies. These comparisons supported the reasons why the fruiting body resulted in a more significant improvement effect on working memory ability than mycelium in the AD rats.

  1. Effect of dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum fertilizer on soil microbial community composition, enzyme activities and snap bean growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Cai, Chen; Thabit, Mohamed; Wang, Pu; Li, Guomin; Duan, Ziheng

    2016-10-01

    The dry mycelium fertilizer (DMF) was produced from penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM) following an acid-heating pretreatment to degrade the residual penicillin. In this study, it was applied into soil as fertilizer to investigate its effects on soil properties, phytotoxicity, microbial community composition, enzyme activities, and growth of snap bean in greenhouse. As the results show, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and organic matter of soil with DMF treatments were generally higher than CON treatment. In addition, the applied DMF did not cause heavy metal and residual drug pollution of the modified soil. The lowest GI values (<0.3) were recorded at DMF8 (36 kg DMF/plat) on the first days after applying the fertilizer, indicating that severe phytotoxicity appeared in the DMF8-modified soil. Results of microbial population and enzyme activities illustrated that DMF was rapidly decomposed and the decomposition process significantly affected microbial growth and enzyme activities. The DMF-modified soil phytotoxicity decreased at the late fertilization time. DMF1 was considered as the optimum amount of DMF dose based on principal component analysis scores. Plant height and plant yield of snap bean were remarkably enhanced with the optimum DMF dose.

  2. Overview of NASA aerial applications research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial applications research conducted by NASA seeks improvements in environmental safety, fuel efficiency, and aircraft productivity and safety. From 1976 to 1978, NASA studied the technology needs of the aerial applications industry and developed in-house research capabilities for meeting those needs. This paper presents the research plans developed by NASA. High potential appears to exist for near term contributions to the industry from existing NASA research capabilities in drift reduction, stall departure safety, and dry materials dispersal system technology. A brief, annotated bibliography is included listing documents recently produced as a result of NASA aerial applications research efforts.

  3. 7 CFR 611.21 - Availability of aerial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611... § 611.21 Availability of aerial photography. The National Cartography and Geospatial Center obtains necessary clearance for all aerial photography for NRCS. New aerial photography of designated areas in...

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Replacing the Army’s Comanche Helicopter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This strategic research project explores the possibility of unmanned aerial vehicles replacing the Comanche Helicopter in its doctrinal missions...capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles , and analyzes unmanned aerial vehicles capabilities against those aviation critical tasks. This research will...Army’s current helicopters, this analysis reveals that unmanned aerial vehicles can only perform 67% of the reconnaissance critical tasks, 50% of the

  5. Future Role of Aerial Platforms at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Hall, J. L.; Baines, K. H.; Grimm, R.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reviews the brief experience with deploying aerial platforms at Venus, the various mission concepts that have been proposed over the last three decades, and a vision for their application through 2050.

  6. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  7. Reliable aerial thermography for energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, J. R.; Bowman, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method for energy conservation, the aerial thermography survey, is discussed. It locates sources of energy losses and wasteful energy management practices. An operational map is presented for clear sky conditions. The map outlines the key environmental conditions conductive to obtaining reliable aerial thermography. The map is developed from defined visual and heat loss discrimination criteria which are quantized based on flat roof heat transfer calculations.

  8. Locating buildings in aerial photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Algorithms and techniques for use in the identification and location of large buildings in digitized copies of aerial photographs are developed and tested. The building data would be used in the simulation of objects located in the vicinity of an airport that may be detected by aircraft radar. Two distinct approaches are considered. Most building footprints are rectangular in form. The first approach studied is to search for right-angled corners that characterize rectangular objects and then to connect these corners to complete the building. This problem is difficult because many nonbuilding objects, such as street corners, parking lots, and ballparks often have well defined corners which are often difficult to distinguish from rooftops. Furthermore, rooftops come in a number of shapes, sizes, shadings, and textures which also limit the discrimination task. The strategy used linear sequences of different samples to detect straight edge segments at multiple angles and to determine when these segments meet at approximately right-angles with respect to each other. This technique is effective in locating corners. The test image used has a fairly rectangular block pattern oriented about thirty degrees clockwise from a vertical alignment, and the overall measurement data reflect this. However, this technique does not discriminate between buildings and other objects at an operationally suitable rate. In addition, since multiple paths are tested for each image pixel, this is a time consuming task. The process can be speeded up by preprocessing the image to locate the more optimal sampling paths. The second approach is to rely on a human operator to identify and select the building objects and then to have the computer determine the outline and location of the selected structures. When presented with a copy of a digitized aerial photograph, the operator uses a mouse and cursor to select a target building. After a button on the mouse is pressed, with the cursor fully within

  9. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  10. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

  11. Epicoccum allergy: skin reaction patterns and spore/mycelium disparities recognized by IgG and IgE ELISA inhibition.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, J; Chapman, J; Burge, H; Muilenberg, M; Solomon, W

    1987-07-01

    Comparable degrees of skin reactivity were observed towards spore and mycelium extracts from two isolates of Epicoccum and to one preparation of Alternaria in 35 rural and 120 university patients. The best experimental extracts detected Epicoccum sensitivity in 70% of the group tested while the commercial extract detected sensitivity in only 6%. Skin reaction correlations were greatest within isolates (eg, spore-A/mycelium-A), then for specific fungus parts (eg, spore-A/spore-B), then between isolates and parts (spore-A/mycelium-B). High correlations were found between individual IgG and IgE ELISA values for all antigens using serum from Epicoccum skin-reactive patients. ELISA inhibition results suggested that significant cross-reactivity exists between Epicoccum and Alternaria antigens recognized by IgG but not by IgE. ELISA inhibition cross-reaction patterns among Epicoccum antigens were comparable to skin reactions while IgG patterns showed little variability. Further characterization of spore/mycelium and interstrain recognition patterns among different immunoglobulin isotypes will be necessary before complete standardization of extracts from different parts of fungi will be possible. The use of spore material for skin testing and treatment of Epicoccum sensitivity appears to be both premature and unnecessary at this time.

  12. Quantitative detection of Lactarius deliciosus extraradical soil mycelium by real-time PCR and its application in the study of fungal persistence and interspecific competition.

    PubMed

    Parladé, J; Hortal, S; Pera, J; Galipienso, L

    2007-01-30

    Real-Time PCR has been applied to quantify extraradical soil mycelium of the edible ectomycorrhizal fungus Lactarius deliciosus in an interspecific competition experiment under greenhouse conditions. Couples of Pinus pinea seedlings inoculated with either L. deliciosus, Rhizopogon roseolus, or non-inoculated (control) were transplanted into pots filled with two types of soil in all the possible combinations. Total DNA was extracted from soil samples at 3 and 6 months after transplantation to perform real-time PCR analysis. DNA extractions from soil mixed with known amounts of mycelium of L. deliciosus were used as standards. Six months after transplantation, the percentage of mycorrhizas of L. deliciosus and seedling growth were significantly affected by the soil type. Extraradical soil mycelium of L. deliciosus was positively correlated with the final percentage of mycorrhizas and significantly affected by the sampling time and soil depth. The competition effect of R. roseolus was not significant for any of the measured parameters, probably due to the sharp decrease of the mycorrhizal colonization by this fungus. We conclude that real-time PCR is a powerful technique for extraradical mycelium quantification in studies aimed at evaluating the persistence of introduced strains of L. deliciosus in field plantations.

  13. Aerial photo SBVC1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial photo -SBVC-1962". Photo no. 360. Low oblique aerial view of the campus, looking southeast. Stamped on the rear: "Ron Wilhite, Sun-Telegram photo, file, 10/22/62/ - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Integration of aerial imaging and variable-rate technology for site-specific aerial herbicide application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As remote sensing and variable rate technology are becoming more available for aerial applicators, practical methodologies on effective integration of these technologies are needed for site-specific aerial applications of crop production and protection materials. The objectives of this study were to...

  15. Alteration of media composition and light conditions change morphology, metabolic profile, and beauvericin biosynthesis in Cordyceps bassiana mycelium.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Park, Shin Jung; Kim, Da Yeon; Chun, Young-Jin; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic alterations of Cordyceps bassiana mycelium were investigated under the following culture medium and light conditions: dextrose agar supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract (SDAY) medium with light (SL), SDAY medium without light (SD), nut medium without light (ND), and iron-supplemented SDAY medium without light (FD). The levels of asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, histidine, lysine, ornithine, and proline were significantly higher under SD and SL conditions. The levels of most of the alcohols, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid esters, sterols, and terpenes were higher under the ND condition than in the other conditions, but beauvericin was not detectable under the ND condition. The FD condition was favorable for the enhanced production of aminomalonic acid, malic acid, mannonic acid, and erythritol. Thus, the metabolic characteristics of C. bassiana can be manipulated by varying the cultivation conditions, rendering this fungus potentially favorable as a nutraceutical and medicinal resource.

  16. Cell wall protein and glycoprotein constituents of Aspergillus fumigatus that bind to polystyrene may be responsible for the cell surface hydrophobicity of the mycelium.

    PubMed

    Peñalver, M C; Casanova, M; Martínez, J P; Gil, M L

    1996-07-01

    Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of Aspergillus fumigatus grown both in complex medium (yeast extract/peptone/dextrose; YPD) and minimal (Vogel's N) medium was monitored by assessing attachment of polystyrene microspheres to the cell surface. It was found that mature mycelium was hydrophobic. Treatment of intact mycelium with beta-mercaptoethanol (beta ME) abolished binding of the microspheres to hyphal elements, and coating of the microspheres with beta ME extracts from mycelium inhibited their attachment to intact mycelial cells. A. fumigatus mycelium was tagged in vivo with biotin and treated with beta ME. The beta ME extracts were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with both peroxidase-conjugated-ExtrAvidin and concanavalin A (ConA). This procedure allowed identification of cell wall surface proteins and glycoproteins. Rabbit polyclonal antisera were raised against beta ME extracts obtained from cells grown in YPD and Vogel's N media. These antisera defined some major cell-wall-bound antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis of the cell wall material released by beta ME and adsorbed on polystyrene microspheres revealed about 19 protein species with apparent molecular masses ranging from 20 to 70 kDa, and two high-molecular-mass glycoproteins of 115 and 210 kDa. Treatment of cells grown in YPD, but not those grown in Vogel's N medium, with beta ME released a 55 kDa polypeptide able to adsorb to polystyrene microspheres that was detectable with the antisera. The ability to bind to polystyrene particles exhibited by several protein and glycoprotein species released by beta ME treatment suggested that these cell wall moieties possess exposed hydrophobic domains that could be responsible for the CSH of mycelium.

  17. Constructing a new integrated genetic linkage map and mapping quantitative trait loci for vegetative mycelium growth rate in Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wen-Bing; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying-Ying; Bian, Yin-Bing; Zhou, Yan; Kwan, Hoi Shan; Cheung, Man Kit; Xiao, Yang

    2014-03-01

    The most saturated linkage map for Lentinula edodes to date was constructed based on a monokaryotic population of 146 single spore isolates (SSIs) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), insertion-deletion (InDel) markers, and the mating-type loci. Five hundred and twenty-four markers were located on 13 linkage groups (LGs). The map spanned a total length of 1006.1 cM, with an average marker spacing of 2.0 cM. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mapping was utilized to uncover the loci regulating and controlling the vegetative mycelium growth rate on various synthetic media, and complex medium for commercial cultivation of L. edodes. Two and 13 putative QTLs, identified respectively in the monokaryotic population and two testcross dikaryotic populations, were mapped on seven different LGs. Several vegetative mycelium growth rate-related QTLs uncovered here were clustered on LG4 (Qmgr1, Qdgr1, Qdgr2 and Qdgr9) and LG6 (Qdgr3, Qdgr4 and Qdgr5), implying the presence of main genomic areas responsible for growth rate regulation and control. The QTL hotspot region on LG4 was found to be in close proximity to the region containing the mating-type A (MAT-A) locus. Moreover, Qdgr2 on LG4 was detected on different media, contributing 8.07 %-23.71 % of the phenotypic variation. The present study provides essential information for QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in L. edodes.

  18. Looking for an old aerial photograph

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to photograph the surface of the Earth date from the 1800's, when photographers attached cameras to balloons, kites, and even pigeons. Today, aerial photographs and satellite images are commonplace. The rate of acquiring aerial photographs and satellite images has increased rapidly in recent years. Views of the Earth obtained from aircraft or satellites have become valuable tools to Government resource planners and managers, land-use experts, environmentalists, engineers, scientists, and a wide variety of other users. Many people want historical aerial photographs for business or personal reasons. They may want to locate the boundaries of an old farm or a piece of family property. Or they may want a photograph as a record of changes in their neighborhood, or as a gift. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains the Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC?s) to sell aerial photographs, remotely sensed images from satellites, a wide array of digital geographic and cartographic data, as well as the Bureau?s wellknown maps. Declassified photographs from early spy satellites were recently added to the ESIC offerings of historical images. Using the Aerial Photography Summary Record System database, ESIC researchers can help customers find imagery in the collections of other Federal agencies and, in some cases, those of private companies that specialize in esoteric products.

  19. Gibberellin-induced inhibition and promotion of sprouting in aerial tubers of Begonia evansiana Andr. in relation to photoperiodic treatment and tuber stage.

    PubMed

    Okagami, N; Esashi, Y; Nagao, M

    1977-01-01

    Gibberellic-acid (GA3) treatment, when applied within a period ranging from the start of short-day (SD) treatment until about 10 SD, GA3 strongly inhibited formation of aerial tubers in response to SD and brought about sprouting of developing aerial tubers. In contrast, when applied after about 10 SD or more, GA3 hastened the completion of the dormant state in the tubers and prolonged their dormancy. The dormancy-promoting effect of GA3 on detached tubers increased with their degree of maturation. Application of growth retardants N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (B-9), 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidine carboxylate methyl chloride (AMO-1618) and 2-chloroethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CCC) to the cuttings delayed the onset of dormancy in the aerial tuber. When the retardants were applied to detached aerial tubers, however, such a delay of dormancy was not observed, and GA3 application did not inhibit sprouting in aerial tubers detached from CCC-treated cuttings.

  20. USGS Releases New Digital Aerial Products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has initiated distribution of digital aerial photographic products produced by scanning or digitizing film from its historical aerial photography film archive. This archive, located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, contains thousands of rolls of film that contain more than 8 million frames of historic aerial photographs. The largest portion of this archive consists of original film acquired by Federal agencies from the 1930s through the 1970s to produce 1:24,000-scale USGS topographic quadrangle maps. Most of this photography is reasonably large scale (USGS photography ranges from 1:8,000 to 1:80,000) to support the production of the maps. Two digital products are currently available for ordering: high-resolution scanned products and medium-resolution digitized products.

  1. Detection of linear features in aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Rui

    Over the past decades, considerable progress had been made to develop automatic image interpretation tools in remote sensing. However, there is still a gap between the results and the requirements for accuracy and robustness. Noisy aerial image interpretation, especially for low resolution images, is still difficult. In this thesis, we propose a fully automatic system for linear feature detection in aerial images. We present how the system works on the application of extraction and reconstruction of road and pipeline networks. The work in this thesis is divided by three parts: line detection, feature interpretation, and feature tracking. An improved Hough transform based on orientation information is introduced for the line detection. We explore the Markov random field model and Bayesian filtering for feature interpretation and tracking. Experimental results show that our proposed system is robust and effective to deal with low resolution aerial images.

  2. Shutter/aperture settings for aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.

    1976-01-01

    Determination of aerial camera shutter and aperture settings to produce consistently high-quality aerial photographs is a task complicated by numerous variables. Presented in this article are brief discussions of each variable and specific data which may be used for the systematic control of each. The variables discussed include sunlight, aircraft altitude, subject and season, film speed, and optical system. Data which may be used as a base reference are included, and encompass two sets of sensitometric specifications for two film-chemistry processes along with camera-aircraft parameters, which have been established and used to produce good exposures. Information contained here may be used to design and implement an exposure-determination system for aerial photography.

  3. The Development and Flight Testing of an Aerially Deployed Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Andrew

    An investigation into the feasibility of aerial deployed unmanned aerial vehicles was completed. The investigation included the development and flight testing of multiple unmanned aerial systems to investigate the different components of potential aerial deployment missions. The project consisted of two main objectives; the first objective dealt with the development of an airframe capable of surviving aerial deployment from a rocket and then self assembling from its stowed configuration into its flight configuration. The second objective focused on the development of an autopilot capable of performing basic guidance, navigation, and control following aerial deployment. To accomplish these two objectives multiple airframes were developed to verify their completion experimentally. The first portion of the project, investigating the feasibility of surviving an aerial deployment, was completed using a fixed wing glider that following a successful deployment had 52 seconds of controlled flight. Before developing the autopilot in the second phase of the project, the glider was significantly upgraded to fix faults discovered in the glider flight testing and to enhance the system capabilities. Unfortunately to conform to outdoor flight restrictions imposed by the university and the Federal Aviation Administration it was required to switch airframes before flight testing of the new fixed wing platform could begin. As a result, an autopilot was developed for a quadrotor and verified experimentally completely indoors to remain within the limits of governing policies.

  4. Image Dependent Relative Formation Navigation for Autonomous Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    sensors that do not emit any electro- magnetic energy) to reduce the likelihood of detection when operating in unfriendly areas of interest. This would...modification and analysis of the images in other ways. By modifying the values of the pixels, images can be sharpened, smoothed, darken, lightened , and

  5. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN KSC-373C-0556.20 116-KSC-373C-556.20, P-01622-B, ARCHIVE-04455 Aerial view of Easter crowds at Visitors Information Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  6. 59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RINGGATE SPILLWAY. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. AERIAL VIEW OF OWYHEE DAM SHOWING RING-GATE SPILLWAY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Aerial photo by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 29, 1989. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  7. Ground cover estimated from aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerbermann, A. H.; Cuellar, J. A.; Wiegand, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of per cent ground cover made by ground observers were compared with independent estimates made on the basis of low-altitude (640-1219 m) aerial photographs of the same fields. Standard statistical simple correlation and linear regression analyses revealed a high correlation between the two estimation methods. In crops such as grain, sorghum, corn, and forage sorghum, in which the broadest part of the leaf canopy is near the top of the plant, there was a tendency to overestimate the per cent ground cover from aerial photographs.

  8. Advanced Image Processing of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.

  9. Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

    The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

  10. MicroProbe Small Unmanned Aerial System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, Geoffrey; Miles, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The MicroProbe unmanned aerial system (UAS) concept incorporates twin electric motors mounted on the vehicle wing, thus enabling an aerodynamically and environmentally clean nose area for atmospheric sensors. A payload bay is also incorporated in the fuselage to accommodate remote sensing instruments. A key feature of this concept is lightweight construction combined with low flying speeds to minimize kinetic energy and associated hazards, as well as maximizing spatial resolution. This type of aerial platform is needed for Earth science research and environmental monitoring. There were no vehicles of this type known to exist previously.

  11. Noise from aerial bursts of fireworks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maglieri, D. J.; Henderson, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made recording the pressure time histories of the aerial bursts of mortars of various sizes launched during an actual fireworks display. The peak overpressure and duration of blast noise as well as the energy spectral density are compared with the characteristics of a blasting cap and of an F-104 aircraft at a Mach number of 1.4 and an altitude of 42,000 ft. Noise levels of the fireworks aerial bursts peaked 15 decibels below levels deemed damaging to hearing.

  12. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  13. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles DOD’s Acquisition Efforts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Hunter System Is Not Appropriate for Navy Fleet Use (GAO/NSIAD-96-2, Dec. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Maneuver...System Schedule Includes Unnecessary Risk (GAO/NSIAD-95-161, Sept. 15, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : No More Hunter Systems...Should Be Bought Until Problems are Fixed (GAO/NSIAD-95-52, Mar. 1, 1995). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Performance of Short-Range System in Question

  15. System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

    We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

  16. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  17. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  18. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  19. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  20. 47 CFR 32.6431 - Aerial wire expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aerial wire expense. 32.6431 Section 32.6431... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6431 Aerial wire expense. This account shall include expenses associated with aerial wire....

  1. Multifunctional aerial display through use of polarization-processing display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Keitaro; Ito, Shusei; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2017-02-01

    We have realized a multifunctional aerial display. An aerial image of a polarization-processing display is formed through aerial imaging by retro-reflection. By changing the polarization modulation patterns, we can switch between a three-layered display and a secure display.

  2. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography... FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the information from this form to collect the customer and photography information needed to produce and ship...

  3. Cost-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles/Unmanned Aerial Systems in Filling the Role of Logistical Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    UAVs in the U .S . Department of D efense (D OD) inv entory as w ell as the traditional aircraft ctmently used for logistical pwposes. Then, using a...14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF Cost-benefit, Cost-based, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Unmanned Aerial Systems, UAV , UAS, PAGES Logistics, Supp01t...thesis conducts a comparative cost analysis for using unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs )/unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for logistical resupply purposes

  4. Mycelium transformation of Streptomyces toxytricini into pellet: Role of culture conditions and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Punit; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar

    2017-03-01

    The present study envisages the role of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources, metals, pH, inoculum volume and agitation rate in pellet formation of S. toxytricini at shake-flask level. It was found that galactose, ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, Cu(2+), Zn(2+), higher inoculum volume (5% v/v) and agitation rate at 300rpm caused significant reduction in pellet size (up to the range of 30μm-0.5mm) but biomass formations was also reduced subsequently. Interestingly diffused type of morphology was obtained in Fe(2+) supplemented medium with reduced biomass (1.5gL(-1)). Rheological study revealed that non-Newtonian behaviour of culture broth. Besides this, kinetics study was also made to understand the growth kinetics (0.39gL(-1)h(-1)), oxygen uptake rate (0.1146mgL(-1)h(-1)), and production of lipstatin (0.0072gh(-1)).

  5. A TOOL FOR PLANNING AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...

  6. Aerial Infrared Photos for Citrus Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.

  7. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

  8. Converting aerial imagery to application maps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last couple of years in Agricultural Aviation and at the 2014 and 2015 NAAA conventions, we have written about and presented both single-camera and two-camera imaging systems for use on agricultural aircraft. Many aerial applicators have shown a great deal of interest in the imaging systems...

  9. The Art and Science of Aerial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The author is always looking for ways to see connections and to adapt experiences across different subjects. Combining art with other disciplines helps keep students engaged, even the really analytical and verbal learners. Aerial perspective is an art technique, a scientific principle, and a vehicle for introducing Chinese painting and…

  10. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  11. Aerial Scene Recognition using Efficient Sparse Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheriyadat, Anil M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced scene recognition systems for processing large volumes of high-resolution aerial image data are in great demand today. However, automated scene recognition remains a challenging problem. Efficient encoding and representation of spatial and structural patterns in the imagery are key in developing automated scene recognition algorithms. We describe an image representation approach that uses simple and computationally efficient sparse code computation to generate accurate features capable of producing excellent classification performance using linear SVM kernels. Our method exploits unlabeled low-level image feature measurements to learn a set of basis vectors. We project the low-level features onto the basis vectors and use simple soft threshold activation function to derive the sparse features. The proposed technique generates sparse features at a significantly lower computational cost than other methods~\\cite{Yang10, newsam11}, yet it produces comparable or better classification accuracy. We apply our technique to high-resolution aerial image datasets to quantify the aerial scene classification performance. We demonstrate that the dense feature extraction and representation methods are highly effective for automatic large-facility detection on wide area high-resolution aerial imagery.

  12. "A" Is for Aerial Maps and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Reese H.; Delahunty, Tina

    2007-01-01

    The technology of satellite imagery and remote sensing adds a new dimension to teaching and learning about maps with elementary school children. Just a click of the mouse brings into view some images of the world that could only be imagined a generation ago. Close-up aerial pictures of the school and neighborhood quickly catch the interest of…

  13. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  14. Root system architecture in Arabidopsis grown in culture is regulated by sucrose uptake in the aerial tissues.

    PubMed

    Macgregor, Dana R; Deak, Karen I; Ingram, Paul A; Malamy, Jocelyn E

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a detailed model for the regulation of lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in culture. We demonstrate that direct contact between the aerial tissues and sucrose in the growth media is necessary and sufficient to promote emergence of lateral root primordia from the parent root. Mild osmotic stress is perceived by the root, which then sends an abscisic acid-dependent signal that causes a decrease in the permeability of aerial tissues; this reduces uptake of sucrose from the culture media, which leads to a repression of lateral root formation. Osmotic repression of lateral root formation in culture can be overcome by mutations that cause the cuticle of a plant's aerial tissues to become more permeable. Indeed, we report here that the previously described lateral root development2 mutant overcomes osmotic repression of lateral root formation because of a point mutation in Long Chain Acyl-CoA Synthetase2, a gene essential for cutin biosynthesis. Together, our findings (1) impact the interpretation of experiments that use Arabidopsis grown in culture to study root system architecture; (2) identify sucrose as an unexpected regulator of lateral root formation; (3) demonstrate mechanisms by which roots communicate information to aerial tissues and receive information in turn; and (4) provide insights into the regulatory pathways that allow plants to be developmentally plastic while preserving the essential balance between aboveground and belowground organs.

  15. Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

    2013-08-01

    Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight

  16. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  17. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  18. Ultrastructural studies of the mycelium-to yeast transformation of Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed Central

    Garrison, R G; Boyd, K S; Mariat, F

    1975-01-01

    Fine details of the internal and external morphology of the in vitro mycelial phase (MP) to yeastlike phase (YP) transition of the dimorphic fungal pathogen Sporothrix schenckii are shown in electron micrographs of ultrathin sections. Morphological transformation at the ultrastructural level was observed to occur by direct formation of budlike structures at the tips and along the hyphae and by oidial cell formation. Direct budding of yeast from conidiospores was not observed. Early transitional forms arising by direct blastic action from the MP possessed conspicuous electron-dense microfibrillar material at the outer limits of the cell wall. The electron density of this microfibrillar material was enhanced by staining with acidified dialyzed iron. It is believed that this extracellular material may be composed in part of an acid mucosubstance. No acid phosphatase activity was associated with this microfibrillar material. This substance was found to be a characteristic of the outer limits of the cell wall of the YP of S. schenckii. Oidial YP cell formation occurred later during the transition. The cell wall of the developing oidial YP transitional form arose from an inner layer of the converting hyphae. No consupicuous alterations of the cytoplasmic content of the parent MP cell was observed during MP-to-YP transition. It is suggested that the MP-to-YP transition of S. schenckii may be regulated by at least two mechanisms involving alterations of the biochemical and/or biophysical nature of the cell wall of the MP cell in response to the conversional stimuli. Images PMID:1184578

  19. Concentration variation and molecular characteristics of soluble (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucans in submerged cultivation products of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Huang; Hsieh, Shu-Chen; Wang, Huei-Ju; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong; Chiang, Been-Huang; Lu, Ting-Jang

    2014-01-22

    (1,3)-β-D-Glucans with (1,6)-β-D-glucosyl branches are bioactive polysaccharides in fruiting bodies and mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine. Submerged cultivation of mycelium is one of the more efficient means of generating polysaccharides from this fungus. Twelve mycelium samples examined in this study demonstrated the quantitative and qualitative molecular characteristics of soluble (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucans. It was observed that the concentration of soluble (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucan varied substantially from 1.3 to 79.9 mg/dL. (1,3;1,6)-β-D-Glucans also preserved their molecular characteristics with degrees of branching (DB) of 0.21-0.36 and molecular masses of 10(5)-10(6) g/mol for those samples with substantial quantities of β-D-glucan. Using the high aggregating tendency of these molecules, (1,3;1,6)-β-D-glucans were successfully purified via fractional precipitation with 35% (v/v) ethanol. (1,3;1,6)-β-D-Glucan was proposed as a putative bioactive marker for immunomodulation because it was the most abundant polysaccharide in G. lucidum mycelium products to stimulate macrophage RAW 264.7 cells to release TNF-α.

  20. Developmental toxicity assessment of medicinal mushroom Antrodia cinnamomea T.T. Chang et W.N. Chou (higher Basidiomycetes) submerged culture mycelium in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-I; Chen, Chiao-Wen; Lin, Ting-Wei; Wang, Di-Sheng; Chen, Chin-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea is a Taiwanese medicinal mushroom with high antioxidant and polysaccharide content. The objective of this study is to investigate developmental toxicity of A. cinnamomea in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were daily gavaged with A. cinnamomea mycelium at dosage levels of 0 (reverse osmosis water), 50, 150, and 500 mg/kg from gestation day (GD) 6 to 15. All dams were sacrificed on GD 20 and were subjected to cesarean section. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal abnormalities. All copulated females survived until the end of the study. No significant differences were recorded in body weight change, food consumption, and maternal gestational parameters. Only two fetal malformations were noted in 970 fetuses from the treatment groups. Some variations, such as enlarged fontanel, split sternebrae, absent sacral, absent caudal vertebral centra, absent thoracic centra, absent 13th-14th ribs, and fused ribs, were found during the skeletal examination, but no treatment-induced abnormalities occurred. No dose dependency was observed in any of the developmental variations. Overall observation of foetal malformations from rats given A. cinnamomea mycelium during pregnancy demonstrates that this material is not teratogenic at doses up to 500 mg/kg. It is concluded that A. cinnamomea BCRC 35398 mycelium has no teratogenic effects in female rats and is safe to be used as a functional food ingredient.

  1. Up-regulation of genes involved in N-acetylglucosamine uptake and metabolism suggests a recycling mode of chitin in intraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Kobae, Yoshihiro; Kawachi, Miki; Saito, Katsuharu; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Ezawa, Tatsuhiro; Maeshima, Masayoshi; Hata, Shingo; Fujiwara, Toru

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonize roots and form two kinds of mycelium, intraradical mycelium (IRM) and extraradical mycelium (ERM). Arbuscules are characteristic IRM structures that highly branch within host cells in order to mediate resource exchange between the symbionts. They are ephemeral structures and at the end of their life span, arbuscular branches collapse from the tip, fungal cytoplasm withdraws, and the whole arbuscule shrinks into fungal clumps. The exoskeleton of an arbuscule contains structured chitin, which is a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), whereas a collapsed arbuscule does not. The molecular mechanisms underlying the turnover of chitin in AM fungi remain unknown. Here, a GlcNAc transporter, RiNGT, was identified from the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Yeast mutants defective in endogenous GlcNAc uptake and expressing RiNGT took up (14)C-GlcNAc, and the optimum uptake was at acidic pH values (pH 4.0-4.5). The transcript levels of RiNGT in IRM in mycorrhizal Lotus japonicus roots were over 1000 times higher than those in ERM. GlcNAc-6-phosphate deacetylase (DAC1) and glucosamine-6-phosphate isomerase (NAG1) genes, which are related to the GlcNAc catabolism pathway, were also induced in IRM. Altogether, data suggest the existence of an enhanced recycling mode of GlcNAc in IRM of AM fungi.

  2. Exploiting the fungal highway: development of a novel tool for the in situ isolation of bacteria migrating along fungal mycelium.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anaele; Bindschedler, Saskia; Job, Daniel; Wick, Lukas Y; Filippidou, Sevasti; Kooli, Wafa M; Verrecchia, Eric P; Junier, Pilar

    2015-11-01

    Fungi and bacteria form various associations that are central to numerous environmental processes. In the so-called fungal highway, bacteria disperse along fungal mycelium. We developed a novel tool for the in situ isolation of bacteria moving along fungal hyphae as well as for the recovery of fungi potentially involved in dispersal, both of which are attracted towards a target culture medium. We present the validation and the results of the first in situ test. Couples of fungi and bacteria were isolated from soil. Amongst the enriched organisms, we identified several species of fast-growing fungi (Fusarium sp. and Chaetomium sp.), as well as various potentially associated bacterial groups, including Variovorax soli, Olivibacter soli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and several species of the genera Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter and Ochrobactrum. Migration of bacteria along fungal hyphae across a discontinuous medium was confirmed in most of the cases. Although the majority of the bacteria for which migration was confirmed were also positive for flagellar motility, not all motile bacteria dispersed using their potential fungal partner. In addition, the importance of hydrophobicity of the fungal mycelial surface was confirmed. Future applications of the columns include targeting different types of microorganisms and their interactions, either by enrichment or by state of the art molecular biological methods.

  3. X-ray absorption near-edge structure micro-spectroscopy study of vanadium speciation in Phycomyces blakesleeanus mycelium.

    PubMed

    Žižić, Milan; Dučić, Tanja; Grolimund, Daniel; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica; Nikolic, Miroslav; Stanić, Marina; Križak, Strahinja; Zakrzewska, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Vanadium speciation in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus was examined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, enabling assessment of oxidation states and related molecular symmetries of this transition element in the fungus. The exposure of P. blakesleeanus to two physiologically important vanadium species (V(5+) and V(4+)) resulted in the accumulation of this metal in central compartments of 24 h old mycelia, most probably in vacuoles. Tetrahedral V(5+), octahedral V(4+), and proposed intracellular complexes of V(5+) were detected simultaneously after addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of V(5+) to the mycelium. A substantial fraction of the externally added V(4+) remained mostly in its original form. However, observable variations in the pre-edge-peak intensities in the XANES spectra indicated intracellular complexation and corresponding changes in the molecular coordination symmetry. Vanadate complexation was confirmed by (51)V NMR and Raman spectroscopy, and potential binding compounds including cell-wall constituents (chitosan and/or chitin), (poly)phosphates, DNA, and proteins are proposed. The evidenced vanadate complexation and reduction could also explain the resistance of P. blakesleeanus to high extracellular concentrations of vanadium.

  4. The role of mycelium production and a MAPK-mediated immune response in the C. elegans-Fusarium model system

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; WU, Michael P.; Breger, Julia; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    Fusariosis is an emerging infectious complication of immune deficiency, but models to study this infection are lacking. The use of the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model host to study the pathogenesis of Fusarium spp. was investigated. We observed that Fusarium conidia consumed by C. elegans can cause a lethal infection and result in more than 90% killing of the host within 120 hours, and the nematode had a significantly longer survival when challenged with Fusarium proliferatum compared to other species. Interestingly, mycelium production appears to be a major contributor in nematode killing in this model system, and C. elegans mutant strains with the immune response genes, tir-1 (encoding a protein containing a TIR domain that functions upstream of PMK-1) and pmk-1 (the homolog of the mammalian p38 MAPK) lived significantly shorter when challenged with Fusarium compared to the wild type strain. Furthermore, we used the C. elegans model to assess the efficacy and toxicity of various compounds against Fusarium. We demonstrated that amphotericin B, voriconazole, mancozeb, and phenyl mercury acetate significantly prolonged the survival of Fusarium-infected C. elegans, although mancozeb was toxic at higher concentrations. In conclusion, we describe a new model system for the study of Fusarium pathogenesis and evolutionarily preserved host responses to this important fungal pathogen. PMID:22225407

  5. Evidence for outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon in a substrate simultaneously inoculated with spores and mycelium of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-04-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We inoculated a standard substrate for A. bisporus cultivation simultaneously with homokaryotic mycelium from one parent and spores from a second parent. Culture trays produced numerous sporocarps that could theoretically have resulted from five different reproductive modes (pseudohomothallism, selfing or outcrossing via heterothallism, and selfing or outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon [i.e., between a homokaryon and a heterokaryon]). Most or all of the sporocarps resulted from outcrossing between the inoculated homokaryon and the inoculated heterokaryotic spores (or mycelia that grew from them). These data broaden our understanding of population dynamics under field conditions and provide an outcrossing method that could be used in commercial breeding programs.

  6. Evidence for Outcrossing via the Buller Phenomenon in a Substrate Simultaneously Inoculated with Spores and Mycelium of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Callac, Philippe; Spataro, Cathy; Caille, Aurélie; Imbernon, Micheline

    2006-01-01

    In Agaricus bisporus, traditional cultivars and most of the wild populations belong to A. bisporus var. bisporus, which has a predominantly pseudohomothallic life cycle in which most meiospores are heterokaryons (n + n). A lower proportion of homokaryotic (n) meiospores, which typify the heterothallic life cycle, also are produced. In wild populations, pseudohomothallism was thought previously to play a major role, but recent analyses have found that significant outcrossing also may occur. We inoculated a standard substrate for A. bisporus cultivation simultaneously with homokaryotic mycelium from one parent and spores from a second parent. Culture trays produced numerous sporocarps that could theoretically have resulted from five different reproductive modes (pseudohomothallism, selfing or outcrossing via heterothallism, and selfing or outcrossing via the Buller phenomenon [i.e., between a homokaryon and a heterokaryon]). Most or all of the sporocarps resulted from outcrossing between the inoculated homokaryon and the inoculated heterokaryotic spores (or mycelia that grew from them). These data broaden our understanding of population dynamics under field conditions and provide an outcrossing method that could be used in commercial breeding programs. PMID:16597931

  7. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and −1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and −0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. PMID:26944849

  8. Carbon, Nitrogen and Fungal mycelium in the organic and in the mineral soil layers across a chronosequence of Stone pine Forest on Mount Vesuvius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Marco, Anna; Giordano, Maria; Esposito, Fabrizio; Virzo de Santo, Amalia

    2010-05-01

    Forest ecosystems act as a substantial carbon sink and store about 20% of all soil C. The amount of organic matter sequestered in the soil is dependent on the quantity of plant litter delivered to the soil as well as to the extent of litter decomposition. Stone pine forests are common in the Mediterranean areas of southern Italy, were this tree has been largely used for afforestation of volcanic substrates on Mount Vesuvius. Nevertheless, very little is known about carbon accumulation in Stone pine soil as well as about soil organic matter turnover in the organic and in the mineral soil layers. The aim of this study was to assess, along the whole soil profile, the concentration of C and N and the amount of fungal mycelium across a chronosequence encompassing a 36y, a 66y and a 96y old Stone pine forest within the National Park of Vesuvius. The chronosequence allows to estimate the changes with forest age in C and N concentration and the allocation of organic matter below-ground. The amount of fungal mycelium, particularly the active mycelium, at different depth along the soil profile is an indicator of the organic matter turn-over. The forest stands had been implanted on the same type of parent material, i.e. on lava. The sandy mineral soil was 15 cm deep in the youngest forest and reached a maximum depth of 37 cm in the two older forests. Litter fall (2006-2009) steadily increased from the youngest to the oldest forest stand (3828, 6144 and 7831 Kg/ha/y, respectively) and was positively related to tree basal area. C and N concentration in the organic soil layers (litter and humus) of the three stands did not change remarkably with forest age. In contrast, in the 0-15 cm mineral layer, C and N concentrations were about threefold higher in the 66y old compared to the 36y old forest stand. A further increase (by 2,4 for C and by 1,5 for N) was observed in the 96y old compared to the 66y old forest stand. In the deeper (15-37 cm) mineral soil of the two older forest

  9. Rates and quantities of carbon flux to ectomycorrhizal mycelium following 14C pulse labeling of Pinus sylvestris seedlings: effects of litter patches and interaction with a wood-decomposer fungus.

    PubMed

    Leake, J R; Donnelly, D P; Saunders, E M; Boddy, L; Read, D J

    2001-02-01

    We used a novel digital autoradiographic technique that enabled, for the first time, simultaneous visualization and quantification of spatial and temporal changes in carbon allocation patterns in ectomycorrhizal mycelia. Mycorrhizal plants of Pinus sylvestris L. were grown in microcosms containing non-sterile peat. The time course and spatial distribution of carbon allocation by P. sylvestris to mycelia of its mycorrhizal partners, Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. and Suillus bovinus (L.): Kuntze, were quantified following 14C pulse labeling of the plants. Litter patches were used to investigate the effects of nutrient resource quality on carbon allocation. The wood-decomposer fungus Phanerochaete velutina (D.C.: Pers.) Parmasto was introduced to evaluate competitive and territorial interactions between its mycelial cords and the mycelial system of S. bovinus. Growth of ectomycorrhizal mycelium was stimulated in the litter patches. Nearly 60% of the C transferred from host plant to external mycorrhizal mycelium (> 2 mm from root surfaces) was allocated to mycelium in the patches, which comprised only 12% of the soil area available for mycelial colonization. Mycelia in the litter patch most recently colonized by mycorrhizal mycelium received the largest investment of carbon, amounting to 27 to 50% of the total 14C in external mycorrhizal mycelium. The amount of C transfer to external mycelium of S. bovinus following pulse labeling was reduced from a maximum of 167 nmol in systems with no saprotroph to a maximum of 61 nmol in systems interacting with P. velutina. The 14C content of S. bovinus mycelium reached a maximum 24-36 h after labeling in control microcosms, but allocation did not reach a peak until 56 h after labeling, when S. bovinus interacted with mycelium of P. velutina. The mycelium of S. bovinus contained 9% of the total 14C in the plants (including mycorrhizae) at the end of the experiment, but this was reduced to 4% in the presence of P. velutina. The

  10. Aerial color infrared photography applications to citriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.

  11. Locating waterfowl observations on aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, W.I.; Hodges, J.I.; Stehn, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    We modified standard aerial survey data collection to obtain the geographic location for each waterfowl observation on surveys in Alaska during 1987-1993. Using transect navigation with CPS (global positioning system), data recording on continuously running tapes, and a computer data input program, we located observations with an average deviation along transects of 214 m. The method provided flexibility in survey design and data analysis. Although developed for geese nesting near the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the methods are widely applicable and were used on other waterfowl surveys in Alaska to map distribution and relative abundance of waterfowl. Accurate location data with GIS analysis and display may improve precision and usefulness of data from any aerial transect survey.

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Tour Jete and Aerial with Detailed Analysis of Aerial Takeoff Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, Mimi; Coplin, Kim

    2006-10-01

    Whether internally as muscle tension or from external sources, forces are necessary for all motion. This research focused on athletic rotations where conditions of flight are established during takeoff. By studying reaction forces that produce torques, moments of inertia, and linear and angular differences between distinct rotations around different principle axes of the body (tour jete in ballet - longitudinal axis; aerial in gymnastics - anteroposterior axis), and by looking at the values of angular momentum in the specific mechanics of aerial takeoff, we can gain insight into possible causes of injury, flaws in technique and limitations of athletes. Results showed significant differences in the horizontal and vertical components of takeoff between the tour jete and the aerial, and a realization that torque was produced in different biomechanical planes. Both rotations showed braking forces before takeoff to counteract forward momentum and increase vertical lift, but the angle of applied force varied, and the horizontal components of velocity and force and vertical velocity as well as moment of inertia throughout flight were consistently greater for the aerial. Breakdown of aerial takeoff highlighted the relative importance of the takeoff phases, showing that completion depends fundamentally upon the rotation of the rear foot and torso twisting during takeoff rather than the last foot in contact with the ground.

  13. U.S. Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-03

    decades for crop dusting and other agricultural purposes.84 Historically, UAS were predominately operated by DoD in support of combat operations in...advocates state that in order for UAS to take an active role in homeland security, law enforcement, aerial surveying, crop dusting, and other...isn’t ready for.93 The issue of when and how UAS will be allowed to operate in U.S. airspace continues to evolve, and continues to be of interest

  14. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    of Deer Island, the approaches open up into three deepwater channels and then into unrestricted waters. Using traditional aerial mine-laying...Boston’s inner harbor, showing two lucrative choke points—the channels south of Logan International or the Deer Island channel in the lower right. Areas...electric submarines yet leave commercial shipping unaffected. Some straits, such as Gibraltar, Lombok, or the Bab el Mandeb ( Red Sea) are too deep for

  15. Inertial instrument system for aerial surveying

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)

  16. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon L.; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7°, 3.6°, and 4.2° for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  17. Remotely deployable aerial inspection using tactile sensors

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, C. N.; Cao, J.; Pierce, S. G.; Dobie, G.; Summan, R.; Sullivan, J. C.; Pipe, A. G.

    2014-02-18

    For structural monitoring applications, the use of remotely deployable Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) inspection platforms offer many advantages, including improved accessibility, greater safety and reduced cost, when compared to traditional manual inspection techniques. The use of such platforms, previously reported by researchers at the University Strathclyde facilitates the potential for rapid scanning of large areas and volumes in hazardous locations. A common problem for both manual and remote deployment approaches lies in the intrinsic stand-off and surface coupling issues of typical NDE probes. The associated complications of these requirements are obviously significantly exacerbated when considering aerial based remote inspection and deployment, resulting in simple visual techniques being the preferred sensor payload. Researchers at Bristol Robotics Laboratory have developed biomimetic tactile sensors modelled on the facial whiskers (vibrissae) of animals such as rats and mice, with the latest sensors actively sweeping their tips across the surface in a back and forth motion. The current work reports on the design and performance of an aerial inspection platform and the suitability of tactile whisking sensors to aerial based surface monitoring applications.

  18. Mask degradation monitoring with aerial mask inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wen-Jui; Fu, Yung-Ying; Lu, Shih-Ping; Jiang, Ming-Sian; Lin, Jeffrey; Wu, Clare; Lifschitz, Sivan; Tam, Aviram

    2013-06-01

    As design rule continues to shrink, microlithography is becoming more challenging and the photomasks need to comply with high scanner laser energy, low CDU, and ever more aggressive RETs. This give rise to numerous challenges in the semiconductor wafer fabrication plants. Some of these challenges being contamination (mainly haze and particles), mask pattern degradation (MoSi oxidation, chrome migration, etc.) and pellicle degradation. Fabs are constantly working to establish an efficient methodology to manage these challenges mainly using mask inspection, wafer inspection, SEM review and CD SEMs. Aerial technology offers a unique opportunity to address the above mask related challenges using one tool. The Applied Materials Aera3TM system has the inherent ability to inspect for defects (haze, particles, etc.), and track mask degradation (e.g. CDU). This paper focuses on haze monitoring, which is still a significant challenge in semiconductor manufacturing, and mask degradation effects that are starting to emerge as the next challenge for high volume semiconductor manufacturers. The paper describes Aerial inspector (Aera3) early haze methodology and mask degradation tracking related to high volume manufacturing. These will be demonstrated on memory products. At the end of the paper we take a brief look on subsequent work currently conducted on the more general issue of photo mask degradation monitoring by means of an Aerial inspector.

  19. Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.

    2012-07-01

    Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.

  20. Localization of aerial broadband noise by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Southall, Brandon L; Kastak, David

    2004-05-01

    Although many pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) emit broadband calls on land as part of their communication system, few studies have addressed these animals' ability to localize aerial broadband sounds. In this study, the aerial sound localization acuities of a female northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a male harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were measured in the horizontal plane. The stimulus was broadband white noise that was band pass filtered between 1.2 and 15 kHz. Testing was conducted in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right forced choice procedure to measure the minimum audible angle (MAA) for each subject. MAAs were defined as half the angular separation of two sound sources bisected by a subject's midline that corresponded to 75% correct discrimination. MAAs were 4.7 degrees, 3.6 degrees, and 4.2 degrees for the northern elephant seal, harbor seal, and California sea lion, respectively. These results demonstrate that individuals of these pinniped species have sound localization abilities comparable to the domestic cat and rhesus macaque. The acuity differences between our subjects were small and not predicted by head size. These results likely reflect the relatively acute general abilities of pinnipeds to localize aerial broadband signals.

  1. Aerial vehicles collision avoidance using monocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashov, Oleg; Muraviev, Vadim; Strotov, Valery

    2016-10-01

    In this paper image-based collision avoidance algorithm that provides detection of nearby aircraft and distance estimation is presented. The approach requires a vision system with a single moving camera and additional information about carrier's speed and orientation from onboard sensors. The main idea is to create a multi-step approach based on a preliminary detection, regions of interest (ROI) selection, contour segmentation, object matching and localization. The proposed algorithm is able to detect small targets but unlike many other approaches is designed to work with large-scale objects as well. To localize aerial vehicle position the system of equations relating object coordinates in space and observed image is solved. The system solution gives the current position and speed of the detected object in space. Using this information distance and time to collision can be estimated. Experimental research on real video sequences and modeled data is performed. Video database contained different types of aerial vehicles: aircrafts, helicopters, and UAVs. The presented algorithm is able to detect aerial vehicles from several kilometers under regular daylight conditions.

  2. Pattern of Tuber melanosporum extramatrical mycelium expansion over a 20-year chronosequence in Quercus ilex-truffle orchards.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Fischer, C; Bonet, J A; Olivera, A; Inchusta, A; Colinas, C

    2014-04-01

    Successful cultivation of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) requires a long-term investment and the maintenance of the symbiosis throughout its preproductive and productive years. Monitoring the symbiosis over time is challenging, as it requires methods that can detect the belowground proliferation of the fungus associated with its host tree. In this study, we used a chronosequence design to study the expansion pattern of this fungus as the host tree grows. We hypothesize that this expansion can be estimated by monitoring T. melanosporum DNA from soil beneath host trees of different ages (3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 years old) and at different distances from the trunk of the trees (40, 100, and 200 cm). We also wished to evaluate the presences of Tuber brumale and Tuber indicum, potentially problematic truffle species, in these plantations. To detect the mycelium of T. melanosporum in these soils, we extracted DNA and performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with Tuber species-specific primers, and to estimate DNA amount, we measured relative band intensities from the amplicons in agarose gels. Both age and distance were related to T. melanosporum DNA quantity, which was more abundant in the oldest age classes, reaching a plateau in 5-7 years. At 40 cm from the tree, there were no differences in T. melanosporum DNA amounts in orchards of different ages, but at 100 and 200 cm, younger orchards had less T. melanosporum DNA. We did not detect DNA from T. brumale or T. indicum in any of our samples.

  3. How interacting fungal species and mineral nitrogen inputs affect transfer of nitrogen from litter via arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium.

    PubMed

    He, Yuejun; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Zhong, Zhangcheng; Dong, Ming; Jiang, Changhong

    2017-04-01

    In the karst landscape, widespread in the world including southern China, soil nutrient supply is strongly constrained. In such environments, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may facilitate plant nutrient uptake. However, the possible role of different AM fungal species, and their interactions, especially in transferring nitrogen (N) from litter to plant, is poorly understood. We conducted two microcosm experiments to investigate the role that two karst soil AM fungi, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus mosseae, play in the transfer of N from decomposing litter to the host plant and to determine how N availability influences these processes. In experiment 1, Cinnamomum camphora tree seedlings were grown in compartments inoculated with G. etunicatum. Lolium perenne leaf litter labeled with δ(15)N was added to the soil in unplanted compartments. Compartments containing the δ(15)N labeled litter were either accessible to hyphae but not to seedling roots or were not accessible to hyphae or roots. The addition of mineral N to one of the host compartments at the start of the experiment significantly increased the biomass of the C. camphora seedlings, N content and N:P ratio, AM mycelium length, and soil microbial biomass carbon and N. However, significantly, more δ(15)N was acquired, from the leaf litter by the AM hyphae and transferred to the host when mineral N was not added to the soil. In experiment 2, in which C. camphora seedlings were inoculated with both G. etunicatum and G. mosseae rather than with G. mosseae alone, there was a significant increase in mycelial growth (50.21%), in soil microbial biomass carbon (417.73%) in the rhizosphere, and in the amount of δ(15)N that was transferred to the host. These findings suggest that maintaining AM fungal diversity in karst soils could be important for mediating N transfer from organic material to host plants in N-poor soils.

  4. Grab a coffee: your aerial images are already analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garetto, Anthony; Rademacher, Thomas; Schulz, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    For over 2 decades the AIMTM platform has been utilized in mask shops as the standard for actinic review of photomask sites in order to perform defect disposition and repair review. Throughout this time the measurement throughput of the systems has been improved in order to keep pace with the requirements demanded by a manufacturing environment, however the analysis of the sites captured has seen little improvement and remained a manual process. This manual analysis of aerial images is time consuming, subject to error and unreliability and contributes to holding up turn-around time (TAT) and slowing process flow in a manufacturing environment. AutoAnalysis, the first application available for the FAVOR® platform, offers a solution to these problems by providing fully automated data transfer and analysis of AIMTM aerial images. The data is automatically output in a customizable format that can be tailored to your internal needs and the requests of your customers. Savings in terms of operator time arise from the automated analysis which no longer needs to be performed. Reliability is improved as human error is eliminated making sure the most defective region is always and consistently captured. Finally the TAT is shortened and process flow for the back end of the line improved as the analysis is fast and runs in parallel to the measurements. In this paper the concept and approach of AutoAnalysis will be presented as well as an update to the status of the project. A look at the benefits arising from the automation and the customizable approach of the solution will be shown.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-21

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL31872 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background...00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : Background and

  6. The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    The Impact of Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art A Monograph by Major Joel E Pauls USAF School of Advanced Military Studies...Unmanned Aerial Systems on Joint Operational Art 6. AUTHOR(S) Joel E. Pauls Major, United States Air Force 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) by the United States

  7. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH THE CEMETERY IN BACKGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 29 OCTOBER 1959. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  8. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW WITH NEW EXPRESSWAY IN FOREGROUND. PHOTOGRAPH 19 SEPTEMBER 1978. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - Black Hills National Cemetery, 20901 Pleasant Valley Drive, Sturgis, Meade County, SD

  9. 1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view, looking northeast up Newark Bay, showing entire island Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  10. Detecting lost persons using the k-mean method applied to aerial photographs taken by unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Stec, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Malgorzata; Slopek, Jacek; Jurecka, Miroslawa

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to discuss the usefulness of the k-mean method in the process of detecting persons on oblique aerial photographs acquired by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The detection based on the k-mean procedure belongs to one of the modules of a larger Search and Rescue (SAR) system which is being developed at the University of Wroclaw, Poland (research project no. IP2014 032773 financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland). The module automatically processes individual geotagged visual-light UAV-taken photographs or their orthorectified versions. Firstly, we separate red (R), green (G) and blue (B) channels, express raster data as numeric matrices and acquire coordinates of centres of images using the exchangeable image file format (EXIF). Subsequently, we divide the matrices into matrices of smaller dimensions, the latter being associated with the size of spatial window which is suitable for discriminating between human and terrain. Each triplet of the smaller matrices (R, G and B) serves as input spatial data for the k-mean classification. We found that, in several configurations of the k-mean parameters, it is possible to distinguish a separate class which characterizes a person. We compare the skills of this approach by performing two experiments, based on UAV-taken RGB photographs and their orthorectified versions. This allows us to verify the hypothesis that the two exercises lead to similar classifications. In addition, we discuss the performance of the approach for dissimilar spatial windows, hence various dimensions of the above-mentioned matrices, and we do so in order to find the one which offers the most adequate classification. The numerical experiment is carried out using the data acquired during a dedicated observational UAV campaign carried out in the Izerskie Mountains (SW Poland).

  11. Observation of coral reefs on Ishigaki Island, Japan, using Landsat TM images and aerial photographs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Kayanne, Hajime

    1997-06-01

    Ishigaki Island is located at the southwestern end of Japanese Islands and famous for its fringing coral reefs. More than twenty LANDSAT TM images in twelve years and aerial photographs taken on 1977 and 1994 were used to survey two shallow reefs on this island, Shiraho and Kabira. Intensive field surveys were also conducted in 1995. All satellite images of Shiraho were geometrically corrected and overlaid to construct a multi-date satellite data set. The effects of solar elevation and tide on satellite imagery were studied with this data set. The comparison of aerial and satellite images indicated that significant changes occurred between 1977 and 1984 in Kabira: rapid formation in the western part and decrease in the eastern part of dark patches. The field surveys revealed that newly formed dark patches in the west contain young corals. These results suggest that remote sensing is useful for not only mapping but also monitoring of shallow coral reefs.

  12. Spatial patterns of gene expression in the extramatrical mycelium and mycorrhizal root tips formed by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus in association with birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Wright, Derek P; Johansson, Tomas; Le Quéré, Antoine; Söderström, Bengt; Tunlid, Anders

    2005-08-01

    Functional compartmentation of the extramatrical mycelium of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi is considered important for the operation of ECM associations, although the molecular basis is poorly characterized. Global gene expression profiles of mycelium colonizing an ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) nutrient patch, rhizomorphs and ECM root tips of the Betula pendula-Paxillus involutus association were compared by cDNA microarray analysis. The expression profiles of rhizomorphs and nutrient patch mycelium were similar to each other but distinctly different from that of mycorrhizal tips. Statistical analyses revealed 337 of 1075 fungal genes differentially regulated among these three tissues. Clusters of genes exhibiting distinct expression patterns within specific tissues were identified. Genes implicated in the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) and urea cycles, and the provision of carbon skeletons for ammonium assimilation via beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, were highly expressed in rhizomorph and nutrient patch mycelium. Genes implicated in vesicular transport, cytoskeleton organization and morphogenesis and protein degradation were also differentially expressed. Differential expression of genes among the extramatrical mycelium and mycorrhizal tips indicates functional specialization of tissues forming ECM associations.

  13. Effect of fungal mycelia on the HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometric assessment of mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolase using glycidyl phenyl ether.

    PubMed

    Dolcet, Marta M; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2016-06-25

    The use of mycelia as biocatalysts has technical and economic advantages. However, there are several difficulties in obtaining accurate results in mycelium-catalysed reactions. Firstly, sample extraction, indispensable because of the presence of mycelia, can bring into the extract components with a similar structure to that of the analyte of interest; secondly, mycelia can influence the recovery of the analyte. We prepared calibration standards of 3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol (PPD) in the pure solvent and in the presence of mycelia (spiked before or after extraction) from five fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus terreus). The quantification of PPD was carried out by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The manuscript shows that the last method is as accurate as the HPLC method. However, the colorimetric method led to a higher data throughput, which allowed the study of more samples in a shorter time. Matrix effects were evaluated visually from the plotted calibration data and statistically by simultaneously comparing the intercept and slope of calibration curves performed with solvent, post-extraction spiked standards and pre-extraction spiked standards. Significant differences were found between the post- and pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions. Pre-extraction spiked matrix-matched functions based on A. tubingensis mycelia, selected as the reference, were validated and used to compensate for low recoveries. These validated functions were successfully applied to the quantification of PPD achieved during the hydrolysis of glycidyl phenyl ether by mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases and equivalent hydrolysis yields were determined by HPLC-UV and UV-vis spectrophotometry. This study may serve as starting point to implement matrix effects evaluation when mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolases are studied.

  14. Influence of temperature on decay, mycelium development and sporodochia production caused by Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa on stone fruits.

    PubMed

    Bernat, M; Segarra, J; Xu, X-M; Casals, C; Usall, J

    2017-06-01

    Brown rot on peaches and nectarines caused by Monilinia spp. results in significant economic losses in Europe. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of temperature (0-33 °C) on the temporal dynamics of decay and mycelium development and the subsequent sporulation on peaches and nectarine fruit infected by M. laxa and M. fructicola. The rates of decay and mycelium development increased with temperature from 0 °C to 25 °C for both Monilinia species. At 0 °C, decay was faster for M. laxa (0.20 cm(2) days(-1)) than for M. fructicola (0.07 cm(2) days(-1)); indeed, M. laxa was able to develop mycelia and sporodochia, but M. fructicola was not. At 4 and 20 °C, there were no differences in decay and mycelia development between the two Monilinia species. When temperature increased from 25 to 33 °C, the rates of fungal decay and mycelium development decreased. At 30 and 33 °C, M. fructicola decayed faster (0.94 and 1.2 cm(2) days(-1), respectively) than M. laxa (0.78 and 0.74 cm(2) days(-1), respectively) and could develop mycelia and produce sporodochia, whereas M. laxa failed at 33 °C. These results indicated that M. fructicola is better adapted to high temperatures, whereas M. laxa is better adapted to low temperatures. These results can be used to predict the relative importance of the two species during the season at a given site and to improve management strategies for brown rot in areas where both species are present.

  15. Suppression of the Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum by Mycelium of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Glomus intraradices in Root-Free Soil

    PubMed Central

    Green, Helge; Larsen, John; Olsson, Pål Axel; Jensen, Dan Funck; Jakobsen, Iver

    1999-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is an effective biocontrol agent against several fungal soilborne plant pathogens. However, possible adverse effects of this fungus on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi might be a drawback in its use in plant protection. The objective of the present work was to examine the interaction between Glomus intraradices and T. harzianum in soil. The use of a compartmented growth system with root-free soil compartments enabled us to study fungal interactions without the interfering effects of roots. Growth of the fungi was monitored by measuring hyphal length and population densities, while specific fatty acid signatures were used as indicators of living fungal biomass. Hyphal 33P transport and β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity were used to monitor activity of G. intraradices and a GUS-transformed strain of T. harzianum, respectively. As growth and metabolism of T. harzianum are requirements for antagonism, the impact of wheat bran, added as an organic nutrient source for T. harzianum, was investigated. The presence of T. harzianum in root-free soil reduced root colonization by G. intraradices. The external hyphal length density of G. intraradices was reduced by the presence of T. harzianum in combination with wheat bran, but the living hyphal biomass, measured as the content of a membrane fatty acid, was not reduced. Hyphal 33P transport by G. intraradices also was not affected by T. harzianum. This suggests that T. harzianum exploited the dead mycelium but not the living biomass of G. intraradices. The presence of external mycelium of G. intraradices suppressed T. harzianum population development and GUS activity. Stimulation of the hyphal biomass of G. intraradices by organic amendment suggests that nutrient competition is a likely means of interaction. In conclusion, it seemed that growth of and phosphorus uptake by the external mycelium of G. intraradices were not affected by the antagonistic fungus T. harzianum; in contrast, T. harzianum was adversely

  16. Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ω, φ, χ) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

  17. Aerial thermography in archaeological prospection: Applications & processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Autumn Chrysantha

    Aerial thermography is one of the least utilized archaeological prospection methods, yet it has great potential for detecting anthropogenic anomalies. Thermal infrared radiation is absorbed and reemitted at varying rates by all objects on and within the ground depending upon their density, composition, and moisture content. If an area containing archaeological features is recorded at the moment when their thermal signatures most strongly contrast with that of the surrounding matrix, they can be visually identified in thermal images. Research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s established a few basic rules for conducting thermal survey, but the expense associated with the method deterred most archaeologists from using this technology. Subsequent research was infrequent and almost exclusively appeared in the form of case studies. However, as the current proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and compact thermal cameras draws renewed attention to aerial thermography as an attractive and exciting form of survey, it is appropriate and necessary to reevaluate our approach. In this thesis I have taken a two-pronged approach. First, I built upon the groundwork of earlier researchers and created an experiment to explore the impact that different environmental and climatic conditions have on the success or failure of thermal imaging. I constructed a test site designed to mimic a range of archaeological features and imaged it under a variety of conditions to compare and contrast the results. Second, I explored a new method for processing thermal data that I hope will lead to a means of reducing noise and increasing the clarity of thermal images. This step was done as part of a case study so that the effectiveness of the processing method could be evaluated by comparison with the results of other geophysical surveys.

  18. D Surface Generation from Aerial Thermal Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodaei, B.; Samadzadegan, F.; Dadras Javan, F.; Hasani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Aerial thermal imagery has been recently applied to quantitative analysis of several scenes. For the mapping purpose based on aerial thermal imagery, high accuracy photogrammetric process is necessary. However, due to low geometric resolution and low contrast of thermal imaging sensors, there are some challenges in precise 3D measurement of objects. In this paper the potential of thermal video in 3D surface generation is evaluated. In the pre-processing step, thermal camera is geometrically calibrated using a calibration grid based on emissivity differences between the background and the targets. Then, Digital Surface Model (DSM) generation from thermal video imagery is performed in four steps. Initially, frames are extracted from video, then tie points are generated by Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm. Bundle adjustment is then applied and the camera position and orientation parameters are determined. Finally, multi-resolution dense image matching algorithm is used to create 3D point cloud of the scene. Potential of the proposed method is evaluated based on thermal imaging cover an industrial area. The thermal camera has 640×480 Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) sensor, equipped with a 25 mm lens which mounted in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The obtained results show the comparable accuracy of 3D model generated based on thermal images with respect to DSM generated from visible images, however thermal based DSM is somehow smoother with lower level of texture. Comparing the generated DSM with the 9 measured GCPs in the area shows the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) value is smaller than 5 decimetres in both X and Y directions and 1.6 meters for the Z direction.

  19. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  20. Aerial view of the Press Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view, The News Center sits beyond a large parking lot, on a hill at the northeastern end of the Launch Complex 39 Area , next to the turn basin (at left). From left, the grandstand faces the launch pads several miles away on the Atlantic seashore; behind it, the television studio is the site of media conferences; next, the large white-roofed building is the hub of information and activity for press representatives. Lined up on the right of the Press Site are various buildings and trailers, home to major news networks. The parking lot can accommodate the hundreds of media personnel who attend Space Shuttle launches.

  1. Aerial view of Runway 33 at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial view shows the approach on Runway 33 at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility. The runway is 15,000 feet long, with 1,000-foot paved overruns at each end; 300 feet wide (about length of football field), with 50-foot asphalt shoulders each side; 16 inches thick in the center, and 15 inches thick on sides. It has a slope of 24 inches from the center line to the edge for drainage. The single landing strip is considered two runways, depending on approach -- Runway 15 from northwest, Runway 33 from southeast.

  2. Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino

    2005-02-01

    A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.

  3. Human Operator Modeling for Aerial Tracking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    HUMAN OPERATOR MODELING FOR AERIAL TRACKING JONA THAN KORN ARTER. EPHRATH DA VLD L. KLEINMAN DBCXMBt 19MDTICSELECTE APR 3 1981.j B Approwd for pVA& u...8217the "Guid 8en th Cart end Use of laboratory Animals, "Inatitate of Laboratory Animl ReaNuWAes, National Rtesarch CouncL The voluntary Infomed consent...Continue. on reverse aide If necessary and identify hc block numbrh) ._Modern Optimal Control techniques are e:iployed to investigate and model human

  4. Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

    2011-01-01

    To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

  5. Adaptive control of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguen, V. F.; Putov, A. V.; Nguen, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with design and comparison of adaptive control systems based on plant state vector and output for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with nonlinearity and uncertainty of parameters of the aircraft incomplete measurability of its state and presence of wind disturbances. The results of computer simulations of flight stabilization processes on the example of the experimental model UAV-70V (Aerospace Academy, Hanoi) with presence of periodic and non-periodic vertical wind disturbances with designed adaptive control systems based on plant state vector with state observer and plant output.

  6. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  7. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  8. 7 CFR 1755.506 - Aerial wire services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../Orange or White Orange 3 White/Green or White Green 4 White/Brown or White Brown 5 White/Slate or White... clear of roof drainage points. (v) Where practicable, aerial service wires shall pass under electrical..., aerial service wires shall be located so that ice and snow falling from the roof will not strike...

  9. AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    AERIAL OF VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] & ROCKET GARDEN EXHIBIT KSC-375C-0604.12 116-KSC-375C-604.12, P-20220, ARCHIVE-04465 Aerial view of Kennedy Space Center Visitors Information Center looking east-northeastward. New food services building under construction is visible at upper left.

  10. Droning On: American Strategic Myopia Toward Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS by Carlos S. Cabello December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Bradley Jay Strawser...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DRONING ON: AMERICAN STRATEGIC MYOPIA TOWARD UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS 5...the long-term. The thesis concludes with an assessment of whether strategic myopia has already set a dangerous international precedent, which

  11. Monitoring and Assuring the Quality of Digital Aerial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christopherson, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation explains the USGS plan for monitoring and assuring the quality of digital aerial data. The contents include: 1) History of USGS Aerial Imaging Involvement; 2) USGS Research and Results; 3) Outline of USGS Quality Assurance Plan; 4) Other areas of Interest; and 5) Summary

  12. 12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated October 1988; Photographed by Aerial Services, Incorporated, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD; THE PACKING PLANT BUILDINGS OCCUPY UPPER RIGHT QUADRANT OF PHOTO; 18TH STREET BRIDGE AT CENTER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. An algorithm for approximate rectification of digital aerial images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...

  14. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-25

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been referred to in many ways: RPV (remotely piloted vehicle), drone, robot plane, and pilotless aircraft. Most...the DoD for UAVs, investments in unmanned aerial vehicles have been increasing every year. Congressional considerations include the proper pace, scope

  16. Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) as a Tool for Field Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM CABLE COUNTERWEIGHT SYSTEM, LOOKING DOWN THROUGH THE LOWER TERMINAL FLOOR. TWO SUSPENDED ROCK FILLED WOODEN BOXES CAN BE SEEN AT BOTTOM. THE METAL FRAMEWORK WAS INSTALLED BY THE PARK SERVICE DURING THE AERIAL TRAM'S STABILIZATION IN THE 1983. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Aerially released spray penetration of a tall coniferous canopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial spray deposition project was designed to evaluate aerial application to an Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) canopy to combat Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae). This adelgid offers a difficult target residing in the forest canopy at the nodes of branchlets. The study collected 1680 ...

  19. 11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of aerial photograph dated ca. 1954; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; AERIAL VIEW OF RATH COMPLEX, LOOKING WEST; BEEF KILLING BUILDING (149 AND LIVESTOCK HOLDING AREAS ARE AT LEFT CENTER; FERTILIZER PLANT/STORAGE BUILDINGS ARE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. Aerial radiological survey of Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1983-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey of Area 11's Plutonium Valley was conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 18 to 30 January 1982. Contour maps representing terrestrial exposure rates and soil concentrations of transuranics, /sup 235/U and /sup 137/Cs are presented on an aerial photograph. Inventories of the locale's transuranic and uranium activities are also included.

  1. Blending zone determination for aerial orthimage mosaicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao-Hung; Chen, Bo-Heng; Lin, Bo-Yi; Chou, Han-Szu

    2016-09-01

    Creating a composed image from a set of aerial images is a fundamental step in orthomosaic generation. One of the processes involved in this technique is determining an optimal seamline in an overlapping region to stitch image patches seamlessly. Most previous studies have solved this optimization problem by searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline with an objective function. This strategy significantly reduced pixel mismatches on the seamline caused by geometric distortions of images but did not fully consider color discontinuity and mismatch problems that occur around the seamline, which sometimes cause mosaicking artifacts. This study proposes a blending zone determination scheme with a novel path finding algorithm to reduce the occurrence of unwanted artifacts. Instead of searching for a one-pixel-wide seamline, a blending zone, which is a k-pixel-wide seamline that passes through high-similarity pixels in the overlapping region, is determined using a hierarchical structure. This strategy allows for not only seamless stitching but also smooth color blending of neighboring image patches. Moreover, the proposed method searches for a blending zone without the pre-process of highly mismatched pixel removal and additional geographic data of road vectors and digital surface/elevation models, which increases the usability of the approach. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of aerial images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method to related methods in terms of avoidance of passing highly mismatched pixels.

  2. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  3. Aerial video mosaicking using binary feature tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnehan, Breton; Savakis, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are becoming an increasingly attractive platform for many applications, as their cost decreases and their capabilities increase. Creating detailed maps from aerial data requires fast and accurate video mosaicking methods. Traditional mosaicking techniques rely on inter-frame homography estimations that are cascaded through the video sequence. Computationally expensive keypoint matching algorithms are often used to determine the correspondence of keypoints between frames. This paper presents a video mosaicking method that uses an object tracking approach for matching keypoints between frames to improve both efficiency and robustness. The proposed tracking method matches local binary descriptors between frames and leverages the spatial locality of the keypoints to simplify the matching process. Our method is robust to cascaded errors by determining the homography between each frame and the ground plane rather than the prior frame. The frame-to-ground homography is calculated based on the relationship of each point's image coordinates and its estimated location on the ground plane. Robustness to moving objects is integrated into the homography estimation step through detecting anomalies in the motion of keypoints and eliminating the influence of outliers. The resulting mosaics are of high accuracy and can be computed in real time.

  4. Calculation and uses of the lithographic aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagello, Donis G.; Smith, Daniel G.

    2012-09-01

    Beginning with the seminal Dill papers of 1975, the aerial image has been essential for understanding the process of microlithography. From the aerial image, we can predict the performance of a given lithographic process in terms of depth of focus, exposure latitude, etc. As lithographic technologies improved, reaching smaller and smaller printed features, the sophistication of aerial image calculations has had to increase from simple incoherent imaging theory, to partial coherence, polarization effects, thin film effects at the resist, thick mask effects, and so on. This tutorial provides an overview and semihistorical development of the aerial image calculation and then provides a review of some of the various ways in which the aerial image is typically used to estimate the performance of the lithographic process.

  5. Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chih-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Jan, Ming-Shiou; Huang, Robert Y; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Chuang, Woei-Jer; Sheu, Chia-Chin; Lin, Yee-Shin

    2007-02-01

    Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) is a virulent factor in group A streptococcal infection. We previously showed that SPE B reduced phagocytosis in human monocytic U937 cells. Here we show that the mycelium extract of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a Chinese immunomodulatory herbal medicine, increased phagocytosis in U937 cells. Neither heat nor trypsin pretreatment prevented CS extract from causing this increase. Further studies indicated that SPE B-mediated suppression of U937 cell phagocytic activity was abrogated by CS extract. Factors in the conditioned medium from CS-extract-treated U937 cells were responsible for blocking the SPE B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis. Heating the conditioned medium eliminated the increase, which suggested that the U937-cell protein products augmented phagocytosis. Analyzing cytokine mRNA expression of U937 cells revealed increases in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-12 p35 and p40, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), but not in IL-1beta, IL-6, or IL-8. Treating U937 cells with anti-IFN-gamma, IL-12, and TNF-alpha antibodies also eliminated the conditioned medium-induced increase in phagocytosis. Taken together, SPE B inhibited phagocytosis, but CS mycelium extract abrogated this inhibition by causing cytokine production.

  6. Reconstruction of former glacier surface topography from archive oblique aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midgley, N. G.; Tonkin, T. N.

    2017-04-01

    Archive oblique aerial imagery offers the potential to reconstruct the former geometry of valley glaciers and other landscape surfaces. Whilst the use of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry with multiview stereopsis (MVS) to process small-format imagery is now well established in the geosciences, the potential of the technique for extracting topographic data from archive oblique aerial imagery is unclear. Here, SfM-MVS is used to reconstruct the former topography of two high-Arctic glaciers (Midtre and Austre Lovénbreen, Svalbard, Norway) using three archive oblique aerial images obtained by the Norwegian Polar Institute in 1936. The 1936 point cloud was produced using seven LiDAR-derived ground control points located on stable surfaces in proximity to the former piedmont glacier termini. To assess accuracy, the 1936 data set was compared to a LiDAR data set using the M3C2 algorithm to calculate cloud-to-cloud differences. For stable areas (such as nonglacial surfaces), vertical differences were detected between the two point clouds (RMS M3C2 vertical difference of 8.5 m), with the outwash zones adjacent to the assessed glacier termini showing less extensive vertical discrepancies (94% of M3C2 vertical differences between ± 5 m). This

  7. [Effect of cyclic compounds on pigment formation in Aspergillus niger cultures].

    PubMed

    Malama, A A; Smirnova, L A

    1975-01-01

    The mycelial pigment os Asp. niger VP has been fractionated into four fractions ehose solubility is similar to melanin pigments obtained from other sources. The addition of pyrocatechol, L-aspartic, benzoic, kojic and salicylic acids to the liquid Capek medium stimulates the fungal growth but diminishes the yield of fractions of the melanin pigment from the mycelium. Cinnamic acid does not influence the growth but also decreases the yield of the pigment. DL-tyrosine stimulates the fungal growth and produces no influence on the total yield of fractions 2, 3 and 4 from the mycelial pigment. All the cyclic compounds enhance the pigmentation of the culture liquid and give rise to the formation of fractions 2 and 3 of the melanin pigment. This latter constitutes a substantial portion of the dry matter of the fungal cell. The pigment content in the mycelium is much higher than that in the culture liquid of the corresponding culture.

  8. Observing snow cover using unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spallek, Waldemar; Witek, Matylda; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Snow cover is a key environmental variable that influences high flow events driven by snow-melt episodes. Estimates of snow extent (SE), snow depth (SD) and snow water equivalent (SWE) allow to approximate runoff caused by snow-melt episodes. These variables are purely spatial characteristics, and hence their pointwise measurements using terrestrial monitoring systems do not offer the comprehensive and fully-spatial information on water storage in snow. Existing satellite observations of snow reveal moderate spatial resolution which, not uncommonly, is not fine enough to estimate the above-mentioned snow-related variables for small catchments. High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophotomaps and digital surface models (DSMs), obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px. The UAV-based observation of snow cover may be done using the near-infrared (NIR) cameras and visible-light cameras. Since the beginning of 2015, in frame of the research project no. LIDER/012/223/L-5/13/NCBR/2014 financed by the National Centre for Research and Development of Poland, we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four sites in the Kwisa catchment in the Izerskie Mts. (part of the Sudetes, SW Poland). Observations are carried out with the ultralight UAV swinglet CAM (produced by senseFly, lightweight 0.5 kg, wingspan 80 cm) which enables on-demand sampling at low costs. The aim of the field work is to acquire aerial photographs taken using the visible-light and NIR cameras for a purpose of producing time series of DSMs and orthophotomaps with snow cover for all sites. The DSMs are used to calculate SD as difference between observational (with snow) and reference (without snow) models. In order to verify such an approach to compute SD we apply several procedures, one of which is the estimation of SE using the corresponding orthophotomaps generated on a basis of visual-light and NIR images. The objective of this

  9. Effect of mass variation on the dynamics of receiver aircraft during aerial refueling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Weixin

    This dissertation presents the results of a study of the dynamic behavior of two aircraft that are flying in formation while one of them (the receiver) is being refueled by the other (the tanker) in mid-flight. The current procedure for aerial refueling requires that the receiver aircraft fly below, behind, and in relatively close proximity of the tanker for refueling to be possible. This means that the receiver aircraft is subjected to the full impact of the tanker wake turbulence; and this can clearly have a major impact on the motion of the receiver craft. Another important fact about aerial refueling is that large quantity of fuel is transferred from one vehicle to the other in a relatively short time. The resulting change in mass and the attendant change in aircraft inertia properties can also affect the dynamics of the aircraft system during fuel transfer. The principal goal of this project is to investigate the importance of this latter effect. This work accomplishes two main objectives. First, it shows how mass variation can be effectively factored into an analytical study of in-flight refueling; and it does this while keeping the analyses involved manageable. In addition, a numerical study of the equations of motion is utilized to extract useful information on how mass variation and some changes in receiver aircraft parameters can affect the motion of the receiver relative to the tanker. Results obtained indicate that mass variation due to fuel transfer compounds the difficulties created by tanker wake turbulence. In order to keep the receiver aircraft at a fixed position relative to the tanker during aerial refueling, appreciable adjustments must be made to the receiver's angle of attack, throttle setting and elevator deflection. A larger refueling rate demands even larger adjustments. Changes in certain other parameters related to aerial refueling can also amplify the effects of mass variation on the receiver motion, or influence the system's dynamics in

  10. Aerial photography for sensing plant anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.

  11. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  12. Aerial view of Launch Complex 39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view looking south can be seen Launch Complex (LC) 39 area, where assembly, checkout and launch of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and its External Tank and twin Solid Rocket Boosters take place. Central to the complex is the tallest building at the center, the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). To the immediate left, from top to bottom, are the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) High Bay 3 and new engine shop (north side), OPF Modular Office Building, Thermal Protection System Facility, and a crawler-transporter (to its left). In front of the VAB are OPF 1 and OPF 2. At right is the Processing Control Center. West of OPF 3 is the Mobile Launch Platform. In the upper left corner is Launch Pad B; at the far right is the turn basin, with the Press Site located just below it to the right.

  13. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design

    PubMed Central

    Coppejans, Hugo H. G.; Myburgh, Herman C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers. PMID:26633410

  14. A Primer on Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Design.

    PubMed

    Coppejans, Hugo H G; Myburgh, Herman C

    2015-12-02

    There is a large amount of research currently being done on autonomous micro-aerial vehicles (MAV), such as quadrotor helicopters or quadcopters. The ability to create a working autonomous MAV depends mainly on integrating a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution with the rest of the system. This paper provides an introduction for creating an autonomous MAV for enclosed environments, aimed at students and professionals alike. The standard autonomous system and MAV automation are discussed, while we focus on the core concepts of SLAM systems and trajectory planning algorithms. The advantages and disadvantages of using remote processing are evaluated, and recommendations are made regarding the viability of on-board processing. Recommendations are made regarding best practices to serve as a guideline for aspirant MAV designers.

  15. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways.

  16. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Baylis, Shane M; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H

    2016-03-17

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  17. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility.

  18. Precision wildlife monitoring using unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Jarrod C.; Baylis, Shane M.; Mott, Rowan; Herrod, Ashley; Clarke, Rohan H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new frontier in environmental research. Their use has the potential to revolutionise the field if they prove capable of improving data quality or the ease with which data are collected beyond traditional methods. We apply UAV technology to wildlife monitoring in tropical and polar environments and demonstrate that UAV-derived counts of colony nesting birds are an order of magnitude more precise than traditional ground counts. The increased count precision afforded by UAVs, along with their ability to survey hard-to-reach populations and places, will likely drive many wildlife monitoring projects that rely on population counts to transition from traditional methods to UAV technology. Careful consideration will be required to ensure the coherence of historic data sets with new UAV-derived data and we propose a method for determining the number of duplicated (concurrent UAV and ground counts) sampling points needed to achieve data compatibility. PMID:26986721

  19. Low-altitude aerial color digital photographic survey of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, David K.; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Dearborn, David S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Ever since 1858, when Gaspard-Félix Tournachon (pen name Félix Nadar) took the first aerial photograph (Professional Aerial Photographers Association 2009), the scientific value and popular appeal of such pictures have been widely recognized. Indeed, Nadar patented the idea of using aerial photographs in mapmaking and surveying. Since then, aerial imagery has flourished, eventually making the leap to space and to wavelengths outside the visible range. Yet until recently, the availability of such surveys has been limited to technical organizations with significant resources. Geolocation required extensive time and equipment, and distribution was costly and slow. While these situations still plague older surveys, modern digital photography and lidar systems acquire well-calibrated and easily shared imagery, although expensive, platform-specific software is sometimes still needed to manage and analyze the data. With current consumer-level electronics (cameras and computers) and broadband internet access, acquisition and distribution of large imaging data sets are now possible for virtually anyone. In this paper we demonstrate a simple, low-cost means of obtaining useful aerial imagery by reporting two new, high-resolution, low-cost, color digital photographic surveys of selected portions of the San Andreas fault in California. All pictures are in standard jpeg format. The first set of imagery covers a 92-km-long section of the fault in Kern and San Luis Obispo counties and includes the entire Carrizo Plain. The second covers the region from Lake of the Woods to Cajon Pass in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino counties (151 km) and includes Lone Pine Canyon soon after the ground was largely denuded by the Sheep Fire of October 2009. The first survey produced a total of 1,454 oblique digital photographs (4,288 x 2,848 pixels, average 6 Mb each) and the second produced 3,762 nadir images from an elevation of approximately 150 m above ground level (AGL) on the

  20. Building and road detection from large aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shunta; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-02-01

    Building and road detection from aerial imagery has many applications in a wide range of areas including urban design, real-estate management, and disaster relief. The extracting buildings and roads from aerial imagery has been performed by human experts manually, so that it has been very costly and time-consuming process. Our goal is to develop a system for automatically detecting buildings and roads directly from aerial imagery. Many attempts at automatic aerial imagery interpretation have been proposed in remote sensing literature, but much of early works use local features to classify each pixel or segment to an object label, so that these kind of approach needs some prior knowledge on object appearance or class-conditional distribution of pixel values. Furthermore, some works also need a segmentation step as pre-processing. Therefore, we use Convolutional Neural Networks(CNN) to learn mapping from raw pixel values in aerial imagery to three object labels (buildings, roads, and others), in other words, we generate three-channel maps from raw aerial imagery input. We take a patch-based semantic segmentation approach, so we firstly divide large aerial imagery into small patches and then train the CNN with those patches and corresponding three-channel map patches. Finally, we evaluate our system on a large-scale road and building detection datasets that is publicly available.

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Medium Range System Components do not Fit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    enemy activities and identification of targets. uAv systems typically include an air vehicle, a Page 1 GAO/NSIAW.91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 91 4 15 026...the current system’s existing problems. -’-- Page 3 GAO/NSTAD-91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles B-242779 Recommendations We recommend that the Secretary...representative is still not a member of the KIAIzS configuration control board. Page 4 GAO/NSIAD-91-2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicles B-242779 We continue to believe

  2. Combined aerial and ground technique for assessing structural heat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William C.; Schott, John R.

    1994-03-01

    The results of a combined aerial and ground-based structural heat loss survey are presented. The aerial imagery was collected by a thermal IR line scanner. Enhanced quantitative analysis of the imagery gives the roof heat flow and insulation level. The ground images were collected by a video van and converted to still frames stored on a video disk. A computer based presentation system retrieves the images and other information indexed by street address for screening and dissemination to owners. We conclude that the combined aerial and ground survey effectively discriminates between well insulated and poorly insulated structures, and that such a survey is a cost-effective alternative to site audits.

  3. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  4. Structural data and immunomodulatory properties of a water-soluble heteroglycan extracted from the mycelium of an Italian isolate of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Raffaele; Manco, Rosanna; Sapio, Daniela; Iannaccone, Marco; Fulgione, Andrea; Papaianni, Marina; de Falco, Bruna; Grauso, Laura; Tarantino, Paola; Ianniello, Flora; Lanzotti, Virginia; Lahoz, Ernesto; Capparelli, Rosanna

    2017-01-20

    Mushrooms produce a wide range of bioactive polysaccharides, different from each other in chemical structure and biological effects. In the last years, the idea to develop functional foods or drugs containing fungal polysaccharides is attracting great attention. Fruiting bodies of Basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum are commonly used in Oriental medicine to treat several disorders. G. lucidum polysaccharides - mainly β-glucans and heteroglycans - have numerous biological properties such as antitumour and immunomodulatory activities. This report shows, by gene expression analyses and bioenergetic assays, immunomodulatory properties and capacity to improve glucose metabolism of a water-soluble heteroglycan extracted from mycelium of an Italian isolate of G. lucidum. The findings suggest the use of the heteroglycan as probiotic or ingredient in functional foods, being easy to produce and disperse in a food matrix thanks to its water-solubility. Heteroglycan could exert protective effects in pro-inflammatory conditions and benefits for people characterised by suppressed immune response.

  5. Gene Encoding a C-Type Cyclin in Mycosphaerella Graminicola is Involved in Mycelium Formation, Melanin Biosynthesis, Stress Response, and Pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella graminicola is an important wheat pathogen causing septoria tritici blotch. To date, an efficient strategy to control M. graminicola has not been developed. More significantly, we have a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M. graminicola pathogenicity. In this study, ...

  6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING FURTHER SOUTH EAST, VILLAGE CREEK WATER TREATMENT PLANT ON RIGHT SIDE, ENSLEY IN BACKGROUND. - Birmingham Southern Railroad Yard, Thirty-fourth Street, Ensley, Jefferson County, AL

  7. 2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST SHOWING DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO., BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. -- SPRUCE ST. MILL, ROGERS LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE WORKS -- MILLWRIGHT SHOP AND FITTING SHOP. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  8. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, WITH INTERSECTION OF PACIFIC COAST HIGHWAY AND MAIN STREET IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  9. 5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF BUILDING 371 AFTER CONSTRUCTION WAS COMPLETED. (11/7/78) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  11. 262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    262. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 AERIAL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN, NORTH SIDE, FACING SOUTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph, AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING VIEW OF CNJ BRIDGE PRIOR TO DEVELOPMENT OF PORT ELIZABETH - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  13. 3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING THE ENTIRE BRIDGE FROM EAST CABLE ANCHORAGE (EXTREME LEFT) TO WEST CABLE ANCHORAGE (UPPER RIGHT CORNER). March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT FROM SOUTHWEST. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  15. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE IN CONTEXT INCLUDING VICTORY CIRCLE FROM SOUTH. LOOKING NORTH. - Rue Road Bridge, Rue Road, spanning Matchaponix Brook, .35 mile east of intersection with Route 613, Jamesburg, Middlesex County, NJ

  16. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  17. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF POOL AND STRUCTURES Photocopy of photocopy of 1931 rendering by Alexander, Becker and Schoeppe, architects and engineers - Glen Echo Park, Crystal Swimming Pool, 7300 McArthur Boulevard, Glen Echo, Montgomery County, MD

  18. Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bureau of Aeronautics, October 16, 1943, Photograph #4875. AERIAL OF ROOSEVELT BASE LOOKING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Bounded by Ocean Boulevard, Pennsylvania Avenue, Richardson Avenue, & Idaho Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST (OLD HARVARD STREET BRIDGE AT LEFT, NEW BRIDGE AT RIGHT) - Old Harvard Street Bridge, Spanning Rock Creek at National Zoological Park, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. AERIAL VIEW OF CLARA BARTON PARKWAY NEAR INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. JUST SOUTH OF GLEN ECHO LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  1. 38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. AERIAL VIEW APPROACHING INTERSECTION WITH BELLE VIEW BLVD. LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  2. 131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. AERIAL VIEW OF OVERPASS AT INTERCHANGE WITH MACARTHUR BLVD. AT CABIN JOHN LOOKING NORTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  3. 122. AERIAL VIEW OF GLEN ECHO AND CLARA BARTON PARKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. AERIAL VIEW OF GLEN ECHO AND CLARA BARTON PARKWAY AND MACARTHUR BLVD. INTERCHANGE LOOKING NORTHWEST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  4. 6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MCDONALD RANCH: AERIAL VIEW OF RANCH COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD NORTHERN TIP OF SAN ANDREAS RANGE - White Sands Missile Range, Trinity Site, Vicinity of Routes 13 & 20, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  5. 34. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  6. 35. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  7. 36. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photocopy of aerial photograph (original print located in the U.S. Coast Guard, Civil Engineering Unit, Oakland, Calif.) General view of the light station 1951 - Point Wilson Light Station, Harbor Defense Way, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  8. 129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. FULL AERIAL VIEW SHOWING FORWARD PORT QUARTER, ENTERING PEARL HARBOR AFTER APOLLO 11 RECOVERY. 26 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18090) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  9. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, LOOKING NORTH UP THE 14TH STREET AXIS FROM OVER THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF LAFAYETTE SQUARE, THE WHITE HOUSE GROUNDS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF LAFAYETTE SQUARE, THE WHITE HOUSE GROUNDS, THE ELLIPSE, AND MONUMENT GROUNDS, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG THE 16TH STREET AXIS. - White House Grounds & Ellipse, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING ESE. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP RIGHT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. TIP OF GOOSE ISLAND AT TOP LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF GOOSE ISLAND, LOOKING SOUTH, CIRCA 1960. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT LOWER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATH TRANSIT SYSTEM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE CONRAIL BRIDGE (HAER No. NJ-43) AND THE NEWARK TURNPIKE ARE VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Path Transit System Bridge, Spanning Hackensack River, Kearny, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  16. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  17. Ontogeny of aerial righting and wing flapping in juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dennis; Cam, Sharlene; Huynh, Tony; Krivitskiy, Igor; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of aerial righting in juvenile chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) were studied from hatching to 14 days-post-hatching (dph). Asymmetric movements of the wings were used from 1 to 8 dph to effect progressively more successful righting behaviour via body roll. Following 8 dph, wing motions transitioned to bilaterally symmetric flapping that yielded aerial righting via nose-down pitch, along with substantial increases in vertical force production during descent. Ontogenetically, the use of such wing motions to effect aerial righting precedes both symmetric flapping and a previously documented behaviour in chukar (i.e. wing-assisted incline running) hypothesized to be relevant to incipient flight evolution in birds. These findings highlight the importance of asymmetric wing activation and controlled aerial manoeuvres during bird development and are potentially relevant to understanding the origins of avian flight. PMID:25165451

  18. 33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. AERIAL VIEW OF AREA DURING FLOOD STAGE. GIANELLA BRIDGE AT UPPER RIGHT Photographer unknown, January 24, 1970 - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  19. 45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Aerial view of station in 1944, four years after automation and before construction of the parking lot.U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Photo - Bodie Island Light Station, Off Highway 12, Nags Head, Dare County, NC

  20. 22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT BOTTOM. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT STADIUM WAY EXIT. CHAVEZ RAVINE ON LEFT. ELYSIAN PARK AT CENTER LEFT REAR. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT AT ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY, SOUTH PASADENA ROAD CUT: GRAND AVENUE BRIDGE, ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE; PROSPECT AVENUE BRIDGE; MERIDIAN AVENUE BRIDGE. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE PARK ROW BRIDGE AT TOP. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AT ELYSIAN PARK SHOWING FIGUEROA STREET TUNNELS. NOTE LOS ANGELES RIVER VIADUCTS. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. AERIAL VIEW OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. AVENUE 60 BRIDGE AT CENTER. NOTE PEDESTRIAN FOOTBRIDGE OVER ARROYO SECO AT LOWER RIGHT OF CENTER. LOOKING NE. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), WEST FACING, SIDE LOOKING EAST. BUILDING 100 IS IN FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  10. 2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 14 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL SHOT HANGARS 1-4 (IN CENTER OF VIEW), SOUTH AND WEST FACING SIDES. BUILDING 238 IS IN LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND. - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  11. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SW. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS IN RAISED POSITION. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. 2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH SIDE. MASTER AERIAL SWITCH ON LOWER RIGHT PORTION OF WALL. TRIPOD AND TENSION WEIGHTS AT LEFT. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. AERIAL VIEW. Original photograph taken April 1957 by Mr. Lewis, and on file at the Edison National Historic Site, negative number 0-998 - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  15. 13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING IN THE FOREGROUND, EXCAVATION FOR THE SPILLWAY APRON.... Volume XVII, No. 12, December 26, 1939. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. 15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF DAM SITE SHOWING SPILLWAY OGEE SECTION AND SPILLWAY APRON EXCAVATION IN FOREGROUND.... Volume XVIII, No. 10, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. 5. AERIAL VIEW, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ROOF OF CARPENTER'S FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. AERIAL VIEW, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ROOF OF CARPENTER'S FRONT STORE AND CARPENTER'S HALL IN CENTER BACKGROUND - Carpenters' Company, Front Store, 322 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF BOISE DIVERSION DAM. VIEW TO NORTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, May 1981. - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  19. F/A-18 Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) Phase 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    Engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center are evaluating the capability of an F/A-18A aircraft as an in-flight refueling tanker to develop analytical models for an automated aerial refuelin...

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  1. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  2. 19. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST SHOWING GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO., AND GODWIN (HAMIL) MILL. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  3. 13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNION WORKS (ROSEN MILL), GRANT LOCOMOTIVE WORKS -- MACHINE SHOP, DANFORTH (COOKE) LOCOMOTIVE AND MACHINE CO. - Great Falls S. U. M. Historic District, Oliver Street, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  4. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THREE BEARS LAKE, SHOWING OUTLET STREAM, BURLINGTON NORTHERN TRACKS, AND U.S. HIGHWAY 2, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  5. 42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  6. 43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, n.d. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  7. 41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. AERIAL VIEW OF UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTH. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, July 12, 1980. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  8. 44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. AERIAL VIEW OF LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Photocopy of photograph by Glade Walker, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Region, September 15, 1977. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  9. 80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. PHOTOCOPY OF 1976 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, Bullfrog Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 March 1976) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  10. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF 1978 AERIAL PHOTO OF BULLFROG MINE. From National Park Service Environmental Review and Analysis, BullfroG Mine Plan of Operations, Death Valley Nat'l Monument (24 August 1978) - Bullfrog Mine, Rhyolite, Nye County, NV

  11. 7 CFR 1755.507 - Aerial cable services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Construction on poles shall comply with applicable construction drawings for regular line construction. Aerial... strand shall be permitted in this situation. The bail of the automatic clamp shall be protected by a...

  12. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  13. 70. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer July 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP WITH SUSPENSION BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 69. Fred Benton, Photographer August 1998 HIGH AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Fred Benton, Photographer August 1998 HIGH AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP AND SAN FRANCISCO ON AND OFF RAMPS. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 65. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer April 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO APPROACH WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer May 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 71. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Frank Deras Jr., Photographer June 1998 CONTEXTUAL AERIAL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Aerial view of Whitsett intake (lower right), Parker Dam and village (left), Gene Wash Reservoir, Gene Pump Plant and village (right). - Parker Dam, Spanning Colorado River between AZ & CA, Parker, La Paz County, AZ

  19. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WHITSETT (INTAKE) PUMP PLANT ON LAKE SHORE IN FOREGROUND; GENE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Whitsett Pump Plant, West side of Colorado River, north of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Some field observations on OSI aerial photography scales

    SciTech Connect

    Geil, R.

    1981-03-16

    The US, UK and USSR are attempting to negotiate a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) in Geneva. One of the verification procedures presently proposed provides for the possibility of conducting an On-Site Inspection (OSI) if a violation is suspected. According to the terms of the draft treaty, the OSI team would be provided with either (1) stereoscopic aerial photographs with a scale of 1:2,500, or equivalent topographic maps (US version) or (2) a large scale aerial photograph (USSR version). In order to gain a better understanding of the aerial photograph issue, EG and G was asked to take stereoscopic aerial photographs of two areas at the NTS at four different scales, 1:2,500, 1:5,000, 1:10,000 and 1:25,000. The purpose of this paper is to present some field observations on the use for OSI type purposes of these different scale photos.

  1. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF FLORIDA AVENUE AND GALLAUDET UNIVERSITY, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM OVER NINTH AND K STREETS, NE. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Florida Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COPY OF 1970 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH OF LORING AIR FORCE BASE. PHOTOGRAPH LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Airfield, Central portion of base, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF RADAR SITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING DETAILS OF RADAR SITE IN FOREGROUND Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL WORKER HOUSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL WORKER HOUSES ALONG AVENUES G, H, I AND J AND MORGAN ROAD (BOTTOM, RUNNING LEFT TO RIGHT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCIUS STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST TOWARDS TCI-US STEEL, ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH IN BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST SHOWING PACKAGE FREIGHTER (VESSEL 54), BROKEN BOW OF VESSEL IN FOREGROUND Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  10. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING COVERED BARGE (VESSEL 37) IN CENTER OF PICTURE WITH FOUR HATCHES SHOWING IN SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  11. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STERN OF HULL IN FOREGROUND. TWO MASTS VISIBLE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, JanuAry 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 54, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  12. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING TOP, SIDE, AND REAR VIEW OF VESSEL 37 SUPERSTRUCTURE Charles Wisniewski, photographer, January 1985 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  13. Aerial perspective of clock tower and roof line, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial perspective of clock tower and roof line, looking northeast toward the mountains. - San Bernardino Valley College, Auditorium, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of construction of both LTA ship hangars (looking north) circa 1942. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  15. Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of entire LTA base after completion of both LTA ship hangars. Date unknown but probably circa 1945. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  17. 52. CLOSEUP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. CLOSE-UP AERIAL VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE SITTING ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET IN THE TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  19. East wall, showing rails of a halfton aerial gantry attached ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East wall, showing rails of a half-ton aerial gantry attached to roof frame - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  20. 4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW OF GENE WASH RESERVOIR AND GENE CAMP LOOKING SOUTHWEST. DAM AND SPILLWAY VISIBLE IN BOTTOM OF PHOTO. - Gene Wash Reservoir & Dam, 2 miles west of Parker Dam, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY TAKEN WHEN STRUCTURE WAS 99 PERCENT COMPLETE. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-60-5409. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF WASTE CALCINING FACILITY WITH SOLIDS STORAGE FACILITY BEHIND. CAMERA FACING EAST. INEEL PHOTO NUMBER PHOTO 72-4571. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Impact Induced Aerial Bursts in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, V. V.; Trubetskaya, I.

    2008-03-01

    Aerial bursts are produced by comets and asteroids with sizes ranging from tens of meters to about one kilometer (energies from 10 Mt to 100 Gt of TNT equivalents). They produce strong devastation and fires on the Earth's surface.

  4. AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF USS ARIZONA ON THE EAST RIVER IN NEW YORK CITY NEAR BROOKLYN BRIDGE ON HER WAY TO SEA TRIALS. NOTE THE BIRD CAGE TOWERS, 1918. - USS Arizona, Submerged off Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST, OF ARRASTRA GULCH, WITH SILVER LAKE IN FOREGROUND. NOTE SILVER LAKE MINE AND MILL RUINS ON FAR SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF SILVER LAKE. NOTE IOWA MINE RUINS AT LEFT CENTER AND SILVER LAKE MINE RUINS BEYOND NORTHWEST SHORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  7. 2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of aerial view of the museum, taken October 26, 1966. Original photo in possession of the Philadelphia Museum of Art. - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  9. 7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic aerial photo of rocket engine test facility complex, June 1962. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-60674. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  10. HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF CEMETERY AND ITS ENVIRONS. PHOTOGRAPH 15 SEPTEMBER 1950. NCA HISTORY COLLECTION. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. AERIAL VIEW OF ENGINE DISPLAY INSIDE PASSENGER CAR SHOP (NOW A TRANSPORTATION MUSEUM) - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. 33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. GENERAL HIGH ALTITUDE AERIAL VIEW OF COMPLEX AND GENERAL SETTING. October 1982 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  14. 3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ON THE VIRGINIA AVENUE AXIS FROM THE ANACOSTIA RIVER TO THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT. (Photograph enlarged from 4x5 negative.) - Virginia Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL TOP VIEW OF AERIAL TRAMWAY DRIVE MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE FRICTION BRAKING SYSTEM CAN BE SEEN IN SHADOW ABOVE THE LARGE CABLE WHEEL BELOW. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Protective Effects of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium and Its Isolated Erinacine A against Ischemia-Injury-Induced Neuronal Cell Death via the Inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and Nitrotyrosine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kam-Fai; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Shih; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP. PMID:25167134

  18. [Transformation of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii and the causes of host cell lysis at the boundary with a fungal mycelium-containing Echinococcus capsule].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Lazareva, N B; Samylina, I A; Ashurov, A A; Gabchenko, A K; Chebyshev, N V

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on animal species. The experiments used 30-day chicks, 80 rats, and 70 rabbits. Three hundred and twenty-nine patients with echinococcus complicated by paecilomycosis were meticulously examined. The fungi of the genus Paecilomyces undergo two transformation directions: the saprotrophic mycelial form of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii transforms to the tissue parasitic one as a globular form of spherules that transforms to the mycelial form in larval Echinococcus infection because the cyst capsule is a favorable environment for growth of fungal mycelia. The growth and aggressiveness of larval Echinococcus in the human lung are associated with the fact that fungal mycelial fibrous tunic contains Paecilomyces that have been first used to isolate active hyaluronidase that lyses host cells. Pulmonary echinococcosis complicated by the tissue form of paecilomycosis can be complicated by the mycelial form of the fungus of the genus Paecilomyces, by afflicting the nails and skin of patients, which requires particular treatment after surgery for hydatid disease. The chicks that had been brooded in an incubator and grown under special conditions to rule out fungal infection were first contaminated with the fungal mycelium labeled with methionine, sodium sulfate, sodium phosphate, or iodine. Each chick received 0.5 g of the labeled fungal mycelium. Regardless of the contamination mode, all the chicks from 3 groups were infected with Paecilomyces; the spherules exhibited labeled isotopes. Thus, it has been first conclusively proven that the diagnosis of paecilomycosis based on the blood detection of fungal globular spherules is valid and easy-to-use in any health care facility.

  19. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and overview of the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL). It covers the University of Nebraska's areas of research, and its outreach to students at Native American schools as part of AERIAL. The report contains three papers: "Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Application" (White Paper), "Validated Numerical Models for the Convective Extinction of Fuel Droplets (CEFD)", and "The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center".

  20. FEASIBILITY EVALUATION OF AN AERIAL RADIAC SURVEY SYSTEM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An aerial radiac monitor system was evaluated in manned and drone aircraft to determine the feasibility of automatically correcting gamma radiation...telemetry system relayed height-corrected information from drone aircraft to a ground station for recording. The equipment demonstrated the...feasibility of per forming aerial radiological survey, with automatic height correction, in manned and drone air craft of the surveillance types now in

  1. User guide for the USGS aerial camera Report of Calibration.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1984-01-01

    Calibration and testing of aerial mapping cameras includes the measurement of optical constants and the check for proper functioning of a number of complicated mechanical and electrical parts. For this purpose the US Geological Survey performs an operational type photographic calibration. This paper is not strictly a scientific paper but rather a 'user guide' to the USGS Report of Calibration of an aerial mapping camera for compliance with both Federal and State mapping specifications. -Author

  2. Use of simulated neural networks of aerial image classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, Frances I.; Vasquez, Ramon

    1991-01-01

    The utility of one layer neural network in aerial image classification is examined. The network was trained with the delta rule. This method was shown to be useful as a classifier in aerial images with good resolution. It is fast, it is easy to implement, because it is distribution-free, nothing about statistical distribution of the data is needed, and it is very efficient as a boundary detector.

  3. Weakly-Supervised Multimodal Kernel for Categorizing Aerial Photographs.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yingjie; Zhang, Luming; Liu, Zhenguang; Nie, Liqiang; Li, Xuelong

    2016-12-14

    Accurately distinguishing aerial photographs from different categories is a promising technique in computer vision. It can facilitate a series of applications such as video surveillance and vehicle navigation. In the paper, a new image kernel is proposed for effectively recognizing aerial photographs. The key is to encode high-level semantic cues into local image patches in a weakly-supervised way, and integrate multimodal visual features using a newly-developed hashing algorithm. The flowchart can be elaborated as follows. Given an aerial photo, we first extract a number of graphlets to describe its topological structure. For each graphlet, we utilize color and texture to capture its appearance, and a weakly-supervised algorithm to capture its semantics. Thereafter, aerial photo categorization can be naturally formulated as graphlet-to-graphlet matching. As the number of graphlets from each aerial photo is huge, to accelerate matching, we present a hashing algorithm to seamlessly fuze the multiple visual features into binary codes. Finally, an image kernel is calculated by fast matching the binary codes corresponding to each graphlet. And a multi-class SVM is learned for aerial photo categorization. We demonstrate the advantage of our proposed model by comparing it with state-of-the-art image descriptors. Moreover, an in-depth study of the descriptiveness of the hash-based graphlet is presented.

  4. Oxidative burst induced pseudosclerotium formation of Morchella steppicola Zerova on different malt agar media.

    PubMed

    Király, I; Czövek, P

    2007-08-01

    Morchella steppicola Zerova mycelia was grown on modified MS (MSK) medium and on MSK medium containing different malt content. Starvation induced an enhanced pseudosclerotium formation in a given zone of the culture. The malondialdehyde content of the mycelium at the site of pseudosclerotium formation was related to the acceleration of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Superoxide dismutase activity was monitored in control and stressed vegetative hyphae subjected to malt withdrawal. In the formation zone of resting bodies, an enhanced oxidative burst was observed. The glucose and trehalose contents of M. steppicola mycelium during pseudosclerotium formation were also investigated. The glucose concentration of the mycelia approached a minimum during pseudosclerotium formation. At the same time, trehalose concentration reached a maximum in the zone of pseudosclerotium formation. The dry mass of mycelia in these zones was higher than average. The dry matter content of the pseudosclerotium-forming zones significantly exceeded the average of the whole culture. The correlation among trehalose accumulation, oxidative burst, and pseudosclerotium formation was clearly demonstrated.

  5. Detection of Aspens Using High Resolution Aerial Laser Scanning Data and Digital Aerial Images

    PubMed Central

    Säynäjoki, Raita; Packalén, Petteri; Maltamo, Matti; Vehmas, Mikko; Eerikäinen, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to use high resolution Aerial Laser Scanning (ALS) data and aerial images to detect European aspen (Populus tremula L.) from among other deciduous trees. The field data consisted of 14 sample plots of 30 m × 30 m size located in the Koli National Park in the North Karelia, Eastern Finland. A Canopy Height Model (CHM) was interpolated from the ALS data with a pulse density of 3.86/m2, low-pass filtered using Height-Based Filtering (HBF) and binarized to create the mask needed to separate the ground pixels from the canopy pixels within individual areas. Watershed segmentation was applied to the low-pass filtered CHM in order to create preliminary canopy segments, from which the non-canopy elements were extracted to obtain the final canopy segmentation, i.e. the ground mask was analysed against the canopy mask. A manual classification of aerial images was employed to separate the canopy segments of deciduous trees from those of coniferous trees. Finally, linear discriminant analysis was applied to the correctly classified canopy segments of deciduous trees to classify them into segments belonging to aspen and those belonging to other deciduous trees. The independent variables used in the classification were obtained from the first pulse ALS point data. The accuracy of discrimination between aspen and other deciduous trees was 78.6%. The independent variables in the classification function were the proportion of vegetation hits, the standard deviation of in pulse heights, accumulated intensity at the 90th percentile and the proportion of laser points reflected at the 60th height percentile. The accuracy of classification corresponded to the validation results of earlier ALS-based studies on the classification of individual deciduous trees to tree species. PMID:27873799

  6. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Marla M.; Schusterman, Ronald J.; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L.

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5° from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3° to 15° and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5° ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  7. [Death by explosion of an aerial mine].

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, Sarah; Wöllner, Kirsten; Madea, Burkhard; Doberentz, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Civilians are rarely killed by military weapons except in times of war. In early 2014, a 50-year-old man died in an explosion of an aerial mine from the Second World War when he was crushing concrete chunks with an excavator at a recycling plant. In the burned operator's cab, the remains of a body were found on the driver's seat. The thorax and the head were missing. Still sticking in the shoe, the right foot severed at the ankle was found about 7 m from the excavator together with numerous small to tiny body parts. At autopsy, the completely disrupted, strongly charred lower torso of a male connected to the left extremities as well as a large number of small tissue fragments and calcined bones were found. According to calculations performed by the seismographical station on the basis of seismic data, only about 45-60 percent of the charge had detonated. The autopsy results illustrate all the more the massive impact of such an explosion.

  8. A line transect model for aerial surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quang, Pham Xuan; Lanctot, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    We employ a line transect method to estimate the density of the common and Pacific loon in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge from aerial survey data. Line transect methods have the advantage of automatically taking into account “visibility bias” due to detectability difference of animals at different distances from the transect line. However, line transect methods must overcome two difficulties when applied to inaccurate recording of sighting distances due to high travel speeds, so that in fact only a few reliable distance class counts are available. We propose a unimodal detection function that provides an estimate of the effective area lost due to the blind strip, under the assumption that a line of perfect detection exists parallel to the transect line. The unimodal detection function can also be applied when a blind strip is absent, and in certain instances when the maximum probability of detection is less than 100%. A simple bootstrap procedure to estimate standard error is illustrated. Finally, we present results from a small set of Monte Carlo experiments.

  9. Visual signature reduction of unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Z. W.; Ma, Z. X.; Jayawijayaningtiyas; Ngoh, J. H. H.

    2016-10-01

    With the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in multiple tactical defence missions, there was a need for an efficient visual signature suppression system for a more efficient stealth operation. One of our studies experimentally investigated the visual signature reduction of UAVs achieved through an active camouflage system. A prototype was constructed with newly developed operating software, Cloak, to provide active camouflage to the UAV model. The reduction of visual signature was analysed. Tests of the devices mounted on UAVs were conducted in another study. A series of experiments involved testing of the concept as well as the prototype. The experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and under normal environmental conditions. Results showed certain degrees of blending with the sky to create a camouflage effect. A mini-UAV made mostly out of transparent plastic was also designed and fabricated. Because of the transparency of the plastic material, the visibility of this UAV in the air is very small, and therefore the UAV is difficult to be detected. After re-designs and tests, eventually a practical system to reduce the visibility of UAVs viewed by human observers from the ground was developed. The system was evaluated during various outdoor tests. The scene target-to-background lightness contrast and the scene target-to-background colour contrast of the adaptive control system prototype were smaller than 10% at a stand-off viewing distance of 20-50 m.

  10. Localization of aerial pure tones by pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Schusterman, Ronald J; Kastak, David; Southall, Brandon L

    2005-12-01

    In this study, minimum audible angles (MAAs) of aerial pure tones were measured in and compared between a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Testing was conducted between 0.8 and 16 kHz in the elephant seal and 0.8 and 20 kHz in the harbor seal and sea lion in a hemi-anechoic chamber using a left/right psychophysical procedure. Performance for the same frequencies was also quantified for discrete speaker separation of 5 degrees from the mid-line. For all subjects, MAAs ranged from approximately 3 degrees to 15 degrees and were generally equal to or larger than those previously measured in the same subjects with a broadband signal. Performance at 5 degrees ranged from chance to 97% correct, depending on frequency and subject. Poorest performance in the sea lion and harbor seal occurred at intermediate frequencies, which is consistent with the duplex theory of sound localization. In contrast, the elephant seal's poorest performance occurred at higher frequencies. The elephant seal's result suggests an inferior ability to utilize interaural level differences and is perhaps related to best hearing sensitivity shifted toward lower frequencies in this species relative to other pinnipeds.

  11. Computational analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abudarag, Sakhr; Yagoub, Rashid; Elfatih, Hassan; Filipovic, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    A computational analysis has been performed to verify the aerodynamics properties of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV-SUST has been designed and fabricated at the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at Sudan University of Science and Technology in order to meet the specifications required for surveillance and reconnaissance mission. It is classified as a medium range and medium endurance UAV. A commercial CFD solver is used to simulate steady and unsteady aerodynamics characteristics of the entire UAV. In addition to Lift Coefficient (CL), Drag Coefficient (CD), Pitching Moment Coefficient (CM) and Yawing Moment Coefficient (CN), the pressure and velocity contours are illustrated. The aerodynamics parameters are represented a very good agreement with the design consideration at angle of attack ranging from zero to 26 degrees. Moreover, the visualization of the velocity field and static pressure contours is indicated a satisfactory agreement with the proposed design. The turbulence is predicted by enhancing K-ω SST turbulence model within the computational fluid dynamics code.

  12. Aerial view of the KSC crawler transporters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this aerial view the Crawler Transporter Maintenance Building (center) sits between two crawler transporters. The KSC crawlers are the largest tracked vehicles known. Once used to move assembled Apollo/Saturn from the VAB to the launch pad, they are now used for transporting Shuttle vehicles. They move the Mobile Launcher Platform into the Vehicle Assembly Building and then to the Launch Pad with an assembled space vehicle. Maximum speed is 1.6 km (one mile) per hour loaded, about 3.2 km (2 miles) per hour unloaded. Launch Pad to VAB trip time with the Mobile Launch Platform is about 5 hours. The crawler burns 568 liters (150 gallons) of diesel oil per mile. KSC's two crawlers have accumulated 1,243 miles since 1977. Including the Apollo years, the transporters have racked up 2,526 miles, about the same distance as a one-way trip from KSC to Los Angeles by interstate highway or a round trip between KSC and New York City.

  13. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  14. Measured Noise from Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph; McSwain, Robert; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), including home package delivery, have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. This paper discusses results of flyover noise measurements of four small UAVs, including an internal combustion-powered model airplane and three battery-powered multicopters. Basic noise characteristics of these vehicles are discussed, including spectral properties and sound level metrics such as sound pressure level, effective perceived noise level, and sound exposure level. The size and aerodynamic characteristics of the multicopters in particular make their flight path susceptible to atmospheric disturbances such as wind gusts. These gusts, coupled with a flight control system that varies rotor speed to maintain vehicle stability, create an unsteady acoustic signature. The spectral variations resulting from this unsteadiness are explored, in both hover and flyover conditions for the multicopters. The time varying noise, which differs from the relatively steady noise generated by large transport aircraft, may complicate the prediction of human annoyance using conventional sound level metrics.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis between aquatic and aerial breathing organs of Channa argus to reveal the genetic basis underlying bimodal respiration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Shuaisheng; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Songhao; Li, Shangqi; Sun, Xiaoqing; Xu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Aerial breathing in fish was an important adaption for successful survival in hypoxic water. All aerial breathing fish are bimodal breathers. It is intriguing that they can obtain oxygen from both air and water. However, the genetic basis underlying bimodal breathing has not been extensively studied. In this study, we performed next-generation sequencing on a bimodal breathing fish, the Northern snakehead, Channa argus, and generated a transcriptome profiling of C. argus. A total of 53,591 microsatellites and 26,378 SNPs were identified and classified. A Ka/Ks analysis of the unigenes indicated that 63 genes were under strong positive selection. Furthermore, the transcriptomes from the aquatic breathing organ (gill) and the aerial breathing organ (suprabranchial chamber) were sequenced and compared, and the results showed 1,966 genes up-regulated in the gill and 2,727 genes up-regulated in the suprabranchial chamber. A gene pathway analysis concluded that four functional categories were significant, of which angiogenesis and elastic fibre formation were up-regulated in the suprabranchial chamber, indicating that the aerial breathing organ may be more efficient for gas exchange due to its highly vascularized and elastic structure. In contrast, ion uptake and transport and acid-base balance were up-regulated in the gill, indicating that the aquatic breathing organ functions in ion homeostasis and acid-base balance, in addition to breathing. Understanding the genetic mechanism underlying bimodal breathing will shed light on the initiation and importance of aerial breathing in the evolution of vertebrates.

  16. Flight Control and Simulation for Aerial Refueling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-18

    Modeling Considerations for Close Formation Flight,” Proceed- ings of the 1998 AIAA GNC Conference, Boston, MA, Jul. 1998, pp. 476–86, Paper no. 4343 ...with Wake Vortices,” STI Technical Report 1035-4 , 1975 , pp. 38–57. 20Pachter, M., D’Azzo, J., and Proud, A., “Tight Formation Flight Control,” J

  17. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  18. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  19. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  20. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  1. 36 CFR 1237.24 - What are special considerations for storage and maintenance of aerial photographic records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maintenance of aerial photographic records? (a) Mark each aerial film container with a unique identification code to facilitate identification and filing. (b) Mark aerial film indexes with the unique aerial film identification codes or container codes for the aerial film that they index. Also, file and mark the...

  2. Unmanned Aerial Systems for scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanutti, Leopoldo; MacKenzie, A. Robert; di Donfrancesco, Guido; Amici, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    In the last decade a very wide spectrum of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) has been developed, essentially for military purposes. They range from very small aircraft, weighing a few kg, to stratospheric aeroplanes with total weight of many tonnes. Endurance also varies very markedly, from a few hours to ≤ 60 hours, and possibly more in the next future. Environmental Research and Services (ERS) Srl., Florence, has carried out a scoping study for the UK Natural Environmental Research Council, to identify key Earth and Environmental Science issues which can best be tackled by means of unmanned aerial platforms. The study focused on issues which could not easily be solved using other platforms, as manned aircraft, airships and satellites. Topics included: · glaciology (including both continental ice-sheets and sea-ice) · volcanology · coastal and ocean observation · Exchange processes between sea and atmosphere · atmospheric turbulence, transport, and chemistry in the planetary boundary layer, in the free troposphere and in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS). Different platforms are best suited to each of these tasks. Platforms range from mini UAS, to Middle Altitude and Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude and Long Endurance (HALE) platforms, from electric aircraft to diesel-turbocharged platforms, from solar to turbofan aircraft. Generally long endurance and the capability to fly beyond line of sight are required for most scientific missions. An example is the application of UAS to the measurement of the extension and depth of sea and continental ice. Such measurements are of primary importance in the evaluation of climatic change. While with satellites it is possible to measure the extent of ice, measuring the depth can only be accomplished by using radar operating at relatively low altitudes. A tactical or a MALE UAS could be equipped with VHL radar which can penetrate ice and hence used to measure the depth of ice sheets. A platform which

  3. Pasadena, California Anaglyph with Aerial Photo Overlay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This anaglyph shows NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The surrounding residential areas of La Canada-Flintridge (to the left) and Altadena/Pasadena (to the right) are also shown. JPL is located at the base of the San Gabriel Mountains, an actively growing mountain range, seen towards the top of the image. The large canyon coming out of the mountains (top to bottom of image) is the Arroyo Seco, which is a major drainage channel for the mountains. Sand and gravel removal operations in the lower part of the arroyo (bottom of image) are removing debris brought down by flood and mudflow events. Old landslide scars (lobe-shaped features) are seen in the arroyo, evidence that living near steep canyon slopes in tectonically active areas can be hazardous. The data can also be utilized by recreational users such as hikers enjoying the natural beauty of these rugged mountains.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. The detailed aerial image was provided by U. S. Geological Survey digital orthophotography. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna

  4. Observing river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar

    2016-08-01

    We elaborated a new method for observing water surface areas and river stages using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is based on processing multitemporal five orthophotomaps produced from the UAV-taken visible light images of nine sites of the river, acquired with a sufficient overlap in each part. Water surface areas are calculated in the first place, and subsequently expressed as fractions of total areas of water-covered terrain at a given site of the river recorded on five dates. The logarithms of the fractions are later calculated, producing five samples, each consisted of nine elements. In order to detect statistically significant increments of water surface areas between two orthophotomaps, we apply the asymptotic and bootstrapped versions of the Student's t test, preceded by other tests that aim to check model assumptions. The procedure is applied to five orthophotomaps covering nine sites of the Ścinawka river (south-western (SW) Poland). The data have been acquired during the experimental campaign, at which flight settings were kept unchanged over nearly 3 years (2012-2014). We have found that it is possible to detect transitions between water surface areas associated with all characteristic water levels (low, mean, intermediate and high stages). In addition, we infer that the identified transitions hold for characteristic river stages as well. In the experiment we detected all increments of water level: (1) from low stages to mean, intermediate and high stages; (2) from mean stages to intermediate and high stages; and (3) from intermediate stages to high stages. Potential applications of the elaborated method include verification of hydrodynamic models and the associated predictions of high flows as well as monitoring water levels of rivers in ungauged basins.

  5. Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

    2009-02-01

    Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3).

  6. Mapping Forest Edge Using Aerial Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLean, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Slightly more than 60% of Massachusetts is covered with forest and this land cover type is invaluable for the protection and maintenance of our natural resources and is a carbon sink for the state. However, Massachusetts is currently experiencing a decline in forested lands, primarily due to the expansion of human development (Thompson et al., 2011). Of particular concern is the loss of "core areas" or the areas within forests that are not influenced by other land cover types. These areas are of significant importance to native flora and fauna, since they generally are not subject to invasion by exotic species and are more resilient to the effects of climate change (Campbell et al., 2009). However, the expansion of development has reduced the amount of this core area, but the exact amount is still unknown. Current methods of estimating core area are not particularly precise, since edge, or the area of the forest that is most influenced by other land cover types, is quite variable and situation dependent. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to devise a new method for identifying areas that could qualify as "edge" within the Harvard Forest, in Petersham MA, using new remote sensing techniques. We sampled along eight transects perpendicular to the edge of an abandoned golf course within the Harvard Forest property. Vegetation inventories as well as Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) at different heights within the canopy were used to determine edge depth. These measurements were then compared with small-footprint waveform aerial LiDAR datasets and imagery to model edge depths within Harvard Forest.

  7. Analysis of cyberattacks on unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, Andrew M.

    With the increasing power and convenience offered by the use of embedded systems in control applications, such systems will undoubtedly continue to be developed and deployed. Recently, however, a focus on data-centric systems and developing network-enabled control systems has emerged, allowing for greater performance, safety, and resource allocation in systems such as smart power grids and unmanned military aircraft. However, this increase in connectivity also introduces vulnerabilities into these systems, potentially providing access to malicious parties seeking to disrupt the operation of those systems or to cause damage. Given the high potential cost of a failure in these systems in terms of property, sensitive information, and human safety, steps need to be taken to secure these systems. In order to analyze the vulnerabilities of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) specifically, a simulation testbed is developed to perform high-fidelity simulations of UAS operations using both software models and the actual vehicle hardware. Then, potential attacks against the control system and their corresponding intents are identified and introduced into these simulations. Failure conditions are defined, and extensive simulation of attacks in different combinations and magnitudes are performed in both software and hardware in order to identify particularly successful attacks, including attacks that are difficult to detect. From these results, vulnerabilities of the system can be determined so that appropriate remedies can be designed. Additionally, stealthy false data injection attacks against linear feedback systems are considered. The identification of these attacks is formed as an optimization problem constrained by the ability of monitoring systems to detect the attack. The optimal attack input is then determined for an example application so that the worst case system performance can be identified and, if needed, improved.

  8. Animal aloft: the origins of aerial behavior and flight.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert; Yanoviak, Stephen P

    2011-12-01

    Diverse taxa of animals exhibit remarkable aerial capacities, including jumping, mid-air righting, parachuting, gliding, landing, controlled maneuvers, and flapping flight. The origin of flapping wings in hexapods and in 3 separate lineages of vertebrates (pterosaurs, bats, and birds) greatly facilitated subsequent diversification of lineages, but both the paleobiological context and the possible selective pressures for the evolution of wings remain contentious. Larvae of various arboreal hemimetabolous insects, as well as many adult canopy ants, demonstrate the capacity for directed aerial descent in the absence of wings. Aerial control in the ancestrally wingless archaeognathans suggests that flight behavior preceded the origins of wings in hexapods. In evolutionary terms, the use of winglets and partial wings to effect aerial righting and maneuvers could select for enhanced appendicular motions, and ultimately lead to powered flight. Flight behaviors that involve neither flapping nor wings are likely to be much more widespread than is currently recognized. Further characterization of the sensory and biomechanical mechanisms used by these aerially capable taxa can potentially assist in reconstruction of ancestral winged morphologies and facilitate our understanding of the origins of flight.

  9. Arachnid aloft: directed aerial descent in neotropical canopy spiders

    PubMed Central

    Yanoviak, Stephen P.; Munk, Yonatan; Dudley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of directed aerial descent has been described for numerous taxa of wingless hexapods as they fall from the tropical rainforest canopy, but is not known in other terrestrial arthropods. Here, we describe similar controlled aerial behaviours for large arboreal spiders in the genus Selenops (Selenopidae). We dropped 59 such spiders from either canopy platforms or tree crowns in Panama and Peru; the majority (93%) directed their aerial trajectories towards and then landed upon nearby tree trunks. Following initial dorsoventral righting when necessary, falling spiders oriented themselves and then translated head-first towards targets; directional changes were correlated with bilaterally asymmetric motions of the anterolaterally extended forelegs. Aerial performance (i.e. the glide index) decreased with increasing body mass and wing loading, but not with projected surface area of the spider. Along with the occurrence of directed aerial descent in ants, jumping bristletails, and other wingless hexapods, this discovery of targeted gliding in selenopid spiders further indicates strong selective pressures against uncontrolled falls into the understory for arboreal taxa. PMID:26289654

  10. International-Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotre T.; Malchor, Russell L.; Maurer, Richard J.; Adams, Henry L.

    2015-10-01

    Since the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011, there has been an increased interest worldwide in developing national capabilities to rapidly map and assess ground contamination resulting from nuclear reactor accidents. The capability to rapidly measure the size of the contaminated area, determine the activity level, and identify the radionuclides can aid emergency managers and decision makers in providing timely protective action recommendations to the public and first responders. The development of an aerial detection capability requires interagency coordination to assemble the radiation experts, detection system operators, and aviation aircrews to conduct the aerial measurements, analyze and interpret the data, and provide technical assessments. The Office of International Emergency Management and Cooperation (IEMC) at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) sponsors an International - Aerial Measuring System (I-AMS) training program for partner nations to develop and enhance their response to radiological emergencies. An initial series of courses can be conducted in the host country to assist in developing an aerial detection capability. As the capability develops and expands, additional experience can be gained through advanced courses with the opportunity to conduct aerial missions over a broad range of radiation environments.

  11. Aerial surveys and tagging of free-drifting icebergs using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, P. R.; Reisenbichler, K. R.; Etchemendy, S. A.; Dawe, T. C.; Hobson, B. W.

    2011-06-01

    Ship-based observations of free-drifting icebergs are hindered by the dangers of calving ice. To improve the efficacy and safety of these studies, new unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were developed and then deployed in the Southern Ocean. These inexpensive UAVs were launched and recovered from a ship by scientific personal with a few weeks of flight training. The UAVs sent real-time video back to the ship, allowing researchers to observe conditions in regions of the icebergs not visible from the ship. In addition, the UAVs dropped newly developed global positioning system (GPS) tracking tags, permitting researchers to record the precise position of the icebergs over time. The position reports received from the tags show that the motion of free-drifting icebergs changes rapidly and is a complex combination of both translation and rotation.

  12. Radiological Disaster Simulators for Field and Aerial Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr

    2002-11-01

    Simulators have been developed to dramatically improve the fidelity of play for field monitors and aircraft participating in radiological disaster drills and exercises. Simulated radiological measurements for the current Global Positioning System (GPS) location are derived from realistic models of radiological consequences for accidents and malicious acts. The aerial version outputs analog pulses corresponding to the signal that would be produced by various NaI (Tl) detectors at that location. The field monitor version reports the reading for any make/model of survey instrument selected. Position simulation modes are included in the aerial and field versions. The aerial version can generate a flight path based on input parameters or import an externally generated sequence of latitude and longitude coordinates. The field version utilizes a map-based point and click/drag interface to generate individual or a sequence of evenly spaced instrument measurements.

  13. The Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) 2002 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Box, Richard C.; Fink, Mary; Gogos, George; Lehrer, Henry R.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Tarry, Scott E.; Vlasek, Karisa D.; O'Neil, Patrick D.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium (NSGC) & EPSCoR programs at the University of Nebraska at Omaha are involved in a variety of innovative research activities. Such research is supported through the Aeronautics Education, Research, and Industry Alliance (AERIAL) and collaborative seed funds. AERIAL is a comprehensive, multi-faceted, five year NASA EPSCoR initiative that contributes substantially to the strategic research and technology priorities of NASA while intensifying Nebraska s rapidly growing aeronautics research and development endeavors. AERIAL includes three major collaborative research teams (CRTs) whose nexus is a common focus in aeronautics research. Each CRT - Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Airborne Remote Sensing for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications (ARS), and Numerical Simulation of the Combustion of Fuel Droplets: Finite Rate Kinetics and Flame Zone Grid Adaptation (CEFD) -has a distinct research agenda. This program provides the template for funding of new and innovative research that emphasizes aerospace technology.

  14. Aerial Observation Needs Workshop, May 13-14, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, Shaima; Serbin, Shawn; Lesmes, David; Petty, Rick; Schmid, Beat; Vogelmann, Andrew; de Boer, Gijs; Dafflon, Baptiste; Guenther, Alex; Moore, David

    2015-10-01

    The mission of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science is "to advance a robust, predictive understanding of Earth's climate and environmental systems and to inform the development of sustainable solutions to the nation's energy and environmental challenges." Accomplishing this mission requires aerial observations of the atmospheric and terrestrial components of the climate system. CESD is assessing its current and future aerial observation needs to develop a strategy and roadmap of capability requirements for the next decade. To facilitate this process, a workshop was convened that consisted of invited experts in the atmospheric and terrestrial sciences, airborne observations, and modeling. This workshop report summarizes the community input prior to and during the workshop on research challenges and opportunities, as well as specific science questions and observational needs that require aerial observations to address.

  15. Landscape-scale geospatial research utilizing low elevation aerial photography generated with commercial unmanned aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.

  16. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, João Marcelo; Andreata, Regina Helena Potsch; Appezzato-da-Glória, Beatriz

    2012-09-01

    Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon); while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns occur in nodes and

  17. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  18. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. S.; Pfund, D. M.; Myjak, M. J.; Kulisek, J. A.; Seifert, C. E.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land-water interfaces.

  19. The Role of Unmanned Aerial Systems-Sensors in Air Quality Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UASs) and miniaturized sensors for a variety of scientific and security purposes has rapidly increased. UASs include aerostats (tethered balloons) and remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including lighter-than-air vessels, fix...

  20. Assessing flood damage to agriculture using color infrared aerial photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1977-01-01

    The rationale for using color-infrared (CIR) film to assist in assessing flood damage to agriculture is demonstrated using examples prepared from photographs acquired of the 1975 flood in the Red River Valley of North Dakota and Minnesota. Information concerning flood inundation boundaries, crop damage, soil erosion, sedimentation, and other similar general features and conditions was obtained through the interpretation of CIR aerial photographs. CIR aerial photographs can be used to help improve the estimates of potential remaining production on a field by field basis, owing to the increased accuracy obtained in determining the area component of crop production as compared to conventional ground sketching methods.

  1. Affine transformations from aerial photos to computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peet, F. G.; Mack, A. R.; Crosson, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    During the development of a project to estimate wheat production, it became necessary to pull data, corresponding to particular fields in a test site, off an ERTS computer compatible tape. Aerial photographs and topographic maps were on hand for the test site. A method was devised, using an affine transformation, to relate the aerial photographs or topographic maps to the tapes. One can thereby access data on the tape corresponding to regions covered by only a few pixels. The theory can be used for the registration of two tapes for the same area and for the geometric correction of images.

  2. Photographic copy of circa 1934 black and white aerial photograph. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of circa 1934 black and white aerial photograph. Loose in oversized box located at the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Archives Center, Work and Industry Division, Washington, D.C. Original Photographer unknown. CIRCA 1934 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN FROM EAST BANK LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD WEST BANK SHOWING COMPLETED BRIDGE PIERS AND DECK TRUSS BETWEEN PIERS C, B, AND V. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  3. Review of the SAFARI 2000 RC-10 Aerial Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.

  4. Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

  5. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  6. A study of methods for lowering aerial environmental survey cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of methods for lowering the cost of environmental aerial surveys. A wide range of low cost techniques were investigated for possible application to current pressing urban and rural problems. The objective of the study is to establish a definition of the technical problems associated with conducting aerial surveys using various low cost techniques, to conduct a survey of equipment which may be used in low cost systems, and to establish preliminary estimates of cost. A set of candidate systems were selected and described for the environmental survey tasks.

  7. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Aerial Navigation and Navigating Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N

    1923-01-01

    This report outlines briefly the methods of aerial navigation which have been developed during the past few years, with a description of the different instruments used. Dead reckoning, the most universal method of aerial navigation, is first discussed. Then follows an outline of the principles of navigation by astronomical observation; a discussion of the practical use of natural horizons, such as sea, land, and cloud, in making extant observations; the use of artificial horizons, including the bubble, pendulum, and gyroscopic types. A description is given of the recent development of the radio direction finder and its application to navigation.

  8. An automatic high precision registration method between large area aerial images and aerial light detection and ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Q.; Xie, D.; Sun, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The integration of digital aerial photogrammetry and Light Detetion And Ranging (LiDAR) is an inevitable trend in Surveying and Mapping field. We calculate the external orientation elements of images which identical with LiDAR coordinate to realize automatic high precision registration between aerial images and LiDAR data. There are two ways to calculate orientation elements. One is single image spatial resection using image matching 3D points that registered to LiDAR. The other one is Position and Orientation System (POS) data supported aerotriangulation. The high precision registration points are selected as Ground Control Points (GCPs) instead of measuring GCPs manually during aerotriangulation. The registration experiments indicate that the method which registering aerial images and LiDAR points has a great advantage in higher automation and precision compare with manual registration.

  9. Collection and Analysis of Crowd Data with Aerial, Rooftop, and Ground Views

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-10

    and cost, as well as a brief description of the projects on which they were used. We have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight...have purchased aerial platforms, imaging systems, and flight control systems and used them different projects that will be discussed in the following...servos Aerial Platform Long flight-time aerial paltform for imaging applications UavFactory Ltd $15,885.00 80W Onboard Generator upgrade Power

  10. Analysis of indole compounds in methanolic extracts from the fruiting bodies of Cantharellus cibarius (the Chanterelle) and from the mycelium of this species cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Ekiert, Halina

    2013-12-01

    Methanolic extracts obtained from the fruiting bodies of Cantharellus cibarius (the Chanterelle) and from the mycelium of this species cultured in vitro were analyzed for the qualitative and quantitative composition of non-hallucinogenic indole compounds. The extracts were found to contain eight indole compounds: L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, melatonin, indole, kynurenine sulfate, 5-methyltryptophan, and indoleacetonitrile. The extract from the fruiting bodies also contained tryptamine. The amounts of individual compounds varied widely, ranging from 0.01 to 17.61 mg/100 g DW in the fruiting bodies, and from 0.01 to 35.34 mg/100 g DW in the biomass from in vitro cultures. The quantitatively dominating compounds included: serotonin (17.61 and 20.49 mg/100 g DW, respectively) and kynurenine sulfate (3.62 and 35.34 mg/100 g DW). In addition, the material from in vitro cultures contained a considerable amount of 5-hydroxytryptophan (12.52 mg/100 g DW). The levels of the remaining indole compounds under analysis: L-tryptophan, melatonin, indole, 5-methyltryptophan, and indoleacetonitrile in the material under study were low, below 1 mg/100 g DW.

  11. Extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi radiating from large plants depresses the growth of nearby seedlings in a nutrient deficient substrate.

    PubMed

    Janoušková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Száková, Jiřina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2011-10-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on the interaction of large plants and seedlings in an early succession situation was investigated in a greenhouse experiment using compartmented rhizoboxes. Tripleurospermum inodorum, a highly mycorrhiza-responsive early coloniser of spoil banks, was cultivated either non-mycorrhizal or inoculated with AM fungi in the central compartment of the rhizoboxes. After two months, seedlings of T. inodorum or Sisymbrium loeselii, a non-host species colonising spoil banks simultaneously with T. inodorum, were planted in lateral compartments, which were colonised by the extraradical mycelium (ERM) of the pre-cultivated T. inodorum in the inoculated treatments. The experiment comprised the comparison of two AM fungal isolates and two substrates: spoil bank soil and a mixture of this soil with sand. As expected based on the low nutrient levels in the substrates, the pre-cultivated T. inodorum plants responded positively to mycorrhiza, the response being more pronounced in phosphorus uptake than in nitrogen uptake and growth. In contrast, the growth of the seedlings, both the host and the non-host species, was inhibited in the mycorrhizal treatments. Based on the phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in the biomass of the experimental plants, this growth inhibition was attributed to nitrogen depletion in the lateral compartments by the ERM radiating from the central compartment. The results point to an important aspect of mycorrhizal effects on the coexistence of large plants and seedlings in nutrient deficient substrates.

  12. Apoptotic Effect of Extract from Medicinal Mushroom from Taiwan Taiwanofungus salmoneus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Mycelium Combined with or without Cisplatin on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Hsieh, Yun-Jung; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a cancer of high mortality; therefore, the effective therapy on this cancer is an imperative issue. Recently, anticancer agent combined with natural products has been demonstrated to increase apoptosis of various cancer cells effectively. Accordingly, we investigated the apoptotic effect and possible mechanism of the ethanol extract from Taiwanofungus salmoneus (=Antrodia salmonea) mycelium (TsE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in SK-Hep-1 cells. In this study, the proliferation of SK-Hep-1 cells could be inhibited at various concentrations of TsE for 24 h whereas TsE combined with cisplatin would inhibit the cell proliferation more notably. Moreover, the DNA damage and the interruption of cell cycle of SK-Hep-1 cells would be effectively raised after incubation with TsE combined with cisplatin for 24 h. The apoptosis of cells was dramatically induced, and the expression of caspases 3, 8, and 9, apoptosis-related protein, were significantly upregulated. Therefore, we proposed that the TsE combined with cisplatin inhibited cell proliferation by elevating sub-G1 phase, inducing DNA damage, activating caspases 3, 8, and 9 activities, and triggering cells apoptosis. These results reveal that TsE could be a potential adjuvant chemotherapeutic agent.

  13. Off-the-Wall Project Brings Aerial Mapping down to Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…

  14. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  15. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  16. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  17. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  19. 7 CFR 1755.703 - Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.703 Nonmetallic reinforced (NMR) aerial service wire. (a..., paragraphs 2.2 and 2.2.1. The ANSI/ICEA S-89-648-1993 Standard For Telecommunications Aerial Service...

  20. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  1. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  2. 7 CFR 1755.700 - RUS specification for aerial service wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false RUS specification for aerial service wires. 1755.700..., AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.700 RUS specification for aerial service wires. §§ 1755.701 through 1755.704 cover the requirements for aerial service wires....

  3. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for efficacy evaluation of aerially applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set u...

  4. Ground-based spectral reflectance measurements for evaluating the efficacy of aerially-applied glyphosate treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial application of herbicides is a common tool in agricultural field management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate herbicide applied aerially with both conventional and emerging aerial nozzle technologies. A Texas A&M University Plantation weed field was set...

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Perspective: Effects, Capabilities, and Technologies. Volume 0: Executive Summary and Annotated Briefing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Report on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Perspective...UNCLASSIFIED This report is a product of the United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Committee on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in...iii UNCLASSIFIED United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board Report on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Perspective: Effects

  6. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  7. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  8. Streptomycetes in micro-cultures: growth, production of secondary metabolites, and storage and retrieval in the 96-well format.

    PubMed

    Minas, W; Bailey, J E; Duetz, W

    2000-12-01

    Mycelium-forming Streptomyces strains were grown in one milliliter liquid micro-cultures in square deep-well microtiter plates. Growth was evaluated with respect to biomass formation and production of secondary metabolites which were found to be very similar in the micro-cultures, bioreactor, and shake flask cultivations, respectively. Despite repetitive sampling and extensive growth on the walls of the wells, no cross contamination occurred. Furthermore, we successfully employed cold storage at -20 degrees C of spore suspensions (in the 96-well format), directly prepared from cultures grown on agar in the microtitre plate. Cultures were retrieved by replicating aliquots from the frozen spore suspensions.

  9. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for monitoring glacial moulins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santagata, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The exploration of cavities on glaciers has always represented a fascinating activity that attracts scientists and researchers since many decades. Several explorations performed by speleologists and scientists since 1985 on the Gorner Gletscher (Mount Rosa group, SW Switzerland) have allowed to survey more than 40 endoglacial caves and some marginal tunnels of this glacier, which is the most interesting in the Alps for its supraglacial and englacial pseudo-karst forms. In recent years, the study of these caves has led to the distinction of two morphological and genetic types: marginal tunnels, that generally forms at the contact between ice and lateral moraine, and swallow holes (moulins) which are vertical shafts where a supraglacial stream sinks into the ice. During the first International glacier-caving camp organized in October 2014 as part of the project "Inside the glaciers" which had the main objective to explore the cavities of this glacier and to study the cryo-karstic processes that lead to the formation of deep shafts, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with camera and GPS system was used for the first time to perform photogrammetric surveys on three different areas. This technique allowed to derive detailed 3D models with very high resolution and accuracy of the entrance of the main moulins and other interesting parts of this glacier. Thanks to the acquisition of geo-referenced images and post-processing the acquired data (i.e. motion corrections), with the realized 3D point clouds and mesh models it was possible to obtain geo-referenced ortophoto and digital surface models which have been used to calculate contour lines and calculate the difference of position of the same moulins detected during the last years expeditions. Moreover, the data acquired have allowed to perform other different type of surface analysis and obtain an excellent photographic database that will surely be useful for further comparisons in future, proving the importance of

  10. 6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALVAGE ARCHAEOLOGY TRENCH, ERECTING SHOP, ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FITTING SHOP, MILLWRIGHT SHOP. DOLPHIN MANUFACTURING CO. AND BARBOUR FLAX SPINNING CO. IN LOWER LEFT, SUM HYDROELECTRIC IN UPPER RIGHT. - Rogers Locomotive & Machine Works, Spruce & Market Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  11. Photocopy of aerial photograph taken March 29, 1941 looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of aerial photograph taken March 29, 1941 looking west from a point farther east and north than CO-172-34. Building 500 is in the upper left. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. 48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AERIAL VIEW OF HULL LUMBER CO., INC. LOOKING EAST TO WEST AND CAPTURING I.P. MILLER LUMBER CO. AT WEST END OF MILL POND. PHOTOGRAPHER: WESTERN WAYS, INC. CORVALLIS, OREGON. DATE: 1949. COURTESY OF RALPH HULL. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  13. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE GROUND FLOOR, WHICH CONTAINS THE MAJORITY OF THE PLUTONIUM RECOVERY PROCESSING EQUIPMENT, IS DIVIDED INTO COMPARTMENTS BY FIREWALLS, AIRLOCKS, AND USE OF NEGATIVE AIR PRESSURE. (1/7/75) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL FROM LOWER LEFT TO UPPER RIGHT. LOOKING NORTH - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. AERIAL VIEW OF FOURLEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF FOUR-LEVEL INTERCHANGE AT INTERSECTION OF ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AND HIGHWAY 101, HOLLYWOOD FREEWAY. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY ON LOWER LEVEL AT CENTER. HIGHWAY 101 AT BOTTOM. CAESAR CHAVEZ AVENUE AT CENTER. LOOKING NE - Four Level Interchange, Intersection of Arroyo Seco Parkway & Harbor, Hollywood, & Santa Ana Freeways (milepost 23.69), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE VERDE RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. THE VERDE RIVER FLOWS FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. NOTE THE 'Z' CONFIGURATION OF THE RIVER. FOREST SERVICE ROUTE 269 IS SEEN IN THE LOWER LEFT CORNER. March 1987. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view, view north with Walkers Mill left of the creek, Henry Clay village right of creek, Tyler-Mcconnell Bridge in middleground, and Hagley area beyond the bridge - Charles I. Du Pont House, 162 Main Street, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  19. 34. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE FUTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. LOW OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW LOOKING EAST OVER THE FUTURE SITE OF THE NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER TO DOWNTOWN OAKLAND. THE FEDERAL CHANNEL IS AT THE RIGHT. No date, probably mid 1930's. Clyde Sunderland, photographer. Original print on file at the Port of Oakland, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. Estimating soil organic carbon using aerial imagery and soil surveys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread implementation of precision agriculture practices requires low-cost, high-quality, georeferenced soil organic carbon (SOC) maps, but currently these maps require expensive sample collection and analysis. Widely available aerial imagery is a low-cost source of georeferenced data. After til...